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  • 1. Lauberts, Maris
    et al.
    Sevastyanova, Olena
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ponomarenko, Jevgenija
    Dizhbite, Tatjana
    Dobele, Galina
    Volperts, Alexandr
    Lauberte, Liga
    Telysheva, Galina
    Fractionation of technical lignin with ionic liquids as a method for improving purity and antioxidant activity2017In: INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS, ISSN 0926-6690, Vol. 95, 512-520 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alder soda lignin, a by-product of the chemical processing of black alder wood, was fractionated using ionic liquids (ILs) based on the 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium [Bmim] cation and the following anions: chloride ([Bmim]Cl), dimethylphosphate ([Bmim]Me2PO4), acetate ([Brhim]OAc) and tosylate ([Bmim]OTs). The aim was to obtain lignin fractions of improved purity for further application as antioxidants. The purity and properties of the IL lignin fractions were compared with those of other lignin fractions obtained using sequential extraction with organic solvents. The original lignin and the lignin fractions were characterized by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS/FID), size-permeation chromatography (GPC), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and wet chemistry methods. The lignin treatment with [Bmim]DMP, [Bmim]OAc and [Bmim]OTs produced fractions with a lignin content of 98-99%. These fractions along with the n-propanol and methanol fractions obtained using sequential organic solvent extraction were enriched with certain structural features that had a positive impact on lignin antioxidant activity, according to the results from DPPH center dot and ORAC assays.

  • 2. Trovatti, E.
    et al.
    Cunha, A. Gisela
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Carvalho, A. J. F.
    Gandini, A.
    Furan-modified natural rubber: A substrate for its reversible crosslinking and for clicking it onto nanocellulose2017In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 95, 762-768 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conventional vulcanization process applied to elastomers is irreversible and hinders therefore their useful recycling. We demonstrate here that natural rubber can be reversibly crosslinked via the Diels-Alder coupling of furan and maleimide moieties. The furan-modified natural rubber used in this strategy was also exploited to bind it to maleimide-modified nanocellulose, thus generating a covalently crosslinked composite of these two renewable polymers.

  • 3.
    Hajian, Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH.
    Lindström, Stefan B.
    Linköping University.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH.
    Hamedi, Mahiar M.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH.
    Understanding the Dispersive Action of Nanocellulose for Carbon Nanomaterials2017In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 17, no 3, 1439-1447 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims at understanding the excellent ability of nanocelluloses to disperse carbon nanomaterials (CNs) in aqueous media to form long-term stable colloidal dispersions without the need for chemical functionalization of the CNs or the use of surfactant. These dispersions are useful for composites with high CN content when seeking water-based, efficient, and green pathways for their preparation. To establish a comprehensive understanding of such dispersion mechanism, colloidal characterization of the dispersions has been combined with surface adhesion measurements using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) in aqueous media. AFM results based on model surfaces of graphene and nanocellulose further suggest that there is an association between the nanocellulose and the CN. This association is caused by fluctuations of the counterions on the surface of the nanocellulose inducing dipoles in the sp2carbon lattice surface of the CNs. Furthermore, the charges on the nanocellulose will induce an electrostatic stabilization of the nanocellulose–CN complexes that prevents aggregation. On the basis of this understanding, nanocelluloses with high surface charge density were used to disperse and stabilize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and reduced graphene oxide particles in water, so that further increases in the dispersion limit of CNTs could be obtained. The dispersion limit reached the value of 75 wt % CNTs and resulted in high electrical conductivity (515 S/cm) and high modulus (14 GPa) of the CNT composite nanopapers.

  • 4.
    Wang, Yan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Bergenstråhle-Wohlert, Malin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Tu, Yaoquan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wohlert, Jakob
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Swelling and dimensional stability of xyloglucan/montmorillonite nanocomposites in moist conditions from molecular dynamics simulations2017In: Computational Materials Science, ISSN 0927-0256, Vol. 128, 191-197 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nacre-mimetic biocomposites made from the combination of montmorillonite clay and the hemicellulose xyloglucan give materials that retain much of their material properties even at high relative humidity. Here, a model composite system consisting of two clay platelets intercalated by xyloglucan oligomers was studied at different levels of hydration using molecular dynamics simulations, and compared to the pure clay. It was found that xyloglucan inhibits swelling of the clay at low water contents by promoting the formation of nano-sized voids that fill with water without affecting the material's dimensions. At higher water contents the XG itself swells, but at the same time maintaining contact with both platelets across the gallery, thereby acting as a physical cross-linker in a manner similar to the role of XG in the plant cell wall.

  • 5.
    Li, Yuanyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Yu, Shun
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Veinot, J. G. C.
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Luminescent Transparent Wood2017In: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2195-1071, Vol. 5, no 1, 1600834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Luminescent transparent wood is prepared by combining the complementary properties of naturally grown anisotropic porous wood and luminescent quantum dots. The wood structure introduces strong diffused luminescence and waveguiding, which can potentially be exploited for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications, such as for planar illumination sources and luminescent buildings/furniture. Images below show the transparency, haze, and luminescence of quantum dot wood.

  • 6.
    Chen, Pan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Nishiyama, Yoshiharu
    Wohlert, Jakob
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lu, Ang
    Mazeau, Karim
    Ismail, Ahmed E.
    Translational Entropy and Dispersion Energy Jointly Drive the Adsorption of Urea to Cellulose2017In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 121, no 10, 2244-2251 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption of urea on cellulose at room temperature has been studied using adsorption isotherm experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The immersion of cotton cellulose into bulk urea solutions with concentrations between 0.01 and 0.30 g/mL led to a decrease in urea concentration in all solutions, allowing the adsorption of urea on the cellulose surface to be measured quantitatively. MD simulations suggest that urea molecules form sorption layers on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. Although electrostatic interactions accounted for the majority of the calculated interaction energy between urea and cellulose, dispersion interactions were revealed to be the key driving force for the accumulation of urea around cellulose. The preferred orientation of urea and water molecules in the first solvation shell varied depending on the nature of the cellulose surface, but urea molecules were systematically oriented parallel to the hydrophobic plane of cellulose. The translational entropies of urea and water molecules, calculated from the velocity spectrum of the trajectory, are lower near the cellulose surface than in bulk. As urea molecules adsorb on cellulose and expel surface water into the bulk, the increase in the translational entropy of the water compensated for the decrease in the entropy of urea, resulting in a total entropy gain of the solvent system. Therefore, the cellulose urea dispersion energy and the translational entropy gain of water are the main factors that drive the adsorption of urea on cellulose.

  • 7.
    Li, Yuanyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Yu, Shun
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Chen, Pan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Rojas, Ramiro
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hajian, Alireza
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cellulose nanofibers enable paraffin encapsulation and the formation of stable thermal regulation nanocomposites2017In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 34, 541-548 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-leaking, green materials with high content of phase change materials (PCM) can conserve solar energy and contribute to a sustainable society. Here, paraffin was encapsulated by nanocellulose (CNF) through a pickering emulsion method, while simultaneously forming a composite material. The thermodynamic drive for phase separation was confirmed by molecular modeling. Particle formation was characterized by dynamic light scattering and they were processed into stable PCM/CNF composites in the form of PCM paper structures with favorable mechanical properties. The PCM composite was lightweight and showed a solid content of paraffin of more than 72 wt%. Morphology was characterized using FE-SEM. The thermal regulation function of the PCM composite was demonstrated in the form of a model roof under simulated sunlight. No obvious leakage was observed during heating/cooling cycles, as supported by DSC and SAXS data. The PCM composite can be extended to panels used in energy-efficient smart buildings with thermal regulation integrated in load-bearing structures.

  • 8.
    Hatton, Fiona
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Engström, Joakim
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Forsling, Josefine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Biomimetic adsorption of zwitterionic-xyloglucan block copolymers to CNF: towards tailored super-absorbing cellulose materials2017In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 7, no 24, 14947-14958 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A biomimetic, facile approach to cellulose modification is the utilisation of self-adsorbing, naturally occurring biopolymers, such as the hemicellulose xyloglucan (XG). Herein, XG-block-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (XG-b-PSBMA) zwitterionic block copolymers have been prepared and assessed for their ability to adsorb to cellulose, specifically cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). The polymers were synthesised using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerisation, employing an XG macromolecular RAFT agent (XG-RAFT), polymerising a sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) under aqueous conditions. The incorporation of the XG block shifted the upper critical solution temperature (UCST) values to higher temperatures (20 and 30 °C) compared with the PSBMA homopolymers (17 and 22 °C) and the transition was also broadened. The adsorption of the polymers to a CNF surface was monitored using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), showing that the XG block enhanced the adsorption of the zwitterionic polymer. The formation of CNF-composite films was achieved utilising a facile vacuum filtration methodology, and the targeted compositions were confirmed by FT-IR and TGA analyses. The films exhibited high degrees of swelling in water, which were investigated at two different temperatures, 5 and 60 °C (below and above the polymer USCT values). These results highlight the advantage of using an XG block for the biomimetic modification of cellulose to form new cellulose-composite materials such as super-absorbing films.

  • 9.
    Larsbrink, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Tuveng, T. R.
    Pope, P. B.
    Bulone, V.
    Eijsink, V. G. H.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    McKee, Lauren S.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Proteomic insights into mannan degradation and protein secretion by the forest floor bacterium Chitinophaga pinensis2017In: Journal of Proteomics, ISSN 1874-3919, E-ISSN 1876-7737, Vol. 156, 63-74 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Together with fungi, saprophytic bacteria are central to the decomposition and recycling of biomass in forest environments. The Bacteroidetes phylum is abundant in diverse habitats, and several species have been shown to be able to deconstruct a wide variety of complex carbohydrates. The genus Chitinophaga is often enriched in hotspots of plant and microbial biomass degradation. We present a proteomic assessment of the ability of Chitinophaga pinensis to grow on and degrade mannan polysaccharides, using an agarose plate-based method of protein collection to minimise contamination with exopolysaccharides and proteins from lysed cells, and to reflect the realistic setting of growth on a solid surface. We show that select Polysaccharide Utilisation Loci (PULs) are expressed in different growth conditions, and identify enzymes that may be involved in mannan degradation. By comparing proteomic and enzymatic profiles, we show evidence for the induced expression of enzymes and PULs in cells grown on mannan polysaccharides compared with cells grown on glucose. In addition, we show that the secretion of putative biomass-degrading enzymes during growth on glucose comprises a system for nutrient scavenging, which employs constitutively produced enzymes. Significance of this study Chitinophaga pinensis belongs to a bacterial genus which is prominent in microbial communities in agricultural and forest environments, where plant and fungal biomass is intensively degraded. Such degradation is hugely significant in the recycling of carbon in the natural environment, and the enzymes responsible are of biotechnological relevance in emerging technologies involving the deconstruction of plant cell wall material. The bacterium has a comparatively large genome, which includes many uncharacterised carbohydrate-active enzymes. We present the first proteomic assessment of the biomass-degrading machinery of this species, focusing on mannan, an abundant plant cell wall hemicellulose. Our findings include the identification of several novel enzymes, which are promising targets for future biochemical characterisation. In addition, the data indicate the expression of specific Polysaccharide Utilisation Loci, induced in the presence of different growth substrates. We also highlight how a constitutive secretion of enzymes which deconstruct microbial biomass likely forms part of a nutrient scavenging process.

  • 10.
    Engström, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hatton, Fiona L.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    D'Agosto, F.
    Lansalot, M.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Soft and rigid core latex nanoparticles prepared by RAFT-mediated surfactant-free emulsion polymerization for cellulose modification-a comparative study2017In: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 8, no 6, 1061-1073 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Latex nanoparticles comprising cationically charged coronas and hydrophobic cores with different glass transition temperatures (Tg) have been prepared by surfactant-free, RAFT-mediated emulsion polymerization, where the particles form through a polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) type mechanism. Poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(DMAEMA-co-MAA)) was utilized as a hydrophilic macroRAFT agent for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) or n-butyl methacrylate (nBMA), respectively, resulting in two different latexes, with either a core of high (PMMA) or low (PnBMA) Tg polymer. By varying the molar mass of the hydrophobic block, latexes of different sizes were obtained (DHca. 40-120 nm). The adsorption of the latexes to cellulose model surfaces and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) was studied using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The surfaces with adsorbed PnBMA latexes yielded hydrophobic surfaces both before and after annealing, whereas surfaces with adsorbed PMMA latex became hydrophobic only after annealing, clearly showing the influence of the Tg of the core. The latexes were also used to modify macroscopic cellulose in the form of filter papers. Similar to the CNF surfaces, no annealing was required to achieve hydrophobic surfaces with PnBMA latexes. Finally, nanocomposites of CNF and the polymer nanoparticles were prepared through a one-pot mixing procedure. It was found that the largest synthesized PMMA latex (120 nm) facilitated a more strainable CNF network at 50% relative humidity, with a nearly 200% increase in strain at break compared to the neat CNF reference film as well as to the composite films with PnBMA latexes or to the smaller sized PMMA latexes. This difference was attributed to the spherical shape and rigidity of the large PMMA latex nanoparticles during composite formation. This highly interesting result should indeed be considered in the future design of novel biocomposites.

  • 11.
    Wetterling, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Tuve
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Modelling filtration processes from local filtration properties: The effect of surface properties on microcrystalline cellulose2017In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 165, 14-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of structure and charge of particles surfaces on the cake filtration behaviour of microcrystalline cellulose was investigated. The local filtration properties were evaluated experimentally and used to model the overall filtration behaviour. At suspension conditions where the microcrystalline cellulose particles are charged, a large pressure drop was observed close to the filter medium, thereby indicating that a rate-limiting skin layer was formed. Measurements of the local solidosity of the filter cake indicated that a secondary filter cake, with a negligible filtration resistance, formed above the rate-limiting skin layer. This behaviour was not observed when the surface roughness of the particles was increased or when the surface charge of the particles was neutralised by making a change to the pH of the suspension. The filtration behaviour of particles with these surface properties was instead dominated by the formation of a compressible filter cake. Local filtration properties of compressible filter cakes determined experimentally were used to successfully model the overall filtration behaviour. The filtration model used an empirical relationship to describe the pressure dependence of the local solidosity of the filter cake along with a cell model to describe the relationship between the solidosity and the permeability of the filter cake.

  • 12. Löbmann, Korbinian
    et al.
    Wohlert, Jakob
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Müllertz, Anette
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Svagan, Anna J.
    Cellulose Nanopaper and Nanofoam for Patient-Tailored Drug Delivery2017In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 4, no 9, 1600655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of drug delivery systems with tailored drug release can be very challenging especially in the case of problematic drugs. To address this problem, pharmaceutical scientists frequently use different formulation approaches and excipients, often involving a complex and multistep preparation. In this study, new cellulose nanofiber (CNF) based drug formulations are developed that allow controlled drug release in a facile and fast way, i.e., by simply casting drug/CNF dispersions. Altering the processing conditions and utilizing the unique inherent chemicophysical properties of cationic CNF at interfaces, it is possible to produce either drug-loaded CNF nanopapers (containing 21 or 51 wt% drug) or nanofoams (containing 21 wt% drug). The different formulations exhibit tailored release kinetics of the poorly watersoluble model drug indomethacin from immediate (nanopapers, 10-20 min) to slow release (nanofoams, approximate to 24 h). The fast release, from the nanopapers, is a result of the interplay of the molecular and supramolecular structure of indomethacin in addition to observed enhanced intrinsic dissolution of drug in the presence of CNF. The slower drug release is achieved by changing the hierarchical structure, i.e., creating a CNF based foam (porosity 99.2 wt%), and the prolonged release is mainly due to an extended drug diffusion path.

  • 13.
    Cheng, Ming
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Li, Yuanyuan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Liu, Peng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Fuguo
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Hajian, Alireza
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wang, Haoxin
    State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Institute of Artificial Photosynthesis, DUT–KTH Joint Education and Research Centre on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian, China.
    Li, Jiajia
    State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Institute of Artificial Photosynthesis, DUT–KTH Joint Education and Research Centre on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian, China.
    Wang, Linqin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Yang, Xichuan
    State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Institute of Artificial Photosynthesis, DUT–KTH Joint Education and Research Centre on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian, China.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Institute of Artificial Photosynthesis, DUT–KTH Joint Education and Research Centre on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian, China.
    A Perylenediimide Tetramer-Based 3D Electron Transport Material for Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cell2017In: Solar RRL, ISSN 2367-198X, Vol. 1, no 5, 1700046- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A perylenediimide (PDI) tetramer-based three dimensional (3D) molecular material, termed SFX-PDI4, has been designed, synthesized, and characterized. The low-lying HOMO and LUMO energy levels, high electron mobility and good film-formation property make it a promising electron transport material (ETM) in inverted planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The device exhibits a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.3% with negligible hysteresis, which can rival that of device based on PC61BM. These results demonstrate that three dimensional PDI-based molecular materials could serve as high performance ETMs in PSCs.

  • 14. Durruty, J.
    et al.
    Mattsson, T.
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Local filtration properties of Kraft lignin: The influence of residual xylan2017In: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 179, 455-466 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of lignin and xylan interactions on the filtration properties of precipitated LignoBoost lignin was investigated. LignoBoost lignin was (i) suspended in acid water with xylan added and (ii) dissolved together with xylan and then re-precipitated. The resulting lignin-xylan mixtures were more difficult to filter than the original LignoBoost lignin, although the formed filter cake was also found more porous in the case of re-precipitated solids. Furthermore, the pressure dependency of the filtration properties was shown to increase after the addition of xylan. One possible explanation based on the findings presented in this paper is that xylan is sorbed at the surface of the lignin agglomerates: it increases the contact area between solid and liquid, thus making the particle structure more porous. The influence of ionic strength was also investigated through the addition of sodium sulphate: it was found that increasing the ionic strength of the slurries made the solids easier to separate, possibly due to a decrease in electrostatic repulsive interactions between the solids and the formation of a denser solid structure.

  • 15. Gunnarsson, Maria
    et al.
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hasani, Merima
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Chemisorption of air CO2 on cellulose: an overlooked feature of the cellulose/NaOH(aq) dissolution system2017In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 24, no 6, 2427-2436 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A natural abundance of the air CO2 in NaOH(aq) at low temperature was investigated in terms of cellulose-CO2 interactions upon cellulose dissolution in this system. An organic superbase, namely 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene, DBU, known for its ability to incorporate CO2 in carbohydrates, was employed in order to shed light on this previously overlooked feature of NaOH(aq) at low temperature. The chemisorption of CO2 onto cellulose was investigated using spectroscopic methods in combination with suitable regeneration procedures. ATR-IR and NMR characterisation of regenerated celluloses showed that chemisorption of CO2 onto cellulose during its dissolution in NaOH(aq) takes place both with and without employment of the CO2-capturing superbase. The chemisorption was also observed to be reversible upon addition of water: CO2 desorbed when water was used as regenerating agent but could be preserved when instead ethanol was used. This finding could be an important parameter to take into consideration when developing processes for dissolution of cellulose based on this system.

  • 16. Moberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Sahlin, Karin
    Yao, Kun
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Geng, Shiyu
    Westman, Gunnar
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Rigdahl, Mikael
    Rheological properties of nanocellulose suspensions: effects of fibril/particle dimensions and surface characteristics2017In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 24, no 6, 2499-2510 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rheological properties of aqueous suspensions based on three different nanocelluloses were compared. One system was obtained via acid hydrolysis (thus yielding crystalline nanocellulose, CNC) and the other two from mechanical shearing, but from different origins and subjected to different pretreatments. Of the latter two, one was considered to be a rather typical cellulose nanofibril (CNF) suspension whereas the other was a kind of intermediate between CNF and CNC. All three nanocellulose elements differed in dimensions as evident from transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. With regard to the length of the fibrils/particles, the three nanocelluloses formed three distinct groups with lengths between 200 and slightly more than 800 nm. The three cellulosic elements were also subjected to a TEMPO-mediated oxidation yielding a similar carboxylate content in the three systems. Furthermore, the TEMPO-oxidized elements were grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The amount of grafted PEG was about 35 wt%. The shear viscosity, the storage modulus and the loss modulus of suspensions of the unmodified, the TEMPO-oxidized and the grafted nanocelluloses were determined at room temperature and the solids content of the suspensions was varied between 0.7 and 2.0 wt%. It was concluded that the rheological properties varied significantly between the suspensions depending on the dimensions of the cellulosic elements and their surface characteristics. In this context, the length (or the aspect ratio) of the particles played a very important role.

  • 17. Larsbrink, Johan
    et al.
    Tuveng, Tina R.
    Pope, Phillip B.
    Bulone, Vincent
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Eijsink, Vincent G.H.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    McKee, Lauren S.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Proteomic data on enzyme secretion and activity in the bacterium Chitinophaga pinensis2017In: Data in Brief, ISSN 1529-4188, E-ISSN 1683-1470, Vol. 11, 484-490 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The secretion of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes by a bacterium sourced from a softwood forest environment has been investigated by mass spectrometry. The findings are discussed in full in the research article “Proteomic insights into mannan degradation and protein secretion by the forest floor bacterium Chitinophaga pinensis” in Journal of Proteomics by Larsbrink et al. ([1], doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2017.01.003). The bacterium was grown on three carbon sources (glucose, glucomannan, and galactomannan) which are likely to be nutrient sources or carbohydrate degradation products found in its natural habitat. The bacterium was grown on solid agarose plates to mimic the natural behaviour of growth on a solid surface. Secreted proteins were collected from the agarose following trypsin-mediated hydrolysis to peptides. The different carbon sources led to the secretion of different numbers and types of proteins. Most carbohydrate-degrading enzymes were found in the glucomannan-induced cultures. Several of these enzymes may have biotechnological potential in plant cell wall deconstruction for biofuel or biomaterial production, and several may have novel activities. A subset of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) with predicted activities not obviously related to the growth substrates were also found in samples grown on each of the three carbohydrates. The full dataset is accessible at the PRIDE partner repository (ProteomeXchange Consortium) with the identifier PXD004305, and the full list of proteins detected is given in the supplementary material attached to this report.

  • 18.
    Kamada, Ayaka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Mittal, Nitesh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Söderberg, L. Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ingverud, Tobias
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ohm, Wiebke
    Roth, Stephan V.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lendel, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Flow-assisted assembly of nanostructured protein microfibers2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 6, 1232-1237 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the most remarkable materials in nature are made from proteins. The properties of these materials are closely connected to the hierarchical assembly of the protein building blocks. In this perspective, amyloid-like protein nanofibrils (PNFs) have emerged as a promising foundation for the synthesis of novel bio-based materials for a variety of applications. Whereas recent advances have revealed the molecular structure of PNFs, the mechanisms associated with fibril-fibril interactions and their assembly into macroscale structures remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that whey PNFs can be assembled into microfibers using a flow-focusing approach and without the addition of plasticizers or cross-linkers. Microfocus small-angle X-ray scattering allows us to monitor the fibril orientation in the microchannel and compare the assembly processes of PNFs of distinct morphologies. We find that the strongest fiber is obtained with a sufficient balance between ordered nanostructure and fibril entanglement. The results provide insights in the behavior of protein nanostructures under laminar flow conditions and their assembly mechanism into hierarchical macroscopic structures.

  • 19.
    Benselfelt, Tobias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Influence of Surface Charge Density and Morphology on the Formation of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers on Smooth Charged Cellulose Surfaces2017In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 33, no 4, 968-979 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To clarify the importance of the surface charge for the formation of polyelectrolyte multilayers, layer-by-layer (LbL) assemblies of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (pDADMAC) and polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) have been investigated on cellulose films with different carboxylic acid contents (20, 350, 870, and 1200 μmol/g) regenerated from oxidized cellulose. The wet cellulose films were thoroughly characterized prior to multilayer deposition using quantitative nanomechanical mapping (QNM), which showed that the mechanical properties were greatly affected by the degree of oxidation of the cellulose. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements were used to determine the surface potential of the cellulose films by fitting the force data to the DLVO theory. With the exception of the 1200 μmol/g film, the force measurements showed a second-order polynomial increase in surface potential with increasing degree of oxidation. The low surface potential for the 1200 μmol/g film was attributed to the low degree of regeneration of the cellulose film in aqueous media due to increasing solubility with increasing charge. The multilayer formation was characterized using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and stagnation-point adsorption reflectometry (SPAR). Extensive deswelling was observed for the charged films when pDADMAC was adsorbed due to the reduced osmotic pressure when ions inside the film were released, and the 1:1 charge compensation showed that all the charges in the films were reached by the pDADMAC. The multilayer formation was not significantly affected by the charge density above 350 μmol/g due to interlayer repulsions, but it was strongly affected by the salt concentration during the layer build-up.

  • 20. Lewis, William J. T.
    et al.
    Mattsson, Tuve
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Chew, Y. M. John
    Bird, Michael R.
    Investigation of cake fouling and pore blocking phenomena using fluid dynamic gauging and critical flux models2017In: Journal of Membrane Science, ISSN 0376-7388, E-ISSN 1873-3123, Vol. 533, 38-47 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cake growth during a low pressure cross-flow microfiltration (MF) of a Kraft lignin suspension was studied using fluid dynamic gauging (FDG). This is the first paper to discuss the identification of fouling mechanisms and their transition points based on simultaneous, in situ and in real-time FDG measurements of cake layer thickness and flux. The FDG results were used to quantify the significance of membrane pore-level fouling phenomena which occur at an early stage of the filtration. A flux decline of approximately 75% was attributed to membrane pore fouling i.e. deposition on the surface of the membrane which caused direct blocking of the membrane pores. We present here a novel toolset for quick and achievable diagnosis of membrane fouling mechanisms, which can accelerate innovations in membrane technology and process optimisation. Furthermore, this innovative approach showed good agreement with a mathematical approach, based on a critical flux model, which was applied to raw flux data. In addition to cake thickness measurements, destructive strength testing of the fouling layer showed an increase in cohesive strength over time. The results showed that filter cakes formed by Kraft lignin become harder to remove by shear stress as they become thicker during the course of the filtration. A removal mechanism for lignin layer under stress is also proposed. The methodology described here can be applied to rapidly predict and assess routes to performance improvements in cross-flow MF.

  • 21. Bannow, J.
    et al.
    Benjamins, J. -W
    Wohlert, Jakob
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Löbmann, K.
    Svagan, Anna J.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Solid nanofoams based on cellulose nanofibers and indomethacin—the effect of processing parameters and drug content on material structure2017In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 526, no 1-2, 291-299 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unique colloidal properties of cellulose nanofibers (CNF), makes CNF a very interesting new excipient in pharmaceutical formulations, as CNF in combination with some poorly-soluble drugs can create nanofoams with closed cells. Previous nanofoams, created with the model drug indomethacin, demonstrated a prolonged release compared to films, owing to the tortuous diffusion path that the drug needs to take around the intact air-bubbles. However, the nanofoam was only obtained at a relatively low drug content of 21 wt% using fixed processing parameters. Herein, the effect of indomethacin content and processing parameters on the foaming properties was analysed. Results demonstrate that a certain amount of dissolved drug is needed to stabilize air-bubbles. At the same time, larger fractions of dissolved drug promote coarsening/collapse of the wet foam. The pendant drop/bubble profile tensiometry was used to verify the wet-foam stability at different pHs. The pH influenced the amount of solubilized drug and the processing-window was very narrow at high drug loadings. The results were compared to real foaming-experiments and solid state analysis of the final cellular solids. The parameters were assembled into a processing chart, highlighting the importance of the right combination of processing parameters (pH and time-point of pH adjustment) in order to successfully prepare cellular solid materials with up to 46 wt% drug loading.

  • 22. Wojtasz-Mucha, J.
    et al.
    Hasani, Merima
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hydrothermal pretreatment of wood by mild steam explosion and hot water extraction2017In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 241, 120-126 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to compare the two most common hydrothermal pre-treatments for wood – mild steam explosion and hot water extraction – both with the prospect of enabling extraction of hemicelluloses and facilitating further processing. Although both involve autohydrolysis of the lignocellulosic tissue, they are performed under different conditions: the most prominent difference is the rapid, disintegrating, discharge employed in the steam explosion opening up the structure. In this comparative study, the emphasis was placed on local composition of the pre-treated wood chips (of industrially relevant size). The results show that short hot water extraction treatments lead to significant variations in the local composition within the wood chips, while steam explosion accomplishes a comparably more even removal of hemicelluloses due to the advective mass transport during the explosion step.

  • 23.
    Lindh, Erik L.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Terenzi, Camilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Salmén, Lennart
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Water in cellulose: evidence and identification of immobile and mobile adsorbed phases by H-2 MAS NMR2017In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 19, no 6, 4360-4369 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of water molecules adsorbed onto cellulose and the supramolecular hydrated structure of microfibril aggregates represents, still today, one of the open and complex questions in the physical chemistry of natural polymers. Here, we investigate by H-2 MAS NMR the mobility of water molecules in carefully H-2-exchanged, and thereafter re-dried, microcrystalline cellulose. By subtracting the spectral contribution of deuteroxyls from the spectrum of hydrated cellulose, we demonstrate the existence of two distinct (H2O)-H-2 spectral populations associated with mobile and immobile water environments, between which the water molecules do not exchange at the NMR observation time scale. We conclude that those two water phases are located at differently-accessible adsorption sites, here assigned to the cellulose surfaces between and within the microfibril aggregates, respectively. The superior performance of H-2 MAS NMR encourages further applications of the same method to other complex systems that expose heterogeneous hygroscopic surfaces, like wood cell walls.

  • 24.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. University of Washington, United States.
    Zhang, J.
    Hua, Yong
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Liu, Peng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Wang, Linqin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Ruan, C.
    Li, Yuanyuan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Boschloo, G.
    Johansson, E. M. J.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Hagfeldt, A.
    Jen, A. K. -Y
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Tailor-Making Low-Cost Spiro[fluorene-9,9′-xanthene]-Based 3D Oligomers for Perovskite Solar Cells2017In: Chem, ISSN 2451-9308, Vol. 2, no 5, 676-687 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have increased rapidly from about 4% to 22% during the past few years. One of the major challenges for further improvement of the efficiency of PSCs is the lack of sufficiently good hole transport materials (HTMs) to efficiently scavenge the photogenerated holes and aid the transport of the holes to the counter-electrode in the PSCs. In this study, we tailor-made two low-cost spiro[fluorene-9,9′-xanthene] (SFX)-based 3D oligomers, termed X54 and X55, by using a one-pot synthesis approach for PSCs. One of the HTMs, X55, gives a much deeper HOMO level and a higher hole mobility and conductivity than the state-of-the-art HTM, Spiro-OMeTAD. PSC devices based on X55 as the HTM show a very impressive PCE of 20.8% under 100 mW·cm−2 AM1.5G solar illumination, which is much higher than the PCE of the reference devices based on Spiro-OMeTAD (18.8%) and X54 (13.6%) under the same conditions.

  • 25. Galysh, V.
    et al.
    Sevastyanova, Olena
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Deartel, M.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Gornikov, Yu.
    Impact of ferrocyanide salts on the thermo-oxidative degradation of lignocellulosic sorbents2017In: Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry (Print), ISSN 1388-6150, E-ISSN 1588-2926, Vol. 128, no 2, 1019-1025 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The catalytic effect of ferrocyanide salts of d-metals on the thermo-oxidative degradation of lignocellulose-inorganic sorbents derived from apricot seed shells was investigated by differential thermal analysis. A comparative analysis of the thermal characteristics of the apricot seed shells and the lignocellulose matrix obtained from the shells by alkali-acid pretreatment was performed. It was shown that acid-alkali pretreatment of the apricot seed shells increases the thermal stability of the lignocellulosic material, due to the removal of low molecular weight carbohydrates and other components. The thermal degradation process of the lignocellulose-inorganic samples containing different ferrocyanides occurred at lower temperatures than the initial lignocellulose matrix, indicating the catalytic activity of modifiers. It was demonstrated that for the sorbents containing mixed salts of potassium cobalt and potassium nickel ferrocyanide, thermal destruction ends at temperatures that are 60 A degrees C lower than those for the initial lignocellulose matrix. The obtained results also show that the thermal destruction of composite lignocellulose-inorganic sorbents can be a suitable method for their disposal.

  • 26.
    Liu, Yingxin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Gordeyeva, Korneliya
    Bergstrom, Lennart
    Steady-shear and viscoelastic properties of cellulose nanofibril-nanoclay dispersions2017In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 24, no 4, 1815-1824 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the steady-shear and viscoelastic properties of composite dispersions of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) with medium or high charge density and two different nanoclays, viz. rodlike sepiolite or plate-like bentonite. Aqueous dispersions of CNFs with medium charge density displayed significantly lower steady-state viscosity and storage modulus but higher gelation threshold compared with CNFs with high charge density. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) results showed that the apparent hydrodynamic radius of bentonite particles increased when CNFs were added, implying that CNFs adsorbed onto the amphoteric edges of the plate-like bentonite particles. The sepiolite network in CNF-sepiolite dispersions was relatively unaffected by addition of small amounts of CNFs, and DLS showed that the hydrodynamic radius of sepiolite did not change when CNFs were added. Addition of CNFs at concentrations above the gelation threshold resulted in drastic decrease of the steady-shear viscosity of the sepiolite dispersion, suggesting that the sepiolite network disintegrates and the rod-like clay particles are aligned also at low shear rate. The relative change in the rheological properties of the clay-based dispersions was always greater on addition of CNFs with high compared with medium charge density. This study provides insight into how the rheology of CNF-nanoclay dispersions depends on both the nanoclay morphology and the interactions between the nanoclay and nanocellulose particles, being of relevance to processing of nanocellulose-clay composites.

  • 27.
    Rosén, Tomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Chaotic rotation of a spheroidal particle in simple shear flow2017In: Chaos, ISSN 1054-1500, E-ISSN 1089-7682, Vol. 27, no 6, 063112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The angular motion of a neutrally buoyant prolate spheroidal particle in simple shear flow has previously been found to follow two-dimensional dynamics similar to a Duffing-van der Pol oscillator as a consequence of inertia of the surrounding fluid. This behavior was however only present if the aspect ratio is large enough. When decreasing the particle aspect ratio, the particle could be found to perform period-doubled or chaotic orbits as effects of particle inertia also influence the dynamics. In this work, it is demonstrated that the onset of complex dynamics is through a Shilnikov bifurcation as the log-rolling state (particle is rotating around its symmetry axis, which is parallel to the vorticity direction) is transformed from a regular saddle node into a saddle focus when particle inertia is increased. Furthermore, it is shown that the same also applies for the two dimensional Duffing-van der Pol oscillator when including inertial terms. These results open up the possibility of developing a reduced model to mimic the influence of both fluid and particle inertia on the angular dynamics of spheroidal particles in simple shear flow, which can be used in fluid simulations with Lagrangian particles.

  • 28.
    Mittal, Nitesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Jansson, Ronnie
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Widhe, Mona
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Benselfelt, Tobias
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Karl M. O.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ultrastrong and Bioactive Nanostructured Bio-Based Composites2017In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 11, no 5, 5148-5159 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature’s design of functional materials relies on smart combinations of simple components to achieve desired properties. Silk and cellulose are two clever examples from nature–spider silk being tough due to high extensibility, whereas cellulose possesses unparalleled strength and stiffness among natural materials. Unfortunately, silk proteins cannot be obtained in large quantities from spiders, and recombinant production processes are so far rather expensive. We have therefore combined small amounts of functionalized recombinant spider silk proteins with the most abundant structural component on Earth (cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs)) to fabricate isotropic as well as anisotropic hierarchical structures. Our approach for the fabrication of bio-based anisotropic fibers results in previously unreached but highly desirable mechanical performance with a stiffness of ∼55 GPa, strength at break of ∼1015 MPa, and toughness of ∼55 MJ m–3. We also show that addition of small amounts of silk fusion proteins to CNF results in materials with advanced biofunctionalities, which cannot be anticipated for the wood-based CNF alone. These findings suggest that bio-based materials provide abundant opportunities to design composites with high strength and functionalities and bring down our dependence on fossil-based resources.

  • 29.
    Giummarella, Nicola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Structural Insights on Recalcitrance during Hydrothermal Hemicellulose Extraction from Wood2017In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 5, no 6, 5156-5165 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal extraction of hemicelluloses from lignocellulosic biomass for conversion to renewable materials or fuels has captured attention. The extraction is however partial and some lignin is codissolved. Herein, we investigated the role of molecular structure in the recalcitrance. Wood meal of Spruce and Birch were subjected to pressurized hydrothermal extraction at 160 °C for 2 h, which extracted 68–75% of the hemicelluloses. 2D heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) NMR, HSQC-TOCSY, and 13C NMR were applied for structural studies of both extracts and residues. Subsequent to the known partial hydrolysis of native carbon-2 and carbon-3 acetates in hemicellulose, some acetylation of primary alcohols on hemicelluloses and lignin was observed. Lignin carbohydrate complexes (LCC) were detected in both the extracts and residues. In Spruce extracts, only the phenyl glycoside-type of LCC was detected. Birch extracts contained both the phenyl glycoside and benzyl ether-types. In the hydrothermal wood residues of both species, benzyl ether- and gamma (γ)-ester-LCC were present. Structural changes in lignin included decrease in aryl ether (βO4) content and increases in resinol- (ββ) and phenyl coumaran (β5) contents. On the basis of the overall analysis, the mechanisms and contribution of molecular structure to recalcitrance is discussed.

  • 30. Li, M.
    et al.
    Chen, Pan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Xu, M.
    Xu, X.
    A novel self-assembly Lentinan-tetraphenylethylene​ composite with strong blue​ fluorescence in water and its properties2017In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 174, 13-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a unique self-assembly of lentinan, a triple helical β-(1→3)-glucan (t-LNT), in water. By molecular dynamics simulation, it was found that t-LNT aggregated preferentially along the chain direction to form long chains, accompanied by side-direction linkage to form branches. Transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated that t-LNT formed dendrite-like fibers, which further formed fishnet-like porous/mesoporous aggregates with increasing concentration. The meshes in the fishnet were ascribed to the intersection of branches. The major driving force for aggregation was expected to be hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups in t-LNT chains. Based on this self-assembly behavior, a novel composite was prepared from t-LNT and tetraphenylethylene (TPE) by entrapping TPE aggregates into the meshes of t-LNT fishnets. The as-prepared t-LNT/TPE composite largely enhanced the blue fluorescence of TPE in water, exhibiting stable optical property and good biocompatibility, and t-LNT is expected to show great potential as a carrier of hydrophobic molecules for biomedical application.

  • 31. Tummala, Gopi Krishna
    et al.
    Joffre, Thomas
    Rojas, Ramiro
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Mihranyan, Albert
    Strain-induced stiffening of nanocellulose-reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels mimicking collagenous soft tissues2017In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 13, no 21, 3936-3945 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft tissues possess remarkable mechanical strength for their high water content, which is hard to mimic in synthetic materials. Here, we demonstrate how strain-induced stiffening in hydrogels plays a major role in mimicking the mechanical properties of collagenous soft tissues. In particular, nanocellulose reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels of exceptionally high water content (90-93 wt%) are shown to exhibit collagen-like mechanical behavior typical for soft tissues. High water content and co-existence of both soft and rigid domains in the gel network are the main factors responsible for strain-induced stiffening. This observed effect due to the alignment of rigid components of the hydrogel is simulated through modeling and visualized through strain-induced birefringence experiments. Design parameters such as nanocellulose aspect ratio and solvent composition are also shown to be important to control the mechanical properties. In addition, owing to their transparency (90-95% at 550 nm) and hyperelastic properties (250-350% strain), the described hydrogels are promising materials for biomedical applications, especially in ophthalmology.

  • 32. Mao, Rui
    et al.
    Goutianos, Stergios
    Tu, Wei
    Meng, Nan
    Yang, Guang
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Peijs, Ton
    Comparison of fracture properties of cellulose nanopaper, printing paper and buckypaper2017In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 52, no 16, 9508-9519 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanopaper consists of a dense fibrous self-binding network composed of cellulose nanofibres connected by physical entanglements, hydrogen bonding, etc. Compared with conventional printing paper, cellulose nanopaper has higher strength and modulus because of stronger fibres and inter-fibre bonding. The aim of this paper is to investigate the fracture properties of cellulose nanopaper using double edge notch tensile tests on samples with different notch lengths. It was found that strength is insensitive to notch length. A cohesive zone model was used to describe the fracture behaviour of notched cellulose nanopaper. Fracture energy was extracted from the cohesive zone model and divided into an energy component consumed by damage in the material and a component related to pull-out or bridging of nanofibres between crack surfaces which was not facilitated due to the limited fibre lengths for the case of nanopapers. For comparison, printing paper which has longer fibres than nanopaper was tested and modelled to demonstrate the importance of fibre length. Buckypaper, a fibrous network made of carbon nanotubes connected through van der Waals forces and physical entanglements, was also investigated to elaborate on the influence of inter-fibre connections.

  • 33.
    Yao, Kun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Huang, Shu
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Tang, Hu
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Xu, Y.
    Buntkowsky, G.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Bioinspired Interface Engineering for Moisture Resistance in Nacre-Mimetic Cellulose Nanofibrils/Clay Nanocomposites2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 23, 20169-20178 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interfacial adhesion design between "mortar" and "bricks" is essential for mechanical and barrier performance of nanocellulose-based nacre-mimetic nanocomposites, especially at high moisture conditions. To address this fundamental challenge, dopamine (DA) has been conjugated to cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and subsequently assembled with montmorillonite (MTM) to generate layered nanocomposite films inspired by the strong adhesion of mussel adhesive proteins to inorganic surfaces under water. The selective formation of catechol/metal ion chelation and hydrogen bonding at the interface between MTM platelets and CNFs bearing DA renders transparent films with strong mechanical properties, particularly at high humidity and in wet state. Increasing the amount of conjugated DA on CNFs results in nanocomposites with increased tensile strength and modulus, up to 57.4 MPa and 1.1 GPa, respectively, after the films are swollen in water. The nanocomposites also show excellent gas barrier properties at high relative humidity (95%), complementing the multifunctional property profile.

  • 34. Mishra, G.
    et al.
    Mittal, Nitesh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Sharma, A.
    Multifunctional Mesoporous Carbon Capsules and their Robust Coatings for Encapsulation of Actives: Antimicrobial and Anti-bioadhesion Functions2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 23, 19371-19379 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the synthesis and applications of multifunctional hollow porous carbon spheres with well-ordered pore architecture and ability to encapsulate functional nanoparticles. In the present work, the applications of hollow mesoporous carbon capsules (HMCCs) are illustrated in two different contexts. In the first approach, the hollow capsule core is used to encapsulate silver nanoparticles to impart antimicrobial characteristics. It is shown that silver-loaded HMCCs (concentration ?100 μg/mL) inhibit the growth and multiplication of bacterial colonies of Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) up to 96% and 83%, respectively. In the second part, the fabrication of hierarchical micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic coatings of HMCCs (without encapsulation with silver nanoparticles) is evaluated for anti-bioadhesion properties. Studies of protein adsorption and microorganism and platelet adhesion have shown a significant reduction (up to 100%) for the HMCC-based superhydrophobic surfaces compared with the control surfaces. Therefore, this unique architecture of HMCCs and their coatings with the ability to encapsulate functional materials make them a promising candidate for a variety of applications.

  • 35.
    Dahlin, Paul
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Müller, Marion C.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Ekengren, Sophia
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    McKee, Lauren S.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Bulone, Vincent
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    The Impact of Steroidal Glycoalkaloids on the Physiology of Phytophthora infestans, the Causative Agent of Potato Late Blight2017In: Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, ISSN 0894-0282, E-ISSN 1943-7706, Vol. 30, no 7, 531-542 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are plant secondary metabolites known to be toxic to animals and humans and that have putative roles in defense against pests. The proposed mechanisms of SGA toxicity are sterol-mediated disruption of membranes and inhibition of cholinesterase activity in neurons. It has been suggested that phytopathogenic microorganisms can overcome SGA toxicity by enzymatic deglycosylation of SGAs. Here, we have explored SGA-mediated toxicity toward the invasive oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causative agent of the late blight disease in potato and tomato, as well as the potential for SGA deglycosylation by this species. Our growth studies indicate that solanidine, the nonglycosylated precursor of the potato SGAs a-chaconine and a-solanine, has a greater physiological impact than its glycosylated forms. All of these compounds were incorporated into the mycelium, but only solanidine could strongly inhibit the growth of P. infestans in liquid culture. Genes encoding several glycoside hydrolases with potential activity on SGAs were identified in the genome of P. infestans and were shown to be expressed. However, we found no indication that deglycosylation of SGAs takes place. We present additional evidence for apparent host-specific adaptation to potato SGAs and assess all results in terms of future pathogen management strategies.

  • 36.
    Vasileva, Elena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Li, Yuanyuan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Mensi, Mounir
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Lasing from Organic Dye Molecules Embedded in Transparent Wood2017In: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2162-7568, E-ISSN 2195-1071, Vol. 5, no 10, 1700057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The report on a study of laser emission from a conceptually new organic material based on transparent wood (TW) with embedded dye Rhodamine 6G molecules is presented in this paper. The lasing performance is compared to a reference organic material containing dye in a poly-methyl-methacrylate matrix. From experimental results, one can conclude that the optical feedback in dye-TW material is realized within cellulose fibers, which play the role of tiny optical resonators. Therefore, the output emission is a collective contribution of individual resonators. Due to this fact, as well as low Q-factor of the resonators/fibers and their length variation, the spectral line of laser emission is broadened up to several nanometers.

  • 37. Deb, Somdatta
    et al.
    Labafzadeh, Sara R.
    Liimatainen, Unna
    Parviainen, Arno
    Hauru, Lauri K. J.
    Azhar, Shoaib
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lawoko, Martin
    Kulomaa, Tuomas
    Kakko, Tia
    Fiskari, Juha
    Borrega, Marc
    Sixta, Herbert
    Kilpelainen, Ilkka
    King, Alistair W. T.
    Application of mild autohydrolysis to facilitate the dissolution of wood chips in direct-dissolution solvents2016In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 18, no 11, 3286-3294 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is not fully soluble in current non-derivatising direct-dissolution solvents, contrary to the many reports in the literature quoting wood 'dissolution' in ionic liquids. Herein, we demonstrate that the application of autohydrolysis, as a green and economical wood pre-treatment method, allows for a massive increase in solubility compared to untreated wood. This is demonstrated by the application of two derivitising methods (phosphitylation and acetylation), followed by NMR analysis, in the cellulose-dissolving ionic liquids 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([amim]Cl) and 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium acetate ([DBNH][OAc]. In addition, the non-derivitising tetrabutylphosphonium acetate ([P-4444][OAc]) : DMSO-d6 electrolyte also allowed for dissolution of the autohydrolysed wood samples. By combination of different particle sizes and P-factors (autohydrolysis intensity), it has been clearly demonstrated that the solubility of even wood chips can be drastically increased by application of autohydrolysis. The physiochemical factors affecting wood solubility after autohydrolysis are also discussed.

  • 38.
    Carosio, Federico
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cuttica, Fabio
    Medina, Lilian
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Clay nanopaper as multifunctional brick and mortar fire protection coating: Wood case study2016In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 93, 357-363 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Wood is one of the most sustainable, esthetically pleasing and environmentally benign engineering materials, and is often used in structures found in buildings. Unfortunately, the fire hazards related to wood are limiting its application. The use of transparent cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/clay nanocomposites, with unique brick-and-mortar structure, is proposed as a sustainable and efficient fire protection coating for wood. Fire performance was assessed by cone calorimetry. When exposed to the typical 35 kW/m2 heat flux of developing fires, the time to ignition of coated wood samples increased up to about 4 1/2 min, while the maximum average rate of heat emission (MARHE) was decreased by 46% thus significantly reducing the potential fire threat from wood structures.

  • 39. Rabinovich, Mikhail L.
    et al.
    Fedoryak, Olesya
    Dobele, Galina
    Andersone, Anna
    Gawdzik, Barbara
    Lindstrom, Mikael E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Sevastyanova, Olena
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Carbon adsorbents from industrial hydrolysis lignin: The USSR/Eastern European experience and its importance for modern biorefineries2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 57, 1008-1024 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the origin, distribution and composition of hydrolysis lignin, a large-scale by-product of the hydrolysis industry that operated in the Soviet Union and several eastern European countries from 1930s to the end of 1990s. The fundamental and industrial aspects of the production of various types of powdered and granular carbon adsorbents from hydrolysis lignin are considered through the prism of future large-scale production of biofuels and platform chemicals from renewable lignocellulosic resources. The advantages and drawbacks of hydrolysis lignin as a feedstock for the production of carbon adsorbents are compared with other types of feedstock, and the application of lignin-based carbons is discussed. 

  • 40. Chen, Song
    et al.
    Grandfield, Kathryn
    Yu, Shun
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Xia, Wei
    Synthesis of calcium phosphate crystals with thin nacreous structure2016In: CrystEngComm, ISSN 1466-8033, E-ISSN 1466-8033, Vol. 18, no 6, 1064-1069 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nacre-like structures have attracted great interest in recent years due to their outstanding toughness, stiffness and impact resistance. However, there is a challenge associated with engineering nacre-like calcium phosphate crystals. In this study, thin nacreous-like monetite sheets were synthesized in solutions guided by a surfactant. The influence of temperature, initial pH, Ca/P ratio, stirring time and the concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the nacre-like structure has been studied. Findings showed that a nacre-like structure could only be formed at a high temperature (90 °C), high initial pH (11), sufficient stirring time (3 h), and under the presence of CTAB. A small-angle X-ray scattering experiment carried out at a synchrotron radiation facility showed that the distance between nanolayers was around 2.6 nm and TEM confirmed the fine sheet-like structure. The mechanism of the formation the nacre-like structure and its characterization were discussed.

  • 41.
    McKee, Lauren S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Sunner, Hampus
    Anasontzis, George E.
    Toriz, Guillermo
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Bulone, Vincent
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Univ Adelaide, Australia.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Olsson, Lisbeth
    A GH115 alpha-glucuronidase from Schizophyllum commune contributes to the synergistic enzymatic deconstruction of softwood glucuronoarabinoxylan2016In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 9, 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lignocellulosic biomass from softwood represents a valuable resource for the production of biofuels and bio-based materials as alternatives to traditional pulp and paper products. Hemicelluloses constitute an extremely heterogeneous fraction of the plant cell wall, as their molecular structures involve multiple monosaccharide components, glycosidic linkages, and decoration patterns. The complete enzymatic hydrolysis of wood hemicelluloses into monosaccharides is therefore a complex biochemical process that requires the activities of multiple degradative enzymes with complementary activities tailored to the structural features of a particular substrate. Glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) is a major hemicellulose component in softwood, and its structural complexity requires more enzyme specificities to achieve complete hydrolysis compared to glucuronoxylans from hardwood and arabinoxylans from grasses. Results: We report the characterisation of a recombinant alpha-glucuronidase (Agu115) from Schizophyllum commune capable of removing (4-O-methyl)-glucuronic acid ((Me) GlcA) residues from polymeric and oligomeric xylan. The enzyme is required for the complete deconstruction of spruce glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) and acts synergistically with other xylan-degrading enzymes, specifically a xylanase (Xyn10C), an alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase (AbfA), and a beta-xylosidase (XynB). Each enzyme in this mixture showed varying degrees of potentiation by the other activities, likely due to increased physical access to their respective target monosaccharides. The exo-acting Agu115 and AbfA were unable to remove all of their respective target side chain decorations from GAX, but their specific activity was significantly boosted by the addition of the endo-Xyn10C xylanase. We demonstrate that the proposed enzymatic cocktail (Agu115 with AbfA, Xyn10C and XynB) achieved almost complete conversion of GAX to arabinofuranose (Araf), xylopyranose (Xylp), and MeGlcA monosaccharides. Addition of Agu115 to the enzymatic cocktail contributes specifically to 25 % of the conversion. However, traces of residual oligosaccharides resistant to this combination of enzymes were still present after deconstruction, due to steric hindrances to enzyme access to the substrate. Conclusions: Our GH115 alpha-glucuronidase is capable of finely tailoring the molecular structure of softwood GAX, and contributes to the almost complete saccharification of GAX in synergy with other exo- and endo-xylan-acting enzymes. This has great relevance for the cost-efficient production of biofuels from softwood lignocellulose.

  • 42.
    Mushi, Ngesa Ezekiel Zekiel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Kochumalayil, Joby J.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Cervin, Nicholas Tchang Chang
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nanostructurally Controlled Hydrogel Based on Small-Diameter Native Chitin Nanofibers: Preparation, Structure, and Properties2016In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chitin nanofibers of unique structure and properties can be obtained from crustacean and fishery waste. These chitin nanofibers have roughly 4nm diameters, aspect ratios between 25-250, a high degree of acetylation and preserved crystallinity, and can be potentially applied in hydrogels. Hydrogels with a chitin nanofiber content of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0wt% were successfully prepared. The methodology for preparation is new, environmentally friendly, and simple as gelation is induced by neutralization of the charged colloidal mixture, inducing precipitation and secondary bond interaction between nanofibers. Pore structure and pore size distributions of corresponding aerogels are characterized using auto-porosimetry, revealing a substantial fraction of nanoscale pores. To the best of our knowledge, the values for storage (13kPa at 3wt%) and compression modulus (309kPa at 2wt%) are the highest reported for chitin nanofibers hydrogels.

  • 43.
    Prakobna, Kasinee
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Medina, Lilian
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Mechanical performance and architecture of biocomposite honeycombs and foams from core–shell holocellulose nanofibers2016In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 88, 116-122 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CNFs (cellulose nanofibers) based on holocellulose have a pure cellulose fibril core, with a hemicellulose coating. The diameter is only around 6–8 nm and the hemicellulose surface coating has anionic charge. These CNFs are used to prepare honeycomb and foam structures by freeze-drying from dilute hydrocolloidal suspensions. The materials are compared with materials based on “conventional” cellulose CNFs from sulfite pulp with respect to mechanical properties in compression. Characterization methods include FE-SEM of cellular structure, and the analysis includes comparisons with similar materials from other types of CNFs and data in the literature. The honeycomb structures show superior out-of-plane properties compared with the more isotropic foam structures, as expected. Honeycombs based on holocellulose CNFs showed better properties than sulfite pulp CNF honeycombs, since the cellular structure contained less defects. This is related to better stability of holocellulose CNFs in colloidal suspension.

  • 44.
    Li, Yuanyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Fu, Qiliang
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Yu, Shun
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Yan, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Optically Transparent Wood from a Nanoporous Cellulosic Template: Combining Functional and Structural Performance2016In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 17, no 4, 1358-1364 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optically transparent wood (TW) with transmittance as high as 85% and haze of 71% was obtained using a delignified nanoporous wood template. The template was prepared by removing the light-absorbing lignin component, creating nanoporosity in the wood cell wall. Transparent wood was prepared by successful impregnation of lumen and the nanoscale cellulose fiber network in the cell wall with refractive-index-matched prepolymerized methyl methacrylate (MMA). During the process, the hierarchical wood structure was preserved. Optical properties of TW are tunable by changing the cellulose volume fraction. The synergy between wood and PMMA was observed for mechanical properties. Lightweight and strong transparent wood is a potential candidate for lightweight low-cost, light-transmitting buildings and transparent solar cell windows.

  • 45. de Carvalho, Danila Morais