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  • 1. Ahtiainen, Heini
    et al.
    Artell, Janne
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Hasselström, Linus
    Enveco.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Baltic Sea nutrient reductions: What should we aim for?2014In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 145, p. 9-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient load reductions are needed to improve the state of the Baltic Sea, but it is still under debate how they should be implemented. In this paper, we use data from an environmental valuation study conducted in all nine Baltic Sea states to investigate public preferences of relevance to three of the involved decision-dimensions: First, the roles of nitrogen versus phosphorus reductions causing different eutrophication effects; second, the role of time – the lag between actions to reduce nutrient loads and perceived improvements; and third; the spatial dimension and the roles of actions targeting the coastal and open sea environment and different sub-basins. Our findings indicate that respondents view and value the Baltic Sea environment as a whole, and are not focussed only on their local sea area, or a particular aspect of water quality. We argue that public preferences concerning these three perspectives should be one of the factors guiding marine policy. This requires considering the entire range of eutrophication effects, in coastal and open sea areas, and including long-term and short-term measures.

  • 2. Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Holmgren, Lina
    Non-industrial private forest owners' financial risk taking: Does gender matter?2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, p. 6-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Male and female non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners differ in inheritance positions, valuations and forest management style. A survey of Swedish NIPF owners found that male and female owners differ in their willingness to take a financial risk. The preliminary analysis, looking only at gender, revealed no difference in the willingness to take risk. Dividing the population according to dependence on income from forestry, however, showed that female NIPF owners increased their willingness to take financial risk when the dependence of income from forestry changed from insubstantial to notable. Females' tolerance towards risk was also significantly higher than males' at the notable level of dependence of forestry income. Having or not having economic yield as one of the most important objectives of ownership seemed to have a little effect on the willingness to take financial risk; however, the results were further strengthened when adding this dimension. A gender perspective was applied to explain identified differences between male and female forest owners concerning their willingness to take financial risks. Whether these differences emanate from real differences in willingness to take risk, or whether they are effects from other differences in male and female forest ownership, is discussed.

  • 3.
    Belyaev, Yuri
    et al.
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    Department of Forest Economics, SLU-Umeå.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Rounding it up: Interval and Open Ended Valuation Questions2009Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Including second order effects in environmental assessments of ICT2014In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, p. 105-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can have both negative and positive impacts on the environment. Immediate negative environmental impacts arise due to the production, use and disposal of ICT products, while positive effects can arise because ICT products and services replace other products. Other, more indirect consequences of introducing new technologies include e.g. that money saved by reducing costs due to ICT-induced energy efficiency, is being used in consumption of other goods and services that also need energy in their production. Such effects are examined within different disciplines under headings such as rebound effects, indirect effects, second order effects and ripple effects. This paper presents a review and discussion of different second order effects that can be linked to ICT usage in general, using e-commerce as an example. This is a first necessary step in developing methods which include second order effects when analysing the environmental impacts of ICT.

  • 5. Cole, S. G.
    et al.
    Kinell, G.
    Söderqvist, T.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Hasselström, L.
    Izmalkov, S.
    Mikkelsen, E.
    Noring, M.
    KTH.
    Sandberg, A.
    Sjöberg, E.
    Soutukorva, Å.
    Franzén, F.
    Khaleeva, Y.
    Arctic games: An analytical framework for identifying options for sustainable natural resource governance2016In: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the Arctic are fuelled by a variety of drivers, including global warming, economic growth, improved access to natural resources, technological advances and globalisation processes. Further, the region is characterised by a diverse set of international agreements, national legislations and common pool resources. This presents challenges for actors to suggest, evaluate and agree on sustainable development alternatives. We propose an analytical framework to better understand (1) the types of trade-offs associated with Arctic futures and (2) actors’ incentives for strategic behaviour. In the framework, game theory illuminates incentives and strategies among actors, cost-benefit analysis and economic valuation of ecosystem services help identify socially desirable outcomes and institutional analysis provides insight on how governance structures can support or interfere with policy intervention. We apply the proposed framework by analysing possible oil development futures for Lofoten in Northern Norway. For example, institutional analysis and estimates of costs and benefits of reducing oil spill risk and their distribution among actors are used for discussing incentive structures, including the use of side payments as a mechanism to mitigate conflicting interests. 

  • 6.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Noring, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    A new set of valuation factors for LCA and LCC based on damage costs: Ecovalue 20122013In: Perspectives on managing life cycles: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, 2013, p. 197-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weighting is often used in environmental systems analysis tools. One method is Ecovalue which in its first version was published in 2011. In this paper an updated version is presented. New factors are for exotoxicological impacts and for particulates. The factor for climate change has been updated. The updated set of valuation weighting factors also includes default values in addition to low and high values. The new set is matched with the Recipe methodology except for abiotic resources where Cumulatative Exergy Demand is used. Results from an ICT product show that in this case climate change, toxic impacts and resources use are highlighted as important impact categories.

  • 7.
    Hakansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Indirect Rebound and Reverse Rebound Effects in the ICT-sector and Emissions of CO22015In: PROCEEDINGS OF ENVIROINFO AND ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY 2015, 2015, p. 66-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the ICT sector has a large potential of reducing environmental impacts in society through enabling smarter and more efficient solutions. Some of this potential may however be offset by different types of rebound and other indirect effects. There are a number of different types of rebound and other indirect effects that can be relevant. Some of them may lead to positive environmental impacts; others may lead to negative impacts. In this paper we have analysed the indirect rebound effects for the ICT-sector and also what we here call the reverse rebound effect. We have used Environmentally Extended Input-Output Analysis with data for Sweden. The results in this paper indicate that rebound effects can be significant. If efficiency improvements occur in the production of the ICT equipment, there could be a strong rebound effect which would reduce the potential decrease of emissions that could occur without the rebound effect. If on the other hand, efficiency improvements concern the electricity used by the ICT equipment, the rebound effect is expected to be smaller, and real emission reductions could be expected. The total spending on ICT products have increased and this could lead to a reversed rebound effect when less is consumed of other products and services. The results here suggest that this reversed rebound effect could be significant and lead to overall reduced emissions.

  • 8. Hasselstrom, Linus
    et al.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Detailed vs. fuzzy information in non-market valuation studies: the role of familiarity2013In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 123-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply a split-sample contingent valuation survey to test whether the level of ecological information affects the willingness to pay (WTP) and valuation uncertainty for improved water quality. For respondents who are unfamiliar with water quality problems, the WTP is significantly different between the sample that received detailed ecological information and the sample that received fuzzy information. This study also provides new empirical evidence for the counterfactual; in a situation with high familiarity, more information does not affect mean WTP. The main recommendation to future valuation practice is to provide detailed ecological information in the case when many respondents are unfamiliar with the good. The level of information did not influence valuation uncertainty.

  • 9.
    Hasselström, Linus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Anthesis Enveco AB, Sverige.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Noring, Maria
    Kemikalieinspektionen.
    Soutukorva, Åsa
    Enveco.
    Khaleevac, Julia
    Costs and benefits associated with marine oil spill prevention in northern Norway2017In: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 165-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyse conflicts regarding natural resources and ecosystem services involving different stakeholder groups using cost–benefit analysis (CBA). The paper is formed around a specific case study in Lofoten–Vesterålen in northern Norway, investigating costs and benefits of decreasing the probability of a major oil spill from shipping in the area. Benefits of decreasing the probability of a spill are far greater than costs, which means that measures to improve maritime safety would be economically profitable for society. Figures showing the effects of the impacts on fisheries and tourism sectors indicate that, compared to the total value for society, the market values of decreasing the probability of a spill are very small. On the other hand, non-market values associated with the protection of ecosystem services are of a much greater magnitude. These results suggest that the neglecting of non-market ecosystem service values in economic assessments for the Arctic may cause a biased picture of costs and benefits associated with measures to prevent environmental degradation. When feeding into decisions, such assessments may lead to too little preventive action from an economic perspective.

  • 10.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    Department of Forest Economics, SLU-Umeå.
    A new valuation question: analysis of and insights from interval open-ended data in contingent valuation2008In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 175-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a type of open-ended valuation question where respondents state their willingness to pay in the form of an interval rather than a point estimate. Allowing the response to be expressed as an interval has advantages compared to traditional valuation questions: it captures potential valuation uncertainty, facilitates interpretation of uncertainty and most importantly, provides a richer set of information about individuals' preferences. Furthermore, an open-ended willingness to pay format has advantages if a survey is carried out in more than one country. Too little is known about valuation uncertainty to represent willingness to pay only as an exact value. Therefore, this value should be complemented by upper and lower boundary estimates. In this paper I present new methods for estimating these different values. The methods are illustrated with results from a survey concerning wild salmon in the Vindel River, northern Sweden. The results suggest that the upper and lower boundaries provide a kind of confidence interval for the willingness to pay, which is encouraging for estimating these values to characterise willingness to pay. The results also illustrate that some earlier criticism in the literature of open-ended questions does not apply to the question presented in this paper.

  • 11.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    Department of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Cost-Benefit Analysis and Valuation Uncertainty: Empirical contributions and methodological developments of a study on trade-offs between hydropower and wild salmon2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Costs and benefits of improving wild salmon passage in a regulated river2009In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 345-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of a trade-off between salmon and hydropower production in the Ume/Vindel River, northern Sweden. A distinctive element of this analysis is that estimated changes in resource conditions are based on detailed river-specific data. A salmon population model was used to develop the scenario and a novel willingness to pay (WTP) question, which caters for uncertainty in a different manner, provided an interval estimate. Non-use values are the major contributors to the benefit (96-517 millions of Swedish kronor (MSEK)) of increasing the stock of wild salmon. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the opportunity costs in terms of lost electricity are typically higher than the estimated benefits.

  • 13.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    SLU-Umeå.
    Gröna elcertifikat: Ett bakvänt och ineffektivt system2003In: Ekonomisk debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 32-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU, Sweden.
    Lax till högstbjudande2008In: Miljöforskning : Formas tidning för ett uthålligt samhälle, ISSN 1650-4925, Vol. 2, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Vindelälvens kostnader och nyttor2009In: MiljötrenderArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Värdering av kustmiljöer: Kan politiska mål vara förenliga med ekologisk och ekonomisk kunskap?2010In: Thule: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundets årsbok. 2010 / [ed] Roger Jacobsson, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundet , 2010, p. 90-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Bostedt, Goran
    Ericsson, Goran
    Exploring distributional determinants of large carnivore conservation in Sweden2011In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 577-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to fill the gap in the literature about distributional impacts (who wins and who loses) of implementing new management plans for non-market priced environmental goods and services. The focus is on whether and to what extent, age, gender, presence of large carnivores and income affect willingness-to-pay (WTP) for increasing large carnivore stocks in Sweden. Our results contradict findings from previous studies on large carnivores in the sense that patterns change when different distributional dimensions are analysed together. The results indicate that WTP is independent of the presence of large carnivores, except for the group 'young men'. In general, young men are found to be a disparate group.

  • 18.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Johansson, Per-Olof
    Dep. of Economics, HHS.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Cost-Benefit Analysis of Environmental Change: Linking Theory to Empirical Observations2004In: Collected Conference Papers: Monte Veritá Conference on Sustainable Resource Use and Economic Dynamics June 6-10, 2004, Zurich: CER-ETH , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a Cost-Bene¯t Analysis (CBA) of environmental change, in which theory and empirical work are closely knit together. The theoretical framework is used to derive a cost-bene¯t rule for projects that a®ect wild salmon survival. In contrast to many similar studies, we use this dynamic cost-bene¯t rule in structuring the contingent valuation study. Data comes from an ongoing project regarding a potential salmon passage- hydropower con°ict in the northern Swedish river UmeÄalven and its largest salmon producing tributary VindelÄalven. Daily water °ow data are com- bined with daily data on the number of salmon (1974-2000) that pass the hydropower plant Stornorrfors. Detailed ecological studies are used to build the contingent valuation scenario and to study the opportunity costs of re- leasing more water to the potential bene¯t of salmon upstream migrants. We present results from pilot-studies on the value Swedes place on increasing the amount of wild salmon in this particular river.

  • 19.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Johansson, Per-Olof
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Lundqvist, Hans
    SLU-Umeå.
    Leonardsson, Kjell
    SLU-Umeå.
    Salmon and Hydropower: Dynamic Cost-Benefit Analysis- an Overview2004In: Aquatic habitats: analysis & restoration: fifth international symposium on ecohydraulics, September 12-17, 2004, Madrid, Spain / [ed] Diego Garcia de Jalón Lastra, Pilar Vizcaíno Martínez, Madrid: IAHR , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Department of forest economics, SLU.
    Johansson, P-O
    Department of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Department of Forest Economics.
    Salmon and hydropower: Dynamic cost-benefit analysis2006In: The theory and practise of environmental and resource economics: essays in honour of Karl-Gustaf Löfgren / [ed] Aronsson, T., Axelsson, R., and R. Brännlund, Edward Elgar, UK , 2006, p. 172-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Östberg, Katarina
    Bostedt, Göran
    Estimating distributional effects of environmental policy in Swedish coastal environments: a walk along different dimensions2016In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 49-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies distributional effects of environmental policies in Swedish coastal environments, in monetary and environmental quality terms, for different dimensions: income, gender, age, non-users vs. users, distance, familiarity, and origin (if people have a Swedish background or not). The study area is widely used for different recreational activities and has a mix of different visitors. The data come from a choice experiment study. The results indicate that latent class modelling can be used to identify how monetary preferences vary between different groups of respondents, and largely confirm the limited existing knowledge from the previous research on distributional effects of environmental policies. However, the previous literature on distributional effects related to background is very limited, making it hard to draw comparisons. The results in our paper also show that the distributional effects differ depending on the environmental amenity. These results are of policy relevance since coastal environments are important for people's well-being and associated with positive health effects.

  • 22.
    Isacs, Lina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Dahllöf, Lisbeth
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Petersson, Linnea
    Steen, Bengt
    Swanström, Lennart
    Wikström, Anna
    Choosing a monetary value of greenhouse gases in assessment tools2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a societal need for using monetary estimates of social impacts of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in different assessment tools, such as cost-benefit analysis and life-cycle assessment. A number of estimates are available in the literature. Since these differ by several orders of magnitude, there is ambiguity and confusion about which to use. This review aims to give some guidance on this issue. The variation in carbon value estimates depends on several uncertain aspects – which will remain uncertain – including climate sensitivity, assumptions about future emissions, and decision makers' ethical standpoints. Hence, there is no single correct monetary value for CO2: it will depend on the ethical standpoint of the user. Due to this, estimates of social costs of CO2 emissions cannot be used for calculating an optimal emission level, although they can inform such assessments. It is suggested that marginal abatement cost values are used for emissions capped by binding targets in short-term assessments, and that social cost of carbon values should be used for all other emissions. Benchmark principles for choosing a monetary carbon value are suggested along with associated estimates. Depending on the choices made with regard to ethical standpoints and assumptions about future emissions and climate sensitivity, estimates can be significantly higher than the ones typically used in assessment tools today. The estimates need continuous updating, and there is need for better understanding and communication around the limitations and uncertainties involved.

  • 23.
    Joyce, Peter James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Wood, Richard
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    A multi-impact analysis of changing ICT consumption patterns for Sweden and the EU: Indirect rebound effects and evidence of decoupling2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 211, p. 1154-1161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the major areas of growth in consumption seen over the last two decades. The falling prices of ICT and increasing energy efficiency of ICT may lead to reduced spending on ICT and electricity in the future. However, lower spending in one area can trigger higher spending elsewhere, leading to 'rebound effects' which can reduce or even cancel out the environmental benefits associated with lower consumption of a given product or service, and reducing the efficacy of environmental policy. In this study we use Multi-Regional Input Output analysis to investigate trends in the consumption of, and environmental and social impacts associated with la products in Sweden and the EU. We find that ICT spending is linked to prosperity, with a clear fall as a result of the 2008 financial crisis, but a recovery since. There is some evidence that the environmental impact associated with ICE has begun to decouple from consumption in Sweden, but not at an EU level. Environmental rebound effects associated with reduced ICT consumption are strong close to, and in most cases far above 100% (so called backfire effects). This backfire effect is strongest for energy use and total material footprint, which are both close to 200% in Sweden. This means that an increased spending on ICE products and services while keeping the overall consumption level constant, would decrease environmental impacts. Environmental rebound effects are much lower for reduced energy spending (as low as 2 percent), particularly at an EU level. Rebound effects in social indicators are assessed for the first time for 10' products. We find that value added in the EU is relatively insensitive to changes in spending patterns related to ICT and energy (rebound effects similar to 100%), however rebound effects in employment are seen, particularly resulting from decreased energy spending. At an EU level, reallocation of spending resulting from lower energy consumption results in a net increase in employment, while in Sweden the reverse is true. We conclude that policies focused on reducing energy spending are likely to have a greater overall environmental effect than measures which result in reduced consumer spending on ICT. However, in light of the conflicting social rebound effects at an EU and Swedish level, the importance of understanding the broader consequences of policy decision across a broad range of measures in advance of their implementation is once again highlighted.

  • 24.
    Noring, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ecovalue 2014: An updated set of valuation factors for environmental systems analysis toolsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Noring, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Hasselström, L.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Soutokorva, Å.
    Gren, Å.
    Valuation of oil spill risk reductions in the ArcticManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Noring, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Hasselström, Linus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Soutokorva, Å.
    Kahleeva, Y.
    Costs and benefits associated with Arctic marine oil spill preventionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Noring, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Hasselström, Linus
    Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Soutukorva, Åsa
    Gren, Åsa
    Valuation of oil spill risk reductions in the Arctic: 2016In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 298-317Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Noring, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Dahlgren, Elin
    Valuation of ecotoxicological impacts from tributyltin based on a quantitative environmental assessment framework2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the scientific literature, few valuations of biodiversity and ecosystem services following the impacts of toxicity are available, hampered by the lack of ecotoxicological documentation. Here, tributyltin is used to conduct a contingent valuation study as well as cost–benefit analysis (CBA) of measures for improving the environmental status in Swedish coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Benefits considering different dimensions when assessing environmental status are highlighted and a quantitative environmental assessment framework based on available technology, ecological conditions, and economic valuation methodology is developed. Two scenarios are used in the valuation study: (a) achieving good environmental status by 2020 in accordance with EU legislation (USD 119 household−1 year−1) and (b) achieving visible improvements by 2100 due to natural degradation (USD 108 household−1 year−1) during 8 years. The later scenario was used to illustrate an application of the assessment framework. The CBA results indicate that both scenarios might generate a welfare improvement.

  • 29. Ostberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Hasselström, Linus
    Bostedt, Göran
    Benefit Transfer for Environmental Improvements in Coastal Areas: General versus Best-Fitting Models2013In: Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics-Revue Canadienne D'Agroeconomie, ISSN 0008-3976, E-ISSN 1744-7976, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 239-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognizing the important policy task of securing the benefits from marine coastal waters subject to time and funding constraints has increased interest in benefit transfer (BT). However, many of the advances in BT recommended by researchers would be too costly to implement. This paper presents two choice experiment (CE) studies on marine areas in Sweden where respondents from local and distant populations were surveyed. BT for attributes relevant to the European Union's Water Framework Directive and the implementation of special consideration zones in marine areas were evaluated by equivalence tests. A comparison of the performance between a general BT model including only easily available socio-economic information and a statistically best-fitting model that requires the collection of more detailed information shows very similar results. Using a general model saves money and time since the information needed can be easily obtained from public databases and it does not lead to any significant reductions in accuracy or reliability. The issue of including socio-economic information in CE modeling for BT is important, since the model specification will determine the type of information that must be collected at the policy site; however, the results are inconclusive as to whether it improves BT or not. La reconnaissance de l'importante tache politique visant a proteger les avantages tires des eaux marines cotieres, exposee a des contraintes de temps et de financement, suscite un interet accru pour le transfert d'avantages (TA). Toutefois, la mise en OEuvre d'un bon nombre des percees en matiere de TA recommandees par les chercheurs serait trop couteuse. Dans le present article, nous presentons deux etudes sur des zones marines de la Suede realisees selon la methode des choix multi-attributs et auxquelles ont participe des repondants provenant de populations locales et eloignees. Le TA dans le cas d'attributs figurant dans la Directive-cadre sur l'eau de l'Union europeenne et la determination de zones necessitant une prise en compte particuliere au sein des zones marines ont ete evalues a l'aide de tests d'equivalence. Une comparaison de la performance du modele de TA << general >>, qui comprend uniquement des donnees socio-economiques facilement obtenables, et de celle du modele de TA << optimal >>, qui comprend une collecte de donnees detaillees, montre des resultats tres similaires. L'utilisation du modele general permet d'economiser du temps et de l'argent puisque l'information requise est facilement accessible dans les bases de donnees publiques, sans diminution significative de la precision ou de la fiabilite. La question d'inclure des donnees socio-economiques dans le modele de choix multi-attributs pour le TA est importante puisque que la specification du modele determinera le type de donnees qu'il faut collecter sur l'endroit vise par la politique. Toutefois, les resultats ne permettent pas d'indiquer si le TA est ameliore ou non.

  • 30. Östberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Hasselström, Linus
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Non-market valuation of the coastal environment - Uniting political aims, ecological and economic knowledge2012In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 110, p. 166-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the feasibility of using an approach for estimating Willingness-To-Pay for marine environmental improvements, based on a holistic, policy-determined scenario. Conducting valuation studies based on a policy-determined scenario is beneficial for decision-makers in terms of practical applicability but also for research in terms of e.g. data availability. Using a case study in two Swedish coastal areas, we examine whether respondents are able to understand and attach a monetary value to these types of scenarios. The tested scenarios are based on improving water quality according to the EU Water Framework Directive and reducing noise and littering according to standard-type measures in a Swedish archipelago setting. The results are promising, paving the ground for future valuation studies using this approach. However, there might be tradeoffs, since the use of scenarios like this require much preparation by researchers and much efforts by respondents. We recommend environmental managers to adopt this approach when possible, but to have these potential tradeoffs in mind. Mean monthly WTP per household for the water quality improvement scenario is estimated to 71 and 102 SEK1 in the two study areas, respectively. The corresponding numbers for the less noise and littering scenario are 38 and 46 SEK. Valuation of noise and littering in archipelago areas has previously not been very common, making these estimates especially important for marine policy.

  • 31.
    Östberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Dep. of Forest Economics, SLU.
    Hasselström, Linus
    Enveco.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Benefit Transfer for Environmental Improvements in Coastal Areas: General vs. Specific Models2011Report (Other academic)
1 - 31 of 31
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