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  • 1.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Patientsäkerhet (Stängd 20130701).
    Gyllensten, Illapha Cuba
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH).
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS) (Stängd 20130701).
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system (MSSS) (Stängd 20130701).
    Software tool for analysis of breathing-related errors in transthoracic electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements2012Inngår i: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 407, nr 1, s. 012028-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (EBIS) has been applied in a range of different applications and mainly using the frequency sweep-technique. Traditionally the tissue under study is considered to be timeinvariant and dynamic changes of tissue activity are ignored and instead treated as a noise source. This assumption has not been adequately tested and could have a negative impact and limit the accuracy for impedance monitoring systems. In order to successfully use frequency-sweeping EBIS for monitoring time-variant systems, it is paramount to study the effect of frequency-sweep delay on Cole Model-based analysis. In this work, we present a software tool that can be used to simulate the influence of respiration activity in frequency-sweep EBIS measurements of the human thorax and analyse the effects of the different error sources. Preliminary results indicate that the deviation on the EBIS measurement might be significant at any frequency, and especially in the impedance plane. Therefore the impact on Cole-model analysis might be different depending on method applied for Cole parameter estimation.

  • 2.
    Alassi, Sepideh
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Parallelldatorcentrum, PDC.
    Kowarschik, M.
    Pohl, T.
    Köstler, H.
    Rude, U.
    Estimating blood flow based on 2D angiographic image sequences2012Inngår i: Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin 2012 : Algorithmen - Systeme - Anwendungen. Proceedings des Workshops vom 18. bis 20. März 2012 in Berlin, Springer-Verlag New York, 2012, s. 380-385Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of hemodynamics based on medical image data represents an attractive means in order to enhance diagnostic imaging capabilities, to evaluate clinical outcomes of therapies focusing on the patient's vascular system, as well as to guide minimally invasive interventional procedures in the catheter lab. We present a first evaluation along with comparisons of algorithmic approaches towards the quantitative determination of blood flow based on 2D angiography image data.

  • 3. Albabtain, Reham
    et al.
    Azeem, Muhammad
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wondimu, Zenebech
    Lindberg, Tulay
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Investigations of a Possible Chemical Effect of Salvadora persica Chewing Sticks2017Inngår i: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1741-427X, E-ISSN 1741-4288, artikkel-id 2576548Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Salvadora persica is commonly used chewing sticks in many parts of the world as an oral hygiene tool. This study measured the amount of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) released into the mouth and assessed its retention time in saliva. The study also tested if the released amount of BITC could potentially be antibacterial or cytotoxic. Twelve subjects brushed their teeth with fresh Miswak once, twice, and four times. The amount of BITC in the saliva and in the used brushes was quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antibacterial effect of BITC and Miswak essential oil (MEO) was tested against Haemophilus influenzae, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The cytotoxic effect on gingival fibroblasts and keratinocytes was tested using MTT. The highest amount of the active compounds was detected in saliva after using the Miswak tip for once and immediately. It significantly decreased when the Miswak tip was used more than once and thus after 10 min. The growth of the tested bacteria was inhibited by MEO and BITC in a dose dependent manner, P. gingivalis being the most sensitive. MTT assay showed that BITC and MEO were cytotoxic towards gingival fibroblasts while oral keratinocytes showed resistance. This study suggests that the Miswak tip should be cut before each use to ensure the maximum effect.

  • 4. Altai, Mohamed
    et al.
    Honarvar, Hadis
    Wållberg, Helena
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteinteknologi.
    Strand, Joanna
    Varasteh, Zohreh
    Rosestedt, Maria
    Orlova, Anna
    Dunås, Finn
    Sandström, Mattias
    Löfblom, John
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteinteknologi.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Proteinteknologi.
    Selection of an optimal cysteine-containing peptide-based chelator for labeling of affibody molecules with (188)Re.2014Inngår i: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0223-5234, E-ISSN 1768-3254, Vol. 87, s. 519-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Affibody molecules constitute a class of small (7 kDa) scaffold proteins that can be engineered to have excellent tumor targeting properties. High reabsorption in kidneys complicates development of affibody molecules for radionuclide therapy. In this study, we evaluated the influence of the composition of cysteine-containing C-terminal peptide-based chelators on the biodistribution and renal retention of (188)Re-labeled anti-HER2 affibody molecules. Biodistribution of affibody molecules containing GGXC or GXGC peptide chelators (where X is G, S, E or K) was compared with biodistribution of a parental affibody molecule ZHER2:2395 having a KVDC peptide chelator. All constructs retained low picomolar affinity to HER2-expressing cells after labeling. The biodistribution of all (188)Re-labeled affibody molecules was in general comparable, with the main observed difference found in the uptake and retention of radioactivity in excretory organs. The (188)Re-ZHER2:V2 affibody molecule with a GGGC chelator provided the lowest uptake in all organs and tissues. The renal retention of (188)Re-ZHER2:V2 (3.1 ± 0.5 %ID/g at 4 h after injection) was 55-fold lower than retention of the parental (188)Re-ZHER2:2395 (172 ± 32 %ID/g). We show that engineering of cysteine-containing peptide-based chelators can be used for significant improvement of biodistribution of (188)Re-labeled scaffold proteins, particularly reduction of their uptake in excretory organs.

  • 5.
    Alvarez, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Importance of neck muscle tonus in head kinematics during pedestrian accidents2013Inngår i: 2013 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2013, s. 747-761Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Unprotected pedestrians are an exposed group in the rural traffic and the most vulnerable human body region is the head which is the source of many fatal injuries. This study was performed to gain a better understanding of the influence that the neck muscle tonus has on head kinematics during pedestrian accidents. This was done using a detailed whole body FE model and a detailed FE vehicle model. To determine the influence of the muscle tonus a series of simulations were performed where the vehicle speed, pedestrian posture and muscle tonus were varied. Since the human reaction time for muscle activation is in the order of the collision time, the pedestrian was assumed to be prepared for the oncoming vehicle in order to augment the possible influence of muscle tonus. From the simulations performed, kinematic data such as head rotations, trajectory and velocities were extracted for the whole collision event, as well as velocity and accelerations at head impact. These results show that muscle tonus can influence the head rotation during a vehicle collision and therefore alter the head impact orientation. The level of influence on head rotation was in general lower than when altering the struck leg forward and backward, but in the same order of magnitude for some cases. The influence on head accelerations was higher due to muscle tonus than posture in all cases.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Arkitektur og sociale idealer for plejekraevende og svage aeldre2015Inngår i: In press: In press / [ed] Rostgaard, T.; Jensen, P.H., Aalborg: Aalborg Universitetsforlag, 2015Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Arkitekturens betydelse för hemlikhet i särskilt boende2012Inngår i: Äldres boende: Forskningsperspektiv i Norden / [ed] Marianne Abramsson, Catharina Nord, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, s. 219-246Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Calamities and controversies around resilient architecture for ageing: life course perspective on an exemplary Swedish residential care home2014Inngår i: / [ed] Padam, K.; Silik, K., 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Age is a delicate matter, but the Swedish welfare state is ageing and has an increasingly larger propor-tion of elderly people, about 19 per cent (Sweden Statistics, 2014). Since the election campaign in 2006, the matter of appropriate housing and caregiving for older frail persons has been a reoccurring item on the political agenda. Governmental delegations and programmes have ventured out into the great unknown territory of architectural experiences and age-related problems. However, one existing residential care home, in the following RCH, pops up as an exemplary and universal model for architec-ture and the frail ageing process, the residential care home of Vigs Ängar.Initiated as a mutual initiative in the early 1990s, between a local anthroposophical interest group and the municipality of Ystad, Sweden, its creation and existence describe a troublesome tension between legal frameworks, managerial systems for eldercare, facility management and idealistic visions for fu-ture-oriented caregiving. Despite a 20 year existence, this exemplary model has resulted in few similar facilities, both architecture-wise and eldercare-wise. Instead, a large number of national and interna-tional study visits have turned the building along with caregiving into an open smorgasbord consisting of architectural elements or therapeutic approaches, subject to free sampling and tasting. To some extent, the anthroposophical label has clouded the resilient approach in architectural design and care-giving for the frail stages in life.The focus of this paper was to go behind semantics and unravel the generating images that constitute the fundamental reason for the exemplary status of the RCH in question. Critical analysis has been applied as a research method in order to scrutinize documents and drawings that originate from the design process. Random conversations and interviews with various informants associated with the RCH, among which the architect, have been executed over the period 2007-2013. This study suggests that the key factor in this successful realization of an RCH is the solid idea for a resilient architecture. This idea encompasses both ephemeral and tangible experiences of space that structure both the older person’s quality in life as well as the individual staff member’s satisfaction with the work envi-ronment. In that sense, the RCH of Vigs Ängar is more of a spatial sensation than an anthroposophical epiphany.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Compact living or space for ageing comfortably: Contemporary architectural thinking for the Nordic frail ageing process2014Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 10.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Den boende i centrum vid utformning av god arkitektur vid demensproblem2014Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 11.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Försök till jämförande analys: mätbara och omätbara värden i kvalitet2014Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 12.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Goda boendemiljöer med vård och omsorg: för det sköra åldrandet2014Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 13.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Hemmets ytterligheter på ålderns höst: ett värdigt hem i två perspektiv2014Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Hur kan man skapa den bästa miljön på ett äldreboende? Hur kan man förvandla det institutionella intrycket till en miljö som man kan trivas som hemma i?: Byggandet av framtidssäkra äldreboenden och exempel på evidensbaserad design2012Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan man skapa den bästa miljön på ett äldreboende? Hur kan man förvandla det institutionella intrycket till en miljö som man kan trivas som hemma i? / How to create the best possible environment for frail older people in residential housing? How to convert the institutional impression to an environment in which you experience homelikeness?: Byggandet av framtidssäkra äldreboenden och exempel på evidensbaserad design. / The building of future-oriented residential housing and examples of evidence-based design.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Nordisk omsorg för äldre: en förebild för Spanien?2012Inngår i: Ä : en tidning för Riksföreningen sjuksköterskan inom äldrevård : geriatriker, dietister inom geriatrik samt alla professioner runt den äldre patienten, ISSN 2001-1164, nr 2, s. 76-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Befolkningsprognoser framtill 2060 visar på en förändring i sammansättningen av befolkningen, där antalet personer i arbetsförålder minskar medan andelen äldre personer med ett möjligt ökande behov av omsorg och vård ökar. Det är ett pågående fenomen att andelen personer 65 år och äldre i befolkningen ökar i de flesta länder. I Europa intar Grekland, Italien och Tyskland tätplatserna med 19-20 procent av befolkningen. Sverige ligger på en fjärde plats med 18 procent. Övriga europeiska länder ligger några procentenheter lägre, mellan 11 till 17 procent, och de följer de förberedelser som de fyra länderna i täten vidtar på tröskeln till ett samhälle som karakteriseras av en stor andel personer i de övre åldersgrupperna. Ett sådant land är Spanien, där gruppen äldre personer 65 år och uppåt uppgår till ca 17 procent av befolkningen. Den demografiska förändringen i Spanien kommer att bli större än de prognoser som görs för Sverige: beroendeförhållandet (antal äldre person jämfört med personer i arbetsförålder) år 2050 uppskattas till 58,7 i Spanien mot 41,9 i Sverige.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Stödjande arkitektur för sköra äldre: Arkitekttävlingar som medel2012Inngår i: Vigs Ängars diskussionsseminarium 2012, Köpingebro, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Vision eller verklighet?: Arkitektur för sköra äldre i praktiken2012Inngår i: Omsorg: Nordisk tidsskrift for Palliativ Medisin, ISSN 0800-7489, Vol. 4, s. 46-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denmark, Norway and Sweden are entering the graying society. The demographic situation creates new demands on buildings, infrastructure and services. The number of residential homes is increasing, especially for older persons with a dementia diagnosis. This is a type of public building that is regulated by programming documents that eventually will define the residential environment. This article is based on a survey of 78 architectural competitions from the period of 2000 to 2012. The competition documentation of nine Nordic competitions has been analyzed by use of close reading and drawing analysis. This study suggests that there is a gap between reality and visions. Despite research-based guidelines, the architecture of contemporary residential care homes relies on universal qualities that are associated with the home environment rather than with the particular conditions of this housing that integrates home in a care environment. A multidisciplinary approach, however, is desirable inorder to create appropriate and sustainable environments for frail older people.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Jonas E
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning. Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, SBi, Aalborg Universitet, Danmark.
    Rönn, Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Arkitektur för Bo bra på äldre dar: tre tävlingar i Burlöv, Gävle och Linköping2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish governmental two year program “Growing old, Living well” was launched in 2010 with the specific intent to create innovation regarding housing for both able and frail older people. The program has been administered by the Swedish Institute for Assistive Technology (SIAT), which has diffused the allocation of 50 million Swedish crowns into various projects and studies about housing for the ageing generation. Sweden is entering the ageing country in which the group of people aged 65 years and above attains approximately 19 per cent. Apart from regular case studies on different phenomena that occur in relation to older people and housing, the Swedish government designated the architectural competition as an instrument for renewing contemporaneous thinking about ordinary and special housing for older people. National architecture competitions have been used to define space for dependent persons. These competitions have preceded reforms of the social act. In a parallel track, local architecture competitions have resulted in new housing for older people who still able reside within the stock of ordinary housing.

     

    According to the SIAT, a total of 18 municipalities requested information about the conditions and possibilities for acquiring finical support for the organization of architecture competitions or studies about housing for senior citizen. Of these, seven applied for funding to organize competitions, but five local organizers were granted funding. Later, two municipalities suspended their competitions due to unforeseen obstacles. The program has resulted in three architectural competitions. The objective for these competitions has been to infuse creative thinking and future-oriented solutions concerning housing for the older people. The present study will shed light on how a municipal actor works with these matters and will supply a time estimate for such a planning process. The study focuses on the three municipal architectural competitions and the two pilot studies that were used as supplementary source of information regarding housing preferences. Supplemented by written documentation, the process of realizing an architecture competition or a pilot study has been reconstructed as to its dynamics. The methodology includes an inventory of competitions, case studies, document review and interviews of key-persons. By use of the competition documentation and the pilot studies, 74 informants were possible to delimit as to their participation in the process.

     

    The decisive reason for why the governmental program Growing Older - Living Well didn’t get a better response from the municipalities lies in the timetable for the national initiative. The governmental program was not coordinated with municipal planning processes for housing. Only municipals that already started their planning could consider organizing competitions. The competitions were organized as invited competitions with a prequalification procedure. Prequalification is a selection procedure used early in the competition process to identify suitable candidates for the following design phase. Three to four teams of architects have been invited to develop design proposals. Based on the study, a set comprising of thirty detailed conclusions can be made about the municipal competitions that were arranged with support from the governmental program. However, they all converge into an overarching conclusion that states the direct link between the wording of the competition brief and the participating architects’ inclination to rethink the design task in a fundamental or moderate approach. The study concludes that the better the arranger prepare the competition brief, the more accurately will the participating architects convert this text into future-oriented architecture for older people that is active on a comprehensive level as well as on the detailed level one.

  • 19. Arlinger, S.
    et al.
    Uhlén, I.
    Hagerman, B.
    Kähäri, K.
    Rosenhall, U.
    Spens, Karl Erik
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Holgers, K. -M
    Höga ljudnivåer på konserter kan ge hörselskador för livet: Musikbranschen tar inte sitt ansvar2007Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 104, nr 41, s. 2978-2979Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Bamzar, Roya
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Ceccato, Vania
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    The regional ecology of elderly falls in Sweden2016Inngår i: GeoJournal, ISSN 0343-2521, E-ISSN 1572-9893, Vol. 81, nr 1, s. 23-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study assesses exploratory the geography of the elderly fall in Sweden in relation to the ecology of the socio-demographic characteristics of the Swedes older population. Kendall Test is used to measure the association between elderly fall rates and demographic, socio-economic characteristics of the population, costs of elderly care and accessibility measures at county level. Results show a number of significant associations: high rates of the elderly fall are associated with high cost of the elderly care but also low rate of elderly fall and good accessibility to basic services (e.g., grocery store, health care and cash machines). The articles finalizes with reflections of the results and suggestions for future research.

  • 21. Barman, Linda
    Striving for Autonomy: Health sciences teachers’ enactment of policy2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract This thesis explores how teachers within the health sciences enact education policy. The questions address how teachers’ choices related to the design of courses and curricula are made in the light of reforms that emphasise standardisation and transparency. Employing a hermeneutical framework teachers’ enactment were regarded as a meaning-making process shown through reason and action. In line with the interpretative approach, the two research projects were performed with qualitative methods. The first research project (study I and II) concerned how teachers’ understood and carried out changes in course design related to the implementation of outcome-based education and the European Bologna Process. For that purpose, course material and interview data was analysed. The second research project (study III and IV), was conducted to deepen the understanding of findings from the first project. A group of teachers who conducted major changes related to previous reform was chosen and studied with a narrative approach when they engaged in the development of teaching and learning. In particular, the teachers’ development of assessment criteria of students’ clinical competencies was studied over one year. A body of literature report on how teachers conceptualise teaching and learning. Based on those studies there has been an emphasis on supporting teachers’ shift in views regarding teaching and learning. Related to recent reforms in higher education, it is however suggested that teachers are less free to decide upon educational matters, and hence individual teachers’ deepened understanding are not enough for development of practice to occur. The findings in this thesis suggest that wide interpretations of education policy in combination with pedagogical knowledge may benefit educational development in practice. Teachers were found to approach outcome-based education when introduced as policy in four different ways, with outcome blind, technocratic, pragmatic or ideological approach. These approaches were related to student-centred learning to more or less extent, and to greater or lesser autonomy in the decision-making related to course design. The studies showed how teachers’ experience a tension between bureaucratic demands and what is emphasised through teaching and learning theory. For some teachers this meant that theoretical constructs were applied in instrumental ways and that pedagogy equated the bureaucratic and rational standards involved in quality control. The findings suggest however, that learning and development can be promoted through education policy but that teachers’ local practices should be supported.

  • 22. Bauer, M.
    et al.
    Mazza, E.
    Nava, A.
    Zeck, W.
    Eder, M.
    Bajka, M.
    Cacho, F.
    Lang, U.
    Holzapfel, Gerhard A.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Hållfasthetslära (Inst.). Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    In vivo characterization of the mechanics of human uterine cervices2007Inngår i: Reproductive Biomechanics, Blackwell Publishing, 2007, s. 186-202Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The uterine cervix has to provide mechanical resistance to ensure a normal development of the fetus. This is guaranteed by the composition of its extracellular matrix, which functions as a fiber-reinforced composite. At term a complex remodeling process allows the cervical canal to open for birth. This remodeling is achieved by changes in the quality and quantity of collagen fibers and ground substance and their interplay, which influences the biomechanical behavior of the cervix but also contributes to pathologic conditions such as cervical incompetence (CI). We start by reviewing the anatomy and histological composition of the human cervix, and discuss its physiologic function and pathologic condition in pregnancy including biomechanical aspects. Established diagnostic methods on the cervix (palpation, endovaginal ultrasound) used in clinics as well as methods for assessment of cervical consistency (light-induced fluorescence, electrical current, and impedance) are discussed. We show the first clinical application of an aspiration device, which allows in vivo testing of the biomechanical properties of the cervix with the aim to establish the physiological biomechanical changes throughout gestation and to detect pregnant women at risk for CI. In a pilot study on nonpregnant cervices before and after hysterectomy we found no considerable difference in the biomechanical response between in vivo and ex vivo. An outlook on further clinical applications during pregnancy is presented.

  • 23.
    Berglund, Ida S.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH).
    Brar, Harpreet S.
    Dolgova, Natalia
    Acharya, Abhinav P.
    Keselowsky, Benjamin G.
    Sarntinoranont, Malisa
    Manuel, Michele V.
    Synthesis and characterization of Mg-Ca-Sr alloys for biodegradable orthopedic implant applications2012Inngår i: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B - Applied biomaterials, ISSN 1552-4973, E-ISSN 1552-4981, Vol. 100B, nr 6, s. 1524-1534Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnesium has recently received an increased amount of interest due to its potential use in biodegradable implant applications. The rapid degradation of conventional Mg is, however, a major limitation that needs to be addressed in the design of these materials, along with consideration of toxicity in selection of alloying elements. In this study, five alloys in the Mg-xCa-ySr system (x = 0.57.0 wt %; y = 0.53.5 wt %) were prepared and characterized for their suitability as degradable orthopedic implant materials. The alloys were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, degradation measurements in Hanks' solution at 37 degrees C, compression testing, and in vitro cytotoxicity testing with a mouse osteoblastic cell line. The results indicate that the Mg-1.0Ca-0.5Sr alloy is the most promising alloy for orthopedic implant applications since it showed the lowest degradation rate in Hanks' solution (0.01 mL cm-2 h-1) along with no significant toxicity to MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and a compressive strength of 274 +/- 4 MPa.

  • 24. Bergman, David
    et al.
    Liljefors, Ingrid
    Palm, Kristina
    Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning,Informatics,Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effects of dialogue groups on physicians' work environment: A matter of gender?2015Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 407-417Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, the work environment of physicians has been deteriorating, particularly for female physicians. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the effects of dialogue groups on the work environment of physicians in relation to gender. METHODS: Sixty physicians (38 women) at Sachs' Children's Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, participated in dialogue groups once a month during a period of one year. Assessments of their psychosocial work environment were performed before and after the intervention. RESULTS: At baseline, female physicians experienced their work environment as less satisfactory compared to male physicians. After the intervention, the female physicians perceived improvements in more areas than their male colleagues. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that female physicians at this clinic were disadvantaged in relation to the work environment, but, more importantly, the findings suggest that several of the disadvantages can be reduced. Dialogue groups appear to improve the physicians' work environment and promote gender equality.

  • 25. Berrada, Dounia
    et al.
    Romero, Mario
    Georgia Institute of Technology, US.
    Abowd, Gregory
    Blount, Marion
    Davis, John
    Automatic Administration of the Get Up and Go Test2007Inngår i: HealthNet'07: Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGMOBILE International Workshop on Systems and Networking Support for Healthcare and Assisted Living Environments, ACM Digital Library, 2007, s. 73-75Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In-home monitoring using sensors has the potential to improve the life of elderly and chronically ill persons, assist their family and friends in supervising their status, and provide early warning signs to the person's clinicians. The Get Up and Go test is a clinical test used to assess the balance and gait of a patient. We propose a way to automatically apply an abbreviated version of this test to patients in their residence using video data without body-worn sensors or markers.

  • 26.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE). University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Hygge, S.
    Strength of noise effects on memory as a function of noise source and age2005Inngår i: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, nr 27, s. 11-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives in this paper were to analyse noise effects on episodic and semantic memory performance in different age groups, and to see whether age interacted with noise in their effects on memory. Data were taken from three separate previous experiments, that were performed with the same design, procedure and dependent measures with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45 and 55-65 years). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) meaningful irrelevant speech, (b) road traffic noise, and (c) quiet. The results showed effects of both noise sources on a majority of the dependent measures, both when taken alone and aggregated according to the nature of the material to be memorised. However, the noise effects for episodic memory tasks were stronger than for semantic memory tasks. Further, in the reading comprehension task, cued recall and recognition were more impaired by meaningful irrelevant speech than by road traffic noise. Contrary to predictions, there was no interaction between noise and age group, indicating that the obtained noise effects were not related to the capacity to perform the task. The results from the three experiments taken together throw more light on the relative effects of road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech on memory performance in different age groups.

  • 27.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik. Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset Huddinge, Sweden.
    Boman, K.
    Dahlström, U. L. F.
    Hagerman, I.
    Willenheimer, R.
    Ekokardiografi förfinar diagnostiken vid hjärtsvikt2007Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 104, nr 34, s. 2338-2344Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28. Chilo, J.
    et al.
    Horvath, G.
    Lindblad, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Olsson, R.
    Redeby, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Analytisk kemi (stängd 20110630).
    Roeraade, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Analytisk kemi (stängd 20110630).
    A flexible electronic nose for odor discrimination using different methods of classification2009Inngår i: 2009 16th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference - Conference Record, 2009, s. 317-320Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of death from cancer in women. The lifetime risk is around 1.5%, which makes it the second most common gynecologic malignancy (the first one being breast cancer). To have a definitive diagnose, a surgical procedure is generally required and suspicious areas (samples) will be removed and sent for microscopic and other analysis. This paper describes the result of a pilot study in which an electronic nose is used to "smell" the aforementioned samples, analyze the multi-sensor signals and have a close to real-time answer on the detection of cancer. Besides being fast, the detection method is inexpensive and simple. Experimental analysis using real ovarian carcinoma samples shows that the use of proper algorithms for analysis of the multi-sensor data from the electronic nose yielded surprisingly good results with more than 77% classification rate. The electronic nose used in this pilot study was originally developed to be used as a "bomb dog" and can distinguish between e.g. TNT, Dynamex, Prillit. However, it was constructed to be a flexible multi-sensor device and the individual (16) sensors can easily be replaced/exchanged. This is suggestive for further investigations to obtain even better results with new, specific sensors. In another pilot experiment, headspace of an ovarian carcinoma sample and a control sample were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Significant differences in chemical composition and compound levels were recorded, which would explain the different response obtained with the electronic nose.

  • 29. Courteille, O.
    et al.
    Ho, Johnson
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Neuronik (Stängd 20130701).
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Neuronik (Stängd 20130701).
    Fors, U.
    Felländer-Tsai, L.
    Hedman, L.
    Möller, H.
    Face validity of VIS-Ed: A visualization program for teaching medical students and residents the biomechanics of cervical spine trauma2013Inngår i: Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 20, IOS Press, 2013, s. 96-102Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This RCT study aimed to investigate if VIS-Ed (Visualization through Imaging and Simulation - Education) had the potential to improve medical student education and specialist training in clinical diagnosis and treatment of trauma patients. The participants' general opinion was reported as high in both groups (lecture vs. virtual patient (VP)). Face validity of the VIS-Ed for cervical spine trauma was demonstrated and the VP group reported higher stimulation and engagement compared to the lecture group. No significant difference in the knowledge test between both groups could be observed, confirming our null hypothesis that VIS-Ed was on par with a lecture.

  • 30. Dahlström, U. L. F.
    et al.
    Boman, K.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik.
    Hagerman, I.
    Willenheimer, R.
    Behandling vid hjärtsvikt och bevarad systolisk funktion2007Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 104, nr 34, s. 2348-2350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Data- och systemvetenskap, DSV.
    Nilsson, Gunnar
    Velupillai, Sumithra
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Data- och systemvetenskap, DSV.
    Is de-identification of electronic health records possible?: Or can we use health record corpora for research?2009Inngår i: Virtual healthcare interaction: Papers from AAAI fall symposium ; [November 5 - 7, 2009, at the Westin Arlington Gateway in Arlington, Virginia USA], AAAI Press, 2009, s. 2-3Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Dover, Sara E.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO). Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, USA.
    Aroutcheva, A. A.
    Faro, S.
    Chikindas, M. L.
    Safety study of an antimicrobial peptide lactocin 160, produced by the vaginal Lactobacillus rhamnosus2007Inngår i: Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology, ISSN 1064-7449, E-ISSN 1098-0997, Vol. 2007, s. 78248-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To evaluate the safety of the antimicrobial peptide, lactocin 160. Methods. Lactocin 160, a product of vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus 160 was evaluated for toxicity and irritation. An in vitro human organotypic vaginal-ectocervical tissue model (EpiVaginal) was employed for the safety testing by determining the exposure time to reduce tissue viability to 50% (ET-50). Hemolytic activity of lactocin160 was tested using 8% of human erythrocyte suspension. Susceptibility of lactobacilli to lactocin160 was also studied. Rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) model was used for an in vivo safety evaluation. Results. The ET-50 value was 17.5 hours for lactocin 160 (4.9 hours for nonoxynol 9, N9). Hemolytic activity of lactocin 160 was 8.2% (N9 caused total hemolysis). Lactobacilli resisted to high concentrations of peptide preparation. The RVI model revealed slight vaginal irritation. An average irritation index grade was evaluated as "none." Conclusions. Lactocin 160 showed minimal irritation and has a good potential for intravaginal application.

  • 33.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Företagshälsovårdens arbete med förebyggande arbetsmiljöåtgärder inom fysisk arbetsmiljö: Arbetssätt, metoder och effekter2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En av företagshälsovårdens viktigaste uppgifter är att arbeta med primärpreventiva tjänster för att förebygga arbetsrelaterade ohälsa hos sina kundföretag. Det finns generellt sett lite internationell forskning om företagshälsovård och dess förebyggande arbetsmiljöarbete. Denna litteraturstudie syftar till att undersöka hur företagshälsovården arbetar som utförare av arbetsmiljöinterventioner hos olika kundföretag med inriktning på primärprevention gällande fysisk arbetsmiljö. Sju artiklar inkluderades i studien. Resultatet visar att det finns få studier där det tydligt framgår att företagshälsovården är utförare av interventionen. De inkluderade studierna visar att när ett multidisciplinärt team varit involverat samt när interventioner har skett på flera nivåer, det vill säga på organisations-, grupp- och individnivå så har effekten varit positiv. Framgångsrika arbetssätt som testats av företagshälsovården för ett primärpreventivt arbete inom fysisk arbetsmiljö har bland annat inneburit systematiska riskbedömningar och teamarbete tillsammans med kundföretaget.

  • 34.
    Englund-Lehmann, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Validitet och reliabilitet av ett arbetsbelastningsindex (AI) i en FHV enkät2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    The purpose of this work was to scientifically evaluate the sustainability of parts of  a company-specific survey within the Occupational Health Services (FHV). The service is called HALU which is an abbreviation of the “Work Health and Lifestyle” survey and provided by Feelgood AB. HALU is a questionnaire that is used frequently towards the customer and answered on an individual level with subsequent health interviews and a statement regarding the organization's performance in order to identify the health, lifestyle and working situation of the organization. In this work, questions regarding workloads were evaluated. There were six different workload questions, and the question in this paper were whether these issues had an internal consistency, validity and reliability, and if these issues’ correlation to questions about health during the past year. These analyzes were designed as cross-sectional studies The work also included a longitudinal study in which survey responses from the same individual on two occasions analyzed to see if the responses of workload and health has correlation at two different response times. The material used is a selection from Feelgood database from which includes total includes 130,422 HALU surveys. This sample includes 17,513 surveys from 201007. The study was performed in three steps: Step 1 was a reliability study in which the internal consistency analysis regarding workload questions in the questionnaire . A workload index was created (AI) Stage 2 was a validity study where the correlation coefficient analyzed for correlation between the AI which was calculated in step 1 and the in -depth study of health issues. Step 3 was also a validity study where the correlation coefficient was analyzed in terms of relationships between different survey occasions in the same individual, in order to see if the change in workload results in change in self-perceived health . The result showed that there was strong internal consistency regarding workload issues and that there was correlation between workload and health in a cross section . There were also correlation between survey responses occasions but this was low.

  • 35. Fadeel, B.
    et al.
    Feliu, N.
    Vogt, Carmen Mihaela
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Abdelmonem, A.M.
    Parak, W.J.
    Bridge over troubled waters: Understanding the synthetic and biological identities of engineered nanomaterials2013Inngår i: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, ISSN 1939-5116, E-ISSN 1939-0041, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 111-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered nanomaterials offer exciting opportunities for 'smart' drug delivery and in vivo imaging of disease processes, as well as in regenerative medicine. The ability to manipulate matter at the nanoscale enables many new properties that are both desirable and exploitable, but the same properties could also give rise to unexpected toxicities that may adversely affect human health. Understanding the physicochemical properties that drive toxicological outcomes is a formidable challenge as it is not trivial to separate and, hence, to pinpoint individual material characteristics of nanomaterials. In addition, nanomaterials that interact with biological systems are likely to acquire a surface corona of biomolecules that may dictate their biological behavior. Indeed, we propose that it is the combination of material-intrinsic properties (the 'synthetic identity') and context-dependent properties determined, in part, by the bio-corona of a given biological compartment (the 'biological identity') that will determine the interactions of engineered nanomaterials with cells and tissues and subsequent outcomes. The delineation of these entwined 'identities' of engineered nanomaterials constitutes the bridge between nanotoxicological research and nanomedicine.

  • 36.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Numerical Accident Reconstructions: A Biomechanical Tool to Understand and Prevent Head Injuries2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a major health and socioeconomic problem throughout the world, with an estimated 10 million deaths and instances of hospitalization annually. Numerical methods such as finite element (FE) methods can be used to study head injuries and optimize the protection, which can lead to a decrease in the number of injuries. The FE head models were initially evaluated for biofidelity by comparing with donated corpses experiments. However, there are some limitations in experiments of corpses, including material degradation after death. One feasible alternative to evaluating head models with living human tissue is to use reconstruction of real accidents. However, the process of accident reconstruction entails some uncertainties since it is not a controlled experiment. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the accident reconstruction process is needed in order to be able to improve the FE human models. Thus, the aim of this thesis was to evaluate and further develop more advanced strategies for accident reconstructions involving head injuries.

    A FE head model was used to study head injuries in accidents. Existing bicycle accident data was used, as were hypothetical accident situations for cyclists and pedestrians. A FE bicycle helmet model having different designs was developed to study the protective effect.

    An objective method was developed based on the Overlap Index (OI) and Location Index (LI) to facilitate the comparison of FE model responses with injuries visible in medical images. Three bicycle accident reconstructions were performed and the proposed method evaluated. The method showed to have potential to be an objective method to compare FE model response with medical images and could be a step towards improving the evaluation of results from injury reconstructions.

    The simulations demonstrated the protective effect of a bicycle helmet. A decrease was seen in the injurious effect on both the brain tissue and the skull. However, the results also showed that the brain tissue strain could be further decreased by modifying the helmet design.

    Two different numerical pedestrian models were compared to evaluate whether the more time-efficient rigid body model could be used, instead of a FE pedestrian model, to roughly determine the initial conditions as an accident reconstruction involves some uncertainties. The difference, in terms of the head impact location, rotation and velocity, attributable to the two models was in the same range as differences due to uncertainties in some of the initial parameters, such as vehicle impact velocity.

  • 37.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Depreitere, Bart
    Experimental Neurosurgery and Neuroanatomy, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Vander Sloten, Jos
    Biomechanics, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Correlation between Injury Pattern and Finite Element Analysis in Biomechanical Reconstructions of Traumatic Brain Injuries2015Inngår i: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 48, nr 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, Finite Element (FE) analyses are often used as a tool to better understand the mechanisms of head injury. Previously, these models have been compared to cadaver experiments, with the next step under development being accident reconstructions. Thus far, the main focus has been on deriving an injury threshold and little effort has been put into correlating the documented injury location with the response displayed by the FE model. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to introduce a novel image correlation method that compares the response of the FE model with medical images.

    The injuries shown on the medical images were compared to the strain pattern in the FE model and evaluated by two indices; the Overlap Index (OI) and the Location Index (LI). As the name suggests, OI measures the area which indicates both injury in the medical images and high strain values in the FE images. LI evaluates the difference in center of mass in the medical and FE images. A perfect match would give an OI and LI equal to 1.

    This method was applied to three bicycle accident reconstructions. The reconstructions gave an average OI between 0.01 and 0.19 for the three cases and between 0.39 and 0.88 for LI. Performing injury reconstructions are a challenge as the information from the accidents often is uncertain. The suggested method evaluates the response in an objective way which can be used in future injury reconstruction studies.

  • 38.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Comparison of MADYMO and Finite Element Human Body Models in Pedestrian Accidents with the Focus on Head KinematicsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    The Protective Effect of Bicycle HelmetsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Neuronik.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Neuronik.
    Li, Xiaogai
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Neuronik.
    The Influence of the Body on Head Kinematics in Playground Falls for Different Age Groups2018Inngår i: Proceedings of International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury (IRCOBI) Conference, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41. Fragopoulou, A.
    et al.
    Grigoriev, Y.
    Johansson, Olle
    KTH. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Margaritis, L. H.
    Morgan, L.
    Richter, E.
    Sage, C.
    Scientific panel on electromagnetic field health risks: Consensus points, recommendations, and rationales2010Inngår i: Reviews on Environmental Health, ISSN 0048-7554, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 307-317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In November, 2009, a scientific panel met in Seletun, Norway, for three days of intensive discussion on existing scientific evidence and public health implications of the unprecedented global exposures to artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF). EMF exposures (static to 300 GHz) result from the use of electric power and from wireless telecommunications technologies for voice and data transmission, energy, security, military and radar use in weather and transportation. The Scientific Panel recognizes that the body of evidence on EMF requires a new approach to protection of public health; the growth and development of the fetus, and of children; and argues for strong preventative actions. New, biologically-based public exposure standards are urgently needed to protect public health worldwide.

  • 42. Fredman, D.
    et al.
    Haas, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik.
    Jonsson, M.
    Svensson, L.
    Djarv, T.
    Hollenberg, J.
    Nordberg, P.
    Ringh, M.
    Claesson, A.
    Use of a geographic information system to identify differences in automated external defibrillator installation in urban areas with similar incidence of public out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A retrospective registry-based study2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 5, artikkel-id e014801Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Early defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is of importance to improve survival. In many countries the number of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is increasing, but the use is low. Guidelines suggest that AEDs should be installed in densely populated areas and in locations with many visitors. Attempts have been made to identify optimal AED locations based on the incidence of OHCA using geographical information systems (GIS), but often on small datasets and the studies are seldom reproduced. The aim of this paper is to investigate if the distribution of public AEDs follows the incident locations of public OHCAs in urban areas of Stockholm County, Sweden. Method OHCA data were obtained from the Swedish Register for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and AED data were obtained from the Swedish AED Register. Urban areas in Stockholm County were objectively classified according to the pan-European digital mapping tool, Urban Atlas (UA). Furthermore, we reclassified and divided the UA land cover data into three classes (residential, non-residential and other areas). GIS software was used to spatially join and relate public AED and OHCA data and perform computations on relations and distance. Results Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014 a total of 804 OHCAs occurred in public locations in Stockholm County and by December 2013 there were 1828 AEDs available. The incidence of public OHCAs was similar in residential (47.3%) and non-residential areas (43.4%). Fewer AEDs were present in residential areas than in non-residential areas (29.4% vs 68.8%). In residential areas the median distance between OHCAs and AEDs was significantly greater than in non-residential areas (288 m vs 188 m, p<0.001). Conclusion The majority of public OHCAs occurred in areas classified in UA as 'residential areas' with limited AED accessibility. These areas need to be targeted for AED installation and international guidelines need to take geographical location into account when suggesting locations for AED installation.

  • 43. Fredman, D.
    et al.
    Svensson, L.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik.
    Jonsson, M.
    Hollenberg, J.
    Nordberg, P.
    Ringh, M.
    Rosenqvist, M.
    Lundén, M.
    Claesson, A.
    Expanding the first link in the chain of survival – Experiences from dispatcher referral of callers to AED locations2016Inngår i: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 107, s. 129-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Early use of automated external defibrillators (AED) increases survival in cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Dispatchers play important roles in identifying OHCA, dispatching ambulances and providing callers with telephone-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Guidelines recommend that AED registries be linked to dispatch centres as tools to refer callers to nearby AED. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent dispatchers, when provided with a tool to display AED locations and accessibility, referred callers to nearby AED. Methods An application providing real-time visualization of AED locations and accessibility was implemented at four dispatch centres in Sweden. Dispatchers were instructed to refer callers to nearby AED when OHCA was suspected. Such cases were prospectively collected, and geographic information systems were used to identify those located ≤100 m from an AED. Audio recordings of emergency calls were assessed to evaluate the AED referral rate. Results Between February and August 2014, 3009 suspected OHCA calls were received. In 6.6% of those calls (200/3009), an AED was ≤100 m from the suspected OHCA. The AED was accessible and the caller was not alone on scene in 24% (47/200) of these cases. In two of those 47 cases (4.3%), the dispatcher referred the caller to the AED. Conclusion Despite a tool for dispatchers to refer callers to a nearby AED, referral was rare. Only a minority of the suspected OHCA cases occurred ≤100 m from an AED. We identified AED accessibility and callers being alone on scene as obstacles for AED referral.

  • 44. Fredriksson, Albin
    et al.
    Forsgren, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Optimeringslära och systemteori.
    Hardemark, Bjorn
    Maximizing the probability of satisfying the clinical goals in radiation therapy treatment planning under setup uncertainty2015Inngår i: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 42, nr 7, s. 3992-3999Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper introduces a method that maximizes the probability of satisfying the clinical goals in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments subject to setup uncertainty. Methods: The authors perform robust optimization in which the clinical goals are constrained to be satisfied whenever the setup error falls within an uncertainty set. The shape of the uncertainty set is included as a variable in the optimization. The goal of the optimization is to modify the shape of the uncertainty set in order to maximize the probability that the setup error will fall within the modified set. Because the constraints enforce the clinical goals to be satisfied under all setup errors within the uncertainty set, this is equivalent to maximizing the probability of satisfying the clinical goals. This type of robust optimization is studied with respect to photon and proton therapy applied to a prostate case and compared to robust optimization using an a priori defined uncertainty set. Results: Slight reductions of the uncertainty sets resulted in plans that satisfied a larger number of clinical goals than optimization with respect to a priori defined uncertainty sets, both within the reduced uncertainty sets and within the a priori, nonreduced, uncertainty sets. For the prostate case, the plans taking reduced uncertainty sets into account satisfied 1.4 (photons) and 1.5 (protons) times as many clinical goals over the scenarios as the method taking a priori uncertainty sets into account. Conclusions: Reducing the uncertainty sets enabled the optimization to find better solutions with respect to the errors within the reduced as well as the nonreduced uncertainty sets and thereby achieve higher probability of satisfying the clinical goals. This shows that asking for a little less in the optimization sometimes leads to better overall plan quality.

  • 45.
    Fredriksson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden .
    Groth, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden .
    Räsänen, Minna
    Bergius, Helena
    Rylander, Emma
    Effects of mobile video-mediated communication for health care professionals in advanced home care of children2014Inngår i: 2014 IEEE 27th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS), IEEE , 2014, s. 363-368Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the use of a mobile video-conferencing tool (MVCT) in advanced home care of children. We present the results from a qualitative study where we have evaluated mobile video communication between the patient's home and the hospital unit. Our results show that mobile video enhances communication between home care teams and medical staff at the unit, makes more effective use of practitioners' time and that the equipment have additional values for staff that extend beyond video communication. Challenges identified are related to technical problems, limitations in the MVCT's design and the concern that the inability to handle problems may affect health care professionals' role as an authority. The benefits of the MVCT rely to a great extent on individual users' creativity and the willingness of key actors in the organization's management to find ways of improving the present home care format.

  • 46.
    Frennert, Susanne
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Teknisk vårdvetenskap.
    Literature review: The current levels of understanding of interactive robotics2018Inngår i: Gerontechnology, ISSN 1569-1101, E-ISSN 1569-111X, Vol. 17, nr s, s. 160-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 47.
    Frennert, Susanne
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Teknisk vårdvetenskap.
    Lost in digitalization?: Municipality employment of welfare technologies2019Inngår i: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 14, nr 6, s. 635-642Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Swedish municipalities face a number of daunting challenges; an aging population, the public's increased demands and expectations on municipality services, and a strained economy to mention some. Welfare technology, a Scandinavian concept launched to promote digitalization, is seen as one solution to meet these challenges. Objective: Despite these promises, few welfare technology applications are offered by local Swedish municipalities and care organizations. Numerous studies have shown that Swedish municipalities have a great interest in welfare technologies. Methods: In this article, we draw on empirical research in one Swedish municipality. Through two case studies it is illustrated how technological change and municipality employment of welfare technologies are employed. Results: These case studies show how core values of care are being lost in the quest for digitalization due to the lack of organizational skills and knowledge in transforming the relationship of caregiving and care-receiving through the use of digital technology. Conclusions: Digitalization and welfare technologies deployed ought to represent and support the core values of caregiving and to receive care. Thus, digital transformation most likely will transform conditions for care receivers and working conditions for care workers. New work processes will evolve, which in turn produce new meanings of home help service work and caregiving.

  • 48. Fuchs, Gabriel
    et al.
    Berg, Niclas
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Detection of Thrombosis in the Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuit by Infrasound: Proof of Concept2017Inngår i: Artificial Organs, ISSN 0160-564X, E-ISSN 1525-1594, Vol. 41, nr 6, s. 573-579Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As of today, there exist no reliable, objective methods for early detection of thrombi in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenators (ECMO) system. Within the ECMO system, thrombi are not always fixed to a certain component or location in the circuit. Thus, clot fragments of different shapes and consistencies may circulate and give rise to vibrations and sound generation. By bedside sound measurements and additional laboratory experiments (although not detailed herein), we found that the presence of particles (clots or aggregates and fragments of clots) can be detected by analyzing the strength of infra-sound (< 20 Hz) modes of the spectrum near the inlet and outlet of the centrifugal pump in the ECMO circuit. For the few patients that were considered in this study, no clear false positive or negative examples were found when comparing the spectral approach with clinical observations. A laboratory setup provided insight to the flow in and out of the pump, confirming that in the presence of particles a low-amplitude low-frequency signal is strongly amplified, enabling the identification of a clot.

  • 49. Garcia-Molina, G.
    et al.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system.
    Lagares-Lemos, M.
    Automated NREM sleep staging using the Electro-oculogram: A pilot study2012Inngår i: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE, IEEE , 2012, s. 2255-2258Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic sleep staging from convenient and unobtrusive sensors has received considerable attention lately because this can enable a large range of potential applications in the clinical and consumer fields. In this paper the focus is on achieving non-REM (NREM) sleep staging from ocular electrodes. From these signals, specific patterns related to sleep such as slow eye movements, K-complexes, eye blinks, and spectral features are estimated. Although such patterns are characteristic of the Electroencephalogram, they can also be visible to a lesser extent on signals from ocular electrodes. Automatic sleep staging was implemented using two approaches: i) based on a state-machine and ii) using a neural network. The first one relied on the recommendations of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, and the second one used a multilayer perceptron which was trained on manually sleep-staged data. Results were obtained on the data of five volunteers who participated in a nap experiment. Manual sleep staging of this data, performed by an expert, was used as reference. Five stages were considered, namely wake with eyes open, wake with eyes closed, and sleep stages N1, N2, and N3. The results were characterized in terms of confusion matrices from which the Cohen's κ coefficients were estimated. The values of κ for both the state-machine and neural-network based automatic sleep staging approaches were 0.79 and 0.59 respectively. Thus, the state-machine based approach shows a very good agreement with manual staging of sleep-data.

  • 50.
    Gennser, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Omgivningsfysiologi.
    Loveman, Geoff
    Seddon, Fiona
    Thacker, Julian
    Blogg, S. Lesley
    Oxygen and carbogen breathing following simulated submarine escape2014Inngår i: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, ISSN 1066-2936, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 387-392Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Escape from a disabled submarine exposes escapers to a high risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The initial bubble load is thought to emanate from the fast tissues; it is this load that should be lowered to reduce risk of serious neurological DCS. The breathing of oxygen or carbogen (5% CO2, 95% O-2) post-surfacing was investigated with regard to its ability to reduce the initial bubble load in comparison to air breathing. Thirty-two goats were subject to a dry simulated submarine escape profile to and from 240 meters (2.5 MPa). On surfacing, they breathed air (control), oxygen or carbogen for 30 minutes. Regular Doppler audio bubble grading was carried out, using the Kisman Masurel (KM) scale. One suspected case of DCS was noted. No oxygen toxicity or arterial gas embolism occurred. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of the median peak KM grade or the period before the KM grade dropped below III. Time to disappearance of bubbles was significantly different between groups; oxygen showed faster bubble resolution than carbogen and air. This reduction in time to bubble resolution may be beneficial in reducing decompression stress, but probably does not affect the risk of fast-tissue DCS.

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