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  • 1.
    Alam, M.S.
    et al.
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hasan, M.A.
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Muhammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Controls of sedimentary facies on arsenic mobilization in shallow aquifers of the Matlab North Upazila, southeastern Bangladesh2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater extracted from shallow (<100 m bgl) Holocene alluvial aquifers, is the primary source of drinking water in Matlab North Upazila, Southeast Bangladesh. The distribution of lithofacies and its relation to hydrochemistry in such heterogeneous deposits are of fundamental importance for the analysis of groundwater quality. Aquifer sediment samples were collected from 48 locations throughout the study area. Lithofacies distribution was characterized using grain size and sediment colors. Channel fills (sandy) and over bank (silt-clay) deposits the two main lithofacies groups, were identified. These sandy deposits represent an active meandering river or channel fills sediment sequence, which are usually capped by silts and clays of an over bank sediment sequence. All the collected sediments samples were generalized and subdivided based on four distinct color variations, such as Black, White, Off-white, and Red according to Munsell color chart and water-well drillers’ perception.

    Mineral compositions showed variability with the sediment color and grain size. Red and off-white sediments contain fewer amounts of metastable minerals (hornblende, actinolite, kyanite and pyroxenes etc.) than that of black sediments, whereas black sediments contain higher amount of biotite. The relatively high content of biotite and other dark colored ferromagnesian minerals are responsible for the black and grayish color of these sediments. Ferruginous coating on silicates, particularly on quartz grains, gives the red and off-white coloration. Based on the available information regarding sediment colors of aquifers in which tubewell screens were placed, 44 domestic hand pumped tubewells (HTWs) were selected for water sampling. The groundwater abstracted from black sediments of shallow aquifer showed higher concentrations in DOC (median: 5.81 mg/L), dissolved NH

    4+ (median: 3.47 mg/L), PO43- (median: 1.36 mg/L), Fe (median: 4.87 mg/L), As (median: 252.53 μg/L) and relatively low Mn (median: 0.54 mg/L) and SO42-(median: 0.59 mg/L) concentrations, whereas groundwater abstracted from off-white and red sediments of shallow aquifer showed lower concentrations in DOC (median: 1.95 and 1.71 mg/L, respectively), dissolved NH4+ (median: 0), PO43- (median: 0.14 and 0.04 mg/L, respectively), Fe (median: 2.25 and 0.63 mg/L, respectively), As (median: 17.36 and 15.05 μg/L, respectively) and relatively high Mn+2 (median: 1.12 and 1.15 mg/L, respectively) and SO42- (median: 0.79 and 0.78 mg/L, respectively) concentrations. The water samples collected from black sediments (median Eh: 211 mV) indicated most reducing environment, followed by white (median Eh: 227 mV), whereas off-white and red sediments (median Eh: 268 and 274 mV) signified less reducing environment. The study supports that the sediment colors in shallow aquifer can be a reliable indicator of high and low-As concentrations and can be a useful tool for local drillers to target arsenic safe aquifers.

  • 2.
    Annaduzzaman, Md.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hossain, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Tubewell platform color: A low-cost and rapid screening tool for arsenic and manganese in drinking water2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Presence of high level of geogenic arsenic (As) in groundwater is one of the major and adverse drinking water quality problem all over the world, especially in Southeast Asia, where groundwater is the prominent drinking water source. Bangladesh is already considered as one of the most As affected territories, where As contamination in the groundwater is key environmental disasters. Recently besides As, presence of high level of manganese (Mn) in drinking water has also got attention due to its neurological effect on children. It becomes very essential to formulate a reliable safe drinking water management policy to reduce the health threat caused by drinking As and Mn contained groundwater. The development of a simple low cost technique for the determination of As and Mn in drinking water wells is an important step to formulate this policy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentiality of tubewell platform color as low-cost, quick and convenient screening tool for As and Mn in drinking water wells (n=272) in a highly arsenic affected area on Matlab, Southeastern Bangladesh.

    The result shows strong correlation between the development of red color stain on tubewell platform and As enrichment in the corresponding tubewell water compared to WHO drinking water guideline (10 μg/L) as well as Bangladesh drinking water standard (BDWS) (50 μg/L), with certainty values of 98.7% and 98.3% respectively. The sensitivity and efficiency of red colored platforms to screen high As water in tubewells are 98% and 97% respectively at 10 μg/L, whereas at cut-off level of 50μg/L both sensitivity and efficiency values are 98%. This study suggests that red colored platform could be potentially used for primary identification of tubewells with elevated level of As and thus could prioritise sustainable As mitigation management in developing countries. Due to lack of tubewells with black colored platform in the study area, the use of platform color concept for screening of Mn enriched water in the wells have not been tested significantly, which requires further study.

    Acknowledgements: This study was carried out with support from the Liuuaeus-Palme Academic Exchange Programme supported by International Programs Office (IPK) and the KTH led joint collaborative action research project on Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation- SASMIT (Sid Contribution 750000854).

  • 3.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Von Brömssen, M.
    Groundwater arsenic pollution: A conceptual framework for sustainable mitigation strategy2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, CRC Press, 2014, p. 881-885Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tubewells installed by local drillers, provide access of drinking water in rural Bangladesh. Significant proportion of these wells contains arsenic (As) above the WHO guideline and the Bangladesh Drinking Water Standard. Various attempts for mitigation at household and community scale have resulted in limited success, but through the local driller's initiatives, the tubewells are the source of priority drinking water supply. We have developed a concept of Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation (SASMIT) to identify and target the safe aquifers through detailed hydrogeological studies for scientific validation of the water quality with respect to the color of the shallow sediments as perceived by local drillers. Together with water quality monitoring, we have also targeted the Intermediate Depth Aquifers (IDA) for providing As-safe and low manganese (Mn) water. SASMIT intervention logic also considered the relevant socio-economic scenario, such as household distribution, poverty issues and available safe water access for prioritizing safe well installation.

  • 4.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Rahman, Shamsun Naima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Robinson, Clare
    Nath, Bibhash
    Rahman, Marina
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chowdhury, Dulaly
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Jakariya, Mohammed
    Persson, Lars Ake
    Vahter, Marie
    Temporal and seasonal variability of arsenic in drinking water wells in Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh: A preliminary evaluation on the basis of a 4 year study2011In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 1177-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal and seasonal variability of As concentrations in groundwater were evaluated in As-affected areas of Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh. Groundwater samples from 61 randomly selected tubewells were analyzed for As concentrations over a period of three years and four months (from July 2002 to November 2005) and monitored seasonally (three times a year). The mean As concentrations in the sampled tubewells decreased from 153 to 123 mu g/L during July 2002 to November 2005. Such changes were pronounced in tubewells with As concentration >50 mu g/L than those with As concentrations <50 mu g/L. Similarly, individual wells revealed temporal variability, for example some wells indicated a decreasing trend, while some other wells indicated stable As concentration during the monitoring period. The mean As concentrations were significantly higher in Matlab North compared with Matlab South. The spatial variations in the mean As concentrations may be due to the differences in local geological conditions and groundwater flow patterns. The variations in mean As concentrations were also observed in shallow (<40 m) and deep (>40 m) wells. However, to adequately evaluate temporal and seasonal variability of As concentration, it is imperative to monitor As concentrations in tubewells over a longer period of time. Such long-term monitoring will provide important information for the assessment of human health risk and the sustainability of safe drinking water supplies.

  • 5.
    Hossain, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Rahman, M.
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    Ramböll Sweden AB.
    Uddin, M.R.
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Alam, M.J.
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Haque, M.A.
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Alam, M.S.
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, M.M.
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Sarwar, S.G.
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Kibria, M.G.
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hasan, R.
    NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rashid, Nazhat Shirin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Strategic approach for up-scaling safe water access considering hydrogeological suitability and social mapping in Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been a significant progress in understanding the source and mobilization process, sediment-water interactions, and distributions of arsenic in groundwater environment in Bangladesh. However, the impacts of arsenic mitigation are still very limited. A social survey conducted during 2009-2011 in 96 villages in Matlab revealed that only 18% of total tubewells provide As-safe water. The safe water access also varied between 0 and 90 percent in the region due to lack of knowledge about the local geology and unplanned tubewell development. SASMIT, an initiative of KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group has developed a method for safe tubewell installation considering hydrogeological suitability, safe water access and other relevant social and demographic information into account.

    Piezometers installed at 15 locations over an area of 410 km2, using local boring techniques allowed to delineate the hydrostratigraphy, characterize the aquifers in terms of sediment characteristics, water chemistry and hydraulic head distribution, which ultimately led to the identification of the suitable aquifers for tapping safe water. The piezometer locations with safe drinking water quality were then targeted for safe well installation based on the determination of safe buffer distances in a cluster of a few villages (mouzas). Social mapping of all the villages within the mauzas were done using GIS to evaluate the availability of safe water options for a cluster of households (bari). For safe well installations, priority was given to regions with safe water access, greater number of beneficiaries especially in poor households, and easy access to the site from a cluster of households. Through this approach, it was thus possible to make 95% of the newly installed wells As-safe thus scaled up the safe water access upto 40% in some mauzas. Thus the as a strategy to improve safe water access, the SASMIT study recommends investigating the hydrogeological suitability through installation of few piezometers with a minimum effort and based on the results the implementation plan can be made using GIS based social mappings for relatively uniform distribution and to maximize the safe water access.

  • 6.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation A Strategy for Scaling-up Safe Water Access: A Strategy for Scaling-up Safe Water Access2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In rural Bangladesh, the drinking water supply is mostly dependent upon manually operated hand pumped tubewells, installed by the local community. The presence of natural arsenic (As) in groundwater and its wide scale occurrence has drastically reduced the safe water access across the country and put tens of millions of people under health risk. Despite significant progress in understanding the source and distribution of As and its mobilization through sediment-water interactions, there has been limited success in mitigation since the problem was discovered in the country’s water supply in 1993. This study evaluated the viability of other kinds of alternative safe drinking water options and found tubewells are the most suitable due to simplicity and technical suitability, a wide acceptance by society and above all low cost for installation, operation and maintenance. During planning and decision making in the process of tubewell installation, depth of the tubewell is a key parameter as it is related to groundwater quality and cost of installation. The shallow wells (usually < 80m) are mostly at risk of As contamination. One mitigation option are deep wells drilled countrywide to depths of around 250 m. Compared to safe water demand, the number of deep wells is still very low, as the installation cost is beyond affordability of the local community, especially for the poor and disadvantaged section of the society. Using depth-specific piezometers (n=82) installed in 15 locations spread over the 410 km2 area of Matlab (an As-hot spot) in southeastern Bangladesh, groundwater monitoring was done over a 3 year period (pre- and post-monsoon for 2009-2011 period). Measurements were performed for hydrogeological characterization of shallow, intermediate deep and deep aquifer systems to determine the possibility of targeting safe aquifers at different depths as the source of a sustainable drinking water supply. In all monitoring piezometers, As was found consistently within a narrow band of oscillation probably due to seasonal effects. Hydrogeochemically, high-As shallow groundwaters derived from black sands are associated with elevated DOC, HCO3, Fe, NH4-N and PO4-P and with a relatively low concentration of Mn and SO4. Opposite to this, shallow aquifers composed of red and off-white sediments providing As-safe groundwater are associated with low DOC, HCO3, Fe, NH4-N and PO4-P and relatively higher Mn and SO4. Groundwaters sampled from intermediate deep and deep piezometers which were found to be low in As, are characterized by much lower DOC, HCO3, NH4-N and PO4-P compared to the shallow aquifers. Shallow groundwaters are mostly Ca-Mg-HCO3 type and intermediate deep and deep aquifers’ groundwaters are mostly Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-HCO3 to Na-Cl-HCO3 type.

    A sediment color tool was also developed on the basis of local driller’s color perception of sediments (Black, White, Off-white and Red), As concentration of tubewell waters and respective color of aquifer sediments. A total of 2240 sediment samples were collected at intervals of 1.5 m up to a depth of 100 m from all 15 nest locations. All samples were assigned with a Munsell color and code, which eventually led to identify 60 color varieties. The process continued in order to narrow the color choices to four as perceived and used by the local drillers for identification of the targeted As-safe aquifers. Munsell color codes assigned to these sediments render them distinctive from each other which reduces the risk for misinterpretation of the sediment colors. During the process of color grouping, a participatory approach was considered taking the opinions of local drillers, technicians, and geologists into account. In addition to the monitoring wells installed in the piezometer nests, results from 87 other existing drinking water supply tubewells were also considered for this study. A total of 39 wells installed in red sands at shallow depths producing As-safe water providing strong evidence that red sediments are associated with As-safe water. Average and median values were found to be less than the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L. Observations for off-white sediments were also quite similar. Targeting off-white sands could be limited due to uncertainty of proper identification of color, specifically when day-light is a factor. Elevated Mn in red and off-white sands is a concern in the safe water issue and emphasizes the necessity of a better understanding of the health impact of Mn. White sediments in shallow aquifers are relatively uncommon and seemed to be less important for well installations. Arsenic concentrations in more than 90% of the shallow wells installed in black sands are high with an average of 239 μg/L from 66 wells installed in black sediments. It is thereby recommended that black sands in shallow aquifers must be avoided. This sediment color tool shows the potential for enhancing the ability of local tubewell drillers for the installation of As-safe shallow drinking water tubewells.

    Considering the long-term goal of the drinking water safety plan to provide As-safe and low-Mn drinking water supply, this study also pioneered hydrogeological exploration of the intermediate deep aquifer (IDA) through drilling up to a depth of 120 m. Clusters of tubewells installed through site optimization around the monitoring piezometer showed a similar hydrochemical buffer and proved IDA as a potential source for As-safe and low-Mn groundwater. Bangladesh drinking water standard for As (50 µg/L) was exceeded in only 3 wells (1%) and 240 wells (99%) were found to be safe. More than 91% (n=222) of the wells were found to comply with the WHO guideline value of 10 µg/L. For Mn, 89% (n=217) of the wells show the concentration within or below the previous WHO guideline value of 0.4 mg/L, with a mean and median value of 0.18 and 0.07 mg/L respectively. The aquifer explored in the Matlab area shows a clear pattern of low As and low Mn. The availability of similar sand aquifers elsewhere at this depth range could be a new horizon for tapping safe drinking water at about half the cost of deep tubewell installation.

    All findings made this study a comprehensive approach and strategy for replication towards As mitigation and scaling-up safe water access in other areas of Bangladesh and elsewhere having a similar hydrogeological environment.

  • 7.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. NGO Forum Drinking Water Supply & Sanitat, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh. KTH, Royal Inst Technol, Dept Land & Water Resources Engn, KTH Int Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bhattacharya, P.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Univ Dhaka, Dept Geol, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh..
    Hasan, M. A.
    Univ Dhaka, Dept Geol, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh..
    Bromssen, M. von
    Ramboll Sweden AB, SE-10265 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Islam, M. M.
    NGO Forum Drinking Water Supply & Sanitat, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh. KTH, Royal Inst Technol, Dept Land & Water Resources Engn, KTH Int Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jacks, G.
    Rahman, M. M.
    Univ Dhaka, Dept Geol, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh..
    Rahman, M.
    NGO Forum Drinking Water Supply & Sanitat, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh. KTH, Royal Inst Technol, Dept Land & Water Resources Engn, KTH Int Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sandhi, A.
    Rashid, S. M. A.
    NGO Forum Drinking Water Supply & Sanitat, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh. KTH, Royal Inst Technol, Dept Land & Water Resources Engn, KTH Int Groundwater Arsen Res Grp, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation (SASMIT): An approach for developing a color based tool for targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for drinking water supply2012In: METALS AND RELATED SUBSTANCES IN DRINKING WATER / [ed] Bhattacharya, P Rosborg, I Sandhi, A Hayes, C Benoliel, MJ, IWA PUBLISHING , 2012, p. 272-276Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presence of high concentration of geogenic arsenic (As) in water and soil become a big health risk towards millions of people in various magnitudes through drinking water. To minimize arsenic interaction with human considered as a global challenge. The main objective of this research is to develop a simple, easy and cost-effective arsenic identification tool which would be easily acceptable by the inhabitants and local well drillers. The relationship of sediment color and corresponding As concentrations in water has already been demonstrated and is being further studied under SASMIT project. A total of 1920 sediment samples from 15 locations bored up to a depth of 250 m have been scientifically evaluated according to the color codes using Munsell Color Chart. A total of 60 varieties observed and simplified into four color groups viz. black, white, off-white and red. It is revealed that red and off-white sands can be targeted for As-safe water. White sands can also be safe but uncertainty is high and black sediments produce water with highest As concentration, although Mn content in waters sampled from white and black sediments is relatively low. Further refinement is going on for improving the tool for targeting aquifers which can be safe for both arsenic and manganese.

  • 8.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. NGO Forum Publ Hlth, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Frape, Shaun K.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Ramboll Sweden AB, Soil & Water Environm, SE-10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shahiruzzaman, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Intermediate Deep Aquifer (IDA) : A potential source for Arsenic-safe and low-Manganese drinking waterManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. NGO Forum Publ Hlth, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Frape, Shaun K.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Rahman, M. Moklesur
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Ramboll Sweden AB, Soil & Water Environm, SE-10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Sediment color tool for targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for the installation of shallow drinking water tubewells2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 493, p. 615-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In rural Bangladesh, drinking water supply mostly comes from shallow hand tubewells installed manually by the local drillers, the main driving force in tubewell installation. This study was aimed at developing a sediment color tool on the basis of local driller's perception of sediment color, arsenic (As) concentration of tubewell waters and respective color of aquifer sediments. Laboratory analysis of 521 groundwater samples collected from 144 wells during 2009 to 2011 indicate that As concentrations in groundwater were generally higher in the black colored sediments with an average of 239 mu g/L. All 39 wells producing water from red sediments provide safe water following the Bangladesh drinking water standard for As (50 mu g/L) where mean and median values were less than the WHO guideline value of 10 mu g/L. Observations for off-white sediments were also quite similar. White sediments were rare and seemed to be less important for well installations at shallow depths. A total of 2240 sediment samples were collected at intervals of 1.5 m down to depths of 100 m at 15 locations spread over a 410 km(2) area in Matlab, Bangladesh and compared with the Munsell Color Chart with the purpose of direct comparison of sediment color in a consistent manner. All samples were assigned with Munsell Color and Munsell Code, which eventually led to identify 60 color shade varieties which were narrowed to four colors (black, white, off-white and red) as perceived and used by the local drillers. During the process of color grouping, participatory approach was considered taking the opinions of local drillers, technicians, and geologists into account. This simplified sediment color tool can be used conveniently during shallow tubewell installation and thus shows the potential for educating local drillers to target safe aquifers on the basis of the color characteristics of the sediments.

  • 10.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. NGO Forum Publ Hlth, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
    Frape, Shaun K.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Rahman, M. Moklesur
    Alam, M. S.
    Hoque, M. A.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Ramboll Sweden AB, Soil & Water Environm, SE-10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hydrogeological variation in Shallow, Intermediate and Deep Aquifers in Matlab of Southeastern Bangladesh: implications for the installation of arsenic-safe drinking water tubewells and their sustainabilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Shamsun N., Rahman
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Saha, Ratnajit
    Rahman, Marina
    Sustainability of arsenic mitigation interventions—an evaluation of different alternative safe drinking water options provided in Matlab, an arsenic hot spot in Bangladesh2015In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 3, no 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wide spread occurrence of geogenic arsenic in Bangladesh groundwater drastically reduced the safe water access across the country. Since its discovery in 1993, different mitigation options tested at household and community scale have resulted in limited success. The main challenge is to develop a simple, cost-effective, and socially acceptable option which the users can install, operate and maintain by themselves. In an arsenic hotspot of southeastern Bangladesh, 841 arsenic removal filter (ARF), 190 surface water filter membrane, 23 pond sand filter (PSF), 147 rain water harvester (RWH) and 59 As-safe tubewell were distributed among the severely exposed population by AsMat, a Sida supported project. After 3–4 years of providing these safe water options, this study was carried out during 2009–2010 for performance analysis of these options, in terms of technical viability and effectiveness and thus to evaluate the preference of different options to the end users. Household and community based surveys were done to make an assessment of the current water use pattern as impact of the distributed options, overall condition of the options provided and to identify the reasons why these options are in use and/or abandoned. In total, 284 households were surveyed and information was collected for 23 PSF, 147 RWH, and 59 tubewells. None of the filters was found in use. Among other options distributed, 13% of PSF, 40% RWH, and 93% of tubewell were found functioning. In all cases, tubewells were found As-safe. About 89% of households are currently using tubewell water which was 58% before. Filter was abandoned for high cost and complicated maintenance. The use of RWH and PSF was not found user friendly and ensuring year round water quality is a big challenge. Arsenic-safe tubewell was found as a widely accepted option mainly because of its easy operation and availability of water, good water quality and negligible maintenance. This study validated tubewell as the most feasible drinking water supply option and this evaluation holds significance for planning water supply projects, improving mitigation policy as well as developing awareness among users.

  • 12. Kibria, M. G.
    et al.
    Kirk, M. F.
    Datta, S.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Hydrogeochemistry and microbial geochemistry on different depth aquifer sediments from Matlab, Bangladesh2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, 2014, p. 101-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) poses the greatest hazard towards drinking water quality in Bangladesh. Tubewell drinking water is one of the main sources for household based water options in rural Bangladesh. Our study area is in Matlab Upazila, in Bangladesh. The overall objective of this research and the SASMIT project is to develop a community based initiative for sustainable As mitigation by developing a sediment color based tool for the local drillers prioritizing on the hydrogeological and biogeochemical investigations. For this purpose we analyzed different depth colored sediments and water for find out the sustainable low Arsenic contaminated aquifer.

  • 13.
    Kibria, M.G.
    et al.
    Kansas State University, USA.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hossain, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Datta, Saugata
    Kansas State University.
    Arsenic mitigation by developing a tool based on gray and brown sediment solid phase characterization2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) poses the greatest hazard towards drinking water quality in Bangladesh. Tubewell drinking water is one of the main sources for household based water options in rural Bangladesh. Our study area is in Matlab Upazila, in Bangladesh. The local drillers in this area are the only ones who have been utilized by the community to identify safe aquifer depths. The overall objective of this and the SASMIT project is to develop a community based initiative for sustainable As mitigation by developing a sediment color based tool for the local drillers prioritizing on the hydrogeological and geochemical investigations as to (a) why red/brown to off-white sediments produces As-safe water but contains high Mn; (b) as to why light gray sediment produce low As and Mn free water; and (c) why dark gray sediments produce high As bearing water. Shallow tubewells excepting those installed within off-white sediments are mostly contaminated with high As. High Mn in many wells is also an additional problem in some shallow aquifer depths. In our field studies we find the wells installed within light grey medium sand the As concentration was found below 50μg/L and Mn is within WHO guideline value of 0.4 mg/L.

    This study focuses on the adsorption behavior of oxidized reddish-red-brown sediments from Matlab region, and their capacity to attenuate As. Sediment extractions indicate a relatively low amount of As in the oxidized sediments. Reductive dissolution of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides and release of its adsorbed As is considered to be the principal mechanism responsible for mobilization of As. Groundwater abstracted from oxidized reddish sediments, in contrast to reducing grayish sediments, contains significantly lower amount of dissolved As and can be a source of safe water. This study describes the lithofacies, mineralogy and results of adsorption experiments on the sediments within ~85m depth and establishes a relationship between aqueous and solid phase geochemistry along these intermediate depths of the aquifer.

    Core samples have been analyzed by petrographic microscopy, microtopography and distribution of elements within sediment grains by FESEM-EDX and clay and bulk mineralogy by XRD. Synchrotron aided μXANES and μXRD studies conducted for solid state As speciation (As3+ and As5+) in different depth core samples. The projected outcome is to incorporate detailed sediment characteristics of the different aquifers including all possible color variations available in the exploited intermediate depths within Matlab. This study would have a wider implication towards a broader scale regional remediation project that incorporates the enquiry of efficiency of sediment color as a simple and easy tool for identifying safe aquifers in major As risk prone areas. Knowing sediments more accurately would also enrich and strengthen the field based tools for identifying As-safe and As-Mn safe aquifers for tubewell installation.

  • 14.
    Rashid, Nazhat Shirin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Rahman, M. Z.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Floodplain morphology and relation to the spatial distribution of arsenic in the aquifers of Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh2012In: Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic, As 2012 - 4th International Congress: Arsenic in the Environment, Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, p. 50-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landforms comprising the older and younger flood plains (OFP & YFP) in Meghna basin surrounding Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh have been identified through the visual interpretation of Google Earth images. The interpretation reveals that the visually identified OFP and YFP are characterized by different geomorphic components. The fluvial geomorphology shows a close relation with the distribution of arsenic (As), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in groundwater from the aquifers. It was interpreted that the fluvial processes which results the landforms in the active floodplain influence the groundwater As occurrences. Less active processes in the stable and well developed OFP decreases the risk of elevated As in groundwater. The off-white and white sand aquifers of the OFP are contended with low levels of As (<50 μg/L) but high levels of Mn and Fe, whereas the off-white aquifers of YFP are contended with high levels of As (>50 μg/L) and Fe but low levels of Mn. Thus, the landforms can be taken into consideration before installing tubewells in a floodplain area.

  • 15. Robinson, Clare
    et al.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Häller, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bivén, Annelle
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Dynamics of arsenic adsorption in the targeted arsenic-safe aquifers in Mat lab, south-eastern Bangladesh: Insight from experimental studies2011In: Journal of Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 624-635Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ahmed, Bashir
    Ahmed, K. M.
    DEpartment of Geology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Arsenic levels in soil, water, and rice in Southeastern region of Bangladesh2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of high level of arsenic (As) in soil and water is one of the most significant environmental disasters in the world and most affected countries are located in South Asia specifically in the Bengal Delta region. In Bangladesh the source of arsenic in soil is geogenic and dependence on well water for irrigation leads to an increase in the level of arsenic in food stuffs also. This study presents the preliminary overview of As level in soil, water and rice in the Matlab located southeastern region of Bangladesh. During this study, an evaluation of the irrigation water sources, soils and food stuffs are analyzed in the laboratory and questionnaire system for dietary survey has been followed. The level of arsenic in irrigation well water ranged from (6 – 513 µg/L As, n = 10) and correlated with their depth. In contrary compared to irrigation water high level of arsenic (1.85 - 5.02 mg/kg As, n =36) present in agricultural soil. Cultivation on contaminated sediment and application of arsenic contained water, expand arsenic pathway towards food chain. The amount of arsenic in rice significantly depends on the husk of rice grain, those collected from local fields, found (0.01 to 0.15 mg/kg As, n =20) and 0.02 mg/kg of As in with husk and without husk grain respectively. The analysis of As in soil, water and rice was done with help of hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry and field As test kit. Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, inhabitants of Matlab area are exposed to 0.2 to 0.4 mg of As/day and 0.01 to 0.16 mg/kg As through drinking water and rice consumption respectively. It is important to note that the level of As intake through drinking water is higher than the exposure of As due to the consumption of food stuffs in Bangladesh. Llong term future research initiatives are needed for understanding the dynamics of As in the soil-water system and food chain of the community in As affected areas coupled with the execution of various mitigation strategies.

  • 17.
    von Brömssen, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Markussen, Lars
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hasan, Md Aziz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Rahman, M. Mokhlesur
    Hydrogeological investigation for assessment of the sustainability of low-arsenic aquifers as a safe drinking water source in regions with high-arsenic groundwater in Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh2014In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 518, no C, p. 373-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploitation of groundwater from shallow, high prolific Holocene sedimentary aquifers has been a main element for achieving safe drinking water and food security in Bangladesh. However, the presence of elevated levels of geogenic arsenic (As) in these aquifers has undermined this success. Except for targeting safe aquifers through installations of tubewells to greater depth, no mitigation option has been successfully implemented on a larger scale. The objective of this study has been to characterise the hydrostratigraphy, groundwater flow patterns, the hydraulic properties to assess the sustainability of the low-arsenic aquifers at Matlab, in south-eastern Bangladesh, one of the worst arsenic-affected areas of Bangladesh. Combining groundwater modelling with monitoring hydraulic heads in multi-level piezometer tests, 14C-dating of groundwater, conventional hydraulic testing and assessment of groundwater abstraction rate proved to be a useful strategy. A model comprising of three aquifers covering the top 250 m of the model domain showed to best fit the evaluation criteria for calibration. Matlab is a recharge area, even though it is adjacent to the great Meghna River. Irrigation wells are placed in clusters and account for most of the groundwater abstraction. Even though the hydraulic heads are affected locally by seasonal pumping, the aquifer system is fully recharged during and after the monsoon period. Groundwater simulations demonstrated the presence of deep regional and horizontal flow systems with recharge areas in the eastern, hilly part of Bangladesh and shallow small local flow systems driven by local topography. Based on modelling and 14C groundwater data, it can be concluded that the natural local flow systems reach a depth of 30 m b.g.l. in the study area. A downwardvertical gradient of roughly 0.01 down to 200 m b.g.l. was observed and reproduced bycalibrated models. The vertical gradient is mainly the result of the aquifer system and-properties rather than abstraction rate, which is too limited at depth to make an imprint. Although irrigation wells substantially change local flow pattern, targeting low-As aquifers seems to be a suitable mitigation option for providing people with safe drinkingwater. However, installing new irrigation- or high capacity production wells at the same depth is strongly discouraged as these substantially change the groundwater flow pattern. The results from the present study and other similar studies can further contribute to develop a rational management and mitigation policy for the future use of the groundwater resources for drinking water supplies.

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