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  • 1. Bäckström, A.
    et al.
    Antikainen, Janne
    Backers, Tobias
    Feng, X.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Kobayashi, A.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Pan, P.
    Rinne, M.
    Shen, B.
    Hudson, J.A.
    Numerical modelling of unaxial compressive failure of granite with and without saline porewater2008In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 1126-1142Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bäckström, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    et al.,
    Numerical modelling of uniaxial compressive failure of granite with and without saline porewater2008In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 1126-1142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important for rock engineering design to be able to validate numerical simulations, i.e. to check that they adequately represent the rock reality. In this paper, the capability and validity of four numerical models is assessed through the simulation of an apparently simple case: the complete process of microstructural breakdown during the uniaxial compressive failure of intact crystalline rock. In addition to comparing the capabilities of the four models, the results generated by each model were compared with the experimentally determined complete stress-strain curves for the Swedish Avro granite for different porewater conditions. In this way, it has been possible to audit the models' adequacy for this particular simulation task. It was found that although the models had common features, they were each idiosyncratically different and required considerable expertise to match the actual stress-strain curves (which did not monotonically increase in axial strain)-indicating that, for more complex simulations, both adequate modelling and appropriate validation are not going to be an easy task. The work was conducted within the framework of the international 2004-2007 DEmonstration of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments with emphasis on Thermo Hydro Mechanic and Chemical aspects (DECOVALEX-THMC) phase on coupled modelling extended to include chemical effects and with application to the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in crystalline rock.

  • 3. Hudson, John A.
    et al.
    Bäckström, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Rutqvist, J.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Backers, T.
    Chijimatsu, M.
    Christiansson, R.
    Feng, X. T.
    Kobayashi, A.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Lee, H. S.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Pan, P. Z.
    Rinne, M.
    Shen, B. T.
    Characterising and modelling the excavation damaged zone in crystalline rock in the context of radioactive waste disposal2009In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 1275-1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes current knowledge about the nature of and potential for thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical modelling of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) around the excavations for an underground radioactive waste repository. In the first part of the paper, the disturbances associated with excavation are explained, together with reviews of Workshops that have been held on the subject. In the second part of the paper, the results of a DECOVALEX [DEmonstration of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiment: research funded by an international consortium of radioactive waste regulators and implementers (http://www.decovalex.com)] research programme on modelling the EDZ are presented. Four research teams used four different models to simulate the complete stress-strain curve for Avro granite from the Swedish A"spo Hard Rock Laboratory. Subsequent research extended the work to computer simulation of the evolution of the repository using a 'wall-block model' and a 'near-field model'. This included assessing the evolution of stress, failure and permeability and time-dependent effects during repository evolution. As discussed, all the computer models are well suited to sensitivity studies for evaluating the influence of their respective supporting parameters on the complete stress-strain curve for rock and for modelling the EDZ.

  • 4. Koyama, T.
    et al.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Particle mechanics approach for simulating micro-structure damage and failure processes of rock core samples due to different fluid salinity2006In: Proc. of the 2nd International Conference on Coupled T-H-M-C Processes in Geo-Systems: Fundamentals, Modeling, Experiments and Applications, GeoProc 2006, 2006, p. 569-574Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Numerical modelling of fluid flow and particle transport in rough rock fracture during shear2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of different shearing processes and sample sizes on the fluid flow anisotropy and its impact on particle transport process in rough rock fractures are significant factors that need to be considered in the performance and safety assessments of underground nuclear waste repositories. The subjects, however, have not been adequately investigated previously in either laboratory experiments or numerical modeling. This thesis addresses these problems using numerical modeling approaches.

    The modeling consists of two parts: 1) fluid flow simulations considering more complex but realistic flow boundary conditions during shear processes that cannot be realized readily in laboratory experiments, using digitalized fracture surfaces scanned in the laboratory, so that anisotropic fluid flow induced by shearing with channeling phenomenon can be directly simulated and quantified; 2) particle tracking simulations to demonstrate the impacts of such channeling effects on characteristic properties of particle transport. The numerical method chosen for the simulations is the Finite Element Method (FEM). Scale effects were considered in the simulations by using fracture surface samples of different sizes.

    The distributions of fracture aperture during shear were obtained by numerically generating relative translational and rotary movements between two digitalized surfaces of a rock fracture replica without considering normal loading. From the evolutions of the aperture distributions during the shearing processes, the evolutions of the transmissivity fields were determined by assuming the validity of the cubic law locally. A geostatistical approach was used to quantify the scale effects of the aperture and transmissivity fields. The fluid flow was simulated using different flow boundary conditions, corresponding to translational and rotary shear processes. Corresponding to translational shear (with a 1 mm shear displacement interval up to a maximum shear displacement of 20 mm), three different flow patterns, i.e., unidirectional (flow parallel with and perpendicular to the shear direction), bi-directional and radial, were taken into account. Corresponding to rotary shear (with a 0.5o shear angle interval up to 90o), only the radial flow pattern was considered. The particle transport was simulated using the Particle Tracking Method, with the particles motion following the fluid velocity fields during shear, as calculated by FEM. For the unidirectional particle transport, the breakthrough curves were analyzed by fitting to an analytical solution of 1-D advection-dispersion equation. The dispersivity, Péclet number and tracer velocity, as well as their evolutions during shear, were determined numerically.

    The results show that the fracture aperture increases anisotropically during translational shear, with a more pronounced increase in the direction perpendicular to the shear displacement, causing significant fluid flow channelling. A more significant increase of flow rate and decrease in travel time of the particles in the direction perpendicular to the shear direction is predicted. The particle travel time and characteristics are, correspondingly, much different when such effects caused by shear are included. This finding may have an important impact on the interpretation of the results of coupled hydro-mechanical and tracer experiments for measurements of hydraulic properties of rock fractures, because hydraulic properties are usually calculated from flow test results along the shear directions, with the effects of the significant anisotropic flow perpendicular to the shear direction ignored. The results also show that safety assessment of a nuclear repository, without considering the effects of stress/deformation of rocks on fluid flow and transport processes, may have significant risk potential. The results obtained from numerical simulations show that fluid flow through a single rough fracture changes with increasing sample size, indicating that representativehydro-mechanical properties of the fractures in the field can only be accurately determined using samples of representative sizes beyond their stationarity thresholds.

  • 6.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Stress, Flow and Particle Transport in Rock Fractures2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The fluid flow and tracer transport in a single rock fracture during shear processes has been an important issue in rock mechanics and is investigated in this thesis using Finite Element Method (FEM) and streamline particle tracking method, considering evolutions of aperture and transmissivity with shear displacement histories under different normal stresses, based on laboratory tests.

    The distributions of fracture aperture and its evolution during shear were calculated from the initial aperture fields, based on the laser-scanned surface roughness features of replicas of rock fracture specimens, and shear dilations measured during the coupled shear-flow-tracer tests in laboratory performed using a newly developed testing apparatus in Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan. Three rock fractures of granite with different roughness characteristics were used as parent samples from which nine plaster replicas were made and coupled shear-flow tests was performed under three normal loading conditions (two levels of constant normal loading (CNL) and one constant normal stiffness (CNS) conditions). In order to visualize the tracer transport, transparent acrylic upper parts and plaster lower parts of the fracture specimens were manufactured from an artificially created tensile fracture of sandstone and the coupled shear-flow tests with fluid visualization was performed using a dye tracer injected from upstream and a CCD camera to record the dye movement. A special algorithm for treating the contact areas as zero-aperture elements was used to produce more accurate flow field simulations by using FEM, which is important for continued simulations of particle transport, but was often not properly treated in literature. The simulation results agreed well with the flow rate data obtained from the laboratory tests, showing that complex histories of fracture aperture and tortuous flow channels with changing normal stresses and increasing shear displacements, which were also captured by the coupled shear-flow tests of fracture specimens with visualization of the fluid flow. From the obtained flow velocity fields, the particle transport was predicted by the streamline particle tracking method with calculated flow velocity fields (vectors) from the flow simulations, obtaining results such as flow velocity profiles, total flow rates, particle travel time, breakthrough curves and the Péclet number, Pe, respectively.

    The fluid flow in the vertical 2-D cross-sections of a rock fracture was also simulated by solving both Navier-Stokes (NS) and Reynolds equations, and the particle transport was predicted by streamline particle tracking method. The results obtained using NS and Reynolds equations were compared to illustrate the degree of the validity of the Reynolds equation for general applications in practice since the later is mush more computationally efficient for large scale problems. The flow simulation results show that the total flow rate and the flow velocity predicted by NS equations are quite different from that as predicted by the Reynolds equation. The results show that a roughly 5-10 % overestimation on the flow rate is produced when the Reynolds equation is used, and the ideal parabolic velocity profiles defined by the local cubic law, when Reynolds equation is used, is no longer valid, especially when the roughness feature of the fracture surfaces changes with shear. These deviations of flow rate and flow velocity profiles across the fracture aperture have a significant impact on the particle transport behavior and the associated properties, such as the travel time and Péclet number. The deviations increase with increasing flow velocity and become more significant when fracture aperture geometry changes with shear.

    The scientific findings from these studies provided new insights to the physical behavior of fluid flow and mass transport in rock fractures which is the scientific basis for many rock mechanics problems at the fundamental level, and with special importance to rock engineering problems such as geothermal energy extraction (where flow rate in fractures dominates the productivity of a geothermal energy reservoir) and nuclear waste repositories (where radioactive nuclides transport through fractures dominates the final safety evaluations) in fractured rocks.

  • 7.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Fardin, Nader
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Shear-induced anisotropy and heterogeneity of fluid flow in a single rock fracture with translational and rotary shear displacements: a numerical study2004In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 426-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of rotary shear displacements on fluid flow rates and patterns under shear-flow test conditions were numerically investigated in this paper. A pair of digitized surfaces of a concrete fracture replica of size 250 x 250mm was numerically manipulated to simulate the translational and rotary shearing processes of the sample, which provided the evolution of the aperture distributions during shearing and was used to determine the evolution of the fracture transmissivity field. The translational shear test has bidirectional (x and y) hydraulic head boundary conditions and shearing in the x-direction with 1mm shear displacement interval up to 20mm. The rotary shear test has a 0.5° rotation interval up to 90°. The results of flow simulations show that with increasing rotary shear, the flow rate increases but its pattern becomes rapidly isotropic. For bi-directional translational flow, the flow rate increases with shear but significant channelling, anisotropy and heterogeneity developed with shear displacement. The above flow simulations illustrated the more realistic flow patterns under general fracture deformation modes of translation and rotation, and provided insights for the design of more flexible and complementary laboratory coupled stressflow tests.

  • 8.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Fardin, Nader
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Stephansson, Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Numerical simulation of shear-induced flow anisotropy and scale-dependent aperture and transmissivity evolution of rock fracture replicas2006In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 89-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluid flow anisotropy in a single rock fracture during a shear process is an important issue in rock mechanics and is investigated in this paper using FEM modelling, considering evolutions of aperture and transmissivity with shear displacement history. The distributions of fracture aperture during shearing with large shear displacements were obtained by numerically manipulating relative translational movements between two digitalized surfaces of a rock fracture replica, with changing sample sizes. The scale dependence of the fluid behaviour and properties were also investigated using a fractal approach. The results show that the fracture aperture increases anisotropically during shear with a more pronounced increase in the direction perpendicular to the shear displacement, causing significant fluid flow channelling effect, as also observed by other researchers. This finding may have important impacts on the interpretation of the results of coupled hydro-mechanical experiments for measurements of hydraulic properties of rock fractures because the hydraulic properties are usually calculated from flow test results along the shear directions while ignoring the more significant anisotropic flow perpendicular to the shear direction. This finding indicates that the coupled stress-flow tests of rough rock fractures should be conducted in true three-dimensions if possible. Significant change in fracture aperture/ transmissivity in the out-of-plane direction should be properly evaluated if two-dimensional tests are conducted. Results obtained from numerical simulations also show that fluid flow through a single rough fracture changes with increasing sample size and shear displacements, indicating that representative hydro-mechanical properties of the fractures in the field can only be more reliably determined using samples of large enough sizes beyond the stationarity threshold and tested with larger shear displacements.

  • 9.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Effects of model scale and particle size on micro-mechanical properties and failure processes of rocks - A particle mechanics approach2007In: Engineering analysis with boundary elements, ISSN 0955-7997, E-ISSN 1873-197X, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 458-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical procedure to determine the equivalent micro-mechanical properties of intact rocks is presented using a stochastic representative elementary volume (REV) concept and a particle mechanics approach. More than 200 models were generated in square regions with side lengths varying from 1 to 10 cm, using the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Generated particle models were then used for the calculation of equivalent micro-mechanical properties. Results with a core sample of diorite from Aspo, Sweden, show that the variance of the calculated values of mechanical properties decrease significantly as the side lengths of particle models increase, reaching a REV side length about 5 cm with an acceptable variation of 5%, which is equal to the minimum diameter of rock specimen for uniaxial compressive tests suggested by ISRM. The complete stress-strain curve of the diorite rock sample was predicted under uniaxial compression, as the basis for evaluating the damage and failure processes. The unique contribution of this paper is its study on impacts of sample size and particle size distributions on mechanical behaviour of rocks when particle mechanics approaches are used.

  • 10.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Effects of shearing processes on the fluid flow and particle transport in a single rock fracture2006In: Rock mechanics in underground construction: ISRM International Symposium 2006 / [ed] Leung, CF Y, Zhou, YX, 2006, p. 408-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Fluid flow and tracer transport simulations for rock fractures under normal loading and shear displacement2007In: Proceeding of the 11th Int Congr Rock Mech (ISRM 2007), 2007, p. 47-50Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12. Koyama, Tomofumi
    et al.
    Li, B
    Jiang, Y
    Jing, Lanru
    Coupled shear-flow tests for rock fractures with visualization of the fluid flow and their numerical situations2008In: International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1938-6362, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 215-227Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Li, B.
    Jiang, Y.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Numerical modelling of fluid flow tests in a rock fracture with a special algorithm for contact areas2009In: Computers and geotechnics, ISSN 0266-352X, E-ISSN 1873-7633, Vol. 36, no 1-2, p. 291-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fluid flow in rock fractures during shear processes has been all important issue in rock mechanics and is investigated in this paper using finite element method (FEM), considering evolutions of aperture and transmissivity with shear displacement histories under different normal stress and normal stiffness conditions as measured during laboratory coupled shear-flow tests. The distributions of fracture aperture and its evolution during shearing were calculated from the initial aperture, based on the laser-scanned sample surface roughness results, and shear dilations measured in the laboratory tests. Three normal loading conditions were adopted in the tests: simple normal stress and mixed normal stress and normal stiffness to reflect more realistic in situ conditions. A special algorithm for treatment of the contact areas as zero-aperture elements was used to produce more accurate flow field simulations, which is important for continued simulations of particle transport but often not properly treated in literature. The simulation results agree well with the measured hydraulic apertures and flow rate data obtained from the laboratory tests, showing that complex histories of fracture aperture and tortuous flow fields with changing normal loading conditions and increasing shear displacements. With the new algorithm for contact areas, the tortuous flow fields and channeling effects under normal stress/stiffness conditions during shearing were more realistically captured, which is not possible if traditional techniques by assuming very small aperture values for the contact areas were used. These findings have an important impact on the interpretation of the results of coupled hydro-mechanical experiments of rock fractures, and on more realistic simulations of particle transport processes in fractured rocks.

  • 14.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Li, B.
    Jiang, Y.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Numerical simulations for the effects of normal loading on particle transport in rock fractures during shear2008In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 1403-1419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluid flow and tracer transport in a single rock fracture during shear is investigated using the finite element method (FEM) and streamline particle tracking, considering evolutions of aperture and transmissivity with shear displacement histories under different normal stresses, based on laboratory tests. The distributions of fracture aperture and its evolution during shear were calculated from the initial aperture fields, based on the laser-scanned surface roughness of feature replicas of rock fracture specimens, and shear dilations measured during the coupled shear-flow tests in laboratory. The coupled shear-flow tests were performed under two levels of constant normal loading (CNL). A special algorithm for treating the contact areas as zero-aperture elements was used to produce more accurate flow field simulations using FEM. The simulation results agreed well with the flow rate data obtained from the laboratory tests, showing complex histories of fracture aperture and tortuous flow channels with changing normal stresses and increasing shear displacements for the flow parallel with the shear direction. A greater increase was observed for flow in the direction perpendicular to the shear direction, due to the significant flow channels created by the shearing process. From the obtained flow velocity fields, particle transport was predicted using a streamline particle tracking method with the flow velocity fields (vectors) taken from the flow simulations, yielding particle travel times, breakthrough curves, and the Peclet number, Pe. The transport behavior in the fracture is also anisotropic, and advective transport is greater in the direction parallel with the shear direction. The effect of normal stress on the particle transport is significant, and dispersion becomes larger with increasing normal stress.

  • 15. Koyama, Tomofumi
    et al.
    Vilarrasa, V.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Particle transport in a rough rock fracture during shear : a numerical study2006In: Proc. of the 2nd International Conference on Coupled T-H-M-C Processes in Geo-Systems:: Fundamentals, Modeling, Experiments and Applications, GeoProc 2006, 2006, p. 575-580Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Vilarrasa, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Tracer transport in a rough rock fracture during shear: a numerical study2006In: Proc of the 2nd International Conference on Coupled T-H-M-C Processes in Geo-Systems: Fundamentals, 2006, p. 575-580Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of translational shear on particle transport under coupled shear-flow testing conditions in a rough rock fracture were numerically investigated in this study. A pair of digitalized surfaces of a rough concrete fracture replica was numerically manipulated to simulate the translational shearing process without considering normal loading and asperity damage. From the evolutions of the aperture filed during shear, the evolutions of the fracture transmissivity field were determined. Undirectional and bi-directional fluid flow situations were considered, using Finite Element Method (FEM). The results show that translational shear makes rough fractures more permeable, producing a significant change in travel time of the particles. Translational shear yields a significant channelling effect in the direction perpendicular to the shear direction. Bi-directional flow patterns show clearly the shortcommings of the conventional laboratory shear-flow tests with unidirectional flow. These simulations provide a first step towards a better understanding of particle transport in rock fractures.

  • 17.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Vilarrasa, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Shear-induced flow channels and its effect on the particle transport in a single rock fractureIn: Hydrogeology Journal, ISSN 1431-2174, E-ISSN 1435-0157Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of mechanical shearing on fluid flow anisotropy and particle transport in rough rock fractures was investigated using numerical modeling. Two opposite surfaces of a rock fracture of 194x194 mm in size were laser scanned to generate their respective digital profiles. Fluid flow through the fracture was simulated using a finite element code that solves the Reynolds equation, while incremental relative movement of the upper surface was maintained numerically to simulate a shearing process without normal loading. The motion of solute particles during shearing was studied using a simple particle-tracking code. It was found that shearing introduces anisotropy in both fluid transmissivity and particle motion, with a greatly increased flow rate and particle travel velocity in the direction perpendicular to the direction of shear. This finding has an important impact in the interpretation of the results of coupled hydro-mechanical and tracer transport experiments of hydraulic and transport properies of rock fractures.

  • 18. Li, Bo
    et al.
    Jiang, Yujing
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Tanabashi, Yoshihiko
    Experimental study of the hydro-mechanical behavior of rock joints using a parallel-plate model containing contact areas and artificial fractures2008In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 362-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, geological disposal of radioactive wastes is considered to be the most promising option, which requires the understanding of the coupled mechanical, hydraulic and thermal properties of the host rock masses and rock fractures. The hydro-mechanical behavior and properties of rock fractures are usually determined by laboratory experiments on fracture specimens that serve as the basic building block of the constitutive models of fractured rock masses. Laboratory testing of rock fractures involve a number of technical issues that may have significant impacts on the reliability and applicability of the testing results, chief among them are the quantitative estimation of the evolutions of hydraulic transmissivity fields of fractures during shear under different normal constraint conditions, and the sealing techniques when fluid flow during shear is involved. In this study, a new shear-flow testing apparatus with specially designed fluid sealing techniques for rock fractures were developed, under constant normal load (CNL) or constant normal stiffness (CNS) constraint. The topographical data of all fracture specimens were measured before testing to constitute the geometrical models for simulating the change of mechanical aperture distributions during shearing. A number of shear-flow coupling tests were carried out on three kinds of rock fracture specimens to evaluate the influence of morphological properties of rock fractures on their hydro-mechanical behaviour. Some empirical relations were proposed to evaluate the effects of contact area and surface roughness on the behavior of fluid flow through rock fractures.

  • 19. Rutqvist, Jonny
    et al.
    Bäckström, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Chijimatsu, Masakazu
    Feng, Xia-Ting
    Pan, Peng-Zhi
    Hudson, John
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Kobayashi, Akira
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Lee, Hee-Suk
    Huang, Xiao-Hua
    Rinne, Mikael
    Shen, Baotang
    A multiple-code simulation study of the long-term EDZ evolution of geological nuclear waste repositories2009In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 1313-1324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This simulation study shows how widely different model approaches can be adapted to model the evolution of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) around a heated nuclear waste emplacement drift in fractured rock. The study includes modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes, with simplified consideration of chemical coupling in terms of time-dependent strength degradation or subcritical crack growth. The different model approaches applied in this study include boundary element, finite element, finite difference, particle mechanics, and elasto-plastic cellular automata methods. The simulation results indicate that thermally induced differential stresses near the top of the emplacement drift may cause progressive failure and permeability changes during the first 100 years (i.e., after emplacement and drift closure). Moreover, the results indicate that time-dependent mechanical changes may play only a small role during the first 100 years of increasing temperature and thermal stress, whereas such time-dependency is insignificant after peak temperature, because of decreasing thermal stress.

  • 20.
    Shimizu, H
    et al.
    Tohoku University.
    Koyama, T
    Kyoto University.
    Draganovic, Almir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Stille, Håkan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    CFD-DEM simulation for filtration and penetrability of cement-based grout2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Grouting is a widely used method for sealing fractured rock masses around underground structures to reduce or stop groundwater inflow. However, even at pre-sent, the filtration and penetration mechanism of cement-based grout have not been clarified sufficiently yet due to complicated physical and chemical processes of grout, such as pressure-dehydration, consolidation, bleeding, clogging, absorption, sedimen-tation and condensation etc. In this research, to better understand the penetration and filtration mechanism of cement-based grout through rock fractures, a two-dimensional numerical model of coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics and the Distinct Element Method (CFD-DEM) had been developed. By using a direct numerical simulation technique, the interaction between fluid and particles can be evaluated. The simulation results were compared with the laboratory injection test to verify the applicability of the newly developed CFD-DEM code. As a result, the simulation results agree qualitatively well with the actual experi-mental results, and the clogging process during the injection of cement-based grout was successfully reproduced by the CFD-DEM code. Moreover, based on these re-sults, the influence of the water/cement ratio of grout on the filtration and penetration mechanism was investigated in detail. The presented numerical model in this paper gives a better understanding for filtration and penetration mechanism of cement-based grout.

  • 21. Vilarrasa, Victor
    et al.
    Koyama, Tomofumi
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Shear-Induced Flow Channels in a Single Rock Fracture and Their Effect on Solute Transport2011In: Transport in Porous Media, ISSN 0169-3913, E-ISSN 1573-1634, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 503-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of mechanical shearing on fluid flow anisotropy and solute transport in rough rock fractures was investigated by numerical modeling. Two facing surfaces of a rock fracture of 194 mm x 194 mm in size were laser scanned to generate their respective digital profiles. Fluid flow through the fracture was simulated using a finite element code that solves the Reynolds equation, while incremental relative movement of the upper surface was maintained numerically to simulate a shearing process without normal loading. The motion of solute particles in a rough fracture undergoing shear was studied using a particle tracking code. We found that shearing introduces anisotropy in fracture transmissivity, with a greatly increased flow rate and particle travel velocity in the direction perpendicular to the shearing direction. Shear-induced channels yield a transport behavior in which advection dominates in the direction parallel with shear and dispersion dominates in the direction perpendicular to shear. The shear-induced flow channels not only increase the flow connectivity, but also the transport connectivity in the direction perpendicular to shear. This finding has an important impact on the interpretation of the results of coupled hydromechanical and tracer transport experiments for measurements of hydraulic and transport properties of rock fractures.

1 - 21 of 21
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