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  • 1.
    Apelmo, Elisabet
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Lund University.
    Greger, Henriksson
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Kan stadsbors användning av IT bidra till ett hållbart samhälle?: En kunskapsöversikt.2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with everyday habits with environmental impacts in relation to the use of information and communication technology (ICT, colloquially referred to as IT).

    We raise issues related to a) how environmentally promising and problematic ‘ICT-practices’ in urban everyday life can be identified and b) how the potential for such practices to be transformed through the use of ICT can be assessed, and ultimately utilized, in the context of sustainable urban development.

    These issues we have addressed through reviewing case studies, reports etc. Case study examples showed how ICT is used, e.g. to streamline and inform, or to share resources, vehicles and other products.

    We discussed how it might be possible, from an environmental sociology perspective, to assess when and how ICT might serve as an enabling technology that enhances or replaces previous patterns of action. We also briefly included, and discussed, phenomena defined from more general sustainability science point of view, e.g. substitution, induction and rebound effects.

    An important starting point was that social structures both enable and limit specific patterns of action. The structures can only be said to exist, or be maintained, by people's actions and through their experience. Change occurs as a result of the dynamics between people's actions and the structures created by past actions. Social practices are constantly being reproduced, with additions of new elements, e g when ICT applications are put to new uses. Then patterns of social relations and systems might also change, for example in how we use energy, travel, consume or socialize during both work and leisure time.

    Our review indicates that the knowledge that partners of Centre for Sustainable Communications (CESC) currently have access to, is fragmented and with a bias towards certain types of sectors, and patterns of action. Environmentally promising practices are more researched than problematic ones. Furthermore, use of ICTs for e.g. commuting and monitoring household energy use is more researched than most other patterns of action involving use of ICTs. Research on e.g. leisure and entertainment in relation to the environment is very much absent from today’s body of knowledge (as it is defined and delimited in this report).

    As for how everyday practices might change towards increased environmental sustainability by the use of ICT, we have found the knowledge situation even more incomplete. This shows, however, that it is worthwhile for CESC researchers and partners to carry on searching and developing knowledge regarding this.

    Regarding what should be viewed as more promising respectively more problematic urban patterns of action, we have to some extent illuminated this by exemplifying international environmental sociological research that is useful for discussing social practices in relation to environmental impacts. We have exemplified how this can shed light on some of the case studies we found among the CESC researchers and partners. Based on environmental sociology we discussed in what ways city dwellers with high income account for the most environmentally problematic practices. Correspondingly, we discussed how inhabitants with low income – out of necessity–account for many promising practices. In relation to this we also briefly discussed how rebound effects should be seen as related to socio-economic position.

    Another kind of problematic aspect highlighted is that players responsible for introducing, trying out etc., new ICTs, seem to have a tendency to do this in own networks or among the urban middle class. This is problematic from a democratic point of view. In 2012, 1.2 million people in Sweden did very rarely, or not at all, use the internet in their homes. Detailed knowledge about this group's ICT related practices seems to be largely missing.  If representatives for these groups are not represented in environmental research there is a danger that they also become less visible in public debate of environmental and ICT issues.

    This means that different social positions imply different opportunities and constraints. What patterns of actions people take more or less part in is influenced by social structures, norms and regulations, the historical and the immediate context, but also by the individuals' previous experiences and knowledge. The understanding of how a change towards a more sustainable society could come about through use of ICT therefore requires knowledge of practices among the full socio-demographic range of city dwellers.

  • 2. Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Ramirez-Sanchez, S
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. University of Cape Town.
    Prell, Christina
    A social relational approach to natural resource governance2011Inngår i: Social Networks and Natural Resource Management: Uncovering the Social Fabric of Environmental Governance / [ed] Bodin, Örjan; Prell, Christina, Cambridge University Press , 2011, s. 1-54Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Cano-Viktorsson, Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    From Maps to Apps: Tracing the Organizational Responsiveness of an Early Multi-Modal Travel Planning Service2015Inngår i: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 87-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An Internet-based system for informing on multimodal travel planning (several modes of transportation) was introduced in Stockholm, Sweden in October 2000 in the form of a web page called trafiken.nu. The web page has a historical value of being one of the first attempts in Europe, and possibly the world, at providing an ICT-based travel planning service geared towards facilitating sustainable travel to the general public. The aim of this article is to investigate the historical development of trafiken.nu in order to draw lessons on how to better provide for a public information service with a potential for facilitating sustainable travel planning. Findings from the study of trafiken.nu suggest that the organizations behind the service have been slow in adapting to shifting media technology practices on how to provide for information which has affected the uptake of the service. Lessons from the case study provide a basis for arguing that organizations attempting to implement public information services would benefit from finding a means of harnessing collective intelligence in order to provide for a more customizable and responsive service to the general public.

  • 4.
    Cano-Viktorsson, Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    From Vision to Transition: Exploring the Potential for Public Information Services to Facilitate Sustainable Urban Transport2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Policy initiatives to promote sustainable travel through the use of Internet based public information systems have increased during the last decade. Stockholm, in being one of the first cities in Europe to implement an Internet based service for facilitating sustainable travel is believed to be a good candidate for an analysis of key issues for developing sustainable travel planning services to the public.

    Aim: This thesis investigates the past development of two Stockholm based public information systems and their services in order to draw lessons on how to better provide for a public information service geared towards facilitating  environmentally sustainable travel planning through information and communications technology. The overall goal of the thesis is to contribute to an understanding on how to better design and manage current and future attempts at facilitating sustainable travel planning services based on historical case studies.

    Approach: The thesis draws ideas from the concept of organizational responsiveness – an organization’s ability to listen, understand and respond to demands put to it by its internal and external stakeholders – in order to depict how well or not the two public information systems and their owners have adapted to established norms and values of their surroundings.

    Results: Overall, the findings from the historical case studies suggest that organizations attempting to provide sustainable travel planning to the public need to design and manage their systems in such a way that it responds to shifting demands on how to provide for information. Implementing and embedding new technologies involves complex processes of change both at the micro level – for users and practitioners of the service – and at the meso level for the involved public service organizations themselves. This condition requires a contextualist framework to analyze and understand organizational, contextual and cultural issues involved in the adoption of new technologies and procedures.

    Conclusions: The thesis concludes with a discussion on how the findings from the historical case studies may provide lessons for both current and future attempts at providing public information systems geared towards facilitating environmentally sustainable travel planning to the public. Historical examples and issues concerning collective intelligence and peer to peer based forms of designing, producing and supervising public information services identified throughout the study are looked upon and discussed in terms of their possible role in increasing the potential for public information services to facilitate sustainable urban transport.

  • 5. Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. University of Cape Town.
    Prell, Christina
    Reed, Mark
    Hubacek, Klaus
    Combining social network approaches with social theories to improve understanding of natural resource governance2011Inngår i: Social Networks and Natural Resource Management: Uncovering the Social Fabric in Environmental Governance / [ed] Bodin, Örjan; Prell, Christina, Cambridge University Press , 2011, s. 44-71Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Diani, Mario
    et al.
    University of Trento.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Lorien, Jasny
    University of Essex.
    ‘‘Right to the City’’ and the Structure of Civic Organizational Fields: Evidence from Cape Town2018Inngår i: VOLUNTAS - International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, ISSN 0957-8765, E-ISSN 1573-7888Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract This article proposes a network analytic approach to the role of frames in shaping the structure of civic organizational fields. Adopting a perspective from the global South, it looks at the impact of the expression ‘‘Right to the city’’ (RTC) over alliance building among civil society actors, exploring patterns of collaborative ties among 129 civil society organizations active in Cape Town from 2012 to 2014. The article addresses two broad ques- tions: What is the relation between RTC and other frames that are also frequently invoked to describe urban struggles and issues? Does the RTC frame affect the structure of urban civic organizational fields in significant ways? Data suggest that while RTC plays a significant role in local civil society, it is neither the only interpretative frame that Capetonian civic organizations draw upon to characterize their activity, nor the more salient. ‘‘Urban conservation,’’ especially tied to nature conservation and environmental issues, actually shapes the structure of local organizational fields in a sharper manner. This is, however, a potentially more divisive frame, rooted as it is in the apartheid legacy that still shapes urban dynamics in the city.

  • 7.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. University of Cape Town.
    Social Network Analysis (SNA)2012Inngår i: The Encyclopedia of Sustainability: Vol. 6. Measurements, Indicators, and Research Methods for Sustainability / [ed] Fogel, D.; Fredericks, S.; Harrington, L.; Spellerberg, I., Berkshire Publishing , 2012, Vol. 6, s. 322-325Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University.
    The Drama of Urban Greens and Regimes: Social Movements and Ecosystem Services in Stockholm National Urban Park2007Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. University of Cape Town.
    Transformative collective action: A network approach to transformative change in ecosystem-based management2011Inngår i: Social Networks and Natural Resource Management: Uncovering the Social Fabric in Environmental Governance / [ed] Bodin, Örjan; Prell, Christina, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, s. 255-287Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [From Introduction] This chapter will strive to add to contributions made by other authors in describing and explaining transformative change. Special attention will be paid to elucidate the collective nature of these transformations, hence the title of transformative collective action. The analysis will show that in order to bring about radical institutional change of natural resource management, a whole network of individuals and organizations are needed that through time can sustain pressure for change. These actors furthermore need to relate to each other through information exchange and repeated collaborations in order to coordinate their collective action, to learn as they go along of what works and what does not work, and to negotiate their vision of change to reach some common ground that can unite their collective effort. This type of sustained collective action furthermore needs to operate through, and challenge, already established institutions, modes of thought and ways of doing things. As such we can talk about collective action as a ‘collective actor’ – the network of actors – that over time builds enough agency to generate institutional change.

  • 10.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Andersson, Erik
    Borgström, Sara T.
    Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm2010Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 28-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden-allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas-and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1) assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2) develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas) is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning) and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales). Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  • 11.
    Gullberg, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Det fängslande planeringstänkandet: och sökandet efter en verklighetsutväg1986 (oppl. andra)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I intended to deal with the problem: “what is plan­ning?” I especially planned to analyze the obvious, but in planning theory never the less foreseen fact that things (plans, projects) never become what they were intended to be. But, and in accordance with this, I found myself paying much more attention to another problem: “how to catch the effects of plans and reforms?”

    In my analysis of planning theory and planning thought I have tried to demonstrate 1. the aprioristic/rationalistic basis for this mode of thinking; 2. that it deals with problems central to the human fate; and 3. that it is unavoidable in a world modernized in a western way.

    The search for a point outside this mode of thinking led me to scrutinize the possibilities of answering the empirical question: “what difference does planning make?” Two prob­lems are identified: 1. separating the effects of a certain plan­ning activity from the influ­ences of all other circum­stances; and 2. avoiding destruction of the knowledge-producing process by interested parts. The distinction between causality and correlation is crucial for the first problem. Methods such as experiment, quasi-experiment and ”natural” experi­ment are found to be of limited capacity in this respect and the regularity theory of causality does not solve the problem. The counter factual approach to causality is shown to be dependent on that of regularity. A program called transcendental realism (Bhaskar) I found much more promising in evaluation tasks, but many problems remain. Still more problematic is the second question which I don’t even attempt to answer.

    Scientific thinking belongs to the same rationalistic tradition as planning thought. I therefore doubt if there can be any such thing as scientific liberation of planning idiosyncrasies. But I discern, nevertheless, some emancipating potential in the quest for truth.

  • 12.
    Haas, Tigran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    New Urbanism and Beyond: Designing Cities for the Future2008 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Haas, Tigran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    The Best of New Urbanism: Selected Articles & Essays 2002-2012: Celebrating the 20th Anniversary of Congress for New Urbanism2012Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This unique book brings together, for the first time ever, a collection of probably the best papers & essays written on the international phenomena known as new urbanism. The range of articles spans different tenets of the movement, its theories and principles, methods & tools, contributions & critique and much more. The authors originate from variety of disciplines such as, sociology, public policy, human geography, economics, urban planning, urban design, architecture, real estate development and urban studies. It is a unique and timely collection of new and older works, freshly complied for the 20th anniversary of congress of new urbanism and the new urbanism movement. This volume is a limited release printed only for academia, faculty and students

  • 14. Hallonsten, Olof
    A classic laboratory study in science policy clothing2011Inngår i: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 79-80Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. Department of Education and Social Sciences, Wuppertal University, Germany.
    Unpreparedness and risk in Big Science policy: Sweden and the European Spallation Source2015Inngår i: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 42, s. 415-426Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The politics of European collaborative Big Science are inherently uncertain. The European Spallation Source (ESS) for materials science, planned to be built in Sweden with a collaborative European funding solution that was recently finalized is the most recent example. Sweden has so far invested around one billion SEK (&E110 million), taking a significant risk given these uncertainties and given Sweden’s complete lack of experience in hosting such big labs. Tracing the Swedish government’s investments in the ESS project, this article shows that so far, the Swedish ESS bid seems to be generally well funded, but that a long-term plan for the funding and a contingency plan for increased costs seem to be absent. This adds to the seeming unprepared- ness of Sweden and elevates the already quite high level of risk for Swedish science and science policy of investing in the ESS. 

  • 16.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Heinze, Thomas
    Formation and Expansion of a New Organizational Field in Experimental Science2015Inngår i: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 42, nr 6, s. 841-854Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the formation and expansion of a new organizational field in experimental science: synchrotron radiation laboratories. These labs were once peripheral servants of some specialisms of solid-state physics, but over the 40 years studied they have grown into a worldwide generic resource for tens of thousands of users in a broad spectrum of disciplines. The paper uses insights primarily from historical institutionalism, but also neo-institutional theory, to analyze the formation and expansion of the organizational field of synchrotron radiation laboratories, and thus contributes to the analysis of the rather dramatic growth of this tool for experimental science from a small-scale lab curiosity to a generic research technology. But the key contribution of the paper is to provide insights into multi-level and multi-dimensional change in science systems by analyzing the emergence and expansion of a new organizational field in experimental science, which has implications not least for science policy.

  • 17.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heinze, Thomas
    Bergische Universität Wuppertal.
    From particle physics to photon science: Multi-dimensional and multi-level renewal at DESY and SLAC2013Inngår i: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 40, nr 5, s. 591-603Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of institutional transformation in science have largely overlooked Big Science installations, despite far-reaching changes to the roles and functions of such large labs in the past decades. Here, we present and analyze two Big Science labs that have undergone profound transformations from single-purpose particle physics labs to multi-purpose centers for so-called photon science: SLAC in the USA and DESY in Germany. We provide brief historic accounts of the labs and an analysis of the processes of change on different levels and from different aspects informed by a theoretical framework of institutional change in science. Thus, we describe the relevance of the study of Big Science labs from the perspective of institutional change and in terms of science policy/management. We also prove the aptness of the framework used and pave the way for a detailed analysis of particular forces of change and their interrelatedness.

  • 18.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy, Linguistics, and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Heinze, Thomas
    Department of Education and Social Sciences, Wuppertal University.
    Institutional persistence through gradual organizational adaptation: Analysis of national laboratories in the USA and Germany2012Inngår i: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 450-463Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the institutional persistence of systems of national laboratories (SNLs) that unlike other public and private research organizations appear to have experienced only minor institutional shifts in recent years. Although national laboratories started as time-limited mission-oriented projects, most of them have remained in operation as continuously renewed multi-purpose organizations. By comparing the SNLs in Germany and the USA, this paper discusses the relationship between the system and the organizational level and concludes that incremental organizational rearrangements have enabled the institutional persistence of SNLs despite considerable changes in their political and funding environments. The paper applies recent advances in institutional theory and thus contributes to a better understanding of institutional change in path-dependent public R&D systems.

  • 19.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria (bytt namn 20120201).
    Hugander, Olof
    Supporting ‘future research leaders’ in Sweden: Institutional isomorphism and inadvertent funding agglomeration2014Inngår i: Research Evaluation, ISSN 0958-2029, E-ISSN 1471-5449, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 249-260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The most recent fashion in the policy-level promotion of excellence in academic research seems to be the launching of funding programs directed to young and promising (postdoc level) researchers with the purpose of assisting them in establishing their own research profile at this allegedly crucial and fragile career stage. In the Swedish public research funding system, which is rather diversified and also quite recently has been recast, a number of such programs have been launched in recent years by public and private actors alike, all with the stated ambition of providing funding to those typically in lack of the same. In this article, we discuss the rather striking uniformity of these programs on the basis of the concept of institutional isomorphism from neoinstitutional theory, which is a powerful conceptual tool with capacity to explain why organizations in the same field grow alike in their practices despite preconditions that would suggest otherwise. Analyzing qualitatively the stated purposes of the programs and the discursive shift that accompanies them in policy, and analyzing quantitatively the 130 recipients of funding from the programs, we show that there are agglomeration effects that are unintended but also expectable, given the nature of the funding landscape in Sweden and the institutional isomorphism among the organizations in the field.

  • 20. Heidler, Richard
    et al.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. Department of Business Administration, Lund University, Sweden.
    Qualifying the performance evaluation of Big Science beyond productivity, impact and costs2015Inngår i: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 104, nr 1, s. 295-312Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of quantitative performance measures to evaluate the productivity, impact and quality of research has spread to almost all parts of public R&D systems, including Big Science where traditional measures of technical reliability of instruments and user oversub- scription have been joined by publication counts to assess scientific productivity. But such performance assessment has been shown to lead to absurdities, as the calculated average cost of single journal publications easily may reach hundreds of millions of dollars. In this article, the issue of productivity and impact is therefore further qualified by the use of additional measures such as the immediacy index as well as network analysis to evaluate qualitative aspects of the impact of contemporary Big Science labs. Connecting to previous work within what has been called ‘‘facilitymetrics’’, the article continues the search for relevant biblio- metric measures of the performance of Big Science labs with the use of a case study of a recently opened facility that is advertised as contributing to ‘‘breakthrough’’ research, by using several more measures and thus qualifying the topic of performance evaluation in contem- porary Big Science beyond simple counts of publications, citations, and costs. 

  • 21.
    Karakaya, Emrah
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Finite Element Method for Forecasting the Diffusion of Photovoltaic Systems: Why and How?2016Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 163, s. 464-475Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Finite Element Method (FEM) has been used in the broad field of continuum mechanics in engineering disciplines for several decades. However, recently, some scholars have attempted to apply the method to social science phenomena. What is the scope of using FEM in social science-related fields?  Anchored in the literature on social sciences, this paper, firstly, reviews the scope of using FEM in social science phenomena, and then applies FEM to a semi-hypothetical case study on the diffusion of solar photovoltaic systems in southern Germany.  By doing so, the paper aims to shed light on why and how the Finite Element Method can be used to forecast the diffusion of solar photovoltaic systems in time and space. Unlike conventional models used in diffusion literature, the computational model considers spatial heterogeneity. The model is based on a partial differential equation that describes the diffusion ratio of photovoltaic systems in a given region over time. The results of the application show that the FEM constitutes a powerful tool by which to study the diffusion of an innovation as a simultaneous space-time process.

  • 22. Kings, Lisa
    et al.
    Dahlstedt, Magnus
    Tahvilzadeh, Nazem
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Platskamp: inledande reflektioner2018Inngår i: ARKIV. Tidskrift för samhällsanalys, ISSN 2000-6225, E-ISSN 2000-6217, nr 9, s. 7-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här specialnumret är ett temanummer om hur kampen om förorten förs i vår samtid. Genom att uppmärksamma förorten som en politisk företeelse, skapad i spänningsfältet mellan reproduktion och motstånd, försöker författarna fånga den komplexa dynamik mellan olika intressen som präglar den urbana periferin. Med texter av Magnus Dahlstedt, Christophe Foultier, James Frempong, Lisa Kings, René León Rosales, Vanja Lozic, Nazem Tahvilzadeh och Aleksandra Ålund. Bidragens skilda perspektiv på förorten som skådeplats för politisk kamp och de ”platskamper” som utspelar sig där öppnar upp för spännande samtal om detta ständigt återkommande tema: förorten, levd som föreställd.

  • 23. Kings, Lisa
    et al.
    Åhlund, Aleksandra
    Tahvilzadeh, Nazem
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Contesting Urban Management Regimes: The Rise Of Urban Justice Movements In Sweden2016Inngår i: Solidarity without Borders: Gramscian perspectives on migration and civil society alliances / [ed] Agustín, Ó. G. & Jörgensen, M. B., Pluto Press, 2016, s. 186-202Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Larsen, Katarina
    et al.
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Nilsson, Susanne
    Back to basics – revisiting rhetoric of competitive research funding allocation and impact agenda in Sweden2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Science policy studies have traditionally been concerned with analysis of research programs, national science policy and their motivation for investments in science and in basic research in particular. As Keith Pavitt (1991) pointed out, the “market failure” line of argument has been in the limelight with less attention paid to other questions such as the following: “How does science contribute to technology?” In the Swedish context, this is a relevant question given that it is a nation with high share of investments in science and historically high level of industry investments in R&D. The aim of the current study is to analyse the rhetoric of science policy about how investments in scientific excellence contributes to industrially relevant output. We examine this by taking a closer look at different strands of arguments and assessment criteria used to support competitive funding allocation to university-based research. Particular attention is paid to examining centres of excellence (CoE) as a form of science policy of promoting both scientific excellence and interaction between academia and industry. Moreover the study examines consequences of interim evaluations and the policy advice given  in assessments of centre activities. One conclusion is that the research funding agency assessment criteria have a strong influence on the direction on future centre activities but also that the range of present and future activities are determined by areas where the centre have internationally high quality research and the impact agenda defined by the centre in interaction with industry partners of ongoing research projects. 

  • 25.
    Ljunggren, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    No Researcher Is an Island: Collaboration in Higher Education Institutions2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The developing knowledge economy affects organizations within the innovation system where higher education institutions (HEI) are regarded as a significant part. There is a large amount of research that focus on different aspects of collaboration such as the outcome, the process and its infrastructure. To emphasize HEIs role in the national and regional innovation systems concepts such as Mode 2 and Triple helix, and the Knowledge triangle, have developed. These concepts have also heavily influenced Swedish innovation policy.

     

    This thesis is set to analyze collaboration work between Swedish HEIs and the public and private sectors, and to understand how collaboration: i) occurs in practice in research and undergraduate education; ii) is influenced by policy efforts, and; iii) influence HEI’s internal and external social capital building. Firstly, research and teaching links is analyzed to highlight the integration of collaboration, research and education within specific research profiles. This is because previous research has neglected collaboration and its effect on undergraduate education. Secondly, social capital theory is used as a framework for the analysis. Social capital theory is used to obtain a thorough understanding of individual researchers’ attitude to collaboration and participation in collaboration activities.

     

    The results indicate that short term projects had long-term effects since it established new education programs and projects. Collaboration also effects undergraduate education through research profiles with their integration of research and education in groups within as well as outside the HEI. The results also show that social capital building through top steered initiatives is complex. In the HEIs there was no relation between researchers expressing a positive attitude towards different forms of collaboration and a high participation level in collaboration activities. This suggests that building of external social capital within HEIs is not related to the nature of the internal social capital. There was interfaculty differences in both the researchers’ attitude to collaboration activities and participation in collaboration activities. As expected, professors had more opportunities and ability for collaboration. They also indicated a resistance to use a central infrastructure for collaboration to build external social capital. The opposite was demonstrated for professors from the humanities who had little experience of collaboration. They still did not to use the infrastructure to a large extent. Suggestively policy makers should encourage a more efficient external social capital building through earmarked funding for collaboration on a department level rather than on the HEIs’ central level.

  • 26.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kratochvil, Ruth
    Division of Organic Farming, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences.
    Leitner, Heidrun
    Ökosoziales Forum Österreich.
    Axmann, Paul
    Division of Organic Farming, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences.
    Being close: the quality of social relationships in a local organic cereal and bread network in Lower Austria2010Inngår i: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 228-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience of the drawbacks of a globalised and industrialised food system has generated interest in localised food systems. Local food networks are regarded as more sustainable food provision systems since they are assumed to have high levels of social embeddedness and relations of regard. This paper explores the social relations between food actors and how 'local' and 'organic' are expressed by detailing how actors describe qualities of their intra-network relationships, how they understand 'local' and how they are connected within the food system. A study from the province of Lower Austria in Austria, where organic cereals and bread are produced and marketed, serves to illuminate these issues. Actors agreed that geographical closeness contributed to the social closeness they experienced and that social relationships were a strong reason for being in the network. However, the meaning of 'local' was elastic depending on where inputs and consumers could be found. Furthermore, despite strong commitment to organic production methods and the local market, actors faced constraints that made them hybrids between organic and conventional, and between locally focused and globally dependent. Thus, the binary thinking along the local-global and organic-conventional divide does not hold. While it is important to not make a causal link between high quality of social relationships and local food networks, the case described here indicates the possibility of such a link.

  • 27.
    Odhage, John
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Otraditionella lösningar med traditionella medel: Åtgärdsvalstudien som planeringsfenomen2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to understand the method of strategic choice (MSC, Sw. metodik för åtgärdsvalsstudier) in Swedish transport planning as a planning phenomenon. Based on a normative interpretative approach and critical theory, underlying ideas and thinking that surround the context of MSC and how they are expressed in practice, in the guidelines and in concrete planning situations were investigated. The starting point was that changing conditions in society have necessitated reform of the transport sector and a new method has been introduced. It aims to enable a broader grip on transport issues by opening them up together with other actors, thus increasing scope and spreading responsibility for more sectors and activities, enabling new and unconventional solutions to transport problems for a sustainable future. MSC is described and interpreted here as a manifold phenomenon that reveals a tension between different perspectives and mindsets, but also leads to certain aspects being more often expressed which complicates wider and deeper perspectives on complex societal problems. More concretely, it was found that the collaboration in MSC is limited prematurely and is often limited at an early stage of the process, and that this leads to a more narrow understanding of the problem to be solved than would otherwise be the case. Furthermore, one specific perspective, namely the transport system perspective, is proposed explicitly as the basis for assessments. The study has also identified challenges related to the consideration of conflicting and contradictory knowledge claims in the process. Assessments of the effects of actions are assumed to be based upon logical premises, and not on judgments in dialogue and argumentation. However, the analysis suggested that the functional instrumental reasoning of success-oriented action does not seem to take normative and political issues into consideration in order to better address sustainable development issues in the complex, democratic and pluralist society. In conclusion, the analysis identifies the need for these processes in addressing a sustainable future to be kept open in a more inclusive and diverse way, drawing on more and different possible futures.

  • 28. Ostrom, Marcia
    et al.
    Kjeldsen, Chris
    Kummer, Susanne
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Schermer, Markus
    What’s going into the box? An inquiry into the social and ecological embeddedness of large-scale EU and US box schemes2017Inngår i: International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, ISSN 0798-1759, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 113-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food distribution systems referred to as box schemes have gained a foothold in organic markets across Europe and North America. This model has the potential to scale up direct-marketing strategies by aggregating products from multiple producers and efficiently assembling and delivering them on a regular basis to large networks of consumers. Box scheme organizers generally seek to attract regular customers based on the distinctive attributes and values associated with their products and their unique business model that attempts to build long-term relationships between consumers and farmers. This article explores the organizational dynamics of five large, multi-farm box schemes in relation to their stated values and organizational strategies using cases from Sweden, Denmark, Austria, and the United States.

    Different aspects of ecological and social embeddedness are considered and analysed for the five cases based on their stated values and their organizational strategies, including to what degree non-economic values are identified, communicated, and applied throughout the supply chain. The value of geographical proximity is examined with respect to the tension created by consumer demand for variety throughout the seasons and the spatial organization of sourcing and distribution that such a system entails. Additionally, the organizational challenges encountered by box schemes during periods of rapid growth are compared and contrasted with respect to the different organizational strategies employed across the five cases. This article seeks to contribute to the research literature by analysing box schemes as an institutional innovation that can potentially bridge the interests shared by producers and consumers in harnessing market relationships to accomplish larger social and environmental goals.

  • 29.
    Raptis, Vasilios Ingvar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Urbanism in the making: A handbook of survival2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is increasing uncontrollably with accelerating speed and the problems this is causing can be seen at the symptoms they produce. Gentrification, sprawl, slums, ecological disasters, psychological effects on people are some of many problems having to do with cities. Majority of the problems appeared after industrialization and most have not been dealt with and many more are emerging. As this situation continues, urbanism is gaining a lot of attention from theorists, scholars, and people around the world, as the field that studies the phenomenon of urbanization and the urban environment. However, urbanism, as a concept, is not clearly determined and as developed as the pace in which urbanization grows and the theories seem to lack awareness of the size of the issue. Urbanism remains passive to the contemporary problems that are appearing, because by the time a theory is providing strategies to solve existing problems, new ones are emerging. Adding to this, what urbanism is and how it is implemented are still vague questions with even more vague answers. Through my research, I did not find a clear, and acceptable by all, definition of urbanism and that shows the complexity of the subject. This is an issue that has contributed, together with the magnificent speed that cities have grown with, to the borders between urban and rural disappearing. The result is a situation that cannot be described yet, but must become a source of research within urbanism, in the upcoming decades.

    This research first tackles the questions of what urban and urbanism is, to later proceed to what urbanism is concerned with. The goal is to orient oneself to the making of urbanism. A detailed cataloging of all the theories that have emerged through the years in a historical and thematic context shows what the trend has been through the decades and which problems urbanism as a broad term has decided to work with. The hope is that there will appear a pattern that can teach all new urbanists about the history of the profession and the mistakes that have been made, so that in the future the discourse about urbanism can be made on more solid grounds and on pragmatic problem solution rather than futuristic hopes and assumptions. This research will reach contemporary years so that it can be understood where the field is headed to. Successively, it is an insight into where cities might be headed, if solution finding tackles problems that appeared in the past, up to contemporary ones and the possible ones that might appear in the future.

    Urbanism is a field of research and is in constant movement and in evolution. Therefore, this research is aware that by the time of its publication it will already be outdated. Nevertheless, the goal for this research is to provide a stepping stone to further research within the field.

  • 30.
    Salö, Linus
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Regimenting academic discourse: Additional-language summaries as an equivocal remedy for  Anglophone scienceManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominance of English in scientific production raises issues in relation to certain responsibilities of Swedish universities, linked to the dissemination of knowledge and the development of the Swedish language. In light of this, the current paper deals with Swedish-language summaries (SLSs) in English-language doctoral theses. It treats the SLS as an instrument of language regimentation, deliberately aimed at limiting the near-total dominance of English. Drawing on language policy documents at the national and university level, along with scholarly accounts and interview data, the paper discusses the SLS as conceived by advocates in language policy and planning, university policymakers, and practitioners, that is, active researchers. It is shown that the SLS is aimed at counteracting negative effects pertaining to knowledge outreach as well as register formation. I argue that there is a contradiction between these two aims: on the one hand, an SLS that is simple enough to bridge the gap between science and society is not likely to contribute to expanding advanced registers of Swedish; on the other hand, an SLS that takes seriously the task of expanding Swedish registers will be unintelligible for the wider audience. Yet, it may still serve as a reminder that languages other than English are worthy of consideration and use.

  • 31.
    Salö, Linus
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. Stockholm University.
    The Sociolinguistics of Academic Publishing: Language and the Practices of Homo Academicus2017 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a sociolinguistics of academic publishing from an historical and contemporary perspective. Using Swedish academia as a case study, it focuses on publishing practices within history and psychology. The author demonstrates how new regimes of research evaluation and performance-based funding are impinging on university life. His central argument, following the French sociologist Bourdieu, is that the trend towards publishing in English should be understood as a social strategy, developed in response to such transformations. Thought-provoking and challenging, this book will interest students and scholars of sociolinguistics, language planning and language policy, research policy, sociology of science, history and psychology.

  • 32.
    Salö, Linus
    et al.
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö. Stockholm University.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    Stockholm University.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University .
    Karrebæk, Martha
    Mother tongue instruction in Sweden and Denmark: Language policy, cross-field effects, and linguistic exchange rates2018Inngår i: Language Policy, ISSN 1568-4555, E-ISSN 1573-1863Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     This article investigates mother tongue instruction (MTI) in Sweden and Denmark in a historical, comparative perspective, with a view to accounting for key differences in language policy enacted in educational fields. Whereas in Sweden, MTI is offered to linguistic minority children irrespective of their linguistic and ethnic backgrounds, in Denmark the right to state-sponsored MTI has been abolished for children of non-European descent. Moreover, while the policies of both states devalue skills in mother tongues other than the legitimate language of each society, this position is more pronounced in the Danish context. The article explores the two state’s position on MTI, as expressed in policy as well as in discourse produced in the political and academic field of each state. It subscribes to Pierre Bourdieu’s framework, within which state policy is conceived as the product of historical struggle and cross-field effects. The analysis shows that the national differences in MTI exist because of the differing ways in which agents from the academic vis-à-vis the political field have succeeded in imposing their visions in the bureaucratic field from which policies are produced. Ultimately, this circumstance explains why the Swedish discussion on MTI may be characterized as having been academically founded, while the Danish discussion has remained a matter of political consideration. In the latter case, we argue, it is particularly tangible that MTI is a politicized object of struggle, where agents seek to control the exchange rate of linguistic resources and, in effect, the social worth of different speakers.

  • 33.
    Sommerfeldt, Nelson
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Tillämpad termodynamik och kylteknik.
    Muyingo, Henry
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Lessons in community owned PV from swedish multi-family housing cooperatives2015Inngår i: 31st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 2015, s. 2745-2750Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing population shifts to urban areas and demands for post-war energy efficient renovationsacross Europe, solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment in multi-family housing will play an increasingly important roletowards meeting renewable energy, climate, and sustainability goals. This paper describes the stories of threeSwedish residential cooperatives who have installed large-scale PV systems across multiple buildings on their estates.In all cases, reduced operating costs were the original primary motivator; however unforeseen cost increases, changesin policy, and excess supply in the electricity market have made economic success less likely than originallyexpected. Regardless, the owners consider their projects a success due in part to short term social and long-termenvironmental benefits, which were originally less important and difficult to quantify. We can conclude thatcommunity owned PV offers more than just economic benefits, and Sweden’s unique ownership and managementstructure of residential cooperatives can offer insights towards increased deployment in other nations in Europe.

  • 34.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Teknik- och vetenskapshistoria.
    Tsunamin - en klassfråga: Fattiga har drabbats värst2004Inngår i: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 2004-12-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 35.
    Tahvilzadeh, Nazem
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Att göra kaos: Om förortspolitiken som urban styrregim och demokratiskt spel2018Inngår i: ARKIV. Tidskrift för samhällsanalys, ISSN 2000-6225, E-ISSN 2000-6217, nr 9, s. 103-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Nazem Tahvilzadeh och Lisa Kings artikel diskuteras orsakerna till den uppståndelse, eller ”kaos” för att använda aktivisternas egna ord, som organisationen Megafonen skapade inom ramen för stadsutvecklingsprojektet Järvalyftet i Husby. Med inspiration från teorier om hur samtycke till ojämlikhet grundläggs på fabriksgolvet utvecklas två begrepp för att synliggöra den politiska ordningen i förorten och dess konkreta aktiviteter: urbana styrregimer och demokratiska spel. Studien visar hur Megafonens avhopp och sedermera kritik av Järvalyftet och förortspolitiken bröt mot den etablerade politiska ordningen i relationerna mellan stat och civilsamhälle i den urbana periferin. Aktivisternas handlingar kom därför att betraktas som ”skandalösa” av delar av det politiska etablissemanget. Megafonen vägrade att spela enligt spelets regler och synliggjorde således ojämlikheterna i förortspolitikens demokratiska spel med medborgarna. Underlaget för studien baseras på processpårande och etnografisk metod som empiriskt återskapar den förortspolitiska satsningen Järvalyftet och dess logiker samt Megafonens roll 2006–2013.

  • 36.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Boendeattityder till miljö- och kretsloppsanpassning: Drivkrafter och motkrafter i olika upplåtelseformer2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish political goals on environmental issues are set at a high standard and fulfilling them will affect the everyday life of all residents. Voluntary self-restraint from benefits in housing services is hard to implement. This is an empirical study on actual habits and on stated willingness for pro-environmental practices, related to different forms of tenure.

    Incentives and perceived control are important for predicting actions. Administrative and physical structures are more significant though, as are the households’ resources. Well–off homeowners have many incentives to conserve energy and water. They also have the highest frequency of pro-environmental behaviour. Still they cause the heaviest environmental impact, due to large dwellings and abundant car use. Households in multifamily housing have fewer incentives and lower frequencies of pro-environmental habits, but cause less environmental impact due to generally lower consumption.

    The results are of interest to planning authorities, housing managers and researchers, working with the implementation of pro-environmental behaviour in housing.

  • 37.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Kvalitetsutveckling i boendet-Värdeskapande processer, Rapport från tre fallstudier : Rissne i Sundbyberg, Berga i Linköping och Gottsunda i Uppsala2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The research on housing quality is comprehensive and broad. Residents’ evaluation of quality is studied within a variety of disciplines. There is a fairly good knowledge on a general level regarding people’s values of housing quality. Safety and security, social relations to neigh-bours, the area’s reputation as well as the design of local environment and dwelling units have been shown to be important aspects of housing quality.

    The overall picture of how to strike the balance between certain levels of quality against input of resources from the housing management is not studied to the same extent. Different actors within housing management may have differing and even conflicting views of quality and efficiency. Short-term economical judgements can increase the risk of sub-optimisations.

    Substantial evidence shows that social capital is critical for increasing security and wellbeing in residential areas. The hypothesis is that the creation of social capital within a housing neighbourhood will raise housing quality and facilitate management.

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the creation of social capital in a housing neighbourhood context, to make the concept applicable in housing management. A complementary aim was to develop indicators for social capital in housing areas, useful for evaluating the effects of different measures. To find out new methods for the development of housing quality, the study applied case studies of housing management, for evaluation of quality efforts. A multi-disciplinary framework was adopted. Theories of social capital and models for value creation processes are the key concept in the project.

    The core of value creation processes is to produce more value at a given input of resources. The basic idea is that value can be created through the supply of goods or services in new ways or in a new form. The customer / consumer is part of the process and will, through this participation, experience a higher quality (Cars, Healey, Madanipour, Magalhães, 2002).

    Several theorists in sociology, for example Bourdieu and Coleman, have interpreted social capital. The starting point for this project is primarily the concept as coined by Robert Putnam: ”Social capital here refers to features of social organization, such as trust, norms, and networks, that can improve the efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated actions.” (Putnam, 1993, p. 167). Social capital is seen a common utility, a form of capital that is not owned by individuals, but is created and growing in interpersonal relations, for example among neighbours in a residential area. Putnam (2000) and Lin (2001) discuss the epithets 'bonding' and 'bridging' in connection with SC. Bonding SC tends to exclude other individuals or groups, while the group that possesses the bonding capital benefits from it. Bridging SC will increase trust in other groups and structures in society and contribute to the identification and mutual cooperation with others. In residential areas SC can be a great asset, but the balance between bonding and bridging SC is critical.

    The study objects were management projects in a number of public housing companies. The criteria for selection of projects for the study were that their purpose should be to improve housing quality and / or trust and norms between companies and residents. There should be enough of accessible information on the measures taken and the projects should be fairly recent so that staff and residents of the company had clear memories of what happened before, during and after the process. The study covered four case studies, from different medium sized Swedish cities. Data were collected through interviews with key actors and residents, questionnaires to residents and document studies.

    The projects were compared regarding how they were designed to achieve their goals, and to what degree they managed to attain those goals. The intention was to find out more about the successes or failures in terms of management measures, regarding the enhancement of participation, security and social capital in the residential areas.

    The four case studies focused on very different types of measures. One project aimed at increasing perceived security in a residential area by introducing a special watchman who would offer protection, assistance and social control. Next project held youth activities for primary school children, to prevent youth delinquency. Sports clubs gave free instruction, the municipality offered venues for free and the school administered the activities in cooperation with the housing company. The third project was the renovation of outdoor environment and common areas like laundry rooms and entrances, in a residential area with social problems, to make the area more attractive. The fourth project was a campaign among tenants to counteract the perception of water as a free resource and in particular reduce the consumption of hot water.

    The results showed that the projects did not fully meet their stated objectives; to the extent it was possible to make such assessments. The companies had not ensured that there was data to verify the compliance to goals before they started their actions. Rather, the projects may be seen as building up experience in the housing management practice.

    The companies themselves have not mentioned the concept of social capital during the planning of the various projects. In practice though, the addressed management problems could be defined as stemming from deficits in social capital. Where the residents did not trust their neighbours there was a lack of bonding capital. If residents saw themselves as victims of circumstances, unable to influence their own situation, the bridging capital was missing.

    Social capital can be built from personal relationships between residents and housing companies and between the residents. With time bonding social capital is built up. This in turn contributes to the fostering of bridging social capital. When the residents see that commitment and work for the common good pays off in different ways, trust in the housing company will grow and in a longer perspective also trust in the surrounding society. To participate in the housing management and take on responsibilities can provide new life opportunities, such as an entrance ticket to the job market.

    The case studies showed that housing quality is a complex concept. It is a 'fresh product' that must be constantly maintained and developed. Various conditions can affect what is perceived as housing quality, and quality must be kept up all the time. To achieve the best quality as perceived by residents, it is a prerequisite that residents are involved to a high degree.

    Reasoning based upon literature and the empirical results suggests that important indicators of social capital in housing areas are related to trust, norms of reciprocity, social control, social networks and civic participation. With regard to if they are manifest on micro, meso or macro level, the indicators will take on different forms, discussed in a forthcoming article.

    The results have been presented at seminars with the housing companies, in teaching undergraduate students at KTH, in a report in Swedish, and in conference papers.

  • 38.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Arkitektur.
    Residents’ Environmentally Friendly Attitudes and Practices: – Motivation and Barriers in Different Forms Types of Tenure2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Thise paper presents an empirical study of actual households’ daily habits  and of their stated willingness for to adopt pro-environmental practices, relative to differ-ent forms of tenure. Economic incentives, linked to home-ownership, are shown to be significant in determining actions, as is perceived control. Well–-off homeowners have the highest frequency of pro-environmental behaviour, as measured in the study. Still, they cause the heaviest environmental impact, due to their larger dwellings and abundant car use. Households in multifamily housing have fewer incentives for and lower frequencies of pro-environmental habits, but cause less environmental impact due to their generally lower consumption. The results imply that the selection of target groups and the development of environmental policies need to be discussed assessed in relation to different life  styles and patterns of consumption.

  • 39.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Residents’ Environmentally Friendly Attitudes and Practices: Motivation and Barriers in Different Types of Tenure2005Inngår i: Romanian Journal of Applied Psychology, ISSN 1454-8062, Vol. 6, nr 3-4, s. 136-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 40.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Social Capital in Housing Management: The Concept as a Tool for Analysing Problems and Formulating Goals for Action2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no formal social housing sector in Sweden, but municipally owned housing companies have aresponsibility to take on all kinds of tenants. That means that they are often in charge of housing areaswhere many low-income households live, with ensuing social problems. This paper is based upon a studyof management practices in such housing companies. ‘Social Capital’, a concept widely used in thediscussion on how to fight crime and deterioration in socially burdened housing areas, is employed in thetheoretical framework. Here the concept is used as well as describing local social networks as, in particular,‘bridging’ towards the surrounding society.The applied method is case study of the attempts of three housing companies to remedy problems such ashigh crime rate, bad reputation and low demand for housing units in certain areas.The results of the case studies showed that the companies’ different ways of addressing complex problemsinherent in the housing areas were not based upon any definition on how means were related to goals.They were more or less examples of trial and error. Only one of the companies did discuss intentionallyhow they should better the reputation of a certain housing area, by doing a selective physical upgrading ofcommunal spaces and the out-door environment. They were concerned to engage the residents in theprocess.The analysis employed a ‘what if’ - approach regarding the use of ‘Social Capital’ as a tool for thecompanies when analysing and addressing their problems. The discussion concludes in a review of theconcept ‘Social capital’ and some suggestions on how to make it operational in the practice of housingmanagement.

  • 41.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    The Liveability of the City: A study of living with children in different urban designs2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of what quality of life the city is offering families with children. A substantial part of the Swedish population, of fertile age groups, lives in cities, where a dwelling could be very expensive. Families' residential conditions are supposed to strongly affect their quality of life, and, in the end, the rate of fertility. A sample of blocks of different of urban design in Stockholm will be studied, regarding what qualities the design of dwellings and urban areas can offer in the daily life of households with children. The study will be carried out partly by a survey, to gather background data to be analysed by statistical methods, partly by qualitative methods such as interviews, mind-maps and self-administered photo documentation of the neighbourhood. The project has a gender perspective as the internal decision processes of households, and thereby gender differences in how the near environment is valued, are objects of study. The results will be an overview of the actual dwelling situation of families with children on a tough housing market, as well as a series of examples of more or less suitable environments for their daily life. Based on these results, the complicated relationships between people's experiences, actions and the design of the built environment will be discussed. Conclusions will facilitate the evaluation of outcomes of different planning measures, for example regarding making problem areas more attractive.

  • 42.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Klingborg, Kerstin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    En studie av ombildningsprocessen från hyresrätt till bostadsrätt 2007-20102011Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Klingborg, Kerstin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Studying Social Capital in Housing Neighborhoods: Does Tenure Matter?2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 44.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Klingborg, Kerstin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Studying Social Capital in Housing Neighborhoods: Does Tenure Matter?2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
1 - 44 of 44
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