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  • 1.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Williamsson, David
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Modularisation and product description: a review and a focused case2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This technical report contains the results from the first step of a Ph.D. project in the field of modularisation and product description, conducted by the author at Scania CV AB in Södertälje and at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.Scania is one of the leading truck, bus and engine manufacturers in the world and is today a part of the Volkswagen (VW) Group AG, which is one of the world’s largest vehicle manufacturing groups. Scania has a successful history in vehicle modularisation and claims it is one of the most important reasons why they are a leading company today. Scania also has a unique way of describing the modular product in their generic product structure, in order to efficiently describe the many product variants. However, the Scania product has over the last years been developed into a mechatronic product with embedded software in focus, demanding the product description as well as the modularisation methodology to support this new dimension. Collaboration within the Volkswagen group also makes it even more important to understand and explain “The Scania Way” of modularising and describing the product.The purpose of the study presented in this technical reports was to investigate the present state at Scania, concerning product architecting, modularisation, product description and configuration. Hence, this report contains a literature review, a case study based on semi-structured interviews, as well as an architecture analysis of some main Scania components. The analysed main components were chosen to both include mechanical, electrical and software disciplines, in order to highlight some of the challenges when modularising and describing a high-performing product configured from heterogeneous technologies that are developed and managed multidisciplinary. Another purpose of the report was to answer the research questions; what is the present state at Scania, regarding product architecture and management of product data? And what are the unique properties in the modular product architecture at Scania and how are they used, developed and maintained?The result of the analysis indicates that the nomenclature needs to be further defined at Scania, preferably with a definition which is consistent in order to reduce the risk of confusion and design mistakes during future collaborations. Scania strives to maximise the number of product variants (external variety), while keeping the number of technical solutions low (internal commonality). Hence, a structured methodology which supports the development of the product architecture is clearly needed at Scania, in order to make future collaborations as efficient and successful as possible, and to control the increasing technical complexity in the future Cyber-Physical Systems. Finally, configuration rules are identified to be highly important in order to successfully realise a modular product architecture, since the architecture normally will not be fully uncoupled. A drawback with this approach is that the solution space (i.e. all valid configurations) becomes extremely hard to identify, therefore an advanced product description methodology is essential.

  • 2.
    Williamsson, David
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    On integrated modularization for situated product configuration2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Road transports face increasing societal challenges with respect to emissions, safety, and traffic congestion, as well as business challenges. Truck automation, e.g. self-driving trucks may be utilized to address some of these issues. Autonomous transport vehicles may be characterized as Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). A drawback is that CPS significantly increase technical complexity and thus introduce new challenges to system architecting.

    A product architecture is the interrelation between physical components and their function, i.e. their purpose. Product architectures can be categorized as being modular or integral. The main purpose of a modular architecture is to enable external variety and at the same time internal commonality. Products with a modular architecture are configured from predesigned building blocks, i.e. modules. A stable module, which is a carrier of main function(s) has standardized interfaces, is configured for company-specific reasons, which means it supports a company-specific (business) strategy.

    In this thesis, the present state at the heavy vehicle manufacturer Scania, concerning product architecting, modularization, product description and configuration is investigated. Moreover, a new clustering based method for product modularization that integrates product complexity and company business strategies is proposed. The method is logically verified with multiple industrial cases, where the architecture of a heavy truck driveline is used as a test bench. The driveline contains synergistic configurations of mechanical, electrical and software technologies that are constituents of an automated  and/or semi-autonomous system, i.e. the driveline may be characterized as a CPS. The architecture is analyzed both from technical complexity and business strategy point of view. 

    The presented research indicates that a structured methodology which supports the development of the product architecture is needed at Scania, to enable control of the increasing technical complexity in the Cyber-Physical Systems. Finally, configuration rules are identified to be highly important in order to successfully realize a modular product architecture. A drawback with this approach is that the solution space becomes hard to identify, therefore a complete and flexible product description methodology is essential. The results from the case studies indicate that clustering of a Product Architecture DSM may result in a modular architecture with significantly reduced complexity, but with clusters that contain conflicting module drivers. It is also identified that the new modularization methodology is capable of identifying and proposing reasonable module candidates that address product complexity as well as company-specific strategies. Furthermore, several case studies show that the proposed method can be used for analyzing and finding the explicit and/or implicit, technical as well as strategic, reasons behind the architecture of an existing product. 

  • 3.
    Williamsson, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sellgren, U.
    Introducing implementation dependent behavior into integrated product architecture clustering2019In: Proceedings of the 21st International Dependency and Structure Modeling Conference, DSM 2019, The Design Society, 2019, p. 45-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a new extended version of the previously introduced Integrated Modularization Methodology (IMM) that integrates technical complexity and business strategic concerns when clustering the architecture. The extended IMM (eIMM) adds physical interference and implementation dependent behavior into product architecture clustering. A presently developed battery electric truck is used as a test bench for studying if and how the product architecture DSM and eIMM approach may enable us to identify module candidates that are reasonable trade-offs between technical complexity, business strategies and physical interference. The presented case study indicates that eIMM is able to propose a modular product architecture without conflicting business strategies or intra-modular physical interferences, as well as reasonable module candidates from a technical complexity point of view.

  • 4.
    Williamsson, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). Scania CV AB.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    A Hunt For the Hidden Reasons Behind a Product Architecture2018In: DS 96: The 20th International DSM Conference, The Design Society , 2018, p. 93-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modular product architecture is a strategic means to deliver external variety and internal commonality. In this paper, a heavy duty modular gearbox architecture is represented and analyzed. In focus is re-engineering of hidden technical complexity and business strategy concerns behind an existing product architecture. The architecture of the investigated gearbox is represented and analyzed with a Product Architecture DSM and the Integrated Modularization Method (IMM). Furthermore, a Cluster Match Matrix (CMM) is proposed as a means to compare multiple clustering results. The case study indicates that the IMM methodology and CMM can be used for analyzing and finding the explicit and/or implicit reason for a targeted existing product architecture.

  • 5.
    Williamsson, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Product Architecture Transition in a Modular Cyber-Physical Truck2018In: ASME 2018 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, ASME Press, 2018, Vol. Volume 1A, article id DETC2018-85364Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modular product architecture is a strategic means to deliver external variety and internal commonality. In this paper, we propose a new clustering based method for product modularization that integrates product complexity and company business strategies. The proposed method is logically verified by a studied industrial case, where the architecture of a heavy truck driveline is analyzed in terms of how it has evolved over a couple of decades, due to changed business strategies and the evolution of new technology. The presented case indicates that the new methodology is capable of identifying and proposing reasonable module candidates that address product complexity as well as company-specific strategies. Furthermore, the case study clearly shows that the business strategic reasons for a specific architecture can be found by analyzing how sensitive the clusters are to changes in the module drivers.

  • 6.
    Williamsson, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Product architecture transition in an evolving multi-brand organisation2018In: Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, Glasgow, 2018, p. 929-940Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modular architecture is a strategic means to deliver external variety and internal commonality. A methodology for product modularization that integrates complexity and strategies is proposed and logically verified with an industrial case from the heavy truck business area. The case study indicates that the new methodology is capable of identifying and proposing reasonable module candidates that address product complexity as well as company specific strategies.

  • 7.
    Williamsson, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    The hunt for proper relation weights in product architecture clustering2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign 2018, Linköping, Sweden, 14th - 17th August 2018, The Design Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common view is that a module should be a functional building block, with well-defined and standardized interfaces between the modules, and that it should be chosen for company specific reasons. A modular product architecture is a strategic means to deliver external variety and internal commonality. Today, multiple modularisation methodologies exist to support the highly complex task to identify module candidates in the product architecting phase. One methodology is Modular Function Deployment with the Modular Indication Matrix (MIM) representation of company-specific module drivers. Other methodologies, such as Design Structure Matrix (DSM) clustering, may be used to identify modules from a technical complexity point of view. In this paper, the performance of the newly proposed Integrated Modularization Methodology (IMM), which is based on clustering of a strategically adapted DSM, is conceptually verified. The core of the IMM is to transfer company specific module drivers from the MIM into the component-DSM, before clustering this hybrid representation. A re-architecting industrial case, where a truck manufacturer with a unique business strategy had to redesign parts of its modular gearbox architecture to also become a First-Tier OEM-supplier to another large truck manufacturer, is used as test bench. Reverse engineering of the investigated gearbox architecture indicates that the current modules are most likely not only based on technical complexity concerns. They are rather derived from different types of business strategic aspects, e.g. outsourcing. The study also indicates that the IMM is capable of identifying clusters without strategic conflicts, and with the most similar result to the analysed architecture, which is assumed to be based on expert judgements.

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