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  • 1.
    Angelis, Stavros
    et al.
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Tidlund, Matthias
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Leledakis, Alexandros
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Lidberg, Mathias
    Chalmers university of technology.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Katzourakis, Diomidis
    Optimal Steering for Double-Lane Change Entry Speed Maximization2014In: Proceedings of ACEV'14 International symposium on advanced vehicle control, 22-26 September 2014,Tokyo, Japan, Tokyo, Japan: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study introduces a method for estimating the vehicle’s maximum entry speed for an ISO3888 part-2 double-lane change (DLC) test in simulation. Pseudospectral collocation in TOMLAB/ PROPT calculates the optimal steering angle that maximizes the entry speed. The rationale is to estimate the vehicle’s performance in the design phase and adapt the tuning to improve DLC ratings. A two-track vehicle dynamics model (VDM) employing non-linear tires, suspension properties and a simplified Dynamic Stability and Traction Control (DSTC) system was parameterized as a 2011 T5 FWD Volvo S60 using in-field tests and its corresponding kinematics and compliance (K&C) measurements. A sensitivity analysis on the parameters revealed certain trends that influence the entry speed, which can be varied from 69.4 up to 73.3 km/h when adapting certain vehicle features. To evaluate the method, the generated optimal steering control inputs for the simulated S60 were applied on the actual car motivating the further development of the method. 

  • 2.
    Arbuthnott, Andrew
    et al.
    Uneå University.
    Hannibal, Martin
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Renewing industry cluster development via interregional industry-university links2011In: International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, ISSN 1753-0679, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 604-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of developing regional industry clusters has grown alongside the need for industries and universities to be more interlinked. A regional automotive testing industry cluster, located in the north of Sweden, is the innovative empirical setting for this research paper. Following the logic of induction, it is discovered that as the regional industry reached a certain maturity, renewal was sought via developing links to universities within other regions in Sweden. A conceptual sensemaking lens is used to theorise upon the links thus formed and to develop new insights into regional industry renewal processes and interregional industry-university links. Practical insights stemming from the case are also explained, and future research directions provided.

  • 3.
    Bhat, Sriharsha
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Davari, Mohammad Mehdi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Study on energy loss due to cornering resistance in over-actuated electric vehicles using optimal control2017In: SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH - V126-10, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As vehicles become electrified and more intelligent in terms of sensing, actuation and processing; a number of interesting possibilities arise in controlling vehicle dynamics and driving behavior. Over-actuation with in- wheel motors, all wheel steering and active camber is one such possibility, which facilitate the control strategies that push boundaries in energy consumption and safety. Optimal control can be used to investigate the best combinations of control inputs to an over-actuated system. This paper shows how an optimal control problem can be formulated and solved for an over-actuated vehicle case, and highlights the translation of this optimal solution to a real-world scenario, enabling intelligent means to improve vehicle efficiency. This paper gives an insight into the Dynamic Programming (DP) as an offline optimal control method that guarantees the global optimum. Therefore the optimal control allocation to minimize an objective function and simultaneously fulfill the defined constraints can be achieved. As a case study the effect of over-actuation on the cornering resistance were investigated in two different maneuvers i.e. step steer and sine with dwell, where in both cases the vehicle assumes to be in steady state situation. In this work the cornering resistance is the main objective function and maintaining the reference trajectory is the constraint which should be fulfilled. A parameter study is conducted on the benefits of over-actuation, and depending on the type of over-actuation about 15% and 50% reduction in cornering resistance were observed during step steer and sine with dwell maneuver respectively. From a second parameter study that focused on COG position from a safety perspective, it is more beneficial for the vehicle to be designed to under-steer than over-steer. Finally, a method is described to translate the offline optimal results to vehicle implementable controllers in the form of both feed-through lookup-tables and rule-based feed-forward control.

  • 4.
    Daniel, Wanner
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Experimental implementation of a fault handling strategy for electric vehicles with individual-wheel drives2016In: The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks - Proceedings of the 24th Symposium of the International Association for Vehicle System Dynamics, IAVSD 2015, CRC Press, 2016, p. 147-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a fault handling strategy for electric vehicles with four individual-wheel drives, which are based on wheel hub motors. The control strategy to handle the faults is based on the principle of control allocation and is implemented in an experimental vehicle. Experimental tests has been performed with the experimental vehicle and with simulation. The results show that the directional stability of such a vehicle can be improved for the analysed manoeuvre and failure mode, and the tendencies of the experimental results correspond with the simulation results. It has been found that the lateral and yaw motion could be strongly improved. 

  • 5.
    Engström, Niclas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Andrén, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Fransson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Road grip test in Arjeplog2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish road administration sees a need to improve the road grip estimation capacity for the Swedish road system. The challenge is to find methods to measure road grip fast and reliable. There where six different system types at the tests in Arjeplog, three continuous, two system measuring road grip through deceleration and one system based on GPS and accelerometers. Two system types used air craft runway tires. The other systems used either studded winter tires or friction winter tires. Test runs where performed and road grip where recorded for three different surface types, old system 2000 ice, polished ice and new system 2000 ice. Weather data was collected during the three days.

    It is clear that all systems can detect changes in road grip. It is clear that continuous systems hold an information advantage over the sequence oriented systems. For measurements of road grip on winter roads, we recommend that rubber compounds adapted for cold conditions are used, as the resolution of the road grip measurement where better. In extreme condition like on polished ice, studded winter tires increase the road grip significantly.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Nybacka, MikaelLuleå University of Technology.Larsson, TobiasLuleå University of Technology.Lindgren, PerLuleå University of Technology.
    Using Timber in a multi-body design environment to develop reliable embedded software2008Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge for the automotive industry is to reduce the development time while meeting quality assessments for their products. This calls for new design methodologies and tools that scale with the increasing amount and complexity of embedded systems in today's vehicles.

    In this paper we undertake an approach to embedded software design based on executable models expressed in the high-level modelling paradigm of Timber. In this paper we extend previous work on Timber with a multi-paradigm design environment, aiming to bridge the gap between engineering disciplines by multi-body co-simulation of vehicle dynamics, embedded electronics, and embedded executable models. Its feasibility is demonstrated on a case study of a typical automotive application (traction control), and its potential advantages are discussed, as highlighted below:

    shorter time to market through concurrent, co-operative distributed engineering, andreduced cost through adequate system design and dimensioning, andimproved efficiency of the design process through migration and reuse of executable software components, andreduced need for hardware testing, by specification verification on the executable model early in the design process, andimproved quality, by opening up for formal methods for verification.

  • 7.
    Fredriksson, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Hyyppä, Kalevi
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Range data in vehicle dynamic simulation2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a way to merge range data into the vehicle dynamic simulation software CarSim7.1. The range data consists of measurements describing the surface of a road, and thus, creates a close to reallife 3D simulation environment. This reduces the discrepancy between the real life tests and simulation ofvehicle suspension systems, dampers, springs, etc. It is important for the vehicle industry to represent a reallife environment in the simulation software in order to increase the validity of the simulations and to studythe effects that uneven roads have on the systems. Furthermore, a 3D environment based on real life data isalso useful in driving simulators, when for example, analysing driver behaviour, testing driver response, andtraining for various driving conditions. To measure and collect data, a car was equipped with instruments anda computer. On top of the car, a SICK LMS200 2D lidar was mounted tilted downwards, facing the roadin front of the car. To create the 3D environment, all the individual measurements were transformed to aglobal coordinate system using the pose (position and orientation) information from a high-class navigationsystem. The pose information made it possible to compensate for the vehicle motion during data collection.The navigation system consisted of a GPS/IMU system from NovAtel. To reach high navigation performance,the raw GPS/IMU data were post-processed and fused with data from three different fixed GPS base stations.The range data were modified with a Matlab script in order to parse the data into a file that could be read byCarSim software. This created the 3D road used in the vehicle dynamic simulations. The measurements werecollected at a go-kart track in Lule°a, Sweden. Finally, tests have been performed to compare simulation resultsbetween using a 2D surface (i.e. flat) and a 3D surface (close to real life). It is seen that the simulation resultsusing the 2D surface is clearly different from the 3D surface simulation.

  • 8.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    Volvo Cars.
    Alexander, Lönnergård
    SEGULA Technologies.
    Mohit, Asher
    Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Analysis and optimisation of objective vehicle dynamics testing in winter conditions2017In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 945-969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective testing of vehicle handling in winter conditions has not been implemented yet because of its low repeatability and its low signal-to-noise ratio. Enabling this testing, by identifying robust manoeuvres and metrics, was the aim of this study. This has been achieved by using both experimental data, gathered with steering-robot tests on ice, and simulation models of different complexities. Simple bicycle models with brush and MF-tyre models were built, both optimally parameterised against the experimental data. The brush model presented a better balance in complexity performance. This model was also implemented in a Kalman filter to reduce measurement noise; however, a simpler low-pass filter showed almost similar results at lower cost. A more advanced full vehicle model was built in VI-CarRealTime, based on kinematics and compliance data, damper measurements, and real tyre measurements in winter conditions. This model offered better results and was therefore chosen to optimise the initial manoeuvres through test design and simulations. A sensitivity analysis (ANOVA) of the experimental data allowed one to classify the robustness of the metrics. Finally, to validate the results, the proposed and the initial manoeuvres were tested back to back in a new winter campaign.

  • 9.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    Volvo Cars.
    Andersson Eurenius, C.
    Volvo Cars.
    Donnay Cortiñas, J.
    Volvo Cars.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Validation of a Moving Base Driving Simulator for Subjective Assessments of Steering Feel and Handling2017In: 13th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, CRC Press/Balkema , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving Base Driving Simulators (MBDS) have a large potential to increase effectiveness in vehicle dynamics development. MBDS can reduce dependency on vehicle-prototypes by allowing subjective assessments (SA) of models. Little is, however, known about the relation of SA in MBDS and in physical ve- hicles. This paper aims to increase this knowledge, and proposes and implements a methodology to validate MBDS for SA of steering feel and handling. Firstly, vehicle models were generated from Kinematics & Com- pliance measurements of real vehicles. These models were validated versus objective tests, with steering ro- bots, of the physical vehicles. These vehicles and their MBDS-models were assessed by expert drivers, using a scanned-test track in the MBDS. Comparison of the SA in both environments enabled the MBDS validation. Promising results, with higher SA accuracy for handling than for steering feel, indicates that the major im- provement effort should focus on the steering model and its simulation in the MBDS.

  • 10.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Analysing vehicle dynamics objective and subjective testing in winter conditions2016In: The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks: Proceedings of the 24th Symposium of the International Association for Vehicle System Dynamics, IAVSD 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016, p. 759-768Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a test procedure developed to gather good quality data from objective and subjective testing on winter conditions. As the final goal of this test is to analyse the correlation between objective metrics and subjective assessments on winter for steering and handling, this procedure has to ensure a minimum change of the surface properties, which has a major influence on vehicle performance, during the whole test campaign. Therefore, the method presented keeps the total test time very low and allows similar vehicle configurations to be test- ed, objectively and subjectively, very close in time. Moreover, continuous maintenance work on the ice is performed. Reference vehicles are also used to monitor the changes on vehicle per- formance caused by weather conditions, which are inevitable. The method showed to be very effective. Initial results on objective metrics and subjective assessments are also presented. 

  • 11.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Correlations of subjective assessments and objective metrics for vehicle handling and steering: A walk through history2016In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 17-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving customer satisfaction concerning steering feel and vehicle handling requires subjective assessments and tuning of vehicle components by expert test drivers and engineers. Extensive subjective testing is expensive, time consuming and requires physical vehicles, which is in conflict with reduction of development time and cost. Objective testing and model-based development are constantly increasing but translating subjective requirements into objective ones is non-trivial. This paper summarises, discusses and classifies the methods, strategies and findings in previously published research regarding correlations of subjective assessments and objective metrics for vehicle handling and steering. The aim is twofold: (i) to identify key parameters of steering, handling and their preferred values and (ii) to compile and discuss the fundamental issues to deal with in the continued search for correlations between objective metrics and subjective assessments. The paper gives a comprehensive overview and insight of different aspects to take into account when conducting research in this field.

  • 12.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Findings from subjective evaluations and driver ratings of vehicle dynamics: steering and handling2015In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 53, no 10, p. 1416-1438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates subjective assessments (SA) of vehicle handling and steering feel tests, both numerical and verbal, to understand drivers’ use of judgement scales, rating tendencies and spread. Two different test methods are compared: a short multi-vehicle first-impression test with predefined-driving vs the standard extensive single-vehicle free-driving tests, both offering very similar results but with the former saving substantial testing time. Rating repeatability is evaluated by means of a blind test. Key SA questions are identified by numerical subjective assessment autocorrelations and by generating word clouds from the most used terms in verbal assessments, with both methods leading to similar key parameters. The results exposed in this paper enable better understanding of SA, allowing improving the overall subjective testing and evaluation process, and improving the data collection and analysis process needed before identifying correlations between SA and objective metrics.

  • 13.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Objective metrics for vehicle handling and steering and their correlations with subjective assessments2016In: International Journal of Automotive Technology, ISSN 1229-9138, E-ISSN 1976-3832, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 777-794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on increasing the available knowledge about correlations between objective metrics and subjective assessments in steering feel and vehicle handling. Linear and non-linear correlations have been searched for by means of linear regression and neural network training, complemented by different statistical tools. For example, descriptive statistics, the t-distribution and the normal distribution have been used to define the 95% confidence interval for expected subjective assessments and their mean, which makes it possible to predict the subjective rating related to a given objective metric and its area of confidence. Single- and multi-driver correlations have been investigated, as well as how the use of different databases and different vehicle classes affects the results. A method for automatizing the search for correlations when using the driver-by-driver strategy is also explained and evaluated. Ranges of preferred objective metrics for vehicle dynamics have been defined. Vehicles with characteristics within these ranges of values are expected to receive a higher subjective rating when evaluated. Finally, linear correlations between objective metrics have been studied, linear dependency between objective metrics has been identified and its consequences have been presented.

  • 14.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Machine learning to classify and predict objective and subjective assessments of vehicle dynamics: the case of steering feel.2018In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 150-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective measurements and computer-aided engineering simu- lations cannot be exploited to their full potential because of the high importance of driver feel in vehicle development. Further- more, despite many studies, it is not easy to identify the relation- ship between objective metrics (OM) and subjective assessments (SA), a task further complicated by the fact that SA change between drivers and geographical locations or with time. This paper presents a method which uses two artificial neural networks built on top of each other that helps to close this gap. The first network, based solely on OM, generates a map that groups together similar vehicles, thus allowing a classification of measured vehicles to be visualised. This map objectively demonstrates that there exist brand and vehi- cle class identities. It also foresees the subjective characteristics of a new vehicle, based on its requirements, simulations and measure- ments. These characteristics are described by the neighbourhood of the new vehicle in the map, which is made up of known vehicles that are accompanied by word-clouds that enhance this description. This forecast is also extended to perform a sensitivity analysis of the tolerances in the requirements, as well as to validate previously pub- lished preferred range of steering feel metrics. The results suggest a few new modifications. Finally, the qualitative information given by this measurement-based classification is complemented with a second superimposed network. This network describes a regression surface that enables quantitative predictions, for example the SA of the steering feel of a new vehicle from its OM. 

  • 15.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    Volvo Cars.
    Vestlund, Johannes
    Volvo Cars.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Berger, Christian
    Chalmer University of Technology.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Improving subjective assessments of vehicle dynamics evaluations by means of computer tablets as digital aid2016In: Computer software and hardware: Vehicle dynamics, SAE International , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle dynamics development relies on subjective assessments (SA), which is a resource-intensive procedure requiring both expert drivers and vehicles. Furthermore, development projects becoming shorter and more complex, and increasing demands on quality require higher efficiency.

    Most research in this area has focused on moving from physical to virtual testing. However, SA remains the central method. Less attention has been given to provide better tools for the SA process itself. One promising approach is to introduce computer-tablets to aid data collection, which has proven to be useful in medical studies. Simple software solutions can eliminate the need to transcribe data and generate more flexible and better maintainable questionnaires. Tablets’ technical features envision promising enhancements of SA, which also enable better correlations to objective metrics, a requirement to improve CAE evaluations.

    However, it cannot be assumed that a tablet-based solution is feasible in vehicle dynamics SA context. Any distraction might result in low SA quality and safety issues when test-drivers are subjected to high mental workload pushing the vehicles to their performance-limits.

    In this study, a SA tablet-software for steering feel, handling, and ride was developed and systematically evaluated versus the traditional pen-and-paper method. The results indicate that the new approach is technically feasible in this context, meets more use-cases, and the drivers’ attitude towards it is positive. It increased questionnaire completion and rating resolution while reducing the error rate and transcription time.

    Although attendees reported that the paper-based approach has advantages from a usability point of view, the benefits of the tablet-based approach enable further process-related advantages.

  • 16.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Simulation of Vehicle-Overhead Power System Interaction on Electric Roads2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the upcoming lack of oil and the environmental problems that conventional internal combustion engines are causing, electric vehicles have gained a growing interest during recent years. One solution to improve the efficiency of the existing road network is to make use of electric roads equipped with an overhead power system, thereby allowing also long-distance truck and bus transports to be powered by electricity without the need of heavy, bulky and expansive batteries.

    Providing electric power using an overhead power system has primarily been used in railway applications and only to some extent in road applications, for example in the case of trolley buses in urban areas. In this study, an overhead catenary system providing electric power to a long-distance truck by means of a pantograph mechanism that collects power through sliding contact with the overhead wire is analysed through simulation.

    A model of a truck equipped with a pantograph is developed and its interaction with an overhead catenary system model is simulated using the finite element method. The current collection quality is evaluated by analysing the pantograph-catenary contact force variation during the influence of different disturbances such as road irregularities and contact wire vibrations due to multiple pantographs.

    The study is an assessment of the possibility of using a conventional overhead power system developed for trains in a new context by providing power to long-distance road transports. The results show that the investigated disturbances influence the dynamics of the studied truck-pantograph-catenary system, nevertheless the contact force variation is within the allowed range according to the technical specifications for interoperability (TSI) for trains. It can be concluded that an overhead power system is a promising solution for a more environmentally friendly energy supply for trucks and buses at specific road sections.

  • 17.
    Ljungberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Katzourakis, Diomidis
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Electric Power Assist Steering System Parameterization and Optimisation Employing Computer-Aided Engineering2015In: Steering and Suspension Technology Symposium, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry strives to develop high quality vehicles in a short period of time that satisfy the consumer needs and stand out in the competition. Full exploitation of simulation and Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools can enable quick evaluation of different vehicle concepts and setups without the need of building physical prototypes. Addressing the aforementioned statements this paper presents a method for optimising the Electric Power-Assisted Steering (EPAS) ECU parameters employing solely CAE. The objective of the optimisation is to achieve a desired steering response. The developed process is tested on three specific steering metrics (friction feel, torque build-up and torque deadband) for two function parameters (basic steering torque and active return) of the EPAS. The optimisation method enabled all metrics to fall successfully within the target range. 

  • 18.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Evaluation of Safety Distance in Vehicle Platoons by Combined Braking and Steering2012In: Proceedings of 11th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Sept 9-12, 2012, Seoul, Korea, Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSAE) , 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Platooning is a way to increase the traffic flow and capacity on roads to handle the upcoming problems of traffic congestion and exhaust emissions. The aim with this work is to evaluate if the safety distance of platooning vehicles can be further reduced when both lateral and longitudinal control is implemented. The idea is that when the vehicle in front suddenly brakes the vehicle behind, if needed, is steered aside while braking and stops beside the preceding vehicle. The analysis is performed using a game theoretical approach and different detailed vehicle models. Results show that the safety distance can be reduced.

  • 19.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Distribuerad simulering och visualisering av fordonsdynamik i realtid2007In: Svenska Mekanikdagar 2007: Program och abstracts / [ed] Niklas Davidsson, Elianne Wassvik, Luleå tekniska universitet, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvalitet och funktionalitet gällande system i dagens fordon (bilar) beror till stor del på hur fordonsutvecklare och dess underleverantörer samarbetar under processen för fordonets utveckling. Brist på samarbete, och kommunikationssvårigheter, mellan leverantörer, fordonstillverkare, och även inom fordonsutvecklarens egen organisation skapar problem och förseningar, som ofta är kostsamma. Metoder och verktyg behöver utvecklas som stödjer hela utvecklingsprocessen, och samarbetet mellan de olika aktörerna, samtidigt som verktygen måste vara enkla att arbeta med och att implementera för att de ska användas för sitt tänkta syfte.

  • 20.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Exploring technologies for service provision in automotive winter testing2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles are becoming increasingly more complex in terms of, for example. Electronic Stability Program (ESP), Antilock Braking System (ABS), Traction Control System (TCS), and Active Rollover Protection (ARP), i.e. several different control systems that have to interact to perform well when driving. Hence, efficient testing activities are vital to ensure that the components and systems in the vehicle are functioning as intended. The testing activities at a proving ground initially seem to mainly incorporate technical aspects that focus mainly on the prototype vehicle and its components. However, services related to automotive testing are also important to ensure professional tests where the actors, here called service providers, are those who supply the proving ground and the subsequent services. Tracks to run the tests on are rather obvious, but there is also a need for administrative services, accommodation, logistics, access to local test drivers for endurance tests, mechanics, information and communication technologies, etc.

    The research presented in this thesis has studied “Which technologies have the potential to contribute to winter testing activities?”, “How can technologies support the testing activities?”, “How can the actors benefit from technology supported winter testing?”, and the guiding vision trough the work has been to contribute to service innovation in winter testing activities. A premise has been that technology, in particular vehicle dynamics and distributed engineering will be useful to contribute to the vision. The research has an explorative approach to winter testing, since previous research in this area is limited. The research, therefore, has embarked from a topic (i.e. vehicle dynamics) rather than a hypothesis. Still, the research project is based on previous research, specifically a technological framework for the transmission of real-time data from test vehicles to development facilities worldwide. The last three years of research used Action Research (AR) Participatory Action Research (PAR) and Participatory and Appreciative AR (PAAR) as a frame of reference, since it was considered important to involve both researcher and participants in the studies to evolve from the experience in the field and participate in group improvement or service provision changes. This approach resulted in the use of extensive empirical data to find supportive technical concepts for the service providers.

    Service providers were seen to continuously develop services at the proving ground, while looking for ways to provide better services, e.g. safety on the test tracks and correct and relevant information about the weather conditions. However, it can be argued that there is a focus on the more visible facilities, e.g. related to ice and land tracks, as well as a view of services to make people from the automotive industry comfortable when away from home, e.g. tourism and adventures. These are important. Yet, the advancement of automotive systems and more complex vehicles has “gradually” made testing activities more dependent on technologies. In this context, the technological services provided at the proving ground seem more invisible. This can relate to a perspective on technologies as the expertise area of OEM and Tier1. In turn, such a view makes it difficult to proactively take the next step in providing technological support. Yet, in the studies presented in this thesis it is found that the service providers already act as a competent and trusted partner in the testing activities. Further, the studies show that an upcoming challenge for OEM and Tier1 is the issue of developing well-defined methods to standardize tests. This is one opportunity for service providers to provide new or extended services. Therefore, in this thesis, Remote Test Management, steering robots and objective evaluation of vehicles are explained technically and outlined as being part of such service innovation.

  • 21.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Opportunities in automotive winter testing2010In: DETC2009: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME INTERNATIONAL DESIGN ENGINEERING TECHNICAL CONFERENCES/COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION IN ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, San Diego: ASME Press, 2010, p. 876-886Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to elaborate the challenges and possibilities in automotive winter testing in Sweden, in particular the use of fleet management framework and steering robots, which have shown to be an interesting area for future automotive winter testing. Data was collected from a number of interviews, workshops and surveys Automotive manufacturers (OEMs), Tier 1 suppliers and service providers (e.g. test track owners and winter test entrepreneurs) contributed to the data collection. In general, service providers want to approach their customers in the value chain to provide new or extended services. From the data, the automotive industry is constantly pressed by shorter projects, fewer prototypes and the lack of state-of-the-art test methods. Service providers find the use of remote technologies, such as fleet management, an important part of their service, especially connected to the safety of test-drivers and overall test track safety. Service providers also consider further research in the area of fleet management and remote technologies as a base for future services. The automotive industry states that the possibility to replay the last run from logged data in the vehicle enhances the services The use of steering robots during winter testing can provide an opportunity to run repeatable and standardized testing. However, the views here vary a lot between companies regarding the usability of the steering robots during winter testing. This indicates that further research on the issue of providing standardized winter testing is necessary. Work to extend a fleet management framework and a pre-study of the usability of steering robots in winter testing have begun, using the studies presented in this paper as a basis for this work.

  • 22.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Prospective service innovation in automotive testing: beyond distributed technology2010In: International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning (IJTIP), ISSN 1740-2832, E-ISSN 1740-2840, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 14-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a Remote Technology Management (RTM) solution is presented for the purpose of elaborating on how it can bring about opportunities for new innovative services in the automotive winter testing industry. The idea is to visualise how service providers can go from a product focus to a future where they take an active role as an expertise in the testing activities. Based on the premise that technologies like RTM can become a basis for novel services, the activities at a proving ground are described from three actors' point of view and discussed in terms of service innovation.

  • 23.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    He, Xuxin
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Links between subjective assessments and objective metrics for steering2014In: International Journal of Automotive Technology, ISSN 1229-9138, E-ISSN 1976-3832, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 893-907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of steering perception are decisive factors for overall driver preference and for vehicle safety. Car manufacturers are continuously required to tune the characteristics of the vehicle and have a strong need to be more effective in the design and evaluation of cars. Using only objective metrics (OM) can result in unwanted steering feel and using only subjective assessments (SA) is time-consuming, costly and non-repetitive. Before a tool can be built to predict the steering feel in front-end development and to improve design knowledge from the full vehicle level to the component level, links between subjective assessments and objective metrics must be found and analysed. The data collected for the study presented in this paper include subjective ratings from expert drivers and objective measurements made with steering robots, involving twelve expert drivers and over twenty vehicles across four different vehicle classes. Linear regression and neural network analysis (NN) have been used to explore reliable subjective-objective links. The tools and methods used in this research showed promising results. Most of the links found concern response and torque feedback. The preferred ranges of some crucial objective metrics leading to more desirable steering feel have been defined and presented. The results indicate that it would be possible for car manufacturers to develop new vehicles more effectively with a steering feel in line with the design criteria by using the tools and methods investigated in this paper. 

  • 24.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    He, Xuxin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Su, Zhicheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    LINKS BETWEEN SUBJECTIVE ASSESSMENTS AND OBJECTIVE METRICS FOR STEERING AND DRIVER RATING EVALUATION2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During development of new vehicles finding correlation links between subjective assessments and objective metrics is an important part in the vehicle evaluation process. Studying different correlation links is of importance in order to make use of the gained knowledge in the front end of development, during testing and for new systems. Both subjective assessments using the rating scale of 1-10 from expert drivers and objective metrics from different tests measured by a steering robot were collected by standard testing protocols at an automotive manufacturer. This paper evaluates driver ratings and analyse correlations by using Regression Analysis and Neural Networks through a case study approach. Links have been identified and are compared to related research.

  • 25.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    He, Xuxin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Su, Zhicheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Links between subjective assessments and objective metrics for steering, and evaluation of driver ratings2014In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 52, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the development of new vehicles, finding correlation links between subjective assessments (SA) and objective metrics (OM) is an important part of the vehicle evaluation process. Studying different correlation links is important in that the knowledge gained can be used at the front end of development, during testing and when creating new systems. Both SA from expert drivers using a rating scale of 1-10 and OM from different tests measured by a steering robot were collected using standard testing protocols at an automotive manufacturer. The driver ratings were evaluated and the correlations were analysed using regression analysis and neural networks through a case study approach. Links were identified and were compared with related research.

  • 26.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Karlsson, Tomas
    Agency 9 AB.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Vehicle validation visualization2006In: Proceedings of Virtual Concept 2006, Paris: Springer, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing complexity of embedded systems in automotive industry calls for more efficient testing and verification processes. This paper presents a visualization application for distributed real-time vehicle validation. Real-time data from vehicles are transmitted via wireless network from the test track to a simulation framework. The processed data from the simulation are distributed to multiple web based visualization clients. The Java™ based client presents data in a rich 3D environment thus enabling non-expert to understand behaviors of complex vehicle systems. The application will contribute to enhanced validation data presentation and the ability to collaborate in a distributed real-time virtual environment.

  • 27.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Collaboration in automotive winter testing: real-time simulations boosting innovation opportunities2007In: Trends In Computer Aided Innovation / [ed] LeonRovira, N, Brighton: Springer, 2007, p. 211-220Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of cars has during recent years become increasingly dependent on complex electronic systems used especially for safety but also comfort, performance and informatics. Automotive winter testing activities in northern Sweden is vital to test and try out those systems. A contradiction to increased performance is that faulty software also causes 30 % of severe malfunctions in the functionality of the car. To deal with these problems, as early in the design process as possible, innovative methods to cope with digital abstraction and the physical world in a unified way seems promising. One useful approach, in automotive winter testing, might be to support the possibilities for real-time vehicle simulations of the car in motion. The closer collaboration in the automotive industry might be an incitement for investing in technologies for knowledge sharing. Besides enhancing the product development process, additional knowledge might support innovations. Today, instead of providing parts similar to their competitors and relying on one or two automakers, successful suppliers focus heavily on innovation and on collaboration with a number of manufacturers on a global market. Due to the possibilities to visualize whole processes, the use of simulations seems to support a' seeing first' approach to innovations. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe an as-is scenario and a to-be scenario for automotive winter testing to highlight how the use of real-time simulations facilitates innovative methods.

  • 28.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communication.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Distributed real-time vehicle validation2006In: 26th Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, ASME Digital Library , 2006, p. 805-812Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increasing complexity of embedded systems and software in vehicles, the automotive industry faces an increasing need for testing and verification of components and subsystems under realistic conditions. At the same time, development cycles must be shortened for vehicle manufacturers to be competitive on the global market, and an increased amount of testing and verification must thus be performed in less time. However, simply increasing the testing volume can be prohibitively costly, meaning that testing and verification processes must be made more efficient to reduce the need for more prototypes. This paper presents a concept for distributed testing and verification of vehicles in real-time, with the aim of improving testing and verification efficiency. Through a novel combination of software tools for distributed collaborative engineering, real-time simulation, visualization, and blackbox simulation, the realized system makes it possible for vehicle manufacturers and their subcontractors to work more concurrently and efficiently with testing and validation. An early implementation of a systemprototype is described and future development plans for the system are presented. The main software components used to build up the system are ADAMS/Car RealTime, Matlab/Simulink and a Java-based real-timevisualization module originally developed for the gaming industry. A main benefit of the concept is that different disciplines involved in the product development process can use the system to enhance the concurrency between them. Control systems and mechanical engineers can view ongoing tests in real-time and change designs, and efficiently re-simulate and influence ongoing tests in a distributed manner. Through advanced visualization of simulation results and measurement data, engineers can get a clearer view of how the system or product behaves, thereby improving the quality of the validation process. The concept for distributed real-time simulation and visualization described in this paper will gather more information during the early stages of product development, and speed up the product development process due to its real-time nature. The fact that engineers can stay at their home office and only follow the test when needed will enhance their efficiency.

  • 29.
    Olsson, Magnus
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Blinge, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nationell kraftsamling Transport 20502013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Parseh, Masoumeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Svensson, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Pre-Crash Vehicle Control and Manoeuvre Planning: A Step Towards Minimizing Collision Severity for Highly Automated Vehicles2019In: 2019 IEEE International Conference of Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the control of a highly automated vehicle in a traffic scenario, where colliding with other traffic agents is unavoidable. Such a critical situation could be the result of a fault in the vehicle, late obstacle detection or the presence of an aggressive driver. We provide an approach that allows the vehicle’s control system to choose the manoeuvre that is likely to lead to the least severe injuries to vehicle occupants.The approach involves the off-line solving of an optimal control problem to create a set of trajectories based on controlling the steering angle rate and the braking rate at the vehicle’s limits. Occupant injury severity prediction, based on accident data with the focus on impact location, is used by a real-time collision control algorithm to choose a trajectory from the pre-computed optimal set. A simulation set-up is presented to illustrate the idea of the collision control algorithm in a simple scenario involving dynamic traffic agents.

  • 31.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Ingvarsson, Hans
    Strategy for the KTH Transport Platform2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To build on existing research excellence and strength, KTH has defined five distinct research focus areas: Transport, Energy, Materials, Information and Communication Technology, and Medical and Biomedical Technology. Here, the KTH Transport Platform sets the scene for KTH’s present and future role in society within the transport area. A starting point is that KTH today possesses both broad and in-depth expertise within several key areas of transport research. The problems and challenges confronting future transport are however so complex that no player is able to solve them alone. Therefore, it is necessary to employ a multidisciplinary and a multi-stakeholder approach. On this background the aim is to establish a joint passion and a unique mechanism for holistic transport research, demonstration and innovation together with partners in research community, industry and public bodies. The five thematic research areas within the KTH Transport Platform are: The Holistic Transport System Approach,The Future Transportation Infrastructure,Innovative Vehicle Concepts, Transport in the Information Era and Policy and Institutional Frameworks. The mission of the KTH Transport Platform is to be an effective and efficient vehicle for delivering multidisciplinary research aiming for transport solutions servicing the society of tomorrow. The expected outcome is an increased success in large, complex research applications due to good knowledge about societal and industrial needs with a focus on innovation. To conclude, there is a need for an initiative with passion for joint transport innovation. Here the word “joint” stands for both multi-disciplinary and multi-stakeholder approaches, with all parties involved committed to these.

  • 32.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Malmquist, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Burman, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Wennhage, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Géoren, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Design and implementation of an experimental research and concept demonstration vehicle2014In: 2014 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, VPPC 2014, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the Research Concept Vehicle (RCV), an experimental research and demonstration vehicle developed at KTH Royal Institute of Technology. The vehicle is intended as a platform to implement, validate, and demonstrate research results from different research projects carried out at KTH. In its first generation, the RCV is a pure electric vehicle where each wheel is equipped with an in-wheel motor and individual steering and camber actuators. This high level of over actuation allows for a wide range of experimental evaluation in several fields of research, which is listed in this paper. Results from initial experimental test drives are also included.

  • 33.
    Zhang, Wenliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles and the Collaborative Innovation Centre for Electric Vehicles in Beijing.
    Wang, Zhenpo
    School of Mechnical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology.
    Zou, Changfu
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Advanced Vehicle State Monitoring:: Evaluating Moving Horizon Estimators and Unscented Kalman Filter2019In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 5430-5442, article id 8682143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active safety systems must be used to manipulate the dynamics of autonomous vehicles to ensure safety. To this end, accurate vehicle information, such as the longitudinal and lateral velocities, is crucial. Measuring these states, however, can be expensive, and the measurements can be polluted by noise. The available solutions often resort to Bayesian filters such as the Kalman filter, but can be vulnerable and erroneous when the underlying assumptions do not hold. With its clear merits in handling nonlinearities and uncertainties, moving horizon estimation (MHE) can potentially solve the problem and is thus studied for vehicle state estimation. This paper designs an unscented Kalman filter, standard MHE, modified MHE and recursive least squares MHE to estimate critical vehicle states, respectively. All the estimators are formulated based upon a highly nonlinear vehicle model that is shown to be locally observable. The convergence rate, accuracy and robustness of the four estimation algorithms are comprehensively characterised and compared under three different driving manoeuvres. For MHE-based algorithms, the effects of horizon length and optimisation techniques on the computational efficiency and accuracy are also investigated.

1 - 33 of 33
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