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  • 1. Eklund, D. Magnus
    et al.
    Staldal, Veronika
    Valsecchi, Isabel
    Cierlik, Izabela
    Eriksson, Caitriona
    Hiratsu, Keiichiro
    Ohme-Takagi, Masaru
    Sundstrom, Jens F.
    Thelander, Mattias
    Ezcurra, Ines
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Sundberg, Eva
    The Arabidopsis thaliana STYLISH1 Protein Acts as a Transcriptional Activator Regulating Auxin Biosynthesis2010Inngår i: The Plant Cell, ISSN 1040-4651, E-ISSN 1532-298X, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 349-363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The establishment and maintenance of auxin maxima in vascular plants is regulated by auxin biosynthesis and polar intercellular auxin flow. The disruption of normal auxin biosynthesis in mouse-ear cress ( Arabidopsis thaliana) leads to severe abnormalities, suggesting that spatiotemporal regulation of auxin biosynthesis is fundamental for normal growth and development. We have shown previously that the induction of the SHORT-INTERNODES/STYLISH (SHI/STY) family member STY1 results in increased transcript levels of the YUCCA (YUC) family member YUC4 and also higher auxin levels and auxin biosynthesis rates in Arabidopsis seedlings. We have also shown previously that SHI/STY family members redundantly affect development of flowers and leaves. Here, we further examine the function of STY1 by analyzing its DNA and protein binding properties. Our results suggest that STY1, and most likely other SHI/STY members, are DNA binding transcriptional activators that target genes encoding proteins mediating auxin biosynthesis. This suggests that the SHI/STY family members are essential regulators of auxin-mediated leaf and flower development. Furthermore, the lack of a shoot apical meristem in seedlings carrying a fusion construct between STY1 and a repressor domain, SRDX, suggests that STY1, and other SHI/STY members, has a role in the formation and/or maintenance of the shoot apical meristem, possibly by regulating auxin levels in the embryo.

  • 2. Faltmarsch, Rasmus
    et al.
    Osterholm, Peter
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Chemical composition of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) grown on acid sulfate soils2010Inngår i: Journal of Plant Nutrition And Soil Science/Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernahrung und Bodenkunde, ISSN 1436-8730, E-ISSN 1522-2624, Vol. 173, nr 3, s. 423-433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of soil geochemistry on the concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, P, Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Fe in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) grown on acid sulfate (AS) soils in Western Finland. A total of 11 topsoil (0-20 cm) and corresponding cabbage samples and three whole-soil profiles (approximate to 0-260 cm) were collected on three agricultural fields. The concentrations of Co and Zn in cabbage were correlated with the NH4Ac-extractable (easily available) concentrations in the topsoil, indicating that the uptake of these elements in cabbage is largely governed by soil geochemistry. Yet, the concentrations of Co and Zn in cabbage were not in general elevated relative to that of Finnish average values, although some AS soils showed enriched concentrations of these metals in the soil and cabbage. Significant geochemical differences (e.g., oxidation depth, organic-matter and S content, pH) were observed among the studied AS soils, while, on the other hand, the concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, P, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Fe in cabbage were relatively similar. The hydroxylamine-extractable concentrations of these elements in the topsoil were not correlated to those in cabbage, suggesting that uptake is not governed by the oxide-bound fraction of these elements in the soil. Similarly, the easily available concentrations of Ca, P, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Fe in the topsoil were not correlated to those in cabbage, indicating that uptake is independent of the easily available concentrations in the soil. Hence, it is suggested that cabbage can regulate and thus optimize its concentrations of Ca, P, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Fe. Oxidation depth affected neither the easily available concentrations of Co, Ni, Zn, and Mn in the topsoil nor the concentrations in cabbage. However, the subsoil with a lower oxidation depth, which is to a smaller extent affected by leaching, may partly be enriched in these metals. Nevertheless, these showed no increased concentrations in cabbage. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the large amounts of metals mobilized in AS soils are easily lost to drains, subsequently contaminating nearby waterways and estuaries whereas they are only partly enriched in cabbage and other previously studied crops (oat).

  • 3.
    Guerriero, Gea
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Fugelstad, Johanna
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Bulone, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    What Do We Really Know about Cellulose Biosynthesis in Higher Plants?2010Inngår i: JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE PLANT BIOLOGY, ISSN 1672-9072, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 161-175Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose biosynthesis is one of the most important biochemical processes in plant biology. Despite the considerable progress made during the last decade, numerous fundamental questions related to this key process in plant development are outstanding. Numerous models have been proposed through the years to explain the detailed molecular events of cellulose biosynthesis. Almost all models integrate solid experimental data with hypotheses on several of the steps involved in the process. Speculative models are most useful to stimulate further research investigations and bring new exciting ideas to the field. However, it is important to keep their hypothetical nature in mind and be aware of the risk that some undemonstrated hypotheses may progressively become admitted. In this review, we discuss the different steps required for cellulose formation and crystallization, and highlight the most important specific aspects that are supported by solid experimental data.

  • 4. Guerriero, Gea
    et al.
    Spadiut, Oliver
    Kerschbamer, Christine
    Giorno, Filomena
    Baric, Sanja
    Ezcurra, Ines
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Analysis of cellulose synthase genes from domesticated apple identifies collinear genes WDR53 and CesA8A: Partial co-expression, bicistronic mRNA, and alternative splicing of CESA8A2012Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 63, nr 16, s. 6045-6056Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose synthase (CesA) genes constitute a complex multigene family with six major phylogenetic clades in angiosperms. The recently sequenced genome of domestic apple, Malus-domestica was mined for CesA genes, by blasting full-length cellulose synthase protein (CESA) sequences annotated in the apple genome against protein databases from the plant models Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa. Thirteen genes belonging to the six angiosperm CesA clades and coding for proteins with conserved residues typical of processive glycosyltransferases from family 2 were detected. Based on their phylogenetic relationship to Arabidopsis CESAs, as well as expression patterns, a nomenclature is proposed to facilitate further studies. Examination of their genomic organization revealed that MdCesA8-A is closely linked and co-oriented with WDR53, a gene coding for a WD40 repeat protein. The WDR53 and CesA8 genes display conserved collinearity in dicots and are partially co-expressed in the apple xylem. Interestingly, the presence of a bicistronic WDR53-CesA8A transcript was detected in phytoplasma-infected phloem tissues of apple. The bicistronic transcript contains a spliced intergenic sequence that is predicted to fold into hairpin structures typical of internal ribosome entry sites, suggesting its potential cap-independent translation. Surprisingly, the CesA8A cistron is alternatively spliced and lacks the zinc-binding domain. The possible roles of WDR53 and the alternatively spliced CESA8 variant during cellulose biosynthesis in M.-xdomestica are discussed.

  • 5.
    Hammarström, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biomedicinsk fysik och röntgenfysik.
    Vassalli, Massimo
    Institute of Biophysics of the Italian National Research Council, Genoa, Italy.
    Glynne-Jones, Peter
    School of Engineering, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Acoustic focussing for sedimentation-free high-throughput imaging of microalgae2019Inngår i: Journal of Applied PhycologyArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Microalgae play a key role in aquatic ecology, and methods providing species determination and enumeration can provide critical information about—for instance—harmful algae blooms (HABs) or spreading of invasive species. A crucial step in current methods is the use of sedimentation. This provides the enrichment needed to achieve statistical counts of sometimes rare species within reasonable timeframes, but it comes with the drawback of aggregating the sample. This is a real challenge for computer-aided identification as particle aggregates can often be erroneously classified. In this paper, we propose an alternative method based on flow-through imaging aided by acoustic-focussing, as this provides better input-data for automated counting-methods while simultaneously removing the need for manual sample preparation. We demonstrate that by acoustically focussing microalgae and other particulates in a fast-flowing water sample, it is possible to analyse up to 8 mL sample per minute with sufficient image quality to discriminate the invasive species Ostreopsis ovata from other particulates in samples taken directly from the Mediterranean. We also showcase the ability to achieve sharp images in flow-through at magnifications up to × 50.

  • 6. Hansen, N. L.
    et al.
    Heskes, A. M.
    Hamberger, B.
    Olsen, C. E.
    Hallström, Björn M.
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Andersen-Ranberg, J.
    The terpene synthase gene family in Tripterygium wilfordii harbors a labdane-type diterpene synthase among the monoterpene synthase TPS-b subfamily2017Inngår i: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313X, Vol. 89, nr 3, s. 429-441Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tripterygium wilfordii (Celastraceae) is a medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Identification of a vast array of unusual sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and triterpenoids in T. wilfordii has spurred investigations of their pharmacological properties. The tri-epoxide lactone triptolide was the first of many diterpenoids identified, attracting interest due to the spectrum of bioactivities. To probe the genetic underpinning of diterpenoid diversity, an expansion of the class II diterpene synthase (diTPS) family was recently identified in a leaf transcriptome. Following detection of triptolide and simple diterpene scaffolds in the root, we sequenced and mined the root transcriptome. This allowed identification of the root-specific complement of TPSs and an expansion in the class I diTPS family. Functional characterization of the class II diTPSs established their activities in the formation of four C-20 diphosphate intermediates, precursors of both generalized and specialized metabolism and a novel scaffold for Celastraceae. Functional pairs of the class I and II enzymes resulted in formation of three scaffolds, accounting for some of the terpenoid diversity found in T. wilfordii. The absence of activity-forming abietane-type diterpenes encouraged further testing of TPSs outside the canonical class I diTPS family. TwTPS27, close relative of mono-TPSs, was found to couple with TwTPS9, converting normal-copalyl diphosphate to miltiradiene. The phylogenetic distance to established diTPSs indicates neo-functionalization of TwTPS27 into a diTPS, a function not previously observed in the TPS-b subfamily. This example of evolutionary convergence expands the functionality of TPSs in the TPS-b family and may contribute miltiradiene to the diterpenoids of T. wilfordii.

  • 7.
    Hsieh, Yves S. Y.
    et al.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Harris, Philip J.
    Structures of xyloglucans in primary cell walls of gymnosperms, monilophytes (ferns sensu lato) and lycophytes2012Inngår i: Phytochemistry, ISSN 0031-9422, E-ISSN 1873-3700, Vol. 79, s. 87-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the structures of the xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of vascular plants (tracheophytes) other than angiosperms. Xyloglucan structures were examined in 13 species of gymnosperms, 13 species of monilophytes (ferns sensu lato), and two species of lycophytes. Wall preparations were obtained, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide, and the extracts treated with a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1→4)-β-glucanase preparation. The oligosaccharides released were analysed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles from the gymnosperm walls were similar to those from the walls of most eudicotyledons and non-commelinid monocotyledons, indicating that the xyloglucans were fucogalactoxyloglucans, containing the fucosylated units XXFG and XLFG. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles for six of the monilophyte species were similar to those of the gymnosperms, indicating they were also fucogalactoxyloglucans. Phylogenetically, these monilophyte species were from both basal and more derived orders. However, the profiles for the other monilophyte species showed various significant differences, including additional oligosaccharides. In three of the species, these additional oligosaccharides contained arabinosyl residues which were most abundant in the profile of Equisetum hyemale. The two species of lycophytes examined, Selaginella kraussiana and Lycopodium cernuum, had quite different xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles, but neither were fucogalactoxyloglucans. The S. kraussiana profile had abundant oligosaccharides containing arabinosyl residues. The L. cernuum profile indicated the xyloglucan had a very complex structure.

  • 8.
    Hsieh, Yves S. Y.
    et al.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Harris, Philip J.
    Xyloglucans of monocotyledons have diverse structures2009Inngår i: Molecular Plant, ISSN 1674-2052, E-ISSN 1752-9867, Vol. 2, nr 5, s. 943-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Except in the Poaceae, little is known about the structures of the xyloglucans in the primary walls of monocotyledons. Xyloglucan structures in a range of monocotyledon species were examined. Wall preparations were isolated, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide, and the extracts treated with a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-->4)-beta-glucanase preparation. The oligosaccharides released were analyzed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Oligosaccharide profiles of the non-commelinid monocotyledons were similar to those of most eudicotyledons, indicating the xyloglucans were fucogalactoxyloglucans, with a XXXG a core motif and the fucosylated units XXFG and XLFG. An exception was Lemna minor (Araceae), which yielded no fucosylated oligosaccharides and had both XXXG and XXGn core motifs. Except for the Arecales (palms) and the Dasypogonaceae, which had fucogalactoxyloglucans, the xyloglucans of the commelinid monocotyledons were structurally different. The Zingiberales and Commelinales had xyloglucans with both XXGn and XXXG core motifs; small proportions of XXFG units, but no XLFG units, were present. In the Poales, the Poaceae had xyloglucans with a XXGn core motif and no fucosylated units. In the other Poales families, some had both XXXG and XXGn core motifs, others had only XXXG; XXFG units were present, but XLFG units were not.

  • 9.
    Kaewthai, Nomchit
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    In vitro and in vivo approaches in the characterization of XTH gene products2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    The xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) genes are found in all vascular and some nonvascular plants. The XTH genes encode proteins which comprise a subfamily of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 16 in the Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes (CAZY) classification. The XTH gene products are believed to play intrinsic role in cell wall modification during growth and development throughout the lifetime of the plant. In the present investigation, biochemical and reverse genetic approaches were used to better understand the functions of individual members of the XTH gene family of two important plants: the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana and the grain crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). A phylogenetic tree of the xyloglucan-active enzymes of GH16 has previously been constructed, where enzymes with similar activities have been shown to cluster together. Several members of phylogenetic Group I/II and III-B, predicted to exhibit xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase activity (EC 2.4.1.207) and members of Group III-A, predicted to exhibit xyloglucan endo-hydrolase activity (EC 3.2.1.151), were included to analyze the functional diversity of XTH gene products. A heterologous expression system using the yeast Pichia pastoris was found to be effective for recombinant protein production with a success rate of ca. 50%. XTH gene products were obtained in soluble and active forms for subsequent biochemical characterization.

    In order to be able to screen larger numbers of protein producing clones, a fast and easy method is required to identify clones expressing active protein in high enough amounts. Thus, a miniaturized XET/XEH assay for high-throughput analysis was developed, which was able to identify activities with good precision and with a reduced time and materials consumption and a reduced work load.

    Enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that the XET or XEH activity of all XTH gene products characterized in the present study corresponded to predictions based on the previously revised phylogenetic clustering. To gain insight into the biological function of the predominant XEHs AtXTH31 and AtXTH32, which are highly expressed in rapidly developing tissues, a reverse genetic approach was employed using T-DNA insertion lines of the A. thaliana Columbia ecotype. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization, together with in situ assays of XET and XEH activities, in single- and double-knock-out mutants indicated that these Group III-A enzymes are active in expanding tissues of the A. thaliana roots and hypocotyl.  Although suppression of in muro XEH activity was clearly observed in the double-knock-out, no significant growth phenotype was observed, with the exception that radicle emergence appeared to be faster than in the wild type plants.

    Keywords: Arabidopis thaliana, Hordeum vulgare, plant cell wall, xyloglucan, glycoside hydrolase family 16, xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase gene family, xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase, xyloglucan endo-hydrolase, heterologous protein expression, Pichia pastoris, T-DNA insertion, in situ XET/XEH assay, high-throughput screening

  • 10. Kaur, S.
    et al.
    Srivastava, A.
    Kumar, Sanjiv
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Glykovetenskap.
    Srivastava, Vaibhav
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Glykovetenskap.
    Ahluwalia, A. S.
    Mishra, Y.
    Biochemical and proteomic analysis reveals oxidative stress tolerance strategies of Scenedesmus abundans against allelochemicals released by Microcystis aeruginosa2019Inngår i: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 41, artikkel-id 101525Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the possible survival strategies of a green alga, Scenedesmus abundans, against allelochemicals secreted by Microcystis aeruginosa. We exposed the monoculture of S. abundans to a cell free-filtrate (allelochemicals)of M. aeruginosa at the start of our experiment and measured the growth behaviour, morphological changes and oxidative stress markers. The results suggest that exposure to allelochemicals induced oxidative stress in S. abundans, which had significantly reduced the growth of green alga with certain morphological changes. However, after seven days, S. abundans found ways to reduce oxidative stress by recovering its morphology and growth close to that of control. To understand possible survival strategies of test alga, we measured biochemical as well as protein level changes in S. abundans. Biochemical response of the green alga clearly showed that as a response to allelochemicals, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were induced. Proteomic analysis showed that exposure to allelochemicals induced accumulation of 13 proteins on the 2-DE gel of S. abundans, which falls in three functional categories, i.e., (i)energy metabolism (photosynthesis, carbon fixation and respiration), (ii)ROS scavenging enzymes and molecular chaperones, and (iii)amino acid and protein biosynthesis. After chronic oxidative stress, these proteins presumably retained glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and turnover rate of the Calvin-Benson cycle. Moreover, these proteins assisted in the adequate detoxification of ROS and played an important role in the damage removal and repair of oxidized proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Therefore, our study anticipates that S. abundans embraces biochemical and proteomic reprogramming to thrives against allelochemicals released by M. aeruginosa.

  • 11.
    McKee, Lauren S.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Glykovetenskap.
    Martinez-Abad, Antonio
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Glykovetenskap.
    Ruthes, Andrea C.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Glykovetenskap. AlbaNova Univ Ctr, KTH Royal Inst .
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Glykovetenskap.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Glykovetenskap.
    Focused Metabolism of beta-Glucans by the Soil Bacteroidetes Species Chitinophaga pinensis2019Inngår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 85, nr 2, artikkel-id UNSP e02231-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The genome and natural habitat of Chitinophaga pinensis suggest it has the ability to degrade a wide variety of carbohydrate-based biomass. Complementing our earlier investigations into the hydrolysis of some plant polysaccharides, we now show that C. pinensis can grow directly on spruce wood and on the fungal fruiting body. Growth was stronger on fungal material, although secreted enzyme activity was high in both cases, and all biomass-induced secretomes showed a predominance of beta-glucanase activities. We therefore conducted a screen for growth on and hydrolysis of beta-glucans isolated from different sources. Most noncrystalline beta-glucans supported good growth, with variable efficiencies of polysaccharide deconstruction and oligosaccharide uptake, depending on the polysaccharide backbone linkage. In all cases, beta-glucan was the only type of polysaccharide that was effectively hydrolyzed by secreted enzymes. This contrasts with the secretion of enzymes with a broad range of activities observed during growth on complex heteroglycans. Our findings imply a role for C. pinensis in the turnover of multiple types of biomass and suggest that the species may have two metabolic modes: a "scavenging mode," where multiple different types of glycan may be degraded, and a more "focused mode" of beta-glucan metabolism. The significant accumulation of some types of beta-gluco-oligosaccharides in growth media may be due to the lack of an appropriate transport mechanism, and we propose that this is due to the specificity of expressed polysaccharide utilization loci. We present a hypothetical model for beta-glucan metabolism by C. pinensis that suggests the potential for nutrient sharing among the microbial litter community. IMPORTANCE It is well known that the forest litter layer is inhabited by a complex microbial community of bacteria and fungi. However, while the importance of fungi in the turnover of natural biomass is well established, the role of their bacterial counterparts is less extensively studied. We show that Chitinophaga pinensis, a prominent member of an important bacterial genus, is capable of using both plant and fungal biomass as a nutrient source but is particularly effective at deconstructing dead fungal material. The turnover of dead fungus is key in natural elemental cycles in the forest. We show that C. pinensis can perform extensive degradation of this material to support its own growth while also releasing sugars that may serve as nutrients for other microbial species. Our work adds detail to an increasingly complex picture of life among the environmental microbiota.

  • 12. Nishikubo, Nobuyuki
    et al.
    Takahashi, Junko
    Roos, Alexandra A.
    Derba-Maceluch, Marta
    Piens, Kathleen
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Teeri, Tuula T.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Stalbrand, Henrik
    Mellerowicz, Ewa J.
    Xyloglucan endo-Transglycosylase-Mediated Xyloglucan Rearrangements in Developing Wood of Hybrid Aspen2011Inngår i: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 155, nr 1, s. 399-413Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases (XETs) encoded by xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases/hydrolase (XTH) genes modify the xyloglucan-cellulose framework of plant cell walls, thereby regulating their expansion and strength. To evaluate the importance of XET in wood development, we studied xyloglucan dynamics and XTH gene expression in developing wood and modified XET activity in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula X tremuloides) by overexpressing PtxtXET16-34. We show that developmental modifications during xylem differentiation include changes from loosely to tightly bound forms of xyloglucan and increases in the abundance of fucosylated xyloglucan epitope recognized by the CCRC-M1 antibody. We found that at least 16 Populus XTH genes, all likely encoding XETs, are expressed in developing wood. Five genes were highly and ubiquitously expressed, whereas PtxtXET16-34 was expressed more weakly but specifically in developing wood. Transgenic up-regulation of XET activity induced changes in cell wall xyloglucan, but its effects were dependent on developmental stage. For instance, XET overexpression increased abundance of the CCRC-M1 epitope in cambial cells and xylem cells in early stages of differentiation but not in mature xylem. Correspondingly, an increase in tightly bound xyloglucan content was observed in primary-walled xylem but a decrease was seen in secondary-walled xylem. Thus, in young xylem cells, XET activity limits xyloglucan incorporation into the tightly bound wall network but removes it from cell walls in older cells. XET overexpression promoted vessel element growth but not fiber expansion. We suggest that the amount of nascent xyloglucan relative to XET is an important determinant of whether XET strengthens or loosens the cell wall.

  • 13. Roberts, Alison W.
    et al.
    Lahnstein, Jelle
    Hsieh, Yves S. Y.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Glykovetenskap.
    Xing, Xiaohui
    Yap, Kuok
    Chaves, Arielle M
    Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R
    Dimitroff, George
    Lonsdale, Andrew
    Roberts, Eric M.
    Bulone, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Glykovetenskap.
    Fincher, Geoffrey B
    Doblin, Monika Susanne
    Bacic, Antony
    Burton, Rachel A
    Functional Characterization of a Glycosyltransferase from the Moss Physcomitrella patens Involved in the Biosynthesis of a Novel Cell Wall Arabinoglucan2018Inngår i: The Plant Cell, ISSN 1040-4651, E-ISSN 1532-298X, Vol. 30, nr 6, s. 1293-1308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed-linkage (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (MLG), an abundant cell wall polysaccharide in the Poaceae, has been detected in ascomycetes, algae, and seedless vascular plants, but not in eudicots. Although MLG has not been reported in bryophytes, a predicted glycosyltransferase from the moss Physcomitrella patens (Pp3c12_24670) is similar to a bona fide ascomycete MLG synthase. We tested whether Pp3c12_24670 encodes an MLG synthase by expressing it in wild tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) and testing for release of diagnostic oligosaccharides from the cell walls by either lichenase or (1,4)-β-glucan endohydrolase. Lichenase, an MLG-specific endohydrolase, showed no activity against cell walls from transformed N. benthamiana, but (1,4)-β-glucan endohydrolase released oligosaccharides that were distinct from oligosaccharides released from MLG by this enzyme. Further analysis revealed that these oligosaccharides were derived from a novel unbranched, unsubstituted arabinoglucan (AGlc) polysaccharide. We identified sequences similar to the P. patens AGlc synthase from algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and monilophytes, raising the possibility that other early divergent plants synthesize AGlc. Similarity of P. patens AGlc synthase to MLG synthases from ascomycetes, but not those from Poaceae, suggests that AGlc and MLG have a common evolutionary history that includes loss in seed plants, followed by a more recent independent origin of MLG within the monocots.

  • 14.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    ARSENIC REMOVAL BY PHYTOFILTRATION AND SILICON TREATMENT: A POTENTIAL SOLUTION FOR LOWERING ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN FOOD CROPS2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of arsenic-rich groundwater for crop irrigation can increase the arsenic (As) content in food crops and act as a carcinogen, compromising human health. Using aquatic plant based phytofiltration is a potential eco-technique for removing arsenic from water. The aquatic moss species Warnstorfia fluitans grows naturally in mining areas in northern Sweden, where high concentrations of arsenic occur in lakes and rivers. This species was selected as a model for field, climate chamber and greenhouse studies on factors governing arsenic removal and arsenic phytofiltration of irrigation water. The arsenic and silicon (Si) concentrations in soil, water and plant samples were measured by AAS (atomic absorption spectrophotometry), while arsenite and arsenate species were determined using AAS combined with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an anion exchange column. The arsenic content in grains of hybrid and local aromatic rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars with differing arsenic accumulation factor (AF) values was investigated in an arsenic hotspot in Bangladesh. The results showed that arsenic AF was important in identifying arsenic-safer rice cultivars for growing in an arsenic hotspot. The study based on silicon effect on arsenic uptake in lettuce showed that arsenic accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) could be reduced by silicon addition. The aquatic moss had good phytofiltration capacity, with fast arsenic removal of up to 82% from a medium with low arsenic concentration (1 µM). Extraction analysis showed that inorganic arsenic species were firmly bound inside moss tissue. Absorption of arsenic was relatively higher than adsorption in the moss. Regarding effects of different abiotic factors, plants were stressed at low pH (pH 2.5) and arsenic removal rate was lower from the medium, while arsenic efflux occurred in arsenate-treated medium at low (12°C) and high (30°C) temperature regimes. Besides these factors, low oxygenation increased the efficiency of arsenic removal from the medium. Finally, combining W. fluitans as a phytofilter with a lettuce crop on a constructed wetland significantly reduced the arsenic content in edible parts (leaves) of lettuce. Thus W. fluitans has great potential for use as an arsenic phytofilter in temperate regions.

  • 15.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    Globalizing Linnaeus - Economic Botany and Travelling Disciples2008Inngår i: TijdSchrift voor Skandinavistiek, ISSN 0168-2148, E-ISSN 1875-9505, Vol. 29, nr 1-2, s. 117-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria (bytt namn 20120201).
    Linné, Solander, the Apostles and Their Time2007Inngår i: Australian Systematic Botany Society Newsletter, ISSN 1034-1218, nr 133, s. 14-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Winzell, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Guerriero, Gea
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Aspeborg, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Wang, Yiqiang
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Rajangam, Alex S.
    Teeri, Tuula T.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Ezcurra, Inés
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Biochemical characterization of family 43 glycosyltransferases in the Populus xylem: challenges and prospects2010Inngår i: Plant Biotechnology, ISSN 1342-4580, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 283-288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood formation is a biological process of great economical importance. Genes active during the secondary cellwall formation of wood fibers from Populus tremulatremuloides were previously identified by expression profilingthrough microarray analyses. A number of these genes encode glycosyltransferases (GTs) with unknown substratespecificities. Here we report heterologous expression of one of these enzymes, PttGT43A, a putative IRREGULARXYLEM9 (IRX9) homologue. Expression trials in Pichia pastoris and insect cells revealed very low levels of accumulationof immunoreactive PttGT43A, whereas transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves by Agrobacterium infiltration(agroinfiltration) using a viral vector produced substantial amounts of protein that mostly precipitated in the crude pellet.Agroinfiltration induced weak endogenous xylosyltransferase activity in microsomal extracts, and transient PttGT43Aexpression further increased this activity, albeit only to low levels. PttGT43A may be inactive as an individual subunit,requiring complex formation with unknown partners to display enzymatic activity. Our results suggest that transient coexpressionin leaves of candidate subunit GTs may provide a viable approach for formation of an active xylanxylosyltransferase enzymatic complex.

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