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  • 1.
    Iqbal, Asifa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Assessment of crime and safety issues in parks2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to obtain a better understanding of the importance of parks for urban quality, particularly for safety. This is achieved in two ways; first, by assessing parks’ impact on the perceived quality of the urban environment (whether it is incorporated into housing prices or not) in Stockholm. Second, the study investigates whether safety in parks may be assessed using principles of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) using a high-crime park in Stockholm’s inner city. The thesis starts with an introduction to the theme, with a brief discussion of background theory, literature review, the study area and the methods. Then, it reports the results of the articles included in the thesis and discusses their main contributions to the field of research.

    A mixed methods approach utilizes both quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Regression models and a Geographic Information System (GIS) were used in Paper I, which aims to clarify how park proximity affects housing prices and, when considering residential properties and park type, how crime rates in parks affect housing prices. Findings show that the further away an apartment is located from a park, the higher the discount on its price effect, but this effect (dependent on the park type), as an accumulated measure of parks, lowers prices or is negligible. Paper II assesses the use and adequacy of CPTED principles to guide the assessment of safety conditions of an urban park. The historical development of CPTED is presented followed by an analysis of a case study, Tantolunden, in Stockholm. Site observations, crime mapping, people count and interviews were conducted. Results show many entrances in this particular park defy the principles of access control and in turn impose limitations on park maintenance. Findings also show that interrupted sight lines create limited surveillance. The paper concludes by identifying the potentialities and challenges of CPTED principles when applied to safety in parks.

    Findings presented in this thesis are relevant for many stakeholders in society as results show the variation in crime and safety in urban parks, and the way they can be assessed and tackled.

  • 2.
    Iqbal, Asifa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin. KTH.
    How safe are women-only parks perceived to be?In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women-only parks (WOPs) are gender-exclusive spaces. In the Indian subcontinent, they have been a social norm for centuries, and they are widespread today. This article aims to investigate the nature of WOPs in Karachi, Pakistan, by (a) inspecting and assessing the environment of these parks based on crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) principles, (b) evaluating users’ and nonusers’ perceptions of safety, and (c) assessing how the environment of WOPs, inspected based on CPTED principles, relates to women’s perceptions. Field observations, a questionnaire survey, and interviews underpin the methodology. Results indicate that most users of WOPs feel safe there, but no significant differences exist between users’ and nonusers’ views of safety in public spaces in Karachi. Typical CPTED features (e.g. locks and gatekeepers) in WOPs seem to have a positive influence on park users’ perception of safety. The article concludes with a discussion of the results and implications for future research.

  • 3.
    Iqbal, Asifa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE). KTH.
    Park Matters:: Studies on Safety and Property Values2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study develops a better understanding of the nature of urban parks from a safety perspective in two international contexts. To achieve this aim, the study is divided into two geographical scales (a macro scale and a micro scale) that test a set of quantitative and qualitative research methods. The macro-scale analysis provides an overall view of the effects of parks in the neighbourhood and at the city level. A particular focus is given to the impact of parks on housing prices. Overall, the findings show that parks function as an amenity that contributes to urban quality, which in turn influences property prices in Stockholm. However, this effect depends on a number of factors such as park type, location, and the level of safety and security of the parks. Safety also matters: Parks embedded in area with high-crime rates are less valued than in areas with low-crime rates. The micro-scale of study focuses on parks as a unit of analysis and looks at the environment of parks and how it triggers crime and affects people’s safety. The first analysis is based on whether—and, if so, how—park environments affect safety (crime occurrence) using the principles of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) as an inventory tool in a park in an area with a high-crime rate in Stockholm, Sweden. Building on the methodology from the first study, the second study investigates the nature of women-only parks (WOPs) in Karachi, Pakistan, by looking at both the environment of the parks and the users’ and non-users’ perceptions of safety. Regardless of context, the findings show that the safety conditions of a park are highly associated with the park’s environment (design and management features). Of importance to park safety are park size in relation to the number of access routes (entrance and exit points), the opportunities for surveillance in relation to the maintenance and the lighting conditions in parks. A clear lesson is that a CPTED-informed park design promotes guardianship and therefore should be encouraged, regardless of whether it is located in Stockholm or Karachi. However, the urban context does matter to park safety conditions and is highly dependent on the local, city-wide, and national contexts in which the park is embedded.

  • 4.
    Iqbal, Asifa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Ceccato, Vania A
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Is CPTED Useful to Guide the Inventory of Safety in Parks?: A Study Case in Stockholm, Sweden2015In: International Criminal Justice Review, ISSN 1057-5677, E-ISSN 1556-3855, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 150-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) has long been suggested as a guideline for improving safety in neighborhoods. Yet, little is known about the application of CPTED to urban parks. The aim of this study is to evaluate the adequacy of CPTED principles in guiding the inventory of safety conditions of an urban park. The study begins with a review of the development of CPTED ideas and then focuses on the inspection of a park with a relatively high level of crime in the city of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. Site observations, parks inspection, crime mapping of police-recorded data, and interviews with selected users and municipal stakeholders underpin the methodology used in this study. Findings indicate that design and management of the park affect the park’s safety conditions—attributes that are easily identifiable when using CPTED as guidance. The article concludes with several general lessons from using CPTED principles to inventory safety in parks.

  • 5.
    Iqbal, Asifa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Ceccato, Vânia A.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Does crime in parks affect apartment prices?2015In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 97-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A park is a desirable feature when people are purchasing a property. Buyers are ready to pay more for properties surrounded by natural amenities, such as a pleasant park. However, if a park is targeted by crime and disorder, then it may have a negative effect on people's appraisal. The aim of this study is to reach a better understanding of how parks and crime rates affect housing prices taking into account residential properties and parks type. Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, is used as the case study. The methodology has two stages. An extensive field work was performed in a selected number of parks to help characterize the parks in Stockholm. This information was gathered with secondary data about parks using Geographic Information System. This pre-assessment was later followed by the analysis of 2008s apartment sales using hedonic modelling to assess the effect of parks alone and in combination with crime rates. Results suggest that the effect of parks on prices vary by park type (increased with, e.g. features of cultural and national interest and decreased with ball games or boating facilities) while an aggregated measure of parks lowers overall apartment prices. More interestingly, findings show that the price of apartments tends to be discounted in areas where parks have relatively high rates of violence and vandalism.

  • 6.
    Iqbal, Asifa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Ceccato, Vânia A.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Is CPTED iseful to guide the assessment of safety in parks?: A study case in StockholmManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Iqbal, Asifa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin. KTH.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Park Proximity, Crime and Apartment Prices2017In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parks and open green spaces are an important part of the city landscape. Although studies show that proximity to parks and open green spaces has a mostly positive impact on house prices, several studies also report that crime in parks can affect buyers’ perceptions, making nearby properties less desirable. We examine the effects of park proximity and crime in parks on apartment prices by using geographic information systems and hedonic modelling. Our results indicate that grass parks and park blocks are more desirable than landscape parks and neighbourhood parks in Stockholm. Our findings also confirm that parks in Stockholm’s city centre have a greater impact than parks on the periphery of Stockholm. Low-crime parks affect apartment prices positively.

  • 8.
    Iqbal, Asifa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Park proximity, crime and apartment prices2018In: International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, ISSN 1753-8270, E-ISSN 1753-8289, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 669-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose There is a lack of understanding in the literature on the relation between parks and house price in relation to crime in Scandinavian context. This paper aims to investigate the effect of the amenity value of accessibility to parks on apartment prices with reference to crime rates in parks in Stockholm. Design/methodology/approach This paper analyses the effects of park proximity and crime in parks on apartment prices by using geographic information systems and hedonic modelling. Findings Findings show that the proximity of parks as an environmental amenity has an effect on apartment prices. The results also demonstrate that the impact of parks on apartment prices is different in the different segments of the apartment market in Stockholm. Moreover, various types of parks may differ in their impact, for instance, grass parks and park blocks are more desirable in Stockholm than landscape parks and neighbourhood parks. The effects of crimes in parks influence apartment prices negatively. Originality/value This paper provides a new methodology by using the shortest distance to a park as a main variable. The shortest distance to a park variable is considered a better choice than using park as an aggregate measure. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the effect of specific park types, for instance, grass parks, neighbourhood parks, landscape parks and park blocks, in Stockholm housing market.

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