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  • 1.
    Al Karim, Miftah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Synchrophasor-based data mining for power system fault analysis2012In: Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), 2012 3rd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on, IEEE , 2012, p. 6465843-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phasor measurement units can provide high resolution and synchronized power system data, which can be effectively utilized for the implementation of data mining techniques. Data mining, based on pattern recognition algorithms can be of significant help for power system analysis, as high definition data is often complex to comprehend. In this paper three pattern recognition algorithms are applied to perform the data mining tasks. The deployment is carried out firstly for fault data classification, secondly for checking which faults are occurring more frequently and thirdly for identifying the root cause of a fault by clustering the parameters behind each scenario. For such purposes three algorithms are chosen, k-Nearest Neighbor, Naïve Bayes and the k-means Clustering.

  • 2. Al-Hammouri, A.T.
    et al.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Honeth, Nicholas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Leelaruji, Rujiroj
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Virtualization of synchronized phasor measurement units within real-time simulators for smart grid applications2012In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012 IEEE, IEEE , 2012, p. 6344949-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronized phasor measurement units (PMUs) provide GPS-time tagged high-sampling rate positive-sequence voltage and current phasors. When placed in high-voltage substations in power networks, PMUs can provide real-time information that is necessary for the development of Smart Transmission Grid software applications for improving power system monitoring, control and protection. The development of these applications, particularly for use within control centers for on-line purposes, is limited by the availability of and access to real-time PMU data and other information. One attractive approach for application development is the use of real-time simulators to which PMUs can be interfaced as hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) devices to harvest PMU data. However, this approach has technical and economical limitations, which can be tackled by the virtualization of PMU devices. This article describes the development of an entirely software-based synchronized phasor measurement unit for use within real-time simulators that will allow the emulation of a large number of real-life PMUs, which in turn can be used for creating new phasor-based applications.

  • 3.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Al-Hammouri, Ahmad
    Jordan University of Science and Technology.
    A co-simulation platform for medium/low voltage monitoring and control applications2014In: 2014 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference, ISGT 2014, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 6816369-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demand for electricity and the penetration of renewable energy resources into the electrical grid are triggering the electric power system to undergo changes and complex modifications at high, medium and low voltage levels. There are large and complex projects such as Smart Grid Gotland to deploy solutions to address such challenges. However, there are several scenarios that could be more practical to be first studied via simulations. As such, the purpose of this paper is to propose and develop a co-simulation platform that allows performing real-time monitoring and control tests and simulations for MV/LV grids. This platform combines both electrical, and information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure simulations. It consists of a real-time power system simulator (Opal-RT) connected to a communication network simulator (OPNET) through an automatic meter reading interface that is based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and low cost devices such as Raspberry Pi and Arduino boards. The platform allows the analysis of realistic MV/LV grids and communication networks, and will facilitate the simulation and comparison of low voltage control strategies for real-time test scenarios that could be more complicated to test otherwise in real-life due to cost and complexity aspects , i.e., high power losses on the low voltage grid.

  • 4.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Survey on the Factors Required in Design of Communication Architecture for Future DC grids2013In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 2013, p. 58-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims first to survey various aspects of DC grids from grid topologies to TSOs structure which has been carried out in several studies, and second try to highlight the factors to be considered in the design of the universal communication architecture for DC grid control and protection purposes. The result of the survey will be used as the first step to introduce the possible communication solutions such as network and data transfer protocols in order to ensure the reliable data delivery in operation of multi-national DC grids.

  • 5.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Real-Time Smart Grid Application Testing using OPNET SITL2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phasor -based Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) system promise to improve the monitoring of power grid across large geographic areas and accordingly controlling grid in more efficient and intelligent ways. In order to have confidence on the correctness, performance and reliability of applications used in WAMC system in real world scenarios, pseudo-real test beds where the requirements for the applications and their supporting Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can be quantified and analyzed. In this paper, a WAMC system testing platform is proposed to facilitate the real-time simulation of dynamic power grid, the ICT infrastructure that overlays the grid and WAMC applications. The proposed platform consists of OPNET as a powerful communication network simulator connected to real-time power system simulator on one side through virtualized Phasor Measurement Unit device, and linked to end point stations such as Phasor Data Concentrator or application on the other side through OPNET’s real-simulation gateway. A set of proof of concept scenarios using this framework is presented.

  • 6.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Al-Hammouri, Ahmad
    Department of Network Engineering and Security, Jordan University of Science and Technology.
    A Platform for Wide Area Monitoring and Control System ICT Analysis and Development2013In: 2013 IEEE Grenoble Conference PowerTech, POWERTECH 2013, IEEE , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PMU-based Wide Area Monitoring and Control(WAMC) system is introduced to improve the monitoring ofpower grid across large geographic areas and control the gridusing more efficient and smart applications. The performance ofWAMC applications in real power system scenarios and impactof their supporting Information and Communication Technology(ICT) on the data quality can be quantified and analyzed bypseudo-real co-simulation test beds. The purpose of this study isto propose and develop a WAMC testing platform to facilitate thereal-time simulation of dynamic power grid, the ICTinfrastructure that overlays the grid and WAMS applications.The platform consists of OPNET, a powerful communicationnetwork emulator, connected to a real-time power systemsimulator through virtualized PMU device. The end pointstations such as Phasor Data Concentrator or PMU-basedapplications are also linked to the platform through OPNET’sreal-simulation gateway called SITL (System-In-The-Loop). Toassess the performance of the platform architecture, a case studyhas been performed with five PMUs which collect the data from apower model and deliver to PMU-based mode-estimationapplication over a typical communication network. In this study,the results explicitly intend to quantify the effect of networkprotocols on data delay.

  • 7.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nazari, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Fidai, Muhammad Hassan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ghandhari, Mehrdad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Implementation of agent-based power flow coordination in AC/DC grids using co-simulation platform2014In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, SmartGridComm 2014, 2014, p. 188-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents work on the coordination of power sharing contribution of converters in an overlaid HVDC grid using a Multi-Agent System (MAS) approach. This approach is further implemented in a real-time co-simulation platform in order to study the proposed control scheme including the supporting information and communication Technology (ICT) systems. The platform consists of OPNET, a communication network simulator, connected to a real-time power system simulator through virtualized and real devices. Furthermore, the impact of different supporting system parameters such as bit-error rate has been studied using this real-time co-simulation platform.

  • 8.
    Björkman, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Hadeli, Hadeli
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    SCADA system architectures2010Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of deliverable 2.3 in the VIKING is to catalogue architecture patterns or reference architectures, i.e. commonly deployed solutions, for SCADA systems. These patterns are represented as a set of descriptions that capture the vast majority of SCADA systems’ architecture on a high level. The patterns developed in this report focus on: - Software services in SCADA systems and software services which SCADA systems exchange data with. - Data flows among these services. - How services are placed in different security zones (network zones). The purpose of the SCADA architecture patterns is to clarify how SCADA systems are commonly designed by employing a stringent model framework. Internal in the project the SCADA patterns will be used to develop SCADA system design models that reflect some typical systems deployed in industry. These models will be used in other work packages and deliverables in the VIKING project.

  • 9.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Analyzing Non-Functional Capabilities of ICT Infrastructures Supporting Power System Wide Area Monitoring and Control2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The strain on modern electrical power systems has led to an ever-increasing utilization of new information and communication technologies (ICT) to improve their efficiency and reliability. Wide area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems offer many opportunities to improve the real-time situational awareness in the power system. These systems are essen-tially SCADA systems but with continuous streaming of measurement data from the power system. The quality of WAMC systems and the applications running on top of them are heavily, but not exclusively, dependent on the underlying non-functional quality of the ICT systems.

    From an ICT perspective, the real-time nature of WAMC systems makes them susceptible to variations in the quality of the supporting ICT systems. The non-functional qualities studied as part of this research are performance, interoperability and cyber security. To analyze the performance of WAMC ICT systems, WAMC applications were identified, and their requirements were elicited. Furthermore, simulation models capturing typical utility communication infrastructure architectures were implemented. The simulation studies were carried out to identify and characterize the latency in these systems and its impact on data quality in terms of the data loss.

    While performance is a major and desirable quality, other non-functional qualities such as interoperability and cyber security have a significant impact on the usefulness of the sys-tem. To analyze these non-functional qualities, an enterprise architecture (EA) based framework for the modeling and analysis of interoperability and cyber security, specialized for WAMC systems, is proposed. The framework also captures the impact of cyber security on the interoperability of WAMC systems. Finally, a prototype WAMC system was imple-mented to allow the validation of the proposed EA based framework. The prototype is based on existing and adopted open-source frameworks and libraries.

    The research described in this thesis makes several contributions. The work is a systematic approach for the analysis of the non-functional quality of WAMC ICT systems as a basis for establishing the suitability of ICT system architectures to support WAMC applications. This analysis is accomplished by first analyzing the impact of communication architectures for WAMC systems on the latency. Second, the impact of these latencies on the data quali-ty, specifically data currency (end to end delay of the phasor measurements) and data in-completeness (i.e., the percentage of phasor measurements lost in the communication), is analyzed. The research also provides a framework for interoperability and cyber security analysis based on a probabilistic Monte Carlo enterprise architecture method. Additionally, the framework captures the possible impact of cyber security on the interoperability of WAMC data flows. A final result of the research is a test bed where WAMC applications can be deployed and ICT architectures tested in a controlled but realistic environment.

  • 10.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Wide area monitoring and control systems - application communication requirements and simulation2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s electrical transmission & distribution systems, are facing a number of challenges related to changing environmental, technical and business factors. Among these factors are, increased environmental restrictions leading to higher share of production from renewable and uncontrollable sources as well as local environmental concerns regarding construction of new transmission and distribution lines. The re-regulation of the electricity market has created a dynamic environment in which multiple organizations have to coordinate and cooperate in the operation and control of the power system. Finally, the high rate of devel-opment within the ICT field is creating many new opportunities for power system opera-tion and control, thanks to introduction of new technologies for measurement, communi-cation and automation.

    As a result of these factors, Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) systems have been proposed. WAMC systems utilize new ICT based technologies to offer more accurate and timely data on the state of the power system. WAMC systems utilize Phasor Measure-ment Units (PMUs) that have higher data rates and are time synchronised using, GPS satel-lites. This allows synchronized observation of the dynamics of the power system, making it possible to manage the system at a more efficient and responsive level and apply wide area control and protection schemes. The success WAMC systems, on the other hand, are largely dependent on the performance of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure that would support them.

    This thesis investigates the requirements on, and suitability of the ICT systems that support WAMC systems. This was done by identifying WAMC applications and the elicitation of their requirements. Furthermore, a set of simulation projects were carried out to determine the communication system characteristics such as delay and the impact of this delay on the WAMC system.

    This thesis has several contributions. First, it provides summary and analysis of WAMC application priorities and requirements in the Nordic region. Secondly it provides simula-tion based comparison and evaluation of communication paradigms for WAMC systems. The research documented in this thesis addresses these paradigms by providing a compari-son and evaluation through simulation. Thirdly, the thesis provides insight to the possible sources of delay in WAMC architecture and the impact of these delays on data quality specifically data incompleteness. This provides insight on what applications are important to practitioners and what is the expected performance of these applications, as seen from the power system control and operation point of view.

  • 11.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Al Khatib, Iyad
    Ivanovski, Jordan
    Maden, Volkan
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    PMU traffic shaping in IP-based wide area communication2010In: 2010 5th International Conference on Critical Infrastructure, CRIS 2010 - Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phasor based Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) Systems are becoming a reality with increased research, development and deployments. Many potential control applications based on these systems are being proposed and researched. Such applications are either local applications using data from one or a few Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) or centralized utilizing data from several PMUs. An aspect of these systems, which is less well researched, is the WAMC system dependence on high performance communication. This paper presents results of research on the use of Internet Protocol (IP) networks for both PMU and Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)/Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) data for monitoring purposes. The paper examines performance aspects of the IP network Infrastructures when utilized by both: continuous PMU data streams and critical IED/RTU data. A set of simulation models characterizing a network of a Nordic Transmission System Operator were built to perform the analysis. The paper considers Quality of Service (QoS) strategies and the resulting delays and data loss that would be experienced.

  • 12.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Kabilan, Vandana
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm University. .
    Garcia Lozano, Marianela
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Department of Systems Modelling.
    A Pattern for Designing Distributed Heterogeneous Ontologies for Facilitating Application Interoperability2006In: EMOI - INTEROP'06, Enterprise Modelling and Ontologies for Interoperability, Proceedings of the Open Interop Workshop on Enterprise Modelling and Ontologies for Interoperability / [ed] Michele Missikoff, Antonio De Nicola, Fulvio D'Antonio, CEUR-WS.org , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of ontologies in knowledge base systems is gradually increasing. Along with the growth of Internet based applications and e- commerce, the need for easy interoperability between ontologies is paramount. Today methodologies and design guidelines for building and developing ontologies from scratch exist, and others have focused on evolving step-by-step growth of ontologies as shall be discussed in this paper. However, we find inadequate aid in the design of distributed, heterogeneous and multi-functioned, application ontology, primarily aimed to be the central hub for interoperability between a number of other applications which may or may not be ontology based. In this paper, we present a logical context based ontology design architecture in the form of Principle-Subject-Support(PSS) pattern. The PSS pattern has been used as a guide to analyze and model   several perspectives involved in a practical case study carried out in a military network simulation project to build a distributed repository ontology (DRONT) for interoperability.

  • 13.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Karam, Elias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Modeling and Simulation of Wide Area Monitoring and Control Systems in IP-based Networks2009In: 2009 IEEE POWER & ENERGY SOCIETY GENERAL MEETING, VOLS 1-8, New York, USA: IEEE , 2009, p. 2514-2521Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phasor based Wide Area Monitoring and Control Systems (WAMC) is becoming a reality with increased international research and development. Many aspects of these systems are being addressed and researched. These systems depend largely on high performance communication architecture. This paper addresses the analysis of PMU systems and communication architectures by utilizing simulation tools to implement and analyze models. Specifically, focusing on the transmission of Phasor samples to the Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) and control signals from the WAMC systems back to substations devices. This done by implementing shared and dedicated communication network scenarios to analyze delays. This is the first step to analyzing the performance and scalability of the IT infrastructure to support PMU-based Systems.

  • 14.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Investigation of communication delays and data incompleteness in multi-PMU wide area monitoring and control systems2009In: 2009 International Conference on Electric Power and Energy Conversion Systems, EPECS 2009, 2009, p. 144-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phasor based Wide Area Monitoring and Control Systems (WAMC) are becoming a reality with increased international research and development. Many potential control applications based on these systems are being proposed and researched. An aspect which is less well investigated is the WAMC system's dependence on high performance communication systems. This paper presents the results of simulations performed in order to determine the characteristics of communication delays incurred in WAMC systems using multiple PMUs distributed over a large geographic area. Such systems normally include one or several Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) that collect and sort the data from the PMUs. Two specific parameters, completeness and currency of the PMU data has been studied as part of the simulations. The results indicate that configuration of central nodes such as the PDC needs to be optimized based on the intended WAMC application being supported.

  • 15.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Modeling and Simulation of Wide Area Communication for Centralized PMU-based Applications2011In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 1372-1380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phasor-based wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems are becoming a reality with increased research, development, and deployments. Many potential control applications based on these systems are being proposed and researched. These applications are either local applications using data from one or a few phasor measurement units (PMUs) or centralized utilizing data from several PMUs. An aspect of these systems, which is less well researched, is the WAMC system's dependence on high-performance communication systems. This paper presents the results of research performed in order to determine the requirements of transmission system operators on the performance of WAMC systems in general as well as the characteristics of communication delays incurred in centralized systems that utilize multiple PMUs distributed over a large geographic area. This paper presents a summary of requirements from transmission system operators with regards to a specific set of applications and simulations of communication networks with a special focus on centralized applications. The results of the simulations indicate that the configuration of central nodes in centralized WAMC systems needs to be optimized based on the intended WAMC application.

  • 16.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Performance considerations in Wide Area Monitoring and Control Systems2010In: 43rd International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2010, CIGRE 2010, 2010, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phasor based Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) Systems are becoming a reality with increased research, development and deployments. Many potential control applications based on these systems are being proposed and researched. Such applications are either local applications using data from one or a few PMUs or centralized utilizing data from several PMUs. An aspect of these systems which is less well researched is the WAMC system's dependence on high performance communication systems. To understand the performance and scalability requirements for such systems, a survey on communications and technical requirements for applications based on Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) has been performed. The survey was carried out in the Nordic Region with participants from Transmission System Operators (TSOs) and researchers. The survey focused on documenting the state of art that TSOs and researchers are in, as well as, their plans and visions for the future. This includes planned PMU deployments and prioritization of PMU based applications, a brief summary of this survey is described in this paper. Furthermore, the paper also summaries work in which WAMC communication networks were modeled and simulated. Two basic paradigms were captured in these models: Shared communication and dedicated communication. In the shared communication the WAMC system operated on wide area network that is also utilized for other devices such as RTUs, as well as other possible network uses. In the dedicated model it was assumed that the network was only used for PMU data. 4 scenarios were implemented and simulated. These scenarios represented parameters such as bandwidth capacity or channel capacity variation as well as variations in overall network traffic. Various End to End (ETE) Delay values were collected. A further study focused on analyzing the impact of the PDC configurations on the overall End to End (ETE) delay and measurement quality specifically in terms of measurement data loss or completeness. These studies were done by varying the delays of PMU traffic in the network as well as the amount of time that the PDC would wait for measurements belonging to a specific timestamp arrived from all PMUs in the network. In the paper, a set of parameters that impact the overall performance, including transmission delays as well as delays depending on system architecture and use of PDC within WAMC systems are outlined. These parameters were modeled and simulated and the results compared to the finding from the PMU application survey conducted earlier.

  • 17.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Factors in assessing performance of wide area communication networks for distributed control of power systems2007In: 2007 IEEE LAUSANNE POWERTECH, VOLS 1-5, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2007, p. 1682-1687Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This position paper presents research that is being started on the subject of modeling and evaluating performance and related system quality concerns in design of information and communication technology platforms used for power system operation and control. The focus of the project is on how the performance and other quality aspects of such networks interact with modern power control system technologies such as for instance Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) systems. Specifically the paper presents an evaluation and modeling approach based on a set of theoretically grounded factors important for assessing performance of wide area control systems. These assessment factors are used to define the modeling semantics necessary for enhanced models of the information and communication technology platforms. The factors are further represented in Influence Diagrams, enabling analysis of their inter-dependence with for instance Bayesian analysis. This approach has the potential of offering decision support for design of high performance information and communication technology platforms, while at the same time considering other system qualities. The paper presents an overview of the suggested approach, complemented with influence diagrams describing the inter-dependence of performance factors. The paper also provides an example of application of the approach to a simple control system architecture.

  • 18.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Wu, Yiming
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Swedish National Grid (Svenska Kraftnät), Sundbyberg, Sweden.
    A Framework for Wide-Area Monitoring and Control Systems Interoperability and Cybersecurity Analysis2014In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 633-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems are the next-generation operational-management systems for electric power systems. The main purpose of such systems is to provide high resolution real-time situational awareness in order to improve the operation of the power system by detecting and responding to fast evolving phenomenon in power systems. From an information and communication technology (ICT) perspective, the nonfunctional qualities of these systems are increasingly becoming important and there is a need to evaluate and analyze the factors that impact these nonfunctional qualities. Enterprise architecture methods, which capture properties of ICT systems in architecture models and use these models as a basis for analysis and decision making, are a promising approach to meet these challenges. This paper presents a quantitative architecture analysis method for the study of WAMC ICT architectures focusing primarily on the inter-operability and cybersecurity aspects.

  • 19.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Bengtsson, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Implementation of an experimental wide-area monitoring platform for development of synchronized phasor measurement applications2011In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2011 IEEE, IEEE , 2011, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchrophasor-based Wide-Area Monitoring and Control Systems (WAMC) are becoming a reality with increased international research and development. Several monitoring and control applications based on these systems have been proposed, and although with a relative small adoption, they are currently supporting the operations of some large transmission system operators. It is expected that the continued research and development of phasor data applications will enable the miracle of #x201C;Smart Grids #x201D; at the transmission level. The authors have realized that this can be achieved in timely fashion only if a research and development platform is developed to simultaneously address issues regarding information and communication infrastructures, and phasor data applications. This paper discusses the preliminary development, and deployment of an experimental wide-area monitoring and control platform in which several basic applications have been implemented, and that in the future will allow for the implementation and testing of envisioned applications. At its current stage, the platform allows both online monitoring and off-line analysis. In the future, it will be the cornerstone to a wider platform enabling research on phasor data applications that intrinsically account for ICT aspects.

  • 20.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Survey on Priorities and Communication Requirements for PMU-based Applications in the Nordic Region2009In: 2009 IEEE Bucharest PowerTech: Innovative Ideas Toward the Electrical Grid of the Future, IEEE , 2009, p. 1183-1190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phasor based Wide Area Monitoring and Control Systems (WAMC) promise to offer more accurate and timely data on the state of the power system, thus, increasing the possibilities to manage the system at a more efficient and responsive level and apply wide area control and protection schemes. This paper presents results of a survey on communications and technical requirements for applications based on Phasor Measurement Units (PMU). The survey was carried out in the Nordic Region with participants from Transmission System Operators (TSOs) and researchers. The survey focused on documenting the stage of research and development among TSOs and researchers in the Nordic Region, as well as, their plans and visions for the future. This includes planned PMU deployments and prioritization of PMU based applications. Furthermore, a significant part of the survey was an elicitation of communication requirements for applications based on PMU data. In the paper, an examination of the time requirements for these applications in terms of delays and samples per second and comparison similar published specifications is provided.

  • 21.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Närmen, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Setting the Information Systems Goals2007In: Enterprise Architecture: Models and Analyses for Information Systems Decision Making, Studentlitteratur, 2007, p. 92-152Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Garcia Lozano, Marianela
    et al.
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Department of Systems Modelling.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Kabilan, Vandana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    A pattern for designing distributed heterogeneous ontologies for facilitating application interoperabilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Gunaratne, Dinusha
    et al.
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Framework to Evaluate a Functional Reference Model at a Nordic Distribution Utility2008In: NORDAC 2008, The 8th Nordic Electricity Distribution and Asset Management Conference. Bergen, Norway. 8-9 September 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution utilities have found IT systems to be indispensable for competition in the deregulated electricity market. But in order to be highly efficient, a distribution utility ought to essentially maintain a correlation between IT systems and business processes. A Functional Reference Models (FRM) is one way to achieve this correlation.A FRM is a versatile and multidisciplinary tool that could be used to create alignment between business processes and IT-systems by describing what a “business is” and in terms of business functions that are carried out. There are many utility standards and system vendors claiming to offer complete FRMs for the utility domains. In addition, of course there exist implicit FRMs in the company in terms of existing processes and IT-systems. Thus there is a growing need among distribution utilities for a method to evaluate the quality and suitability of a FRM for a given enterprise.This paper will describe the development of a framework that has been used to evaluate the quality of a FRM in a Nordic distribution utility by benchmarking against the IEC 61968-1, UCA 2.0, IFS and Oracle FRMs for the utility domain. The framework cross reference a FRM with other FRMs to get a Coverage of all the business functions used in the utility business and eliminate vendor dependence and it analyze the strengths and weakness of the FRM and what amendments to be included. Finally it evaluates the Suitability of the FRM to the utility by aligning with the IT systems. The evaluation also helps to identify redundant IT systems and maximize the IT usage in a distribution utility. This paper concludes with a motivation to distribution utilities to adopt a FRM discussing its business values.

  • 24. Laverty, David M.
    et al.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Best, Robert J.
    Morrow, D. John
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    OpenPMU technology platform for Synchrophasor research applications2012In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012 IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 6345398-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OpenPMU, the Open Source Phasor Measurement Unit, is a platform for the development of Synchrophasor measurement technology in an open source manner. The OpenPMU design modularizes the key components of a Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) into three subsystems; measurement, phase estimation and telecoms. The advantage to the researcher is that the interfaces between each subsystem are open and human readable, allowing for rapid integration of new work into an existing framework. This allows for new work to be prototyped rapidly and tested in an online environment.

    This paper introduces the OpenPMU technology platform. The subsystem modules and the methods of exchanging data are described. Present work on the platform is discussed and an open invitation to join the development process is extended to all.

  • 25. Mueller, Sven Christian
    et al.
    Georg, Hanno
    Nutaro, James J.
    Widl, Edmund
    Deng, Yi
    Palensky, Peter
    Awais, Muhammad U.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH.
    Kuech, Markus
    Stifter, Matthias
    Lin, Hua
    Shukla, Sandeep K.
    Wietfeld, Christian
    Rehtanz, Christian
    Dufour, Christian
    Wang, Xiaoyu
    Dinavahi, Venkata
    Faruque, Md Omar
    Meng, Wenchao
    Liu, Shichao
    Monti, Antonello
    Ni, Ming
    Davoudi, Ali
    Mehrizi-Sani, Ali
    Interfacing Power System and ICT Simulators: Challenges, State-of-the-Art, and Case Studies2018In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 14-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the transition toward a smart grid, the power system has become strongly intertwined with the information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure. The interdependency of both domains requires a combined analysis of physical and ICT processes, but simulating these together is a major challenge due to the fundamentally different modeling and simulation concepts. After outlining these challenges, such as time synchronization and event handling, this paper presents an overview of state-of-the-art solutions to interface power system and ICT simulators. Due to their prominence in recent research, a special focus is set on co-simulation approaches and their challenges and potentials. Further, two case studies analyzing the impact of ICT on applications in power system operation illustrate the necessity of a holistic approach and show the capabilities of state-of-the-art co-simulation platforms.

  • 26.
    Nordström, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Information and communication system architectures for wide-area monitoring and control applications2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a review of work performed in the field of communication systems requirements for wide area monitoring and control applications. This includes studies performed both in the context of NASPI, the North American Syncrophasor Initiative, as well as other studies in the US and Europe. Presently a relatively large body of work has been done regarding the requirements on the communication infrastructure. Among the work included, are surveys among Transmission System Operators on the foreseen communication requirements, as well as other theoretical studies on acceptable delays and other performance characteristics, such as data loss, that Wide Area Control applications put on the Information and Communication System. Much of the above referenced work still needs verification either though experimental work or through simulations. It is especially important to simulate large scale communication infrastructures that consider background traffic under different operational conditions in the power system, such as under disturbances. The paper is concluded with some remarks on future direction of work within the field.

  • 27.
    Närman, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Holm, Hannes
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Data accuracy assessment using enterprise architecture2011In: Enterprise Information Systems, ISSN 1751-7575, E-ISSN 1751-7583, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 37-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Errors in business processes result in poor data accuracy. This article proposes an architecture analysis method which utilises ArchiMate and the Probabilistic Relational Model formalism to model and analyse data accuracy. Since the resources available for architecture analysis are usually quite scarce, the method advocates interviews as the primary data collection technique. A case study demonstrates that the method yields correct data accuracy estimates and is more resource-efficient than a competing sampling-based data accuracy estimation method.

  • 28.
    Närman, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Enterprise Architecture Analysis for Data Accuracy Assessments2009In: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2009, p. 24-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor data in information systems impede the quality of decision-making in many modern organizations. Manual business process activities and application services are never executed flawlessly which results in steadily deteriorating data accuracy, the further away from the source the data gets, the poorer its accuracy becomes. This paper proposes an architecture analysis method based on Bayesian Networks to assess data accuracy deterioration in a quantitative manner. The method is model-based and uses the ArchiMate language to model business processes and the way in which data objects are transformed by various operations. A case study at a Swedish utility demonstrates the approach.

  • 29.
    Närman, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Schönherr, Marten
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Using Enterprise Architecture Models for System Quality Analysis2008In: EDOC 2008: 12TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING, PROCEEDINGS  , IEEE Computer Society, 2008, p. 14-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Architecture is a model-based approach to business-oriented IT management. To promote good IT decision making, an Enterprise Architecture framework needs to explicate what kind of analyses it supports. Since creating Enterprise Architecture models is expensive and without intrinsic value, it is desirable to only create Enterprise Architecture models based on metamodels that support well-defined analyses. This paper presents the content and extension of a metamodel which supports creating models containing the information necessary to conduct system quality analyses, specifically with respect to availability, accuracy, confidentiality and integrity. The metamodel is an extension and formalization of the metamodel underlying the ArchiMate modelling language for Enterprise Architecture. The use of the extended metamodel is demonstrated in a case study where the availability, accuracy, confidentiality and integrity of the two Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) platforms Sun JCaps and PrOSeRO were evaluated.

  • 30. Santodomingo, R.
    et al.
    Uslar, M.
    Göring, A.
    Gottschalk, M.
    Nordström, Lars
    Saleem, Arshad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    SGAM-based methodology to analyse Smart Grid solutions in DISCERN European research project2014In: ENERGYCON 2014 - IEEE International Energy Conference, 2014, p. 751-758Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of future energy automation and management systems requires Distribution System Operators (DSOs) to analyse and compare different technical solutions for determining which of these could be best implemented in their networks. This paper presents a methodology that helps DSOs carry out such a complex task. The methodology is based on the Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM) framework. It was implemented using a web-based application that facilitates editing and automatic analysis of SGAM architectures. The methodology was successfully evaluated in the context of DISCERN European research project. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 31.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Leelaruji, Rujiroj
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    SmarTS Lab - A Laboratory for Developing Applications for WAMPAC Systems2012In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012 IEEE, IEEE , 2012, p. 6344839-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the core of the development of “Smart Transmission Grids” is the design, implementation, and testing of synchronized phasor measurement data applications that can supplement Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection, and Control Systems(WAMPAC). Nevertheless, the development of new PMU data-based WAMPAC applications has been relatively slow. The great potential of WAMPAC systems is being limited by this, and efforts are needed so that new applications can be developed. The slow rate of development of these applications is strongly related to, among other factors, the application development approach used. This article starts by discussing the needs and approaches for developing WAMPAC applications that exploit synchronized phasor measurements, and illustrates how one of these approaches has been achieved. A preliminary work carried out to develop and implement a Smart Transmission System Laboratory (SmarTS Lab), a hardware and softwarebased system for developing and analyzing “Smart Transmission Grids” paradigms and applications for WAMPAC systems, are described. The laboratory’s conceptual architecture and hardware and software implementation are presented, and some of its components are described. Finally, the article illustrates proofof-concept examples of how PMU data-based applications can be developed.

  • 32.
    Wu, Yiming
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Framework incorporating synchronized phasor data for power system operation and control2012In: The 9th IET International Conference on Advances in Power System Control, Operation and Management, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2012, Vol. 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This position paper presents initial research and investigation on a unified framework combining two independent systems, the legacy SCADA system and the synchronized phasor data system, that share the same measurement sources, i.e., current and voltage transducers and the same communication medium. In this framework, conventional SCADA system coupled with substation automation system are modeled together with synchronized phasor systems. The contribution of this paper also includes a state-of–the-art survey of topics related to the proposed architectures. Furthermore, an overview of the data flows between substation and control centers including both SCADA and phasor measurements are presented. Taking into consideration the growing interest in communication and automation standardization this paper also addresses the communication between the substations coupled with relevant standards and technology.

  • 33.
    Zhu, Kun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Analysis of data quality issues in wide area monitoring and control systems2010In: 2010 IREP Symposium - Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control - VIII, IREP2010, Rio de Janeiro, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronized phasor measurement based Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) system is becoming a reality with international research and development both in academia and industry. Timely and accurate data with high resolutions holds great promise for more responsible and advanced grid control and operation. Currently, most of the research focuses on the different control schemes and applications. A relatively less addressed aspect is the dependency of the WAMC system on the performance of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure, without whose support the projected functionalities of the WAMC systems will not be achieved. Possible input delay brought by the complex data transfer and processing processes in WAMC systems are presented at the beginning of this paper. Thereafter, simulations where delayed phasor measurements are fed to a typical WAMC application - Static Var Compensation (SVC) are conducted iteratively to detect its maximum tolerated delay. Based on this maximum tolerated delay, the consequences of missing certain data in the phaor packets have been studied. Furthermore, data quality requirements to design a reliable SVC function are analyzed based on simulation results. In conjunction with the requirement discussion, the paper is concluded by proposing a robust ICT architecture to mitigate the aforementioned data quality issues.

  • 34.
    Zhu, Kun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Data quality and reliability aspects of ICT infrastructures for Wide Area Monitoring and Control Systems2010In: 2010 5th International Conference on Critical Infrastructure, CRIS 2010, Beijing, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronized phasor measurement based Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) system is becoming a reality within international research and development both in academia and industry. Timely and accurate data with high resolutions holds great promise for more responsible and advanced grid control and operation. Currently, most of the research focuses on the different control schemes and applications. A relatively less addressed aspect is the dependency of the WAMC system on the performance of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure, without whose support the projected functionalities of the WAMC systems will be not achieved. Possible delays brought by the complex data transfer and processing processes in WAMC systems are addressed in the first part of this paper. Thereafter, simulations where delayed Phasor measurements are fed to a typical WAMC application - Static Var Compensation (SVC) are conducted iteratively to detect its maximum tolerated delay. Furthermore, performance requirements to design a reliable SVC function are analyzed based on simulation results. In conjunction with the requirement discussion, a robust ICT architecture is proposed to mitigate the data latency and incompleteness issue. The paper is concluded by addressing data quality issues relating to the remote signal based SVC controller system reliability.

  • 35.
    Zhu, Kun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    ICT architecture impact on wide area monitoring and control systems' reliability2011In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 2801-2808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Timely and accurate data with high resolutions holds great promise for more responsible and advanced power grid operations. The research has been focusing on design of monitoring and control scheme given the assumptions that the supporting information and communication technology (ICT) systems are capable of providing data and perform control with sufficient quality. A relatively less addressed aspect is the dependency of wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems on their supporting ICT architecture which is usually a compromise between various concerns, such as data quality, interoperability, or security. Without an appropriate ICT architecture design, the projected WAMC system functionalities run the risk of being jeopardized. This paper begins with a presentation about possible delays brought by complex data-transfer and processing processes. Analytical experiments are conducted with purposes to quantify the maximum delay and input signal's sensitivity toward delay on a typical WAMC application where the control of static var compensation (SVC) is coordinated with generator excitations using phasor measurements. Given the characteristics of this particular control scheme, two possible ICT architectures that provide data with different qualities are compared concerning the reliability of this WAMC application. This paper concludes by proposing a generic ICT architecture, enabling efficient WAMC systems implementation in terms of data quality.

  • 36.
    Zhu, Kun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    ICT system performance impact on wide area monitoring and control systems2012In: 44th International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2012, 2012, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Timely and accurate data with high resolutions holds great promise for more responsible and advanced power grid operations. The research has been focusing on design of monitoring and control scheme given assumptions that the supporting Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems are capable to provide data and perform control with sufficient quality. A relatively less addressed aspect is the dependency of Wide area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems on their supporting ICT architecture which is usually a compromise between various concerns, such as data quality, interoperability or security. Without an appropriate ICT architecture design, the projected WAMC system functionalities run the risk of being jeopardized. This paper begins with a presentation about possible delays brought by complex data transfer and processing processes. Analytical experiments are conducted with purposes to quantify the maximum delay and input signal's sensitivity towards delay on a typical WAMC application where the control of Static Var Compensation (SVC) is coordinated with generator excitations using phasor measurements. Given the characteristics of this particular control scheme, two possible ICT architectures that provide data with different qualities are compared concerning the reliability of this WAMC application. The paper is concluded by proposing a generic ICT architectures enabling efficient WAMC systems implementation in terms of data quality.

  • 37.
    Zhu, Kun
    et al.
    Ventyx ABB Co, S-10044 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Holmström, Sture
    Ericsson, Göran
    Design Requirements of Wide-Area Damping Systems-Using Empirical Data From a Utility IP Network2014In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 829-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) communication delays and data frame losses play a critical role in designing of wide-area damping systems driven by synchrophasor technology. While there are a plethora of simulation-based studies addressing this issue, empirical results from actual PMUs deployed in the field are rare. This paper provides important insights into the characterization of PMU communication delays and data frame losses based on empirical results collected from a utility IP network. Additionally, efforts are also made to elicit design requirements considering the above PMU data quality problems. Furthermore, three distinct delay-robust wide-area damping control schemes parameterized according to the proposed requirements are validated against the empirical delays and data frame losses. Time-domain simulation results suggest that the control schemes in question can effectively stabilize the power system in all of the tested scenarios.

  • 38.
    Zhu, Kun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Holmström, Sture
    Erisson, Göran
    An Empirical Study of Synchrophasor Communication Delay in a Utility TCP/IP Network2013In: International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, ISSN 2194-5756, E-ISSN 1553-779X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 341-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is a plethora of literature dealing with Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) communication delay, there has not been any effort to generalize empirical delay results by identifying the distributions with the best fit. The existing studies typically assume a distribution, or simply build on analogies to communication network routing delay. Specifically, this study provides insight into the characterization of the communication delay of both unprocessed PMU data and synchrophasors sorted by a Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC). The results suggest that a bi-modal distribution containing two normal distributions offers the best fit of the delay of the unprocessed data, whereas the delay profile of the sorted synchrophasors resembles a normal. Based on these results, the possibility of evaluating the reliability of a synchrophasor application with respect to a particular choice of PDC timeout is discussed.

  • 39.
    Zhu, Kun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Deo, Samarth
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Al-Hammouri, Ahmad
    Jordan University of Science and Technology.
    Honeth, Nicholas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lars, Nordström
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Test platform for synchrophasor based wide-area monitoring and control applications2013In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES), 2013 IEEE, Vancouver: IEEE , 2013, p. 6672308-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchrophasor technology is considered as a main enabler for the envisioned Smart Grid at the transmission level. Despite some preliminary field test results reported from China Southern Grid, the majority of the synchrophasor applications are still in the engineering or advanced laboratory tests phases. One possible impedance of any real-life adoption of such applicationsis a lack of test platforms that are able to verify the proposed application paradigms in cost efficient manners, and also to demonstrate the interactions between the power system and the supporting ICT systems with sufficient details. In this paper, we report on the continuing research efforts targeting at developing a test platform for the development of the synchrophasor based applications. The platform incorporates a virtual Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU), a real-time simulator for power systems, a real-time simulator for communication networks, and an implementation of an open-source Phasor Data Concentrator. Specifically, this article focuses on the implementation and verification of the virtual PMU, and on the extension of its functionality to incorporate communication over UDP.

  • 40.
    Zhu, Kun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Song, Ji
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Analysis of phasor data latency in wide area monitoring and control systems2010In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, ICC 2010, Capetown, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronized phasor measurement based Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) system is becoming a reality within international research and development both in academia and industry. Timely and accurate data with high resolutions holds great promise for more responsible and advanced grid control and operation. Currently, most of the research focuses on the different control schemes and applications. A relatively less addressed aspect is the dependency of the WAMC system on the performance of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure, without whose support the projected functionalities of the WAMC systems will be not achieved. Possible delays brought by the complex data transfer and processing processes in WAMC systems are addressed in the first part of this paper. Thereafter, simulations where delayed Phasor measurements are fed to the Static Var Compensator (SVC) are conducted iteratively to detect its maximum tolerated delay. Furthermore, performance requirements for the centralized computation and control actuation are researched and analyzed based on simulation results. It also includes a study on feasibility of compensations using local signal based Power System Stablizers (PSS) in situations with much phasor data delay. The paper is concluded by suggesting ICT architecture for WAMC systems aiming to improve its robustness.

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