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  • 1.
    Noor, Imtisal-e-
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Coenen, J.
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Dahl, O.
    Åslin, M.
    Experimental investigation and techno-economic analysis of tetramethylammonium hydroxide removal from wastewater in nano-electronics manufacturing via membrane distillation2019In: Journal of Membrane Science, ISSN 0376-7388, E-ISSN 1873-3123, Vol. 579, p. 283-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In nano-electronics manufacturing, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is extensively used in the photo-lithography and etching processes, leading to a waste disposal issue. The present study focuses on TMAH wastewater treatment in nano-electronics industries by using membrane distillation technology. Actual TMAH wastewater samples were collected at imec, Belgium. An air gap membrane distillation bench unit was employed to perform the experiments for different operating conditions i.e., feed temperatures and flow rates. High quality water is recovered after reducing the TMAH concentration to 1 ppm and lowering the TOC to 0.8 ppm from 8 ppm. For the industrial scale TMAH wastewater treatment, industrial waste heat driven and district heating driven membrane distillation systems are designed and analyzed. It is determined that 14 GWh thermal energy is required annually to treat 20,000 m 3 of TMAH wastewater/year while considering 65 °C as the membrane distillation feed temperature. Expected unit water treatment cost is found as low as 16 $/m 3 of TMAH wastewater, roughly 80% lower than current disposal costs.

  • 2.
    Noor, Imtisal-e-
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Coenen, Jan
    Interuniversity Microelectronics Center (imec), Leuven, Belgium.
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Energy Technology.
    Dahl, Olli
    Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Performance assessment of chemical mechanical planarization wastewater treatment in nano-electronics industries using membrane distillation2020In: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 235, article id 116201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater from chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) processes in nano-electronics industries must be treated properly in order to fulfil local and international environmental regulations. This study is focused on a performance assessment of membrane distillation (MD) technology for CMP wastewater treatment. A new prototype of air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) module was utilized, with feed water consisting of CMP wastewater collected from imec, Belgium. The module was tested at different operating conditions (temperatures, flow rates and filtration time) and responses in terms of separation efficiency, permeate water quality, transmembrane flux, specific heat demand and exergy efficiency were determined. High quality permeate was produced in all trials, i.e. conductivity ~2.11 µS/cm, pH ~5.4, TOC ~1.13 ppm, IC ~0.24 ppm, TDS ~1.18 ppm and COD ~ 1.9 ppm; for most of the contaminants the separation efficiency was >99%. These findings clearly show that the resulting MD permeate does not exceed environmental regulations for release to recipient, and the permeate can even be considered for reuse. Moreover, the determined specific heat demand at different operating conditions was varying between 1390 and 2170 kWh/m3 whereas; the achievable exergy efficiency was ~19%.

  • 3.
    Noor, Imtisal-e-
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Dahl, O.
    Membrane distillation - A new approach for treating waste water in nano-electronics industries2018In: ECOS 2018 - Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, University of Minho , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a novel industrial application of membrane distillation (MD) is presented for waste water treatment in the nano-electronics industries. Previously reported performance of a semi-commercial Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) module is employed to evaluate the system operation in the terms of thermal energy analysis. To comply with thermal power demand in the MD systems, different integration possibilities between the MD unit and waste heat sources namely condenser outlet water from heat recovery chiller, process cooling water exhaust from manufacturing tools and hot air from Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) abatement combustion system are identified. Along with the technical assessment, this feasibility study has also involved the economic evaluation of the industrial waste heat integrated MD systems including unit water treatment cost. Results show the techno-economic viability of the proposed MD system integrated with industrial waste heat sources. 

  • 4.
    Noor, Imtisal-e-
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Aalto University.
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Santarelli, Massimo
    Department of Energy Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Exergy Analysis of Air Gap Membrane Distillation Unit for Chemical Mechanical Polishing Wastewater Treatment2019In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy / [ed] Faouzi Hidoussi, 2019, article id 608Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since Membrane Distillation (MD) is an energy-intensive separation process, therefore, it is vital to consider a realistic measure of energy evaluation for the MD system. Exergy analysis of Xzero flat-plate air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) laboratory and pilot scale units for treatment of Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) wastewater from Nano-electronics manufacturing is focused in this study. Experimental work has been performed using the bench scale AGMD system considering different operating conditions and chemical concentrations for obtaining the thermodynamic and physicochemical data for the exergy calculation. Moreover, previously reported performance of a pilot scale AGMD module is employed to evaluate the system operation in the terms of thermal energy in order to execute the exergy analysis. Exergy flow rates in the AGMD system, minimum work input required, total exergy gain by the system and by CMP wastewater, system’s component share for exergy destruction and exergy efficiencies were calculated. The exergy analysis outcomes show that higher amount of exergy flow rates are associated with the hot streams in the AGMD separation process. Minimum work input required was 0.5 kW at feed temperature of 358K and flow rate of 7.2 kg/min for bench scale unit whereas for pilot scale system, 1.5 kW minimum work input was required at the same feed temperature with flow rate of 20 kg/min. The exergy efficiency varied between 12-19% for bench scale AGMD system and 18-24% for pilot scale AGMD system. Moreover, it was found out that MD modules, hot water recirculation tank and cooling water tank are needed to be optimized for better performance.

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