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  • 151.
    Abdu, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Ullén, Philip
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Dimensionerande vattenförbrukning och dess variationer2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, 2010, approximately 907 million cubic meters of drinking water was withdrawn from municipalities. All of this water must be transported, which is done through water pipes. To dimension these it requires that we know how much water that is to be distributed and it varies among others depending on the time of the day, week and year that the withdrawals occur. In today’s approach of designing new water pipes, amongst other ways, we use typical examples of consumption variations during the day of a similar area. In addition, arbitrary and experiential values of ‘ratio of peak hour to average day’ and ‘ratio of peak hour to average hour’ are used.

    Unfortunately today’s way of dimensioning water pipes has not been ensured due to inadequate detailed data on consumption quantity. The main purpose of this study is to confirm or refute today’s way of dimensioning water pipes.

    To verify this we have with detailed data from Norrvatten been able to see consumption quantity on an hourly basis which helps us assess today’s dimensioning process. By measuring the flow into 13 municipalities and then comparing them against each other regarding population size, distribution over categories of users and more, we have been able to get different dimensioning factors.

    In this report we can conclude that there is a need to update the factors regarding ‘ratio of peak hour to average day’ and ‘ratio of peak hour to average hour’. In order to further study the dimensioning factors, a system must be developed that can measure the precise consumer flow for different consumer categories on a more detailed level.

  • 152.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Experimental Studies of Thermal Diffusivities concerning some Industrially Important Systems2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this industrially important work was to gain an increasing understanding of the properties of some industrially important materials such as CMSX-4 nickel base super alloy, 90Ti.6Al.4V alloy, 25Cr:6Ni stainless steel, 0.7% carbon steel, AISI 304 stainless steel-alumina composites, mould powder used in continuous casting of steel as well as coke used in blast furnace with special reference to the thermal diffusivities. The measurements were carried out in a wide temperature range covering solid, liquid, glassy and crystalline states.

    For CMSX-4 alloy, the thermal conductivities were calculated from the experimental thermal diffusivities. Both the diffusivities and conductivities were found to increase with increasing temperature. Microscopic analysis showed the presence of intermetallic phases γ´ such as Ni3Al below 1253 K. In this region, the mean free path of the electrons and phonons is likely to be limited by scattering against lattice defects. Between 1253 K and solidus temperature, these phases dissolved in the alloy adding to the impurities in the matrix, which, in turn, caused a decrease in the thermal diffusivity. This effect was confirmed by annealing the samples at 1573 K. The thermal diffusivities of the annealed samples measured at 1277, 1403 and 1531 K were found to be lower than the thermal diffusivities of non-annealed samples and the values did not show any noticeable change with time. It could be related to the attainment of equilibrium with the completion of the dissolution of γ´ phase during the annealing process. Liquid CMSX-4 does not show any change of thermal diffusivity with temperature. It may be attributed to the decrease of the mean free path being shorter than characteristic distance between two neighbouring atoms.

    Same tendency could be observed in the case of 90Ti.6Al.4V alloy. Since the thermal diffusivity increases with increasing temperature below 1225 K and shows slight decrease or constancy at higher temperature. For 25Cr:6Ni stainless steel, the thermal diffusivity is nearly constant up to about 700 K. Beyond that, there is an increase with temperature both during heating as well as cooling cycle. On the other hand, the slope of the curve increases above 950 K, which can be due to the increase of bcc phase in the structure. 0.7% carbon steel shows a decrease in the thermal diffusivity at temperature below Curie point, where the structure contains bcc+ fcc phases. Above this point the thermal diffusivity increases, where the structure contains only fcc phase. The experimental thermal conductivity values of these alloys show good agreement with the calculated values using Mills model.

    Thermal diffusivity measurements as a function of temperature of sintered AISI 304 stainless steel-alumina composites having various composition, viz, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 10 wt% Al2O3 were carried out in the present work. The thermal diffusivity as well as the thermal conductivity were found to increase with temperature for all composite specimens. The thermal diffusivity/conductivity decreases with increasing weight fraction of alumina in the composites. The experimental results are in good agreement with simple rule of mixture, Eucken equation and developed Ohm´s law model at weight fraction of alumina below 5 wt%. Beyond this, the thermal diffusivity/ conductivity exhibits a high discrepancy probably due to the agglomeration of alumina particles during cold pressing and sintering.

    On the other hand, thermal diffusivities of industrial mould flux having glassy and crystalline states decrease with increasing temperature at lower temperature and are constant at higher temperature except for one glassy sample. The thermal diffusivity is increased with increasing crystallisation degree of mould flux, which is expected from theoretical considerations.

    Analogously, the thermal diffusivity measurements of mould flux do not show any significant change with temperature in liquid state. It is likely to be due to the silicate network being largely broken down.

    In the case of coke, the sample taken from deeper level of the pilot blast furnace is found to have larger thermal diffusivity. This can be correlated to the average crystallite size along the structural c-axis, Lc, which is indicative of the higher degree of graphitisation. This was also confirmed by XRD measurements of the different coke samples. The degree of graphitisation was found to increase with increasing temperature. Further, XRD and heat capacity measurements of coke samples taken from different levels in the shaft of the pilot blast furnace show that the graphitisation of coke was instantaneous between 973 and 1473 K.

  • 153.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Hayashi, M.iyuki
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Thermal Diffusivity measurement of CMSX-4 alloy by Laser flash method2007In: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 109-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, thermal diffusivity measurements have been carried out on industrial samples of CMSX-4 nickel-base superalloy using the laser-flash method with emphasis on studying the effect of temperature and microstructure on the thermal diffusivity. The measurements were performed in the temperature range from 298 to 1623 K covering both solid as well as liquid ranges. Below 1253 K, the thermal-diffusivity values were found to increase with increasing temperature. Microstructural investigations of quenched samples revealed that below 1253 K, an ordered phase, usually referred to as the -phase was present together with the disordered fcc phase, often referred to as the γ phase. Between 1253 K and the solidus temperature, the phase was found to dissolve in the matrix alloy causing an increase in the disordering of the alloy, and thereby a small decrease in the thermal-diffusivity values. The thermal-diffusivity values of samples pre-annealed at 1573 K exhibited constancy in the temperature range from 1277 to 1513 K, which is attributed to the attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium. These equilibrium values were found to be lower than the results for samples not subjected to annealing. The thermal-diffusivity values of the alloy in the liquid state were found to be independent of temperature.

  • 154.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Hayashi, Miyuki
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Thermal Diffusivity Measurements of some Industrially Important Alloys by a Laser Flash Method2007In: International journal of materials reseach, ISSN 1862-5282, Vol. 98, no 6, p. 535-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, thermal diffusivity measurements of three industrially significant alloys, viz. 90Ti.6Al.4V, stainless steel with 25Cr and 6Ni as well as plain carbon steel with 0.7 % carbon have been carried out as a function of temperature. The aim of this work is to study the effect of temperature and microstructure on the thermal diffusivities of these alloys. For the 90Ti.6Al.4V alloy, thermal diffusivity increases with temperature below 1225 K. Above this temperature, the values started decreasing probably due to the dissolution of Ti3Al intermediate phase in the matrix, which would result in an increase in the disorder of the structure. For 25Cr: 6Ni stainless steel, the thermal diffusivity is nearly constant up to about 700 K. Above this, there is an increase in the thermal diffusivities with temperature during the heating cycle, which was reproducible during thermal cycling. On the other hand, the slope of the curve increases above 950 K.

    In the case of the 0.7 % carbon steel, the thermal diffusivity shows a decreasing trend with temperature below the Curie point for the alloy, where the alloy consists of bcc + fcc phases. Above this point, only the fcc phase is prevalent and the thermal diffusivity was found to increase with temperature. Heat transfer is carried out by lattice vibration (phonons) as well as electrons. The contribution of electrons varies depending upon the type of alloy. In this study, the highest electron contribution was found in 0.7 % carbon steel, while the lowest was in stainless steel. The thermal conductivity values of these alloys are in good agreement with the calculated values using the model proposed by Mills.

  • 155.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jakobsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Hayashi, Miyuki
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Studies on Graphitisation of Blast Furnace Coke by X-ray Diffraction Analysis and Thermal Diffusivity Measurements2005In: Steel research, ISSN 0177-4832, Vol. 77, no 11, p. 763-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High temperature XRD and thermal diffusivity experiments were employed to investigate the degree of graphitisation in blast furnace coke. The experiments were conducted between room temperature and 1473 K. X-ray diffraction studies were carried out in order to monitor the degree of graphitisation in the coke samples from the same campaign. In these cases, the degree of graphitisation was followed by the changes in the vertical dimension. The degree of graphitisation was found to be dependent on temperature. On the other hand, the graphitisation at each temperature was instantaneous, even at as low a temperature as 973 K and no dependency on time could be noticed. The thermal diffusivities of the coke samples taken from deeper level of the experimental blast furnace were measured using the laser-flash technique. The results from these measurements showed that thermal diffusivities increased with the degree of graphitisation, which in turn, can be affected by the level in the blast furnace at which the coke sample was taken. The present results indicate that the degree of graphitisation as followed by X-ray diffraction analysis as well as thermal diffusivities can be used to trace the thermal history of coke. DSC measurements show that the heat capacity of the coke increases with temperature towards the heat capacity of graphite, which could be due to the increasing the graphitisation degree of the coke.

  • 156.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Thermal Diffusivity of Sintered Stainless steel-Alumina Composite2006In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 513-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal diffusivity measurements were carried out as a function of temperature on sintered AISI 304 stainless steel-alumina composites having various compositions (0.001, 0.01, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, and 10 wt pct Al2O3). The measurements were carried out between room temperature and 1473 K. The thermal diffusivity and the thermal conductivity were found to increase with temperature in all the composite specimens. The thermal diffusivity was found to decrease with increasing weight fraction of alumina. This tendency can clearly be seen at temperatures above 755 K. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simple rule of mixture, the Eucken equation, and the Ohm’s law model developed by Hayashi et al. at weight fractions of alumina below 5 wt pct. Beyond this composition, the thermal diffusivity/conductivity shows a large discrepancy from the models. This could probably be attributed to the accumulation of alumina particles during cooled pressing and sintering.

  • 157.
    Abdul Al, Fatima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Alla barns lekplats: En studie om tillgängligheten på lekplatser2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the leading countries when it comes to availability in the physical environment. Approximately 7 000 children in Sweden are disabled. Half of these children use a wheelchair. It is every child’s right to play, and it’s thereby interesting to know whether every child is given the opportunity to use a playground. In the county of Helsingborg there are playgrounds appealing to many children, although the question is whether every child is given the chance to play at these playgrounds.

    The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of availability at playgrounds and outline ways to improve the availability. The method used in this thesis is a literature study, focusing on legal framework and literature about availability, usability and playgrounds. The case study provides information about eight playgrounds in Helsingborg. There is also an interview with landscape architect Johanna Elgström.

    Playgrounds where availability has been prioritized are often more available and useable for wheelchair-bound children. Still, the legal framework is in need of a more precise definition of availability and usability to ensure that playgrounds are suitable for children using a wheelchair. The playgrounds that are more available and useable can favor children using a wheelchair and give them the opportunity to socially interact with other children.

  • 158.
    Abdul Amir, Saga
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Hur skapas en filmsuccé: En analys av inhemska filmintäkter i USA2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis seeks to examine, through the method of linear regression, if the profits of a movie can be predicted using information known prior to the release of the movie. The predictive variables were obtained from a dataset containing information available on the website IMDB. The films were split up into two groups and two different models were created: one for films with an experienced director and lead actor and one where experince wasn't taken into consideration. The results showed that while budget is consistently the driving factor for a films success, the involvement of an experienced director make predictions of success much easier.

  • 159.
    Abdul Hayee, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Characterization and utilization of agroforestryresidues as energy source in Brazil2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Brazil is very much rich in agriculture and forestry. The agro industry occupies an area of 28840726 ha. The more important crops are sugarcane (7080920 ha), rice (289030 ha), wheat (1853220 ha), coconut (283205 ha), cassava (1894460 ha), corn (13767400 ha) and grass (140000 ha). These crops generated 597 million tons of residues. Forest plantations in Brazil supplied 102.9 million m3 of industrial roundwood, of which nearly half is for renewable fuelwood and charcoal. Part of this plantation output is destined for the pulp and paper industry:

    The renewable sources are fulfilling 46.4% of the total Brazilian energy demands.

    Energy forestation in Brazil includes mainly Eucalyptus and Bracatingas.

    In this study three biomasses abundant in the Brazil are studied:  i.e. Eucalyptus, Garapeira/Peroba (wood dust) and Sewage Sludge.

    The wood samples (Eucalyptus and Peroba/Garapeira) have higher heating value than the sewage sludge because the wood samples have higher amounts of carbon and hydrogen than the sewage sludge. The sewage sludge has higher ash content and lower amount of volatiles and fixed carbon than the wood samples resulting in a lower heating value.

    The pyrolysis of eucalyptus, garapeira/peroba and sewage sludge has been studied in a thermobalance over a wide range of degradation temperatures. Between 225 °C - 375 °C (for eucalyptus) and 225 °C - 425 °C (for garapeira), the thermal decomposition of the biomass leads to significant weight loss.

    The weight loss for Eucalyptus between 265°C and 350°C is 0.48 % / °C and taking into account a heating rate of 10°C/min, the weight loss is 4.8 % /min. Garapeira has a similar behaviour than eucalyptus. The weight loss for garapeira between 265°C and 365°C is 0.4 % / °C and taking into account a heating rate of 10°C/min, the weight loss is 4 % /min.

    The behaviour of the sewage sludge to the increase of temperature from 25°C to 700 °C in an inert atmosphere do not show such different zones as the behaviour of the woody biomass. Between 150 °C and 235°C the weight loss of the sewage sludge was 0.07 %/°C (0.7 %/min). The highest weight loss takes place between 300 °C and 390 °C (0.15 %/°C or 1.5 %/min). In the third zone, between 500 °C and 600°C, the weight loss was 0.03 %/°C (0.3 %/min).

    The pyrolysis is assumed to be a first order decomposition. The activation energy (E) and the pre exponential factor (A) are calculated for the studied samples.

    The proximate analysis shows differences between the woody biomass and the sewage sludge. The sewage sludge has higher ash content and lower fixed carbon and volatiles. Eucalyptus has lower carbon fixed and higher volatiles than peroba-garapeira.

  • 160.
    Abdul Hussein, Murtada
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    Al-Entabe, Faysal
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    Vattenjet som poleringsmetod2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 161.
    Abdul Jalil, Walid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Dalla Torre, Kvin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    The impact of missing data imputation on HCC survival prediction: Exploring the combination of missing data imputation with data-level methods such as clustering and oversampling2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The area of data imputation, which is the process of replacing missing data with substituted values, has been covered quite extensively in recent years. The literature on the practical impact of data imputation however, remains scarce. This thesis explores the impact of some of the state of the art data imputation methods on HCC survival prediction and classification in combination with data-level methods such as oversampling. More specifically, it explores imputation methods for mixed-type datasets and their impact on a particular HCC dataset. Previous research has shown that, the newer, more sophisticated imputation methods outperform simpler ones when evaluated with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE). Contrary to intuition however, the results of this study show that when combined with other data-level methods such as clustering and oversampling, the differences in imputation performance does not always impact classification in any meaningful way. This might be explained by the noise that is introduced when generating synthetic data points in the oversampling process. The results also show that one of the more sophisticated imputation methods, namely MICE, is highly dependent on prior assumptions about the underlying distributions of the dataset. When those assumptions are incorrect, the imputation method performs poorly and has a considerable negative impact on classification.

  • 162.
    Abdul- Rasool, Mustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    THE IMPACT OF ECOROLL ON FUEL CONSUMPTION - USING LOOK AHEAD2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    EcoRoll reduces fuel consumption with small development costs, since no additional hardware is required. It is a function that enables a more efficient conversion of potential to kinetic energy, when travelling downhill. This is achieved by opening the powertrain, and let the engine run on idle to reduce engine losses. In this Master’s thesis, two control strategies were developed, where one is based on prevailing conditions and one utilizes Look-Ahead data. Compared to a vehicle with a conventional cruise control, the first strategy gave a fuel reduction of approximately 3.4% and the other 3.7%. This was simulated on the highway between Södertälje and Norrköping in Sweden.

  • 163.
    ABDULAZIZ, ALI ABDULBASIT
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    GHARIB ALI JALAL, IBRAHIM
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    GHATTAS, ANGELIKA
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    SWENSSON, BEATRICE
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Utformning av bränslecellssystem för fordon2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kandidatexamensarbete var målet att optimera ett bränslecellssystem med avseende på ett antal olika parametrar. Bränslecellssystemet var tänkt att användas i fordonet Sleipner V som är konstruerad i samarbete med andra KTH studenter. En annan bränslecell av företaget Horizon användes för att driva fordonet Sleipner i tävlingen Shell-Eco Marathon eftersom den ursprungliga bränslecellen var i dåligt skick. Sleipner utrustat med bränslecellen från Horizon klarade av att köra två varv i Shell-Eco Marathon.

    I denna rapport tas det upp grundläggande teori om bränsleceller, försökuppställning för experimenten och resultat med tillhörande analys. För att åstadkomma målet med detta arbete så skulle olika parametrar undersökas, men detta kunde inte utföras. På grund av diverse problem med bränslecellen så ändrades fokus till att reparera bränslecellen, vid undersökningen av problemen har vissa resultat uppnåtts.

    Vid körning uppstod spänningsfall och det kan ha berott på masstransportbegränsningar. För att åtgärda dessa problem utfördes en torknings- respektive fuktningsprocess som hade olika påverkan på de individuella cellerna. Efter torkningsprocessen fungerade 18 av 22 celler medan 19 celler fungerade efter fuktningsprocessen.  De icke fungerade cellerna som gav låg spänning kan ha varit för blöta eller för torra.

  • 164.
    Abdulbaki, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Mammar Chaouche, Abdelah
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Användning av flygaska i vattenbyggnadsbetong 2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering Concrete is used as a collective term for concrete structures related to the hydropower plants, dams and heavier plants. With great success, concrete has been used for a very long time for these types of structures. These constructions make high demands on the concrete quality and construction design as they are expected to have a lifetime of a hundred years or more.

     

    In casting such concrete is exposed to a temperature which can lead to cracking of the newly cast structure. Because the temperature rise is the primary cause of cracking, you can use various methods to reduce this. An effective way to reduce the temperature rise is to try to keep the cement content in the concrete as low as possible, because at the adiabatic conditions may say that the total temperature rise is directly proportional to the cement content in the concrete. An effective way to reduce the temperature rise is to use out some fly ash instead of cement. Fly ash is a powder mass obtained in the production of electricity and heat in coal-fired plants and cogeneration plants. Fly ash is a puzzolanic material which means that it reacts with calcium hydroxide and water, and can thus partially replace cement clinker.

     

    The purpose of this report is to provide a better understanding of how the fly ash affecting hydraulic concrete. By reading this report you will get at first a basic knowledge of what the concrete, hydraulic concrete and fly ash are. Furthermore, the section that dealt with the cracking of the hydraulic concrete, general knowledge followed out causes and remedies. A comparison has been made between a typical water building structural component, with and without fly ash. What has been compared are how the construction affected with and without fly ash on strength, resistance and the risk of cracking. Furthermore, the temperature dot calculations performed with the program HACON. The purpose of the calculations was to show how the different parameters with and without fly ash affects the risk of cracking of a typical hydraulic structures.

     

    The result of the temperature calculations show that you get a lower temperature development in a monolith cast with the fly ash and the construction cements compared to a monolith molded with construction cement without fly ash. With the reduced temperature development arose lower tensions in the flyashmonolith. In the survey carried out in this report, the results show that there is tension that exceeds the tensile strength of the monolith without fly ash and thereby bursting the structure. The monolith examined with fly ash as crackreducing action occurs tensile stresses which are lower than the tensile strength and thus does not crack structure. The results show that the cracking in a typical hydraulic structures can be reduced with fly ash.

  • 165.
    ABDUL-JALIL, CARLO
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    BEGLARYAN, SARGIS
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    Ultralätt hopfällbar reflektor2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Datapath manufactures satellite antenna for telecommunication systems. These antennas have a wide range of application scope and are used in extreme environments, in war zones and hotspots. The antennas are very heavy, difficult to transport so the project group was asked to come up with a new design of light, foldable and easy transportable antenna reflectors. Datapath chose the M-Model for the future development, which was made for the military use. The existing antennas are very heavy and solid which makes it difficult to transport because it takes a large amount of space. The requirement for this project was to decrease the weight of the reflector by 50 percent and the transportation volume by 20 percent. The Bachelor thesis generated lots of different design and concepts with different choices of materials for the reflector, but only two concepts fulfilled all qualifications. The first concept was decided to have a body made completely out of Carbon fiber reinforced silicone (CFRS). This material is strong and robust once it unfolds and can stand external forces generated by strong winds, but it is very easy to fold it back and most important it is ultralight. The second concept was a reflector made of reflective fabric with an external shell construction made of polyethylene. Both of these concepts fulfill Datapath's requirements with aspect on weight, transportation volume and strength.

  • 166.
    ABDUL-JALIL, RICHARD
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    SELMAN, CHRISTOS
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    Effektivisering och optimering av transport och emballage för kretskort2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 167.
    Abdulkadir, Hesho
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Kostov, Andrey Petrov
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Studie om energibesparing på OKQ8 i Häggvik samt andra energieffektiviserade byggnader2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report begins with a brief description of some of the most common measures for energy savings in buildings with recess in the solar collectors and photovoltaic panels which lays a solid foundation for our study. Next comes the main part of the study consisting of detailed descriptions of three of the top streamlined Swedish buildings.

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate some of the energy efficiency improvements done on the OKQ8’s gasoline station in Häggvik with a calculate part. Part of the task is to calculate how many photovoltaic cell panels should be installed in order to cover the whole buildings energy need. After that have we calculated the payback time and profitability of some of the installations at the petrol station. We have also studied other energy optimized buildings and compared their specific energy need with that of OKQ8.

  • 168.
    Abdulkhalik, Lauko
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Samuelsson, Paula
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Ekonomiska konsekvenser vid stambyten som berör skyddsrum: -en förtydligande studie av fyra typfall2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet behandlar stambyten som passerar skyddsrum.Skyddsrum användas som skyddsutrymme för människor vid behov under nödsituationer. Deflesta skyddsrummen byggdes under 1951-1974 och de är i behov av underhåll ochrenovering.På grund av strikta lagar blir alla renoveringar som berör skyddsrum väldigt kostsamma förfastighetsägare.Studien undersöker fyra typfall av renoveringar och reder ut lagar. Förhoppningsvis blir deanvändbart för fastighetsägare för att förstå kostnaderna kring stambyten som berörskyddsrum.

  • 169.
    Abdulla, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Modeling of Thermal Stresses and Analysis of Micro-Crack Formations in PCB Laminates2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master’s thesis has given me an opportunity to study how, where, when and why cracks appear in the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) laminate. Layout choices contribute to the likelihood of crack formation. Simulations were made on three different locations on one board, the results were then analyzed. Thermal simulation showed nearly no thermal gradient in the board, the temperature inside the board was almost the same as at the surface. This concluded that there was no need for linked thermal and structural simulation. Structural simulations showed that most of the stress and compressions in the laminate was around the vias.

  • 170.
    Abdulla, Nardien
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Ali, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Ett modernare sätt att dimensionera: En jämförelse för Huvudstaprojektet, FEM-design eller handberäkning ?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This theses has been conducted in collaboration with Peab where the students had Tomas Schäfer and Peter Jansson as supervisors.

    This report addresses how a specific secondary build up, located in Huvudsta Centrum, could had been designed differently. The original frame was designed with the old BKR construction rules. But at the construction start a new construction standard was applied, the Eurocode. Therefore, the house got decreased in weight to meet the stricter Eurocode requirements.

    The current frame was designed using manual methods, which were compared with the results from the same frame calculated with a computer programme, FEM-Design 3D Structure. The report is based on the know-how of how a designer should proceed to join the production model and the analytical model. This to be able to designed in a BIM environment.

    The difference in results, between the two methods, was about 50% reeducation in purchased steel and about 40% in design-engineer costs. We have estimated a total saving of 141000 SEK for Peab.

  • 171.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee M.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Information requirements and management for service based business models2014In: Swedish Production Symposium, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anticipated scarcity of natural resources and concern for the sustainable development forcing manufacturing industries to emphasise on conservation of resources on one hand. On the other hand high competition in the manufacturing industry is forcing companies to look for innovative value propositions. Service based business models are emerging business solutions that fulfil the functional needs of customers. Such business approach demands extensive and sophisticated information collection, sharing and management systems. However, there are evidences of knowledge gap when it comes to defining information requirements, information management and sharing systems needed to adopt such business models. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of research done in the area of service based business models in terms of information management and communication systems. The paper also includes result of two case studies done in two different manufacturing companies with the purposes to understand information requirements to adopt service based business models.

  • 172.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Resource Conservative Manufacturing: New Generation of Manufacturing2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of resource scarcity and emerging pressure of environmentallegislations have put the manufacturing industry with a new challenge. On theone side, there is a huge population that demands a large quantity ofcommodities, on the other side, these demands have to be met by minimumresources and with permissible pollution that the earth’s ecosystem can handle.In this situation, technologic breakthrough that can offer alternative resourceshas become essential. Unfortunately, breakthroughs do not follow any rule ofthumb and while waiting for a miracle, the manufacturing industry has to findways to conserve resources. Within this research the anatomy of a large body ofknowledge has been performed to find the best available practices for resourceconservation. Critical review of the research revealed that none of the availablesolutions are compatible with the level of resource conservation desired by themanufacturing industry or by society. It has also been discovered that a largegap exists between the solutions perceived by the scientists and theapplicability of those solutions. Through careful evaluation of the state-of-theart,the research presented in this thesis introduced a solution of maximizingresource conservation i.e., material, energy and value added, as used inmanufacturing. The solutions emerged from the novel concept named asResource Conservative Manufacturing, which is built upon the concept ofMultiple Lifecycle of product. Unlike other research work, the researchdocumented in this thesis started with the identification of the problem andfrom which a ‘wish to do’ list was drawn. The seriousness of the problem andpotential of adopting the proposed concept has been justified with concreteinformation. A great number of arguments have been presented to show theexisting gaps in the research and from that, a set of solutions to conserveresources has been proposed. Finally, one of the prime hypotheses concerningclosed loop supply chain has been validated through the system dynamicsmodeling and simulation.

  • 173.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Minimizing Uncertainty Involved in Designing the Closed-loop Supply Network for Multiple-lifecycle of Products2010In: Annals Of DAAAM for 2010 & Proceedings of 21st DAAAM Symposium: Intelligent Manufacturing and Automation / [ed] Branko Katalinic, Zadar: DAAAM International , 2010, p. 1055-1056Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure multiple-lifecycle of products through remanufacturing intervention requires a well-functioning closed-loop supply network. Generally, the unpredictability of quantity, timing and quality (physical/functional) of the returned products and demand fluctuation of the remanufactured products are the main sources of uncertainty of closed-loop supply network. To some extent, efficient recollection strategies and separate distribution channels for remanufactured products can minimize the uncertainty. Nevertheless, efficient recollection does not necessarily close the loop if the recovered products do not enter into the main stream of the supply network. Beside, products that are distributed through separate channels create an open loop. Thus, the problem of uncertainty remains unsolved. The aim of this paper is to propose solutions to minimize the uncertainty involved in designing a well-functioning closed-loop supply network using the system dynamics principle and tool.

  • 174.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Semere, Daniel Tesfamariam
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Haumann, M.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    METHODS ANALYSIS OF REMANUFACTURING OPTIONS FOR REPEATED LIFECYCLE OF STARTERS AND ALTERNATORS2010In: 7th International DAAAM Baltic Conference"INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING"22-24 April 2010, Tallinn, Estonia / [ed] R. Kyttner, Estonia: Tallinn University of Technology , 2010, p. 340-345Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Design for Repeatedly Utilization (DFRU) is a proposed conceptto be used in the product realizationprocess to ensure optimum useable life (forinstance in terms of economy, resourceusage, environmental impact etc.) ofproducts or parts of products enablingmultiple lifecycle. In the DFRU approachproducts are restored as new like productsthrough remanufacturing processes. Theterm remanufacturing has been interpreteddifferently by different researchers and theindustries that are involved inremanufacturing business use differentapproaches to remanufacture theirproducts. In this paper the starter motorand alternator of automotives has beenused to demonstrate the novel concepts.The purpose of this paper is to expresswhat remanufacturing means in ourconcept, model their major lifecycleaspects and create a simulation modelfrom it. This is a preliminary work towardsdefining and specifying the processes,methods and design properties in DFRU.The work will be further extended to aholistic business model which can facilitateDFRU approach in an efficient way. Infuture the model will be developed andadopted to create new models for otherproducts appropriate for remanufacturingand eventually DFRU.

  • 175.
    Abdullah, Maizura Ailin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, A
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Building Networks for Delivering Integrated Product-Service Offerings (IPSOs)2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 176.
    Abdullah, Nazri
    et al.
    Universiti Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia, Malaysia .
    Kounelis, Ioannis
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Muftic, Sead
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Security Extensions for Mobile Commerce Objects2014In: SECURWARE 2014, The Eighth International Conference on Emerging Security Information, Systems and Technologies, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic commerce and its variance mobile commerce have tremendously increased their popularity in the last several years. As mobile devices have become the most popular mean to access and use the Internet, mobile commerce and its security are timely and very hot topics. Yet, today there is still no consistent model of various m–commerce applications and transactions, even less clear specification of their security. In order to address and solve those issues, in this paper, we first establish the concept of mobile commerce objects, an equivalent of virtual currencies, used for m–commerce transactions. We describe functionalities and unique characteristics of these objects; we follow with security requirements, and then offer some solutions – security extensions of these objects. All solutions are treated within the complete lifecycle of creation and use of the m–commerce objects.

  • 177.
    Abdullah, Rondek
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Study of the Eutrophication of Lake Vallentuna2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lake Vallentuna is situated 20 km north of Stockholm, in Täby and Vallentuna municipalities. It is a shallow eutrophicated lake, with a maximum depth of 6, 0 meter and the turnover time of the lake is 1, 6 years. Lake Vallentuna has two inlets, which are Ormstaån in the North and Karbyån in the South. The outlet from Lake Vallentuna is Hagbyån in the South-West. Lake Vallentuna is, due to human activities, influenced by many contaminants, for example phosphorus and nitrogen, which contribute to the eutrophication.

    The natural state of Lake Vallentuna involves a high phosphorus concentration, since it is a lake among fields dominated by clay. The increased phosphorus levels depend on various sources, such as sewage, agriculture, and storm water.

    The aim of this project is to describe the present state of the lake and to predict the future changes. This report will also give phosphorus and calcium levels determined for Lake Vallentunna. By the examination of the chemical and physical parameters we could estimate the contribution of pollutants. To assess the lake condition, an excursion was made to collect samples and perform measurements in the field. The samples were collected from twelve different sites.

    The eight parameters measured in this study are conductivity, temperature, pH, COD, chlorinity, alkalinity, calcium and total phosphorus. The assessment of the lake was based on the guidelines from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency ”Bedömningsgrunder för miljökvalitet”. We compared the measured values with those in the guidelines. One conclusion is that the Lake is heavily eutrophicated.

    Our measurements indicate that the incoming amount of phosphorus is bigger than the outgoing amount of phosphorus, which means that the amount of phosphorus in the lake increases at the time for the measurements. However, the main source of phosphorus in the lake water is the internal contribution from the sediments, which have been accumulated during many years. The measured values of phosphorus show that the lake is eutrophicated.

    Lake Vallentuna contains big amounts of phosphorus and metal ions (see also Adam Kazi’s diploma work on metal ions in Lake Vallentuna[19] ). The reason is that the lake is situated in a very contaminated area.

  • 178.
    Abdulrahman, Keiwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Potrus, Fadi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Numerical analysis and model updating of a steel-concrete composite bridge: Parametric study & Statistical evaluation2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2006, only 10 years after the steel- concrete composite bridge, Vårby bridge was built, fatigue cracks were found during an inspection. To further investigate the reasons and the potential danger of the cracks, an investigation under the commission of the Swedish Transport Administration was issued in 2009. After the detection of fatigue cracks, several measurements were carried out in order to monitor the static behavior by the use of strain gauges at selected positions along the bridge. The measurements from the strain gauges monitoring the global behavior were then used to calibrate an finite element model.

     

    The present report is part of the research of understanding the behavior of steel-concrete composite bridges. Numerical analysis and model updating have been used in order to understand and determine how different parameters affects the strain range and the global behavior. The numerical analysis and parameter study were performed in the Finite Element software Abaqus and programming language Python. The outcome of the parameter study was then used to perform the model updating by the method of falsification in MATLAB.

     

    The results from the parameter study and the model updating showed that the measured strains could be reached with a wide range of parameter combinations. Even with unreasonable parameter values, the measured strains were obtained. To investigate the reason for this, a multiple linear regression analysis was performed which showed that the strain range is strongly correlated to the Young’s modulus of steel and concrete and also to the connector elasticity, which resembles the studs in the real bridge.

     

    Two different finite element models, with two completely different input parameter values, obtain the same strain range for the global behavior. It is therefore not certain to assume that a model is accurate and valid based on the fact that the predicted strain range from the finite element model is close to the measured strain range since the global behavior of a steel- concrete composite bridge can be modeled by many different sets of parameters.

  • 179.
    Abebe, Zelalem Teffera
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Process Control over Wireless Sensor Networks2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A signicant growth was witnessed in the led of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), the previous decade. Advances in hardware miniaturization coupled with increased processing capabilities and memory capacity have extended the application domains of WSNs. In light of this, standardization organizations led by academia and industries initiated activities for the design of protocols such as IEEE 802.15.4 and IETF RPL (Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks). IEEE 802.15.4 denes physical and media access layers for WSNs while IETF RPL denes the functionality of the routing layer.

    This thesis investigates research issues in wireless sensor networks and network controlled systems that control micro-biological processes for water treatment plants. By choosing a process model that can relate to an industrial process, feasibility of control over IEEE 802.15.4 and RPL protocols is evaluated for stability with regards to network delay and packet loss. Settling time and overshoot are measured to indicate control performance. Control messages related to routing and routing table lengths are measured to indicate network stability and scalability. The system model used is a centralized discrete controller controlling a thermal processes running on the sensors. This model is chosen for representing wide industrial networked control systems while adding a WSN dimension based on IEEE 802.15.4 and RPL. The main contribution of this thesis is an experimental study where both the network and controller performance is validated while utilizing commercial o-theshelf sensor platforms. The results from this experimental work include rst the use of established theorems for analyzing control using WSNs. Moreover, the ability of IEEE 802.15.4 and RPL to provide stable communication that is reliable enough for actual industrial control implementation is validated.

  • 180.
    Abed, Kason
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    FEM-analys av torkapparat2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 181.
    Abed, Mohamad Samir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Hosseinzade, Azita
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Parameterstyrd projektering av broar: Koppling mellan Rhinoceros-Grasshopper och Tekla Structures2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New methods for project designing in the building construction industry have been developed by introducing modern and powerful BIM tools. Several of today’s constructions are designed according to three-dimensional principles.Tekla Structures is a powerful BIM tool that is capable of managing both house and infrastructure constructions. Despite this, the program cannot handle bridges with a horizontal and vertical curvature efficiently. The designers must instead rely on several other applications to manage complex bridge constructions.In order to use the advantages of Tekla Structures, the software needs to be evolved or complimented by other third party softwares. This project aims to integrate new working technics and introduce a method based on parametric design in Tekla Structures. Such form of modeling enables the modification of parameters to a desired model for the user.A script is created through a visual programming extension that generates a parametric based bridge models. The bridge type in this project was designed, is an integral bridge.The project has proved that parametric based design is more effectively and a solution to manage bridges with horizontal and vertical curvature.

  • 182. Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Smart Baggage in Aviation2011In: Proceedings - 2011 IEEE International Conferences on Internet of Things and Cyber, Physical and Social Computing, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the Internet has dramatically changed the way people take the normal course of actions. By the recent growth of the Internet, connecting different objects to users through mobile phones and computers is no longer a dream. Aviation industry is one of the areas which have a strong potential to benefit from the Internet of Things. Among many problems related to air travel, delayed and lost luggage are the most common and irritating. Therefore, this paper suggests anew baggage control system, where users can simply track their baggage at the airport to avoid losing them. Attaching a particular pattern on the bag, which can be detected and localized from long distance by an ordinary camera, users are able to track their baggage. The proposed system is much cheaper than previous implementations and does not require sophisticated equipment.

  • 183. Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Li, Haibo
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Direct Head Pose Estimation Using Kinect-type Sensors2014In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 184. Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Liu, Li
    Li, Haibo
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, China .
    Head Operated Electric Wheelchair2014In: Proceedings of the IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation, 2014, p. 53-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, the most common way to control an electric wheelchair is to use joystick. However, there are some individuals unable to operate joystick-driven electric wheelchairs due to sever physical disabilities, like quadriplegia patients. This paper proposes a novel head pose estimation method to assist such patients. Head motion parameters are employed to control and drive an electric wheelchair. We introduce a direct method for estimating user head motion, based on a sequence of range images captured by Kinect. In this work, we derive new version of the optical flow constraint equation for range images. We show how the new equation can be used to estimate head motion directly. Experimental results reveal that the proposed system works with high accuracy in real-time. We also show simulation results for navigating the electric wheelchair by recovering user head motion.

  • 185.
    Abedi, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Falk, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Motivation på byggarbetsplatsen2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Working as a craftsman on a construction site is a demanding job, both physically and psychologically. Tight schedules, hard conditions or challenging task awaits the craftsman each new working day. In order to complete a successful project the craftsmen are required to perform high results and show great commitment to their work. Motivation is thereby a key factor and a necessity for every successful project. The following study will investigate how the site management motivates their craftsmen and also how motivation can contribute to more successful construction projects.

    The study is based upon literature covering motivation, leadership and groups. Also, quantitative and qualitative studies have been performed in the form of personal interviews and surveys. The study has been performed on three similarly construction projects, all belong to Peab bostad. Each site manager has been interviewed and the craftsmen have participated in a survey. The craftsmen experienced that their salary was the biggest source of motivation. Other softer factors such as fellowship and appreciation were also important, though not in the same extent as the monetary rewards. The site management shared the craftsmen’s opinions; however one common thought was that the softer factor would have bigger influence on the motivation.

    The result of the study clearly shows that the salary is and remains a big factor of motivation for the craftsmen. However the key to high and long ‐standing motivation lies within the development of the softer factors. The study shows that a high motivation leads to a higher well‐being and commitment to the project. This contributes in making the projects more profitable and thereby successful.

    To obtain this high motivation effort and planning from the site management is required. The implementation of daily rounds on the site has shown to be an effective way to enhance the motivation. During these rounds the site manger discusses problems and plans upcoming tasks in an informal manner. When the craftsmen feel noticed, appreciated and that their ideas can influence the project their motivation will enhance. The site manager also needs to create opportunities for the craftsmen so they can continue to perform on a high level and give them the liberty to control their own work. The study can be summed up in that freedom under responsibility, appreciation, participation, thoughtful planning and a high salary are the main factors that will create a high long lasting motivation amongst the crafts men

  • 186.
    Abedi, Aref
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Wallsten, Jakob
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Beslutsfattande inom Produktutveckling: Kartläggning, analysering & vidareutveckling av PPM process på ett medtech företag2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of ideas at innovative companies usually exceeds the amount of available human or

    material recourses, this include ideas for development of new products. Since they are not able to do

    everything they want to do they have to choose between ideas to develop new products. This includes

    the decision on when to start, stop or kill a project as well as the thought process of prioritizing between

    ongoing and potential projects.

    Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is an organizational process, with the purpose of systematically

    organizing and running the activities that aim to evaluate, select and prioritize ideas and projects for

    developing new products. PPM include four major goals to be fulfilled; Maximizing Value of the

    Portfolio, Achieving a Balanced Portfolio, Achieving a Strategic Alignment and Running the Right

    Number of Projects.

    The purpose of the thesis was to develop a more visual and formal PPM process for the early stages in

    product development in one department at St Jude Medical AB, Sweden.

    The thesis was conducted by following a methodology known as Process Modules. The methodology is

    an approach for developing a PPM process that fits a specific company. The methodology is not a

    defined work procedure for decision making but rather a systematic method for developing one.

    The thesis was conducted by working closely with a defined Work Group consisting of six decision

    makers at St Jude Medical AB, Sweden. Initially, the authors managed to map the current PPM process

    at the department in focus which showed to be rather informal and not using formal criteria. Together

    with the Work Group, the process was formalized and visualized. During a workshop, a set of selection

    criteria were identified and defined, and so was a set of balance criteria. Finally, the new PPM process

    was defined and visualized by the authors.

    A number of overall important reflections were concluded by the authors after conducting this master

    thesis. The main reflection is the fact that every PPM process is, and needs to be, company specific.

    Further on, when developing a PPM process it is of great importance to involve management and

    involved staff in the actual procedure, in order to increase the understanding of the final process.

  • 187.
    Abedin, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Asadollahi, Ali
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Garidis, Konstantinos
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics.
    Epitaxial growth of Ge strain relaxed buffer on Si with low threading dislocation density2016In: ECS Transactions, Electrochemical Society, 2016, no 8, p. 615-621Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial Ge with low dislocation density is grown on a low temperature grown Ge seed layer on Si substrate by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. The surface topography measured by AFM shows that the strain relaxation occurred through pit formation which resulted in freezing the defects at Ge/Si interface. Moreover a lower threading dislocation density compared to conventional strain relaxed Ge buffers on Si was observed. We show that by growing the first layer at temperatures below 300 °C a surface roughness below 1 nm can be achieved together with carrier mobility enhancement. The different defects densities revealed from SECCO and Iodine etching shows that the defects types have been changed and SECCO is not always trustable.

  • 188.
    Abedin, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Moeen, Mahdi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Cappetta, Carmine
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Sensitivity of the crystal quality of SiGe layers grown at low temperatures by trisilane and germane2016In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 613, p. 38-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates the crystal quality of SiGe layers grown at low temperatures using trisilane, and germane precursors. The crystal quality sensitivity was monitored for hydrogen chloride and/or minor oxygen amount during SiGe epitaxy or at the interface of SiGe/Si layers. The quality of the epi-layerswas examined by quantifying noise parameter, K-1/f obtained from the power spectral density vs. 1/f curves. The results indicate that while it is difficult to detect small defect densities in SiGe layers by physical material characterization, the noise measurement could reveal the effects of oxygen contamination as low as 0.16mPa inside and in the interface of the layers.

  • 189.
    Abedin, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Noroozi, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Radamson, Henry.H
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    GeSnSi CVD Epitaxy using Silane, Germane, Digermane, and Tin tetrachlorideArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, strain relaxed and compressive strained Ge1-x-ySnxSiy (0.015≤x≤0.15 and 0≤y≤0.15) layers were epitaxially grown on Si substrate in a chemical vapor deposition reactor at atmospheric pressure. Digermane (Ge2H6) and germane (GeH4) were used as Ge precursors and tin tetrachloride (SnCl4) was used as Sn precursor. The growth temperature was kept below 400ᵒC to suppress Sn out diffusion. The layers crystal quality and strain were characterized using XRD, high resolution reciprocal lattice mapping and transmission electron microscopy and the surface morphology was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, the low temperature epitaxial growth up to 15% Si atoms incorporation in Ge0.94Sn0.06 was demonstrated by adding silane (SiH4) as Si precursor. Sn contents calculated from high resolution XRD patterns were confirmed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy which shows that Sn atoms are mostly positioned in substitutional sites. AFM analysis showed below 1nm surface roughness for both strained and strain relaxed GeSn layers which make the promising materials for photonics and electronics applications.

  • 190.
    Abedin, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Zurauskaite, Laura
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Asadollahi, Ali
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. KTH.
    GOI fabrication for Monolithic 3D integrationIn: Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Abedin, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Zurauskaite, Laura
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Asadollahi, Ali
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Garidis, Konstantinos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Jayakumar, Ganesh
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Malm, B. Gunnar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    GOI fabrication for monolithic 3D integration2018In: 2017 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Unified Conference, S3S 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, Vol. 2018, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low temperature (Tmax=350 °C) process for Ge on insulator (GOI) substrate fabrication with thicknesses of less than 25 nm is reported in this work. The process is based on a single step epitaxial growth of a Ge/SiGe/Ge stack on Si, room temperature wafer bonding, and an etch-back process using Si0.5Ge0.5 as an etch-stop layer. Using this technique, GOI substrates with surface roughness below 0.5 nm, thickness nonuniformity of less than 3 nm, and residual p-type doping of less than 1016 cm-3 are achieved. Ge pFETs are fabricated (Tmax=600 °C) on the GOI wafer with 70% yield. The devices exhibit a negative threshold voltage of-0.18 V and 60% higher mobility than the SOI pFET reference devices.

  • 192.
    Abedini, Pegah
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Lag 2010:879 om allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag: Hur den implementerats av aktörerna2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Den första januari 2011 trädde lagen om allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag i kraft. Dess ändamål var att jämställa konkurrensen sinsemellan de privata fastighetsägarna och de allmännyttiga kommunala bostadaktiebolagen. Lagen yrkade främst på att de allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolagen skulle agera mer affärsmässigt för att konkurrensen inte skulle snedvridas. Kommunen som ägare var bland annat tvungen att ställa tydligare krav på bolagen genom att ta ut marknadsmässiga borgensavgifter och låneräntor samt ställa marknadsmässiga avkastningskrav.

    Frågan är nu hur de allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolagen agerat utifrån dessa nya förutsättningar sedan lagen trädde i kraft den 1 januari 2011. Uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka hur den nya lagen om allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag har implementerats av aktörerna på bostadshyresmarknaden. Målet med uppsatsen är att klarlägga konsekvenserna av lagen för aktörerna på bostadshyresmarknaden, tydliggöra dess implikationer för beslutsfattare i de kommunala bostadsaktiebolagen samt kunna ge kommunerna bättre underlag i besluten rörande sina bolag.

    Metod:

    Enkätstudie där vd:ar från allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag har tillfrågats angående bolagets och kommunens agerande och inställning sedan lagen ikraftträdde.

    Avgränsning:

    Enkätstudien har avgränsats till att omfatta vd:ar på kommunala bostadsaktiebolag i Sverige, rörande händelser som inträffat sedan den 1 januari 2011. Vd:ar på bolag belägna i Stockholms Län, Uppsala län, Södermanlands Län, Östergötlands Län, Jönköpings Län samt Västra Götalands Län har medverkat i enkäten.

    Resultat och slutsats:

    De kommunala allmännyttiga bostadsaktiebolagen instämmer allmänt i att de agerar mer affärsmässigt sedan den nya lagen introducerades. Avkastningskraven i ägardirektiven har setts över, och de kommunala borgens– och ränteavgifterna har generellt sett ökat sedan lagen trädde i kraft.

  • 193. Abel, S
    et al.
    Bäbler, Matthäus
    ETH, Inst Chem & Bioengn, Dept Chem & Appl Biosci.
    Arpagaus, C
    Mazzotti, M
    Stadler, J
    Two-fraction and three-fraction continuous simulated moving bed separation of nucleosides2004In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1043, no 2, p. 201-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     A new experimental set-up and a new simulated moving bed (SMB) operation are presented in this work. A desktop SMB unit developed as a modification of the commercial AKTA(TM) explorer working platform has been utilized for the separation of different mixtures of nucleosides. Both two fraction and three fraction SMB separations have been carried out, the latter made possible by the adoption of a new SMB configuration and operating mode (three fraction SMB, 3F-SMB, operation). Experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the 3F-SMB operation, and confirm the trends predicted based on considerations about retention of the components to be separated along the unit. 

  • 194.
    Abela,, Eric
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Davidsson, Rasmus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Flexibility in the Office Market – A casestudy of the serviced office space ofGarnisonen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The market for serviced office space has gone from previously solely consisting of premises in poor

    locations and of poor standards to presently consisting of a wide spectrum of properties ranging in

    location, standard and level of service. As the demand for flexibility increases in society, the serviced

    office space has become an increasingly greater part of the total office market and an important

    complement to the ordinary office market, in order to stimulate growth for smaller companies.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how the demand for serviced office space in B-locations in

    Stockholm is shaped and how important different factors are for businesses when choosing serviced

    office space. With this in mind we will then form a recommendation for how the serviced office space

    “Garnisonen” should be positioned on the market.

    To answer these questions a case study of Garnisonen serviced office space was conducted. Data has

    been collected through interviews, surveys and a literature review.

    Through our work we found that tenants that chose serviced office spaces in B-locations in Stockholm

    put the highest value in flexibility, simplicity, and the possibility to lease a fully functional office with

    only a few places.

    The physical environment isn’t the primary factor for success of serviced office space in B-locations in

    Stockholm. One of the most important factors for success, and to achieve tenant satisfaction, of serviced

    office space is to create a platform for networking between different companies and to create a social

    place where the companies can meet, which furthers their collective growth.

  • 195.
    Abela, Eric
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Qattan, Nessrin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Transaktioner på den kommersiella fastighetsmarknaden 2011: Trender och fallstudier2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att kartlägga några av de största transaktionerna på den svenska fastighetsmarknaden under 2011. Detta år har kännetecknats av lägre transaktionsvolym än föregående år, bland annat på grund av ett osäkrare ekonomiskt läge.

    Teorin har sin utgångspunkt i vilka aktörer som finns på marknaden och vilken roll konsulten, utländska investerare och banker spelar samt hur utvecklingen av fastighetstransaktions marknaden i Sverige sett ut fram tills idag. Kartläggningen har gjorts på sätt att försöka få med de flesta typer av aktörer och utreda varje transaktion för sig samt ge en närmare analys av dessa.

    Kartläggningen visar att de största transaktionerna i Sverige under 2011 gjordes av både noterade och onoterade fastighetsbolag på köpsidan, samt onoterade fastighetsbolag på säljsidan.

    Att döma av fjolårets utveckling marknadsmässigt pekar en hel del på att den kraftiga tillväxten i Sverige kommer att leda till mer arbetstillfällen, med fallande vakanser och stigande hyror som konsekvens på den svenska fastighetsmarknaden.

  • 196.
    Abele, Andreas
    et al.
    Continental Gmbd, Germany.
    Johansson, Rolf
    SP.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    Hull University, UK.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical Univ of Berlin.
    Servat, David
    CEA, France.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Weber, Matthias
    Technische Universit¨at Berlin, DE.
    The CVM framework: A prototype tool for compositional variability management2010In: Proceeding of: Fourth International Workshop on Variability Modelling of Software-Intensive Systems, 2010, p. 101-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article announces the first public release ofan experimental research tool for variability management,called “CVM framework” and provides an overview of thetool’s capabilities and architecture.

  • 197.
    Abelin, Sarah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Investigation of integrated waterlevel sensor solution forsubmersible pumps: A study of how sensors can be combined towithstand build-up materials and improvereliability in harsh environment2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring water level in harsh environment in order to handle the start and stop function of drainage pumps has been a major issue. Several environmental factors are present, which affect and disturb sensor measurements. Current solutions with mechanical float switches, mounted outside of pumps, wear out, get entangled and account for more than half of all the emergency call outs to pumping stations. Since pumps are frequently moved around, a new sensor solution is needed which can be integrated within the pump house and is able to continuously monitor water level to optimize the operation of the pump and to decrease wear, cost and energy consumption.

    This thesis presents an investigation how different sensor techniques can be combined to improve reliability for monitoring water level and handle the start and stop function of drainage pumps in harsh environment. The main focus has been to identify suitable water level sensing techniques and to investigate how sensors are affected by build-up materials building up on the pump surface and covering the sensor probes. A support vector machine algorithm is implemented to fuse sensor data in order to increase reliability of the sensor solution in contaminated condition.

    Results show that a combination of a pressure sensor and a capacitive sensor is the most suitable combination for withstanding build-up materials. For operating conditions when sensors are covered with soft or viscous build-ups, sensors were able to monitor water level through the build-up materials. No solution was found that could satisfactorily monitor water level through solidified build-up materials.

  • 198.
    Abella, Tricia Jennifer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The Creative Approach to Vanguard Projects2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A vanguard project is the firm’s entrepreneurial vehicle for exploring opportunities, creating new products, services or markets. This type of projects requires flexibility and innovation to thrive. In this regard, a creative approach to project management is proposed for the successful execution of such projects. This creative approach is summarized in a framework that consists of two main components – flexible planning and creative climate.

    The Central Services project, a vanguard in telecommunications, was used to benchmark the creative project management framework to the current project management methodology of the IT department of TIWS. Results show that there is a gap between the framework and the status quo. Moreover, the Central Services project is not efficiently and effectively managed, therefore, resulting to project delays which consequentially lead to negative company revenues. This reality strengthens the proposition that vanguard projects should be managed differently; hence, the birth of creative project management.

  • 199. Aberer, Karl
    et al.
    Alima, Luc Onana
    Ghodsi, Ali
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Girdzijauskas, Sarunas
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
    Haridi, Seif
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Hauswirth, Manfred
    The Essence of P2P: A Reference Architecture for Overlay Networks2005In: Fifth IEEE International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, Proceedings / [ed] Caronni, G; Weiler, N; Waldvogel, M; Shahmehri, N, 2005, p. 11-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of the P2P idea has created a huge diversity of approaches, among which overlay networks, for example, Gnutella, Kazaa, Chord, Pastry, Tapestry, P-Grid, or DKS, have received specific attention from both developers and researchers. A wide variety of algorithms, data structures, and architectures have been proposed. The terminologies and abstractions used, however have become quite inconsistent since the P2P paradigm has attracted people from many different communities, e.g., networking, databases, distributed systems, graph theory, complexity theory, biology, etc. In this paper we propose a reference model for overlay networks which is capable of modeling different approaches in this domain in a generic manner It is intended to allow researchers and users to assess the properties of concrete systems, to establish a common vocabulary for scientific discussion, to facilitate the qualitative comparison of the systems, and to serve as the basis for defining a standardized API to make overlay networks interoperable.

  • 200. Abermann, S.
    et al.
    Efavi, J. K.
    Sjoblom, G.
    Lemme, Max C.
    AMO GmbH, AMICA, Aachen, Germany.
    Olsson, J.
    Bertagnolli, E.
    Processing and evaluation of metal gate/high-kappa/Si capacitors incorporating Al, Ni, TiN, and Mo as metal gate, and ZrO2 and HfO2 as high-kappa dielectric2007In: Microelectronic Engineering, ISSN 0167-9317, E-ISSN 1873-5568, Vol. 84, no 5-8, p. 1635-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate various metal gate/high-K/Si capacitors by their resulting electrical characteristics. Therefore, we process MOS gate stacks incorporating aluminium (Al), nickel (Ni), titanium-nitride (TiN), and molybdenum (Mo) as the gate material, and metal organic chemical vapour deposited (MOCVD) ZrO2 and HfO2 as the gate dielectric, respectively. The influence of the processing sequence - especially of the thermal annealing treatment - on the electrical characteristics of the various gate stacks is being investigated. Whereas post metallization annealing in forming gas atmosphere improves capacitance-voltage behaviour (due to reduced interface-, and oxide charge density), current-voltage characteristics degrade due to a higher leakage current after thermal treatment at higher temperatures. The Flatband-voltage values for the TiN-, Mo-, and Ni-capacitors indicate mid-gap pinning of the metal gates, however, Ni seems to be thermally unstable on ZrO2, at least within the process scheme we applied.

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