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  • 1.
    Buchmann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. AIMES - Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at KI and KTH/ 3 Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Organic Electronics and Microphysiological Systems to Interface, Monitor, and Model Biology2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological processes in the human body are regulated through complex and precise arrangements of cell structures and their interactions. In vivo models serve as the most accurate choice for biological studies to understand these processes. However, they are costly, time-consuming, and raise ethical issues. Microphysiological systems have been developed to create advanced in vitro models that mimic in vivo-like microenvironments. They are often combined with integrated sensing technologies to perform real-time measurements to gain additional information. However, conventional sensing electrodes, made of inorganic materials such as gold or platinum, differ fundamentally from biological materials. Organic bioelectronic devices made from conjugated polymers are promising alternatives for biological sensing applications and aim to improve the interconnection between abiotic electronics and biotic materials. The widespread use of these devices is partly hindered by the limited availability of materials and low-cost fabrication methods. In this thesis, we provide new tools and materials that facilitate the use of organic bioelectronic devices for in vitro sensing applications. We developed a method to pattern the conducting polymer poly(3,4‑ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate and to fabricate organic microelectronic devices using wax printing, filtering, and tape transfer. The method is low-cost, time-effective, and compatible with in vitro cell culture models. To achieve higher resolution, we further developed a patterning method using femtosecond laser ablation to fabricate organic electronic devices such as complementary inverters or biosensors. The method is maskless and independent of the type of conjugated polymer. Besides fabrication processes, we introduced a newly synthesized material, the semiconducting conjugated polymer p(g42T‑T)‑8%OH. This polymer contains hydroxylated side chains that enable surface modifications, allowing control of cell adhesion. Using the new femtosecond laser-based patterning method, we could fabricate p(g42T‑T)‑8%OH‑based organic electrochemical transistors to monitor cell barrier formations in vitro. Microphysological systems are further dependent on precise compartmentalization to study cellular interaction. We used femtosecond laser 3D printing to develop a co-culture neurite guidance platform to control placement and interactions between different types of brain cells. In summary, the thesis provides new tools to facilitate the fabrication of organic electronic devices and microphysiological systems. This increases their accessibility and widespread use to interface, monitor, and model biological systems. 

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  • 2.
    Buchmann, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Enrico, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Holzreuter, Muriel Alexandra
    Reid, Michael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Zeglio, Erica
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Herland, Anna
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Defined neuronal-astrocytic interactions enabled with a 3D printed platformManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Buchmann, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Enrico, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Holzreuter, Muriel Alexandra
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Reid, Michael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Zeglio, Erica
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Herland, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Probabilistic cell seeding and non-autofluorescent 3D-printed structures as scalable approach for multi-level co-culture modeling2023In: Materials Today Bio, ISSN 2590-0064, Vol. 21, p. 100706-100706, article id 100706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To model complex biological tissue in vitro, a specific layout for the position and numbers of each cell type isnecessary. Establishing such a layout requires manual cell placement in three dimensions (3D) with micrometricprecision, which is complicated and time-consuming. Moreover, 3D printed materials used in compartmentalizedmicrofluidic models are opaque or autofluorescent, hindering parallel optical readout and forcing serial charac-terization methods, such as patch-clamp probing. To address these limitations, we introduce a multi-level co-culture model realized using a parallel cell seeding strategy of human neurons and astrocytes on 3D structuresprinted with a commercially available non-autofluorescent resin at micrometer resolution. Using a two-stepstrategy based on probabilistic cell seeding, we demonstrate a human neuronal monoculture that forms net-works on the 3D printed structure and can establish cell-projection contacts with an astrocytic-neuronal co-cultureseeded on the glass substrate. The transparent and non-autofluorescent printed platform allows fluorescence-based immunocytochemistry and calcium imaging. This approach provides facile multi-level compartmentaliza-tion of different cell types and routes for pre-designed cell projection contacts, instrumental in studying complextissue, such as the human brain.

  • 4.
    Buchmann, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. AIMES – Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at Karolinska Institutet and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden/ Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stoop, Pepijn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. AIMES – Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at Karolinska Institutet and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden/ Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roekevisch, Kim
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. AIMES – Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at Karolinska Institutet and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden/ Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jain, Saumey
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Kroon, Renee
    Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Müller, Christian
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Zeglio, Erica
    AIMES – Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at Karolinska Institutet and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden/ Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden/ Wallenberg Initiative Materials Science for Sustainability, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Herland, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. AIMES – Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at Karolinska Institutet and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden/ Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    In situ functionalization of polar polythiophene based organic electrochemical transistor to interface in vitro modelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Enrico, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. Synthetic Physiology lab, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 3, Pavia, 27100 Italy.
    Buchmann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Centres, Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences, AIMES.
    De Ferrari, Fabio
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Lin, Yunfan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wang, Yazhou
    Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronic Materials and Wearable Devices School of Materials Science and Engineering Sun Yat‐sen University Guangzhou 510275 P. R. China.
    Yue, Wan
    Key Laboratory for Polymeric Composite and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education School of Materials Science and Engineering Sun Yat‐sen University Guangzhou 510275 P. R. China.
    Mårtensson, Gustaf
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Mycronic AB Nytorpsvägen 9 Täby 183 53 Sweden.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Herland, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Centres, Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences, AIMES.
    Zeglio, Erica
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Centres, Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences, AIMES. Wallenberg Initiative Materials Science for Sustainability, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 114 18 Sweden.
    Cleanroom‐Free Direct Laser Micropatterning of Polymers for Organic Electrochemical Transistors in Logic Circuits and Glucose Biosensors2024In: Advanced Science, E-ISSN 2198-3844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising devices for bioelectronics, such as biosensors. However, current cleanroom-based microfabrication of OECTs hinders fast prototyping and widespread adoption of this technology for low-volume, low-cost applications. To address this limitation, a versatile and scalable approach for ultrafast laser microfabrication of OECTs is herein reported, where a femtosecond laser to pattern insulating polymers (such as parylene C or polyimide) is first used, exposing the underlying metal electrodes serving as transistor terminals (source, drain, or gate). After the first patterning step, conducting polymers, such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), or semiconducting polymers, are spin-coated on the device surface. Another femtosecond laser patterning step subsequently defines the active polymer area contributing to the OECT performance by disconnecting the channel and gate from the surrounding spin-coated film. The effective OECT width can be defined with high resolution (down to 2 µm) in less than a second of exposure. Micropatterning the OECT channel area significantly improved the transistor switching performance in the case of PEDOT:PSS-based transistors, speeding up the devices by two orders of magnitude. The utility of this OECT manufacturing approach is demonstrated by fabricating complementary logic (inverters) and glucose biosensors, thereby showing its potential to accelerate OECT research.

  • 6.
    Enrico, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Buchmann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    De Ferrari, Fabio
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wang, Yazhou
    KAUST King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia.
    Yue, Wan
    Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Herland, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Zeglio, Erica
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ultrafast Direct Writing of Polymers as a Simple Fabrication Method for Organic Electrochemical Transistors2023In: 2023 22nd International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, Transducers 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, p. 1543-1546Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic ionic/electronic conductors (OMIECs) offer a promising alternative to metals and inorganic semiconductors for direct interfacing between human-made electronics and biological tissues. A device that takes advantage of the mixed ionic/electronic conductivity of OMIEC materials is the organic electrochemical transistor (OECT). High-density OECTs are typically fabricated using costly cleanroom-based lithography and complex lift-off processes. To simplify the fabrication of OECTs, we propose laser direct writing of conjugated polymers using a commercial two-photon polymerization 3D printer. Ultrafast laser direct writing allows single-digit micrometer resolution and high-speed processing, thereby enabling a cost-effective and simple fabrication process.

  • 7.
    Matthiesen, Isabelle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. AstraZeneca, CVRM Safety, Clin Pharmacol & Safety Sci, R&D, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Jury, Michael
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Div Biophys & Bioengn, Lab Mol Mat, S-58183 Linköping, Sweden..
    Rasti Boroojeni, Fatemeh
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Div Biophys & Bioengn, Lab Mol Mat, S-58183 Linköping, Sweden..
    Ludwig, Saskia
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Holzreuter, Muriel
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Integrated Med & Engn Sci, Dept Neurosci, AIMES, Solna, Sweden..
    Buchmann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Integrated Med & Engn Sci, Dept Neurosci, AIMES, Solna, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Div Nanobiotechnol, Sci Life Lab, Solna, Sweden..
    Aman Trager, Andrea
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Div Biophys & Bioengn, Lab Mol Mat, S-58183 Linköping, Sweden..
    Selegard, Robert
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Div Biophys & Bioengn, Lab Mol Mat, S-58183 Linköping, Sweden..
    Winkler, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Microtechnol, Braunschweig, Germany.;Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Ctr Pharmaceut Engn, Braunschweig, Germany..
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Div Biophys & Bioengn, Lab Mol Mat, S-58183 Linköping, Sweden..
    Herland, Anna
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Integrated Med & Engn Sci, Dept Neurosci, AIMES, Solna, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Div Nanobiotechnol, Sci Life Lab, Solna, Sweden..
    Astrocyte 3D culture and bioprinting using peptide functionalized hyaluronan hydrogels2023In: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, ISSN 1468-6996, E-ISSN 1878-5514, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 2165871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Astrocytes play an important role in the central nervous system, contributing to the development of and maintenance of synapses, recycling of neurotransmitters, and the integrity and function of the blood-brain barrier. Astrocytes are also linked to the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocyte function and organization are tightly regulated by interactions mediated by the extracellular matrix (ECM). Engineered hydrogels can mimic key aspects of the ECM and can allow for systematic studies of ECM-related factors that govern astrocyte behaviour. In this study, we explore the interactions between neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and glioblastoma (U87) cell lines and human fetal primary astrocytes (FPA) with a modular hyaluronan-based hydrogel system. Morphological analysis reveals that FPA have a higher degree of interactions with the hyaluronan-based gels compared to the cell lines. This interaction is enhanced by conjugation of cell-adhesion peptides (cRGD and IKVAV) to the hyaluronan backbone. These effects are retained and pronounced in 3D bioprinted structures. Bioprinted FPA using cRGD functionalized hyaluronan show extensive and defined protrusions and multiple connections between neighboring cells. Possibilities to tailor and optimize astrocyte-compatible ECM-mimicking hydrogels that can be processed by means of additive biofabrication can facilitate the development of advanced tissue and disease models of the central nervous system.

  • 8.
    Matthiesen, Isabelle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Jury, Michael
    Rasti Boroojeni, Fatemeh
    Ludwig, Saskia L.
    Holzreuter, Muriel
    Buchmann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Selegård, Robert
    Winkler, Thomas E.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Aili, Daniel
    Herland, Anna
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Astrocyte 3D Culture and Bioprinting using Peptide Functionalized Hyaluronan HydrogelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Buchmann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Benselfelt, Tobias
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, ITN, Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, SE 60221, Sweden.
    Wang, Zhen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Khaliliazar, Shirin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Tian, Weiqian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Li, Hailong
    Fysikum, Stockhohlm University, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Herland, Anna
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Rapid prototyping of heterostructured organic microelectronics using wax printing, filtration, and transfer2021In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 9, no 41, p. 14596-14605Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 10.
    Yasuga, Hiroki
    et al.
    Keio Univ, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.;Ochanomizu Univ, Fac Core Res, Tokyo, Japan..
    Iseri, Emre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wei, Xi
    KTH. Univ Sci & Technol China, Hefei, Peoples R China..
    Kaya, Kerem
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Di Dio, Giacomo
    KTH.
    Osaki, Toshihisa
    Kanagawa Inst Ind Sci & Technol, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Kamiya, Koki
    Kanagawa Inst Ind Sci & Technol, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Nikolakopoulou, Polyxeni
    Karolinska Inst, Solna, Sweden..
    Buchmann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Sundin, Johan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Bagheri, Shervin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Takeuchi, Shoji
    Kanagawa Inst Ind Sci & Technol, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan.;Univ Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan..
    Herland, Anna
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. Karolinska Inst, Solna, Sweden..
    Miki, Norihisa
    Keio Univ, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan..
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Fluid interfacial energy drives the emergence of three-dimensional periodic structures in micropillar scaffolds2021In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 794-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structures that are periodic on a microscale in three dimensions are abundant in nature, for example, in the cellular arrays that make up living tissue. Such structures can also be engineered, appearing in smart materials(1-4), photonic crystals(5), chemical reactors(6), and medical(7) and biomimetic(8) technologies. Here we report that fluid-fluid interfacial energy drives three-dimensional (3D) structure emergence in a micropillar scaffold. This finding offers a rapid and scalable way of transforming a simple pillar scaffold into an intricate 3D structure that is periodic on a microscale, comprising a solid microscaffold, a dispersed fluid and a continuous fluid. Structures generated with this technique exhibit a set of unique features, including a stationary internal liquid-liquid interface. Using this approach, we create structures with an internal liquid surface in a regime of interest for liquid-liquid catalysis. We also synthesize soft composites in solid, liquid and gas combinations that have previously not been shown, including actuator materials with temperature-tunable microscale pores. We further demonstrate the potential of this method for constructing 3D materials that mimic tissue with an unprecedented level of control, and for microencapsulating human cells at densities that address an unresolved challenge in cell therapy.

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