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  • 1. Armbrecht, L.
    et al.
    Dincer, C.
    Kling, A.
    Horak, Josef
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology. University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Kieninger, J.
    Urban, G.
    Self-assembled magnetic bead chains for sensitivity enhancement of microfluidic electrochemical biosensor platforms2015In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 15, no 22, p. 4314-4321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to enhance the sensitivity of microfluidic biosensor platforms with self-assembled magnetic bead chains. An adjustable, more than 5-fold sensitivity enhancement is achieved by introducing a magnetic field gradient along a microfluidic channel by means of a soft-magnetic lattice with a 350 mu m spacing. The alternating magnetic field induces the self-assembly of the magnetic beads in chains or clusters and thus improves the perfusion and active contact between the analyte and the beads. The soft-magnetic lattices can be applied independent of the channel geometry or chip material to any microfluidic biosensing platform. At the same time, the bead-based approach achieves chip reusability and shortened measurement times. The bead chain properties and the maximum flow velocity for bead retention were validated by optical microscopy in a glass capillary. The magnetic actuation system was successfully validated with a biotin-streptavidin model assay on a low-cost electrochemical microfluidic chip, fabricated by dry-film photoresist technology (DFR). Labelling with glucose oxidase (GOx) permits rapid electrochemical detection of enzymatically produced H2O2.

  • 2. Armbrecht, L.
    et al.
    Dincer, C.
    Kling, A.
    Horak, Josef
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology. Department of Microsystems Engineering - IMTEK, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Kieninger, J.
    Urban, G.
    Signal amplification using magnetic bead chains in microfluidic electrochemical biosensors2015In: 2015 Transducers - 2015 18th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, IEEE , 2015, p. 1601-1604Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel approach to increase the sensitivity of microfluidic biosensor platforms using magnetic micro-bead chains. An almost 2-fold sensitivity enhancement is achieved by introducing a magnetic field gradient along a microfluidic channel by means of a soft-magnetic lattice with lattice spacings down to 100 μm. The magnetic field gradient induces self-assembly of the magnetic beads in chains or clusters and thus improves the active contact between analyte and beads. This facile strategy significantly increases the active bead surface while allowing for complete independence of traditional biosensor materials and channel geometries, chip-reusability and shortened measurement times. Bead chain properties were validated with optical microscopy in a glass capillary and with electrochemical measurements via glucose oxidase (GOx) labels on an integrated microfluidic chip fabricated in dry-film photo resist technology (DFR).

  • 3.
    Cavallaro, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Photonics.
    Horak, Josef
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Engineering.
    Haag, Petra
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Oncol Pathol, Theme Canc,Patient Area,Pelvis, Akad Straket 1, S-17164 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gupta, Dhanu
    Karolinska Inst, Clin Res Ctr, Dept Lab Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Evox Therapeut Ltd, Oxford OX4 4HG, England..
    Stiller, Christiane
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Engineering.
    Sahu, Siddharth S.
    Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, Dept Solid State Elect, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gorgens, Andre
    Karolinska Inst, Clin Res Ctr, Dept Lab Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Evox Therapeut Ltd, Oxford OX4 4HG, England.;Univ Duisburg Essen, Univ Hosp Essen, Inst Transfus Med, D-45122 Essen, Germany..
    Gatty, Hithesh K.
    Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, Dept Solid State Elect, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Viktorsson, Kristina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Theme Canc,Patient Area,Head & Neck Lung & Skin, Akad Straket 1, S-17164 Solna, Sweden..
    El Andaloussi, Samir
    Karolinska Inst, Clin Res Ctr, Dept Lab Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Evox Therapeut Ltd, Oxford OX4 4HG, England..
    Lewensohn, Rolf
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Theme Canc,Patient Area,Head & Neck Lung & Skin, Akad Straket 1, S-17164 Solna, Sweden..
    Eriksson Karlström, Amelie
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Prot Sci, AlbalNova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Photonics. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci, Dept Appl Phys, S-16440 Kista, Sweden..
    Dev, Apurba
    Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, Dept Solid State Elect, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Label-Free Surface Protein Profiling of Extracellular Vesicles by an Electrokinetic Sensor2019In: ACS SENSORS, ISSN 2379-3694, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 1399-1408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) generated from the endolysosomal system, often referred to as exosomes, have attracted interest as a suitable biomarker for cancer diagnostics, as they carry valuable biological information and reflect their cells of origin. Herein, we propose a simple and inexpensive electrical method for label-free detection and profiling of sEVs in the size range of exosomes. The detection method is based on the electrokinetic principle, where the change in the streaming current is monitored as the surface markers of the sEVs interact with the affinity reagents immobilized on the inner surface of a silica microcapillary. As a proof-of-concept, we detected sEVs derived from the non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line H1975 for a set of representative surface markers, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), CD9, and CD63. The detection sensitivity was estimated to be similar to 175000 sEVs, which represents a sensor surface coverage of only 0.04%. We further validated the ability of the sensor to measure the expression level of a membrane protein by using sEVs displaying artificially altered expressions of EGFR and CD63, which were derived from NSCLC and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, respectively. The analysis revealed that the changes in EGFR and CD63 expressions in sEVs can be detected with a sensitivity in the order of 10% and 3%, respectively, of their parental cell expressions. The method can be easily parallelized and combined with existing microfluidic-based EV isolation technologies, allowing for rapid detection and monitoring of sEVs for cancer diagnosis.

  • 4.
    Horak, Josef
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Engineering.
    Jansson, Ronnie
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Engineering.
    Dev, Apurba
    Uppsala Univ, Ångström Lab, Solid State Elect, Uppsala Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nilebäck, Linnea
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Engineering.
    Behnam, Kiarash
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Engineering.
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Photonics.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Engineering.
    Eriksson Karlström, Amelie
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Engineering.
    Recombinant Spider Silk as Mediator for One-Step, Chemical-Free Surface Biofunctionalization2018In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 28, no 21, article id 1800206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A unique strategy for effective, versatile, and facile surface biofunctionalization employing a recombinant spider silk protein genetically functionalized with the antibody-binding Z domain (Z-4RepCT) is reported. It is demonstrated that Z-silk can be applied to a variety of materials and platform designs as a truly one-step and chemical-free surface modification that site specifically captures antibodies while simultaneously reducing nonspecific adsorption. As a model surface, SiO2 is used to optimize and characterize Z-silk performance compared to the Z domain immobilized by a standard silanization method. First, Z-silk adsorption is investigated and verified its biofunctionality in a long-term stability experiment. To assess the binding capacity and protein-protein interaction stability of Z-silk, the coating is used to capture human antibodies in various assay formats. An eightfold higher binding capacity and 40-fold lower detection limit are obtained in the immunofluorescence assay, and the complex stability of captured antibodies is shown to be improved by a factor of 20. Applicability of Z-silk to functionalize microfluidic devices is demonstrated by antibody detection in an electrokinetic microcapillary biosensor. To test Z-silk for biomarker applications, real-time detection and quantification of human immunoglobulin G are performed in a plasma sample and C1q capture from human serum using an anti-C1q antibody.

  • 5. Kling, A.
    et al.
    Dincer, C.
    Armbrecht, L.
    Horak, Josef
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Kieninger, J.
    Urban, G.
    Electrochemical microfluidic platform for simultaneous multi-analyte detection2015In: Eurosensors 2015, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 120, p. 916-919Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an electrochemical lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform for the simultaneous detection of up to four different analytes. The possibility to separately immobilize different assays in a channel network, without active valves, was successfully demonstrated using a model assay linked to glucose oxidase. This enables the detection of various analytes even with different assay formats. For the assay immobilization, the channel surface, made out of dry film photoresist (DFR), could be activated by means of EDC/NHS-linker chemistry and used for the covalent binding of primary amines. Cross-sensitivity due to diffusion within the channel network could be experimentally excluded.

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