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  • 1851.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Intelligent paper and packaging - Integration of microelectronics technologies into paper and packaging products2007In: International Paperworld IPW, ISSN 1615-1720, no 11, 56-58 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of microelectronics technologies and intelligent packaging into the paper and packaging products are creating new business opportunities. Intelligent and interactive packaging aims to make traditional food packaging smart, active and user-friendly. he printed optical code or integrated radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips will allow the customers to link the products directly to mobile Internet through the camera or near field communication. The paper can be used as a paper-based biochip for biochemical analysis by integrating biochemical sensors or a sensor array. VINN Excellence iPack Center has been established with the focus on ubiquitous intelligence in paper and packaging. The center will establish collaborations between the forest products industry, the electronics industry and the biomedical industry in the area of intelligent paper and packaging for biomedical applications.

  • 1852.
    Zhou, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Adding bandwidth specification to a AAA Sever2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) are key elements in network security. In many networks, clients can use resources only after they have been authenticated by an authentication server and authorized to use these resources. In some cases the server will also maintain accounting records in order for an operator (a provider of resources) to charge the account/subscriber for using the service. There are four main AAA protocols being used today. Of these RADIUS is the mostly widely used.

    This thesis starts with an introduction to AAA protocols, and then goes in the details of RADIUS. In order to perform a practical evaluation of how the AAA could be improved, FreeRADIUS was selected as the base code for this project; because this implementation is one of the most widely used RADIUS servers. A proposal for how to improve AAA performance is introduced and the implementation steps needed to realize these improvements are shown. Additionally, some experiments have been conducted to show both the correct functioning of the resulting implementation and to examine if there is a performance improvement. Following this some conclusions are drawn based upon a comparison with a traditional AAA server.

    A key element of the change in AAA which is proposed is the use of a non-binary IEEE 802.1x process. This new non-binary solution introduces a new type of AAA server and requires the re-thinking of a number of traditional AAA design decisions. It is expected that this change will have a significant impact, but will require some time for exposure, implementation by others, and a more extensive evaluation that was possible during the period of this thesis project.

    One of the most important conclusions drawn during this thesis is the difficulty of making a change in authentication and authorization, because of the large amount of interaction between both the various protocols and the standards which have been developed for these protocols. Thus one of the difficult aspects of the task is how to introduce a change in a protocol while maintaining backward compatibility for others who have not adopted this change -- without requiring the addition of a protocol version field.

    A second important conclusion is that doing this implementation in three separate parts with different students being responsible for the different parts revealed just how complex the interaction of protocol design decisions are. While a working version of the entire set of changes proved to be impossible, it was observed that the different parts could be decoupled more than initially expected.

  • 1853.
    Zhu, Kun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Hammouri, A.
    Jordan University of Science and Technology .
    Examination of data delay and packet loss for wide-area monitoring and control systems2012In: 2012 IEEE International Energy Conference and Exhibition, ENERGYCON 2012, IEEE , 2012, 927-934 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Timely and synchronized phasor data at high resolutions holds a great promise for more responsible and advanced power grid operations. It is expected that the combined effort of developing new application paradigms and the supporting Information and Communication Technology (ICT) will enable the evolutionary change for future transmission grid operation. This paper addresses the design of the supporting ICT system for Wide-Area Monitoring and Control applications considering system performance. The major contribution that distinguishes this paper from previous research efforts in the same area is that this study quantifies the end-to-end data delay and the received packet rate with considerations of different levels of data concentrations. The analysis performed in this paper is not merely limited to the performance issues caused by communication networks but also provides means to view and analyze the overall data delay of the entire supporting ICT system.

  • 1854.
    Zhu, Wanning
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Multipoint Relay flooding: Network coding improvements2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Network coding is a new research area with potential to reduce network resources. With network coding, intermediate nodes forward packets that are linear combinations of previously received packets.

    The type of networks we consider are vehicle mounted mobile tactical radio networks. Tactical communication may be required in areas where pre-deployed base stations are unavailable. Mobile ad hoc networks satisfy this requirement. Due to low antenna heights, network resources are scarce inmobile networks without base stations. Broadcast traffic, which disseminates information network-wide, is very important in tactical mobile networks. Multipoint relay flooding is a well-known technique for efficient distribution of broadcast traffic. It is therefore interesting to evaluate how much network coding can reduce the number of transmissions in a mobile ad hoc network. In this thesis we show that it is possible to further reduce the number of transmissions for Multipoints Relay flooding by using network coding. However, this improvement is largely theoretical - there has been no effort to evaluate this approach in practice.

  • 1855. Zhu, Xuncheng
    et al.
    Ding, Zhizhong
    Punyal, Oscar
    Gross, James
    Design and Implementation of Baseband Algorithms for OFDM-based Wireless Communication Systems2011In: 7th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM), 2011, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, 1-5 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is an appropriate solution to combat inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by multi-path propagation in wireless communications. OFDM-based wireless communication systems become more and more popular and the base-band algorithm is one of the significant parts of the systems. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of base-band algorithms for OFDM-based wireless communication systems. The results show that the designed algorithms are effective for implementation of the system.

  • 1856.
    Zografos, Alexandros
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Wireless Sensor-based Agricultural Monitoring System2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today energy resources are becoming scarcer and therefore more valuable. In conjunction with the population growth over last century, the need for finding new, more efficient, and sustainable methods of agricultural cultivation and food production has become more critical. To facilitate this process, we are designing, building, and evaluating a system for precision agriculture which provides farmers with useful data about the soil, the water supply, and the general condition of their fields in a user friendly, easily accessible manner. Our system aims to make cultivation and irrigation more efficient as the farmer is able to make better informed decisions and thus save time and resources.

    The diversity of location and climatic effects upon agricultural cultivation, along with other environmental parameters over time makes the farmer’s decision-making process more complicated and requires additional empirical knowledge. Applying wireless sensor networks for monitoring environmental parameters and combining this information with a user-customized web service may enable farmers to exploit their knowledge in an efficient way in order to extract the best results from their agricultural cultivation. The system can scale based on each farmer’s demands and the resulting ensemble of collected information may represent a valuable resource for future use, in addition to its use for real-time decision making. The design of the precision agriculture system contains a prototype solution regarding the sensor platform and a customizable service that can be utilized in different ways and by several entities.

  • 1857.
    Zou, Zhenhua
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Deadline-constrained maximum reliability packet forwarding with limited channel state information2013In: 2013 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), New York: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, 1721-1726 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers real-time packet forwarding over wireless multi-hop networks with lossy and bursty links. Our objective is to maximize the probability that individual packets reach their destination before a hard deadline. The loss processes on links are modeled by finite-state Markov chains. While the parameters of the Markov chains are assumed to be known, the instantaneous channel states are not accessible but have to be estimated from observations of successes and failures of actual packet transmissions. We formulate the forwarding problem as a partially observable Markov decision process and derive the optimal forwarding policy. A novel technique, based on maximum-volume inscribed ellipsoids, for computing approximate solutions with reduced implementation complexity is proposed. We further discuss structural properties of the value function and the optimal actions. Finally, numerical examples illustrate the power of the developed techniques.

  • 1858.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Impulse Radio UWB for the Internet-of-Things: A Study on UHF/UWB Hybrid Solution2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates Ultra-Wideband (UWB) techniques for the next generation Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) towards the Internet-of-Things (IoT). In particular, an ultra-high frequency (UHF) wireless-powered UWB radio (UHF/UWB hybrid) with asymmetric links is explored from system architecture to circuit implementation.

    Context-aware, location-aware, and energy-aware computing for the IoT demands future micro-devices (e.g., RFID tags) with capabilities of sensing, processing, communication, and positioning, which can be integrated into everyday objects including paper documents, as well as food and pharmaceutical packages. To this end, reliable-operating and maintenance-free wireless networks with low-power and low-cost radio transceivers are essential. In this context, state-of-the-art passive RFID technologies provide limited data rate and positioning accuracy, whereas active radios suffer from high complexity and power-hungry transceivers. Impulse Radio UWB (IR-UWB) exhibits significant advantages that are expected to overcome these limitations. Wideband signals offer robust communications and high-precision positioning; duty-cycled operations allow link scalability; and baseband-like architecture facilitates extremely simple and low-power transmitters. However, the implementation of the IR-UWB receiver is still power-hungry and complex, and thus is unacceptable for self-powered or passive tags.

    To cope with μW level power budget in wireless-powered systems, this dissertation proposes an UHF/UWB hybrid radio architecture with asymmetric links. It combines the passive UHF RFID and the IR-UWB transmitter. In the downlink (reader-tag), the tag is powered and controlled by UHF signals as conventional passive UHF tags, whereas it uses an IR-UWB transmitter to send data for a short time at a high rate in the uplink (tag-reader). Such an innovative architecture takes advantage of UWB transmissions, while the tag avoids the complex UWB receiver by shifting the burden to the reader. A wireless-powered tag providing -18.5 dBm sensitivity UHF downlink and 10 Mb/s UWB uplink is implemented in 180 nm CMOS. At the reader side, a non-coherent energy detection IR-UWB receiver is designed to pair the tag. The receiver is featured by high energy-efficiency and flexibility that supports multi-mode operations. A novel synchronization scheme based on the energy offset is suggested. It allows fast synchronization between the reader and tags, without increasing the hardware complexity. Time-of-Arrival (TOA) estimation schemes are analyzed and developed for the reader, which enables tag localization. The receiver prototype is fabricated in 90 nm CMOS with 16.3 mW power consumption and -79 dBm sensitivity at 10 Mb/s data rate. The system concept is verified by the link measurement between the tag and the reader. Compared with current passive UHF RFID systems, the UHF/UWB hybrid solution provides an order of magnitude improvement in terms of the data rate and positioning accuracy brought by the IR-UWB uplink.

  • 1859. Zu, L.
    et al.
    Ji, Y.
    Wang, Liping
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Zhong, L.
    Liu, F.
    Wang, P.
    Xu, J.
    Joint optimization in multi-user MIMO-OFDMA relay-enhanced cellular networks2011In: 2011 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conferenc, 2011, 13-18 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MIMO, OFDMA and cooperative relaying are the key technologies in future wireless communication systems. However, under the usage of these technologies, resource allocation becomes a more crucial and challenging task. In multi-user MIMO-OFDMA relay-enhanced cellular networks, we formulate the optimal instantaneous resource allocation problem including user group selection, path selection, power allocation, and subchannel scheduling to maximize system capacity. We first propose a low-complex resource allocation algorithm named CP-CP under constant uniform power allocation and then use a water-filling method named CP-AP to allocate power among transmitting antennas. Moreover, we solve the original optimization problem efficiently by using the Jensen's inequality and propose a modified iterative water-filling algorithm named AP-CP. Based on AP-CP, the AP-AP algorithm is proposed to allocate power adaptively not only among subchannels but also among multiple transmitting. Finally, we compare the performance of the four schemes. Our results show that allocating power among subchannels is more effective than among transmitting antennas if the average signal-to-noise radio of users is low, and vice versa. Furthermore, the AP-AP algorithm achieves the highest throughout especially for users near the cell edge.

  • 1860.
    Åhman, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Wallstersson, Marcus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    EVH2 protocol: Performance analysis and Wireshark dissector development2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    EVH2 is a proprietary application layer protocol developed by Aptilo Networks and used in their software product. Currently the only way to inspect EVH2 traffic is by using their own application. This application inspects no traffic other than EVH2. Since Aptilo continuously develops this protocol it is important to see how changes in the protocol affect its performance. This thesis examines possible ways to facilitate the use and development of the protocol.

    To analyse EVH2 network traffic along with traffic from other protocols another approach is needed. Wireshark is an application capable of inspecting traffic of multiple protocols simultaneously and uses dissectors to decode each packet. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of a Wireshark plugin dissector for inspection of EVH2 traffic.

    Performance tests of EVH2 will provide feedback about protocol changes. This thesis creates a platform for performance evaluation by introducing a test suite for performance testing. A performance evaluation of EVH2 was conducted using the developed test suit.

  • 1861.
    Åkervik, Mattias
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Network Gaming: Performance and Traffic Modeling2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are several different types of games that are played in multiplayer mode over networks. The type of network games that, from a network’s perspective, are the most demanding is real-time based multiplayer games. Users of such games both assume and require that game play interaction happens in near real-time and these games often support a large number of simultaneous players. Most networks are specialized to either voice traffic (such as the first and second generation of mobile networks) or data traffic (such as wired data networks). It is not clear that the requirements for such real time games can always be met on either type of network. The core of this thesis investigates the performance requirements real-time multiplayer games place on packet switched data networks and the connection between network impairments and game quality degradation. Traffic generated by network games distinguishes itself from other traffic both regarding its general characteristics and the requirements it places on the network. Understanding these traffic characteristics, requirements, and what consequences failures to support such requirements entail are of great importance when designing new networks in order to guarantee suitable quality of service for such real-time games.

  • 1862.
    Ålemark, Niklas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Specification and development of animage acquisition and processing systemwith IR communications capabilities1996Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The GSM network has experienced a fast growth after its introduction in 1992. A large number of users in several countries in the word now have access to a standardised digital cellular network. This fact has lead to that the network is being used for several other things than voice communications. One such application is the transfer of pictures. This requires a unit that can digitise pictures and adapt the digital image information to the characteristics of the GSM network.

    This report describes the specification and development of an image acquisition and processing system with IR communications capabilities. It also outlines some of the possible applications for such a system.

  • 1863.
    Åman, Erik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    A Distributed Cachefor Very Large Objects2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within a few years’ time, the Internet is expected to be used to transfer highquality video material and other bandwidth-demanding objects to a much larger extent than today. Users would prefer to be able to access such very large objects at an arbitrary point in time without any kind of preparation or advance planning. Offering such services on a large scale puts high demands on the network.

    Using a caching Web proxy server may increase the bandwidth and reliability perceived by the users while reducing the load on the network. This can be done transparently to the users.

    This thesis presents the principles for a caching Web proxy server better adapted to this expected traffic pattern. The bandwidth usage and transfer rate can be improved by taking advantage of the longer persistence of connections and by assuming that comparatively few objects will be popular at any given time. An experimental implementation has been developed in order to test the main principles. The new server is designed to operate in a distributed fashion by employing several cooperating servers at strategic points in the network. The system optimizes reliability and throughput by dynamically selecting from where to download objects based on current traffic and previous statistics.

  • 1864.
    Ótão Pereira, Pedro Miguel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Dimarogonas, Dino V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Family of controllers for attitude synchronization in S22016In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, 6761-6766 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study a family of controllers that guarantees attitude synchronization for a network of elements in the unit sphere domain, i.e., S2. We propose distributed continuous controllers for elements whose dynamics are controllable (i.e., control with torque as command), and which can be implemented by each individual agent without the need of a common global orientation frame among the network, i.e., it requires only local information that can be measured by each individual agent from its own orientation frame. The controllers are specified according to arbitrary distance functions in S2, and we provide conditions on those distance functions that guarantee that i) a synchronized network of agents is locally asymptotically stable for an arbitrary connected network topology; ii) a synchronized network can be achieved for almost all initial conditions in a tree graph network. We also study the equilibria configurations that come with specific types of network graphs. The proposed strategies can be used in attitude synchronization of swarms of fully actuated rigid bodies, such as satellites.

  • 1865.
    Ögren, Niklas
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Selecting/realization of Virtual Private Networks with Multiprotocol Label Switching or Virtual Local Area Networks2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many reports have been written about the techniques behind Virtual Private Networks (VPN) and Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS). They usually deal with the low level design of the software implementing a specific technique. The initial products are usually not mature enough to run in a large network or have to be adjusted in some way to fit.

    This report investigates the different ways of implementing strict layer 2 Virtual Private Networks in an existing nation-wide Gigabit Ethernet. The infrastructure in use, as well as the hardware, has to be used without major changes. Since 1998/1999, when MPLS first started in the laboratories, development has continued. Today it is possible to introduce MPLS or tunneled national virtual local area network into an existing network. This requires high speed, fault tolerant, and stable hardware and software.

    Going beyond the separation of traffic at layer 3 using Virtual Private Networks, i.e., IPSec, we can tunnel layer 2 traffic through a network. Although the first layer 3 VPN products are already in use, layer 2 VPNs still need to be evaluated and brought into regular use. There are currently two ways of tunneling VLANs in a core network: tunneled VLANs (or as Extreme Networks calls them, VMANs) and MPLS.

    This project showed that it is possible to start with a VLAN-only solution, and then upgrade to MPLS to solve scalability issues. The VMAN solution can not be used at Arrowhead, since there are too many disadvantages in the way Extreme Networks has implemented it. However, a mix of tunneling VMAN in a VLAN core is possible, and enables customer tagging of VLANs in a Layer 2 VPN. Furthermore, the testing of EAPS and per-VLAN Spanning Tree Protocol turned out well, and showed that EAPS should not be used when there is more than one loop.

  • 1866.
    Östlund, Pontus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Teleinformatics.
    Integration of an optical network element in a TMN system1999Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis project was to investigate how to control a new type of hardware, an optical add-drop multiplexer, and integrate it into a management system. One section of the report covers the design of this control/management system. The hardware for the optical add-drop multiplexer is also described.

  • 1867.
    Östman, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Automated Interface Switching for Wireless PDAs2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility has become one of the major driving forces behind the Internet research effort for the last couple of years. Many large computer companies have begun to shift their focus and are trying to converge into the telecommunications and computing market. With the huge potential market of mobile/cellular phones to build on, hybrids between cellular phones and computers are a very lucrative and relatively new area. Recent efforts to bring traditional telecommunications closer to an IP based environment (for example the development and deployment of GPRS) have created new possibilities for the future of mobile systems. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) have been around for a couple of years, and they are getting ever more advanced and powerful. Considering how it will soon be very easy to connect these PDAs to the Internet (or any inter-, intranet), using faster and less expensive carriers and technology than ever before, and the new services that can be offered as a result, the market for - and usage of - PDAs have the potential to grow even more rapidly than before.

    This Master of Science Thesis will investigate the current and near future development of wireless PDAs, give an analysis of the most suitable technologies and discuss the new capabilities they can provide to consumers. Software for Microsoft Windows CE will be developed which manages the network interface selection for a PDA. The software, which will be integrated with Microsoft Windows CE, will automatically select the best interface for internetworking when two or more networks are available.

  • 1868.
    Östman, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Parkvall, Stefan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Ottersten, Björn
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    An Improved MUSIC Algorithm for Estimation of Time Delays in Asynchronous DS-CDMA Systems1999In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, Vol. 47, no 11, 1628-1631 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of near–far resistant time-delay estimation in an asynchronous direct-sequence code-division multipleaccess system is considered, and by better exploiting the structureof the problem, estimators superior to previously known techniques are obtained. For a typical numerical example, a gain insignal-to-noise ratio of approximately 3 dB is obtained.

  • 1869.
    Özyagci, Ali
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Selfish Dynamic Spectrum Access in Multichannel Wireless Networks: Complete and incomplete information analysis2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing popularity and widespread deployment of wireless data systems fuel the increasing demand for more spectrum. On the other hand, various studies measuring spectrum utilization show that there is a huge variation in spectrum utilization at different times and locations. In view of this, various dynamic spectrum access (DSA) methods have been proposed in order to achieve more efficient utilization of spectrum resources by virtue of exploiting the variations in spectrum demand over time and space. Implementing DSA systems in a centralized way can lead to complexity and scalability problems due to the extensive control signaling involved. Therefore distributed implementations of DSA systems in which the users can access the system resources at their own discretion have been proposed. These distributed mechanisms typically incorporate cognitive radio systems which act as agents on behalf of users to measure the radio environment and make decisions based on these measurements. On the other hand, the freedom of the users in distributed systems to form their actions can lead each user to try to maximize its benefit from the system without regard the overall performance of the DSA system. Therefore, selfish behavior can prevail in distributed systems, which is likely to degrade the system performance.In this thesis we investigate the implications of selfish decision making in dynamic spectrum access systems. To address this broad problem, we focus our analysis on a particular system which can represent the essential properties of DSA systems and thus can shed light on the performance of the broad class of DSA systems with selfish users. Specifically, we model a DSA system as a multichannel random access system which uses ALOHA for medium access, and we analyze the behavior of the selfish users by modeling the system as a non-cooperative game. In this analysis we incorporate the effect of channel state information on the decision making of the users; we consider both cases when the users act on global (complete) and on local (incomplete) information. We determine the behavior of the selfish users at the Nash equilibria of the non-cooperative game and measure the performance of the system in terms of sum and individual utilities for various user loads and amount of available resources. We try to identify how the performance of the DSA system with selfish users compares with its cooperative counterpart. By performing these analyses we provide insights into the broader question of whether selfish users can utilize spectrum resources in a DSA system as well as cooperative users.

  • 1870.
    Özyagci, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Ileri, Ömer
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Zander, Jens
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Distributed multichannel random access networks with selfish users2010In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks Communications (CROWNCOM), 2010, 2010, 5577687- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) schemes allow the users to share spectrum resources by taking advantage of the variations in spectrum demand over time and space. Carrying out dynamic spectrum allocation centrally, however, can be a complex task. For this reason, distributed schemes in which users can access the available channels independently may be preferable to centralized DSA schemes. Cognitive radio systems, which enable user terminals to sense their environment and form their action accordingly, are particularly well-suited for distributed systems. On the other hand, the freedom in distributed schemes gives the users the option to act selfishly, which has decisive effects on system performance. In this paper we consider a distributed multichannel wireless random access system where users selfishly access the channels in the system. We analyze the behavior of the selfish users by modeling the system as a non-cooperative game and we identify all stable operating points (Nash equilibria) of this game. We then compare the performance of this system with a number of cooperative distributed DSA schemes in terms of user utilities. Our results show that the performance of the selfish multichannel random access system can be comparable to cooperative schemes.

  • 1871.
    Özyagci, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Sung, Ki Won
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Zander, Jens
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Effect of propagation environment on area throughput of dense WLAN deployments2013In: 9th IEEE Broadband wireless access workshop (BWA 2013), IEEE Computer Society, 2013, 333-338 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor wireless LAN deployments have become ubiquitous. As WLAN deployments become increasingly dense, WLANs start to cause more and more contention and interference to each other, to the point that they cause significant throughput degradation to other WLANs. Since WLANs are one of the most commonplace solutions to provide indoor broadband data access, it is crucial to assess the throughput limits of WLANs in order to understand at what demand level novel broadband access mechanisms will be critically needed. The amount of contention and interference that coexisting WLANs create on each other is influenced by the indoor propagation environment such as existence of walls or clutter. Although the indoor propagation environment has a significant impact on the interaction between WLANs, and consequently on the area throughput, the relationship between the indoor propagation environment and achievable area throughput has not received much attention. In this paper, we investigate the area throughput of densely deployed WLANs in different indoor propagation environments by conducting detailed MAC layer simulations using OPNET. The results show that the propagation conditions have a profound impact on achievable area throughput; as much as several tens of times increase in highly cluttered environments compared to open areas.

  • 1872.
    Özyagci, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Zander, Jens
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Distributed Dynamic Spectrum Access in Multichannel Random Access Networks with Selfish Users2010In: Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2010 IEEE, IEEE , 2010, 1-6 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic spectrum allocation schemes enable users to share spectrum resources by exploiting the variations in spectrum demand over time and space. Performing dynamic spectrum allocation centrally can be prohibitively complex. Therefore distributed schemes in which users can access the available channels independently may be preferable to centralized allocation. However, in distributed dynamic spectrum access, the lack of central coordination makes it difficult to utilize the system resources efficiently. Furthermore, if some or all of the users decide to deviate selfishly from the commonly agreed access procedure, this may have a decisive effect on system performance. In this paper we investigate the effect of incomplete information and selfish behavior on system performance in wireless access systems. We extend previous work by studying a distributed multichannel wireless random access system. Using a game-theoretic approach, we analyze the behavior of users in the selfish system and derive the transmission strategies at the Nash equilibrium. Our results show that lack of information leads to substantial degredation in performance of cooperative systems. We also show that there is a large incentive for selfish behavior in such cooperative systems. Selfish behavior of all users, however, causes further performance degradation, particularly in high load settings.

  • 1873.
    Özyagci, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Zander, Jens
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Selfish multi-channel random access in heterogeneous channelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the behavior of selfish users in a multichannel random access system in which the propagation characteristics of the available channels in the system exhibit different statistics. We formulate the behavior of the selfish users as a Bayesian game and identify the transmission strategies at the Nash equilibria. Following this, we propose a simple iterative algorithm to obtain the transmission probabilities of the selfish uses at the Nash equilibria and investigate the convergence properties of this algorithm. Using the transmission probabilities of the selfish users at the Nash equilibria, we analyze the performance of the MRA system with selfish users in terms of sum and per-user utilities and compare this system with its cooperative and scheduling system counterparts. We find that selfish behavior results in significant performance loss compared to scheduling and cooperative systems, which increases as the system load increases.

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