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  • 1.
    Ding, Qian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Regulatory tools for managing chemicals risk at the workplace2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on exacerbating chemicals risk in workplaces under the background of rapid industrialization in developing countries. The overall aim is to investigate the development of regulatory tools which aim at minimizing the health risks from chemical substances in the workplace. The contents of the thesis are divided into three sections: the profile of occupational diseases in China (paper I), occupational exposure limits (paper II and III), and comparison between chemicals regulat ions in Europe and China (paper IV).

    Paper I presents an analysis of the development of occupational diseases in China between 2000 and 2010. The number of recorded cases of occupational diseases increased rapidly in China during this period and the majority of cases were attributable to dust and other chemicals exposures. Difficulties in diagnosis and inefficient surveillance are major impediments to the proper identification and mitigation of occupational diseases. Migrant workers are extremely vulnerable to occupational hazards.

    Paper II investigates the state of harmonization of OELs between twenty-five OEL systems in Europe and Asia. The majority of the investigated organizations declare themselves to have been influenced by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), and in many cases this can be empirically confirmed. However, large international differences still exist in substance selection and in the level of OELs among organizations.

    Paper III explores the setting of risk-based OELs on non-threshold carcinogens. Relatively few agencies set risk-based OELs. Differences exist in policy, both regarding the magnitude of risk considered as tolerable or acceptable and whether a general risk level or case-by-case substance-specific risk levels are determined. In regards to the level of the OELs both differences in science and policy contribute, and it was not possible to determine which has the larger influence.

    Paper III explores the setting of risk-based OELs on non-threshold carcinogens. Relatively few agencies set risk-based OELs. Differences exist in policy, both regarding the magnitude of risk considered as tolerable or acceptable and whether a general risk level or case-by-case substance-specific risk levels are determined. In regards to the level of the OELs both differences in science and policy contribute, and it was not possible to determine which has the larger influence.

    Paper IV systematically compares the regulation systems for chemicals in the EU and China in terms of substances covered, requirement on information, risk assessment and risk management. It shows that the European and Chinese chemicals legislations are remarkably similar.The differences are larger in terms of substance coverage and data requirements than in terms of risk assessment and management. Substitution of hazardous substances is driven more by updates of the EU regulatory system than of the Chinese system.

     

  • 2.
    Ding, Qian
    Dalian Maritime University, Environmental Science and Engineering College, Institution of Philosophy.
    The Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollution in Jinzhou Bay2009In: Fisheries Science, ISSN 0919-9268, E-ISSN 1444-2906, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 801-804Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ding, Qian
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Are the new Chinese chemicals regulations catching up with REACH?2012In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ding, Qian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Schenk, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Occupational diseases in the People’s Republic of China between 2000 and 20102013In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 1423-1432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study provides a description and analysis of the development of occupational diseases in China as recorded in the official statistics during the period 2000-2010, identifies major challenges, and explores possible solutions for prevention and control. Methods: In-depth textual analysis and data analysis of China's annual national reports of occupational diseases, as well as of corresponding policy and regulation documents. Results: The number of recorded cases of occupational diseases increased rapidly in China between 2000 and 2010. Pneumoconiosis was the most prevalent category of occupational diseases. Chemical poisonings accounted for 13% of the cases of occupational diseases. Conclusions: Difficulties in diagnosis and inefficient surveillance are major impediments to the mitigation of occupational diseases. The new definition of occupational disease has provided an opportunity to enlarge the Catalogue of Occupational Diseases. Improved coordination of the different chemical regulations meant to protect human health may also facilitate the prevention of occupational disease.

  • 5.
    Ding, Qian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Schenk, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Setting Risk-Based Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Threshold Carcinogens2014In: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, ISSN 1080-7039, E-ISSN 1549-7860, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 1329-1344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several regulators have recently issued so-called risk-based occupational exposure limits for carcinogenic substances, and also reported estimates of the risk of fatality that exposure to the limit value would give rise to. This practice provides an opportunity to study how differences in the exposure limits set by different regulators are influenced by differences in the scientific judgment (what is the risk at different levels?) and in the policy judgment (how should large risks be accepted?). Based on a broad search, a list was compiled of exposure limits for carcinogens that the respective regulator associates with a numerical risk estimate. For benzene, such data was available from six regulators. The differences in estimates of the risk/exposure relationship and in risk tolerance were about equal in size for benzene, while the range for acceptability was somewhat wider. A similar pattern was observed, although less clearly, for substances with data from only two or three regulators. It is concluded that the science factor and the policy factor both contribute to differences in exposure limits for carcinogens. It was not possible to judge which of these two factors has the larger influence.

  • 6.
    Ding, Qian
    et al.
    Dalian Maritime University, Environmental Science and Engineering College, Institution of Philosophy.
    Schenk, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    A comparison of occupational exposure limits in Asia and Europe2011Report (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ding, Qian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Schenk, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    A comparison of occupational exposure limits in Asia and Europe2011In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 205, p. S241-S241Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are used as a risk management tool aiming at protecting against negative health effects due to occupational exposure to harmful substances. The systems of OELs development have not been standardized and the divergent outcomes have been reported. However some harmonization process has been initiated, primary in Europe. This study aims at analysis of the state of harmonization in a more global context. The OELs systems of eight Asian and seventeen European organizations are analyzed with respect to: (1) the information regarding each organization's system for determining OELs; (2) similarity of substance selection in each system; (3) similarity of value levels of OEL. The analysis shows that the majority of investigated organizations declare to be influenced by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) systems, what in many cases is empirically confirmed. The EU harmonization process is also reflected in results showing the trends of convergence within the EU. However, the comparisons of Asian and European organisations indicate that there is no obvious evidence that OELs are becoming globally harmonized.

  • 8.
    Ding, Qian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Schenk, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Occupational exposure limits in Europe and Asia – Continued divergence or global harmonization?2011In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 296-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are used as a risk management tool aiming at protecting against negative health effects of occupational exposure to harmful substances. The systems of OEL development have not been standardized and divergent outcomes have been reported. However some harmonization processes have been initiated, primarily in Europe. This study investigates the state of harmonization in a global context. The OEL systems of eight Asian and seventeen European organizations are analyzed with respect to similarities and differences in: (1) the system for determining OELs, (2) the selection of substances, and (3) the levels of the OELs. The majority of the investigated organizations declare themselves to have been influenced by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), and in many cases this can be empirically confirmed. The EU harmonization process is reflected in trends towards convergence within the EU. However, comparisons of Asian and European organizations provide no obvious evidence that OELs are becoming globally harmonized.

  • 9.
    Ding, Qian
    et al.
    Dalian Maritime University, Environmental Science and Engineering College, Institution of Philosophy.
    Wang, X.Y.
    Li, Q.B.
    Luo, Y.M.
    Characteristics and sources of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Shanghai, China2010In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 165, no 1-4, p. 295-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A field campaign was conducted to measure and analyze 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in six major zones in the city of Shanghai, P.R. China from August 2006 to April 2007. Ambient air samples were collected seasonally using passive air samplers, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used in this field campaign. The results showed that there was a sequence of 13 PAHs at Phen > FA > Pyr > Chr > Fl > An > BaA > BbFA > BghiP > IcdP > BkFA > BaP > DahA and the sum of these PAHs is 36.01 ± 10.85 ng/m3 in gas phase. FL, Phen, FA, Pyr, and Chr were the dominant PAHs in gas phase in the city. They contributed 90% of total PAHs in the gas phase. Proportion of measured PAHs with three, four, five, and six rings to total PAHs was 53%, 42%, 3%, and 2%, respectively. The highest concentration of ∑PAHs (the sum of 13 PAHs) occurred in the wintertime and the lowest was in the summer. This investigation suggested that traffic, wood combustion, and metal scrap burn emissions were dominant sources of the concentrations of PAHs in six city zones compared with coal burning and industry emissions. Further, the traffic emission sources of PAHs in the city were attributed mostly to gasoline-powered vehicles compared with diesel-powered vehicles. It was revealed that the seasonal changes in PAHs in the city depended on different source types. Metal scrap burn was found to be the major source of PAHs during the autumn, while the PAH levels in the atmosphere for winter and spring seasons were mainly influenced by wood and biomass combustion. Comparisons of PAHs among different city zones and with several other cities worldwide were also made and discussed.

  • 10.
    Ding, Qian
    et al.
    Dalian Maritime University, Environmental Science and Engineering College, Institution of Philosophy.
    Wang, Z.
    Ma, X.
    Na, G.
    Lin, Z.
    Yao, Z.
    Correlations between physicochemical properties of PAHs and their distribution in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic2009In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 157, no 11, p. 3132-3136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, moss and reindeer dung collected at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic were measured to investigate their accumulation trends and distribution in the three compartments. Compared with the other regions, the proportions of 2 + 3 ring PAHs to the total PAHs were higher, whereas the proportions of 5 + 6 ring PAHs were lower in the three compartments at Ny-Alesund. Significant log/log-linear relationship was observed between the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (p) and the soil/moss quotient (Q(SM)). The relation was similar to the relationship between the gas/particle partition coefficient (K(P)) and p(L)degrees of PAHs, implying Q(SM) would be a "mirror image" of K(P). Excellent log/log-linear relationships were observed between Q(SM) and K(OA) as well as between the moss/dung quotient (Q(MD)) and K(OW). The results presented here indicate the physicochemical properties are suitable for characterizing the distribution of PAHs in soil, moss and reindeer dung.

  • 11.
    Schenk, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Ding, Qian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Science and policy in risk-based occupational exposure limits2014In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 229, p. 120-120Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 11 of 11
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