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  • 1.
    Alverbro, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Hagvall, J.
    A life cycle assessment of destruction of ammunition2009Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 170, nr 2-3, s. 1101-1109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have large stocks of ammunition that were produced at a time when decommissioning was not considered. This ammunition will eventually become obsolete and must be destroyed, preferably with minimal impact on the environment and in a safe way for personnel. The aim of this paper is to make a comparison of the environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective of three different methods of decommissioning/destruction of ammunition, and to identify the environmental advantages and disadvantages of each of these destruction methods: open detonation; static kiln incineration with air pollution control combined with metal recycling, and a combination of incineration with air pollution control, open burning, recovery of some energetic material and metal recycling. Data used are for the specific processes and from established LCA databases. Recycling the materials in the ammunition and minimising the spread of airborne pollutants during incineration were found to be the most important factors affecting the life cycle environmental performance of the compared destruction methods. Open detonation with or without metal recycling proved to be the overall worst alternative from a life cycle perspective. The results for the static kiln and combination treatment indicate that the kind of ammunition and location of the destruction plant might determine the choice of method, since the environmental impacts from these methods are of little difference in the case of this specific grenade. Different methods for destruction of ammunition have previously been discussed from a risk and safety perspective. This is however to our knowledge the first study looking specifically on environmentally aspect in a life cycle perspective.

  • 2. Bhowmick, S.
    et al.
    Nath, B.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Majumder, S.
    Mondal, P.
    Chakraborty, S.
    Nriagu, J.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Iglesias, M.
    Roman-Ross, G.
    Guha Mazumder, D.
    Bundschuh, J.
    Chatterjee, D.
    Arsenic mobilization in the aquifers of three physiographic settings of West Bengal, India: Understanding geogenic and anthropogenic influences2013Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 262, s. 915-923Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative hydrogeochemical study was carried out in West Bengal, India covering three physiographic regions, Debagram and Chakdaha located in the Bhagirathi-Hooghly alluvial plain and Baruipur in the delta front, to demonstrate the control of geogenic and anthropogenic influences on groundwater arsenic (As) mobilization. Groundwater samples (n=90) from tube wells were analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters. The low redox potential (Eh=-185 to -86mV) and dominant As(III) and Fe(II) concentrations are indicative of anoxic nature of the aquifer. The shallow (<100m) and deeper (>100m) aquifers of Bhagirathi-Hooghly alluvial plains as well as shallow aquifers of delta front are characterized by Ca2+HCO3 - type water, whereas Na+ and Cl- enrichment is found in the deeper aquifer of delta front. The equilibrium of groundwater with respect to carbonate minerals and their precipitation/dissolution seems to be controlling the overall groundwater chemistry. The low SO4 2- and high DOC, PO4 3- and HCO3 - concentrations in groundwater signify ongoing microbial mediated redox processes favoring As mobilization in the aquifer. The As release is influenced by both geogenic (i.e. geomorphology) and anthropogenic (i.e. unsewered sanitation) processes. Multiple geochemical processes, e.g., Fe-oxyhydroxides reduction and carbonate dissolution, are responsible for high As occurrence in groundwaters.

  • 3. Blum, K. M.
    et al.
    Gallampois, C.
    Andersson, P. L.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Haglund, P.
    Comprehensive assessment of organic contaminant removal from on-site sewage treatment facility effluent by char-fortified filter beds2019Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 361, s. 111-122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To remove organic contaminants from wastewater using cost-efficient and currently existing methods, our study investigated char-fortified filter beds for on-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs) in a long-term field setting. OSSFs are commonly used in rural and semi-urban areas worldwide to treat wastewater when municipal wastewater treatment is not economically feasible. First, we screened for organic contaminants with gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based targeted and untargeted analysis and then we developed quantitative structure-property relationship models to search for key molecular features responsible for the removal of organic contaminants. We identified 74 compounds (24 confirmed by reference standards) including plasticizers, UV stabilizers, fragrances, pesticides, surfactant and polymer impurities, pharmaceuticals and their metabolites, and many biogenic compounds. Sand filters that are used as a secondary step after the septic tank in OSSFs could remove hydrophobic contaminants. The addition of biochar significantly increased the removal of these and a few hydrophilic compounds (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, α = 0.05). Besides hydrophobicity-driven sorption, biodegradation was suggested to be the most important removal pathway in this long-term field application. However, further improvements are necessary to remove very hydrophilic contaminants as they were not removed with sand and biochar-fortified sand.

  • 4.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Nath, B.
    Naidu, R.
    Ng, J.
    Guilherme, L. R. G.
    Ma, L. Q.
    Kim, K. -W
    Jean, J. -S
    Arsenic ecotoxicology: The interface between geosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere2013Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 262, s. 883-886Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Maity, J. P.
    Nath, B.
    Baba, A.
    Gunduz, O.
    Kulp, T. R.
    Jean, J. -S
    Kar, S.
    Yang, H. -J
    Tseng, Y. -J
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Chen, C. -Y
    Naturally occurring arsenic in terrestrial geothermal systems of western Anatolia, Turkey: Potential role in contamination of freshwater resources2013Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 262, s. 951-959Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) contamination in terrestrial geothermal systems has been identified in many countries worldwide. Concentrations higher than 0.01mg/L are detrimental to human health. We examined potential consequences for As contamination of freshwater resources based on hydrogeochemical investigations of geothermal waters in deep wells and hot springs collected from western Anatolia, Turkey. We analyzed samples for major ions and trace element concentrations. Temperature of geothermal waters in deep wells showed extreme ranges (40 and 230°C), while, temperature of hot spring fluids was up to 90°C. The Piper plot illustrated two dominant water types: Na-HCO3 - type for geothermal waters in deep wells and Ca-HCO3 - type for hot spring fluids. Arsenic concentration ranged from 0.03 to 1.5mg/L. Dominance of reduced As species, i.e., As(III), was observed in our samples. The Eh value ranged between -250 and 119mV, which suggests diverse geochemical conditions. Some of the measured trace elements were found above the World Health Organization guidelines and Turkish national safe drinking water limits. The variation in pH (range: 6.4-9.3) and As in geothermal waters suggest mixing with groundwater. Mixing of geothermal waters is primarily responsible for contamination of freshwater resources and making them unsuitable for drinking or irrigation.

  • 6.
    Cema, Grzegorz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Pietrala, Aleksandra
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Activity assessment and kinetic parameter estimation in single stage partial nitritation/Anammox2009Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Cema, Grzegorz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Raszka, Anna
    Silesian University of Technology, Environmental Biotechnology Department.
    Stachurski, Arkadiusz
    Kunda, Katarzyna
    Surmacz-Górska, Joanna
    Silesian University of Technology, Environmental Biotechnology Department.
    Płaza, Elżbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    A one-stage system with partial nitritation and Anammox processes in Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) for treating landfill leachateInngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major aspects associated with landfilling of solid wastes is related to the discharge of leachate into environment. Leachates with high ammonium nitrogen content are generally difficult to effective treat in conventional biological treatment processes. Therefore, it brings a requirement of developing new processes and technologies. Additionally, treatment procedures must consider small flow rates of leachate. The Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) is a good example of technology for treatment such wastewaters, because of its excellent shock and toxic loading capabilities, simple process control and low energy requirements. The main objective of the presented research was to investigate a simultaneous partial nitritation/Anammox process in the rotating biological contactor. For this purpose, the lab-scale reactor was fed with real landfill leachate from two municipal landfill sites in Gliwice and Zabrze (Poland). The reactor was highly loaded up to 7 g N m-2d-1 and it was possible to obtain the maximum inorganic nitrogen removal rate of 6.2 g N m-2d-1. Achieved results proved the possibility of efficient inorganic nitrogen removal by means of partial nitritation/ Anammox process in the temperature around 20°C.

  • 8.
    Chen, Song
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik.
    Abdel-Magied, Ahmed F.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik.
    Fu, Le
    Uppsala Universitet, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Jonsson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Forsberg, Kerstin
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik.
    Incorporation of strontium and europium in crystals of α-calcium isosaccharinate2019Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 364, s. 309-316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The final repository for short-lived, low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Sweden is built to act as a passive repository. Already within a few years after closure water will penetrate the repository and conditions of high alkalinity (pH 10.5―13.5) and low temperature (< 7 °C) will prevail. The mobility of radionuclides in the repository is dependent on the radionuclides distribution between solid and liquid phases. In the present work the incorporation of strontium (II) and europium (III) in α-calcium isosaccharinate (ISA) under alkaline conditions (pH ~10) at 5 °C and 50 °C have been studied. The results show that strontium and europium are incorporated into α-Ca(ISA)2 when crystallized both at 5 °C and 50 °C. Europium is incorporated to a greater extent than strontium. The highest incorporation of europium and strontium at 5 °C rendered the phase compositions Ca0.986Eu0.014(ISA)2 (2.4% of Eu(ISA)3 by mass) and Ca0.98Sr0.02(ISA)2 (2.2% of Sr(ISA)2 by mass). XPS spectra show that both trivalent and divalent Eu coexist in the Eu incorporated samples. Strontium ions were found to retard the elongated growth of the Ca(ISA)2crystals. The incorporation of Sr2+ and Eu3+ into the solid phase of Ca(ISA)2 is expected to contribute to a decreased mobility of these ions in the repository.

  • 9.
    Diesen, Veronica
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Forsberg, Kerstin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Jonsson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Effects of cellulose degradation products on the mobility of Eu(III) in repositories for low and intermediate level radioactive waste2017Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 340, s. 384-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The deep repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste SFR in Sweden will contain large amounts of cellulosic waste materials contaminated with radionuclides. Over time the repository will be filled with water and alkaline conditions will prevail. In the present study degradation of cellulosic materials and the ability of cellulosic degradation products to solubilize and thereby mobilise Eu(III) under repository conditions has been investigated. Further, the possible immobilization of Eu(III) by sorption onto cement in the presence of degradation products has been investigated. The cellulosic material has been degraded under anaerobic and aerobic conditions in alkaline media (pH: 12.5) at ambient temperature. The degradation was followed by measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content in the aqueous phase as a function of time. After 173 days of degradation the TOC content is highest in the anaerobic artificial cement pore water (1547 mg/L). The degradation products are capable of solubilising Eu(III) and the total europium concentration in the aqueous phase was 900 μmol/L after 498 h contact time under anaerobic conditions. Further it is shown that Eu(III) is adsorbed to the hydrated cement to a low extent (<9 μmol Eu/g of cement) in the presence of degradation products.

  • 10.
    Donaj, Pawel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Energi- och ugnsteknik.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Energi- och ugnsteknik.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Energi- och ugnsteknik.
    Forsgren, Christer
    Conversion of microwave pyrolysed ASR's char using high temperature agents2011Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 185, nr 1, s. 472-481Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pyrolysis enables to recover metals and organic feedstock from waste conglomerates such as: automotive shredder residue (ASR). ASR as well as its pyrolysis solid products, is a morphologically and chemically varied mixture, containing mineral materials, including hazardous heavy metals. The aim of the work is to generate fundamental knowledge on the conversion of the organic residues of the solid products after ASR's microwave pyrolysis, treated at various temperatures and with two different types of gasifying agent: pure steam or 3% (v/v) of oxygen. The research is conducted using a lab-scale, plug-flow gasifier, with an integrated scale for analysing mass loss changes over time of experiment, serving as macro TG at 950, 850 and 760 degrees C. The reaction rate of char decomposition was investigated, based on carbon conversion during gasification and pyrolysis stage. It was found in both fractions that char conversion rate decreases with the rise of external gas temperature, regardless of the gasifying agent. No significant differences between the reaction rates undergoing with steam and oxygen for char decomposition has been observed. This abnormal char behaviour might have been caused by the inhibiting effects of ash, especially alkali metals on char activity or due to deformation of char structure during microwave heating.

  • 11.
    Donaj, Pawel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Energi- och ugnsteknik.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Energi- och ugnsteknik.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Energi- och ugnsteknik.
    Forsgren, Christer
    Stena Metall AB.
    Recycling of automobile shredder residue with a microwave pyrolysis combined with high temperature steam gasification2010Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 182, nr 1-3, s. 80-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Presently, there is a growing need for handling automobile shredder residues - ASR or "car fluff". One of the most promising methods of treatment ASR is pyrolysis. Apart of obvious benefits of pyrolysis: energy and metals recovery, there is serious concern about the residues generated from that process needing to be recycled. Unfortunately, not much work has been reported providing a solution for treatment the wastes after pyrolysis. This work proposes a new system based on a two-staged process. The ASR was primarily treated by microwave pyrolysis and later the liquid and solid products become the feedstock for the high temperature gasification process. The system development is supported within experimental results conducted in a lab-scale, batch-type reactor at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The heating rate, mass loss, gas composition, LHV and gas yield of producer gas vs. residence time are reported for the steam temperature of 1173K. The sample input was 10 g and the steam flow rate was 0.65 kg/h. The conversion reached 99% for liquids and 45-55% for solids, dependently from the fraction. The H-2:CO mol/mol ratio varied from 1.72 solids and 1.4 for liquid, respectively. The average LHV of generated gas was 15.8 MJ/N m(3) for liquids and 15 MJ/N m(3) for solids fuels.

  • 12.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Relationships between accident investigations, risk analysis, and safety management2004Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 111, nr 1-3, s. 13-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several different approaches to achieve safety are in common use, and examples are accident investigations (AI), risk analysis (RA), and safety management systems (SMS). The meaning of these concepts and their practical applications vary quite a lot, which might cause confusion. A summary of definitions is presented. A general comparison is made of application areas and methodology. A proposal is made how to indicate parameters of variation. At one end of the scale there are organisations, which are highly organised in respect to safety. At the other end are small companies with informal safety routines. Although the three concepts differ in a number of respects, there are many links between them which is illustrated in a model. A number of relations have been described mainly concerned with more advanced organisations. Behind the practical safety work, there are varying sets of more or less explicit explanations and theories on safety and accident causation. Depending on the theory applied, the relations between approaches can be more or less clear and essential.

  • 13.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Liden, Carola
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Corrigendum to "Correlation between bulk- and surface chemistry of Cr-tanned leather and the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI)" [J. Hazard. Mater. 280, (2014), 654-661], doi :10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.08.0612015Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 285, s. 542-542Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 14.
    Hedberg, Yolanda S.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lidén, Carola
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Correlation between bulk- and surface chemistry of Cr-tanned leather and the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI)2014Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 280, s. 654-661Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    About 1-3% of the adult general population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). The assessment of the potential release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from leather is hence important from a human health and environmental risk perspective. The Cr(VI) content in leather was recently restricted in the European Union. The aim of this study was to assess possible correlations between the bulk and surface chemistry of leather, released Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and capacities of co-released leather specific species to reduce and complex released Cr. Four differently tanned leathers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and the diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method. Their characteristics were compared with results on Cr(III) and Cr(VI) release into artificial sweat (ASW, pH < 6.5) and phosphate buffer (PB, pH 7.5-8.0), measured by means of spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Co-released leather-specific species were shown to reduce Cr(VI), both in ASW and in PB. Their reduction capacities correlated with findings of the surface content of Cr and of released Cr. Leather samples without this capacity, and with less aromatic surface groups visible by ATR-FTIR, revealed Cr(VI) both at the surface and in solution (PB).

  • 15. Islam, A. B. M. R.
    et al.
    Maity, J. P.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Chen, C. -Y
    Bhowmik, B. K.
    Tazaki, K.
    Arsenic mineral dissolution and possible mobilization in mineral-microbe-groundwater environment2013Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 262, s. 989-996Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) is widely distributed in the nature as ores or minerals. It has been attracted much attention for the global public health issue, especially for groundwater As contamination. The aim of this study was to elucidate the characteristics of microbes in groundwater where As-minerals were dissolved. An ex situ experiment was conducted with 7 standard As-minerals in bacteria-free groundwater and stored in experimental vessels for 1 year without supplementary nutrients. The pH (6.7-8.4) and EhS.H.E. (24-548mV) changed between initial (0 day) and final stages (365 days) of experiment. The dissolution of As was detected higher from arsenolite (4240±8.69mg/L) and native arsenic (4538±9.02mg/L), whereas moderately dissolved from orpiment (653±3.56mg/L) and realgar (319±2.56mg/L) in compare to arsenopyrite (85±1.25mg/L) and tennantite (3±0.06mg/L). Optical microscopic, scanning electron microscopic observations and flurometric enumeration revealed the abundance of As-resistant bacillus, coccus and filamentous types of microorganisms on the surface of most of As-mineral. 4'-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained epifluorescence micrograph confirmed the presence of DNA and carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) staining method revealed the enzymatically active bacteria on the surface of As-minerals such as in realgar (As4S4). Therefore, the microbes enable to survive and mobilize the As in groundwater by dissolution/bioweathering of As-minerals.

  • 16.
    Jonsson, Lage
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Karlsson, Edvard
    FOI, CBRN Defence and Security.
    Thaning, Lennart
    FOI, CBRN Defence and Security.
    Toxic gas clouds: Effects and implications of dry deposition onconcentration2005Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 124, nr 1-3, s. 1-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the dry deposition process on concentration pertaining to toxic gas clouds was investigated by model calculations. Three main release scenarios were simulated, with nine micrometeorological cases considered for each. To compare and confirm the results, two model types, a stochastic particle model and a box-type model, were independently used to simulate many of the different cases. The results showed that the effects of dry deposition may be strong for releases at, or confined close to the ground, e.g. neutral or unstable stratification can cause higher concentrations than stable stratification after 10–15 km. Risk distances are in turn affected and may be substantially shortened, e.g. for a zero-height release like that from an evaporating pool, a 50% reduction in total airborne substance may occur within 500 m at a low wind velocity and neutral or stable stratification

  • 17.
    Jonsson, Lage T. I.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Karlsson, Edvard
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Aspects of particulate dry deposition in the urban environment2008Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 153, nr 1-2, s. 229-243Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro-scale deposition models, typically used for pipes, were adapted to outdoor situations and combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations of flow conditions in order to study the fine structure of the deposition velocity on ground, walls, and roofs in an urban environment. Several deposition modeling techniques taken from the literature were used for the predictions. The urban geometry was represented by two different blocks of houses, which together with two wind directions gave four different cases to study. The calculations show large local variations of the deposition velocity resulting in a pattern similar to the variation of the friction velocity. This demonstrates the strong dependence of the deposition velocity on the friction velocity. Further alteration of the deposition velocity is caused by the variation of the micro-scale roughness and different surface temperatures. The results presented provide some guidance for where to look for hotspots of deposited material and also show that a representation of the deposition velocity in a city by only one or just a few values is a great simplification locally and could lead to serious mistakes.

  • 18.
    Kalibbala, Herbert Mpagi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Wahlberg, Olle
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Kaggwa, Christine
    Aquatic iron mediation of natural organic matter removal with hydrogen peroxide in a pumice in a filterInngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19. Kantarelis, E.
    et al.
    Donaj, Pawel
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Energi- och ugnsteknik.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Energi- och ugnsteknik.
    Zabaniotou, A.
    Sustainable valorization of plastic wastes for energy with environmental safety via High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) and High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG)2009Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 167, nr 1-3, s. 675-684Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study the energetic valorization of electric cable shredder residues (mixed plastics) has been investigated. Thermochemical conversion by means of High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG) and High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) was studied. The effects of temperature and reaction time - process parameters - were investigated. Comparison of the results showed that HTSG seems a more suitable process in terms of produced syngas quality (64%. v/v and 13 MJ/Nm(3)) than HTP because of higher H-2 yield and lower tar content.

  • 20. Kumar, Prashanth Suresh
    et al.
    Quiroga Flores, Roxana
    Sjöstedt, Carin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Onnby, Linda
    Arsenic adsorption by iron-aluminium hydroxide coated onto macroporous supports: Insights from X-ray absorption spectroscopy and comparison with granular ferric hydroxides2016Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 302, s. 166-174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the arsenic adsorption characteristics of a macroporous polymer coated with coprecipitated iron-aluminium hydroxides (MHCMP). The MHCMP adsorbent-composite fits best with a pseudo-second order model for As(III) and a pseudo-first order kinetic model for As(V). The MHCMP shows a maximum adsorption capacity of 82.3 and 49.6 mgAs/g adsorbent for As(III) and As(V) ions respectively, and adsorption followed the Langmuir model. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure showed that binding of As(III) ions were confirmed to take place on the iron hydroxides coated on the MHCMP, whereas for As(V) ions the binding specificity could not be attributed to one particular metal hydroxide. As(III) formed a bidentate mononuclear complex with Fe sites, whereas As(V) indicated on a bidentate binuclear complex with Al sites or monodentate with Fe sites on the adsorbent. The column experiments were run in a well water spiked with a low concentration of As(III) (100 mu g/L) and a commercially available adsorbent (GEH (R) 102) based on granular iron-hydroxide was used for comparison. It was found that the MHCMP was able to treat 7 times more volume of well water as compared to GEH (R) 102, maintaining the threshold concentration of less than 10 mu gAs/L, indicating that the MHCMP is a superior adsorbent.

  • 21. Larsson, M. A.
    et al.
    Baken, S.
    Smolders, E.
    Cubadda, F.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Vanadium bioavailability in soils amended with blast furnace slag2015Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 296, s. 158-165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Blast furnace (BF) slags are commonly applied as soil amendments and in road fill material. In Sweden they are also naturally high in vanadium. The aim of this study was to assess the vanadium bioavailability in BF slags when applied to soil. Two soils were amended with up to 29% BF slag (containing 800mgVkg-1) and equilibrated outdoors for 10 months before conducting a barley shoot growth assay. Additional soil samples were spiked with dissolved vanadate(V) for which assays were conducted two weeks (freshly spiked) and 10 months (aged) after spiking. The BF slag vanadium was dominated by vanadium(III) as shown by V K-edge XANES spectroscopy. In contrast, results obtained by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that vanadium(V), the most toxic vanadium species, was predominant in the soil solution. Barley shoot growth was not affected by the BF slag additions. This was likely due to limited dissolution of vanadium from the BF slag, preventing an increase of dissolved vanadium above toxic thresholds. The difference in vanadium bioavailability among treatments was explained by the vanadium concentration in the soil solution. It was concluded that the vanadium in BF slag is sparingly available. These findings should be of importance in environmental risk assessment.

  • 22.
    Lindroos, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH). KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Centra, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    Hörnström, David
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Centra, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH).
    Larsson, Gen
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Centra, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH).
    Gustavsson, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Centra, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH).
    van Maris, Antonius J. A.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Centra, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH).
    Continuous removal of the model pharmaceutical chloroquine from water using melanin-covered Escherichia coli in a membrane bioreactor2019Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 365, s. 74-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental release and accumulation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products is a global concern in view of increased awareness of ecotoxicological effects. Adsorbent properties make the biopolymer melanin an interesting alternative to remove micropollutants from water. Recently, tyrosinase-surface-displaying Escherichia coli was shown to be an interesting self-replicating production system for melanin-covered cells for batch-wise absorption of the model pharmaceutical chloroquine. This work explores the suitability of these melanin-covered E. coli for the continuous removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater. A continuous-flow membrane bioreactor containing melanized E. coli cells was used for adsorption of chloroquine from the influent until saturation and subsequent regeneration. At a low loading of cells (10 g/L) and high influent concentration of chloroquine (0.1 mM), chloroquine adsorbed until saturation after 26 +/- 2 treated reactor volumes (39 +/- 3 L). The average effluent concentration during the first 20 h was 0.0018 mM, corresponding to 98.2% removal. Up to 140 +/- 6 mg chloroquine bound per gram of cells following mixed homo- and heterogeneous adsorption kinetics. In situ low pH regeneration released all chloroquine without apparent capacity loss over three consecutive cycles. This shows the potential of melanized cells for treatment of conventional wastewater or highly concentrated upstream sources such as hospitals or manufacturing sites.

  • 23. Liu, Qingquan
    et al.
    Wang, Li
    Xiao, Anguo
    Gao, Jingming
    Ding, Wenbing
    Yu, Haojie
    Huo, Jia
    Ericson, Mårten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Templated preparation of porous magnetic microspheres and their application in removal of cationic dyes from wastewater2010Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 181, nr 1-3, s. 586-592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Porous magnetic microspheres with large particle size (350-450 mu m) were prepared with sulfonated macroporous polydivinylbenzene as a template. The preparation process included ferrous ion exchange and following oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. The results showed that the weight fraction of magnetic nanoparticles exceeded 20 wt% in microspheres after the preparation process was repeated three times. X-ray diffraction profiles indicated that the crystalline phase of as-formed magnetic nanoparticles was magnetite (Fe3O4). TEM images revealed rod-like magnetite crystal after the first oxidation cycle, however, the crystal morphologies were transferred into random shape after more oxidation cycles. The applicability of porous magnetic microspheres for removal of cationic dyes from water was also explored. The results exhibited that basic fuchsin and methyl violet could be quickly removed from water with high efficiency. More importantly, the magnetic microspheres could be easily regenerated and repeatedly employed for wastewater treatment. Therefore, a novel methodology was provided for fast removal cationic dyes from wastewater.

  • 24.
    Mei, Nanxuan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Belleville, L.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Cha, Yingying
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Persson, K. -A
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Size-separated particle fractions of stainless steel welding fume particles – A multi-analytical characterization focusing on surface oxide speciation and release of hexavalent chromium2018Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 342, s. 527-535Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Welding fume of stainless steels is potentially health hazardous. The aim of this study was to investigate the manganese (Mn) and chromium (Cr) speciation of welding fume particles and their extent of metal release relevant for an inhalation scenario, as a function of particle size, welding method (manual metal arc welding, metal arc welding using an active shielding gas), different electrodes (solid wires and flux-cored wires) and shielding gases, and base alloy (austenitic AISI 304L and duplex stainless steel LDX2101). Metal release investigations were performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.3, 37°, 24 h. The particles were characterized by means of microscopic, spectroscopic, and electroanalytical methods. Cr was predominantly released from particles of the welding fume when exposed in PBS [3–96% of the total amount of Cr, of which up to 70% as Cr(VI)], followed by Mn, nickel, and iron. Duplex stainless steel welded with a flux-cored wire generated a welding fume that released most Cr(VI). Nano-sized particles released a significantly higher amount of nickel compared with micron-sized particle fractions. The welding fume did not contain any solitary known chromate compounds, but multi-elemental highly oxidized oxide(s) (iron, Cr, and Mn, possibly bismuth and silicon). 

  • 25.
    Morling, Stig
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Nitrogen removal and heavy metals in leachate treatment using SBR technology2010Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 174, nr 1-3, s. 679-686Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological nitrogen removal by the use of Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs) is today an accepted and well proven model. The results of SBR performance on nitrogen removal have encouraged consultants, engineering companies and landfill operators to develop and build full scale SBR plants at a number of sites in Sweden. Two of these plants, Isatra and Norsa, have been studied closely. The Norsa plant treats leachate at a controlled water temperature, while the Isatra plant is exposed to temperature variation throughout the year. Both plants have very well proven nitrogen removal capacities, although winter conditions have an adverse impact on their performance. Typical nitrification efficiency is close to 100%, while the total nitrogen removal is about 90-95% under stable operation conditions. A good relationship between the nitrogen load and the nitrification rate has been observed at the Norsa SBR plant. The heavy metal content in the leachate is very low thanks to anaerobic precipitation inside the landfill into metal sulphides. The heavy metal content in the biological sludge is consequently also very low.

  • 26. Neidhardt, H.
    et al.
    Berner, Z.
    Freikowski, D.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Winter, J.
    Chatterjee, D.
    Norra, S.
    Influences of groundwater extraction on the distribution of dissolved As in shallow aquifers of West Bengal, India2013Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 262, s. 941-950Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report temporal changes of As concentrations in shallow groundwater of the Bengal Delta Plain (BDP). Observed fluctuations are primarily induced by seasonally occurring groundwater movement, but can also be connected to anthropogenic groundwater extraction. Between December 2009 and July 2010, pronounced variations in the groundwater hydrochemistry were recorded in groundwater samples of a shallow monitoring well tapping the aquifer in 22-25m depth, where Astot concentrations increased within weeks from 100 to 315μgL-1. These trends are attributed to a vertically shift of the hydrochemically stratified water column at the beginning of the monsoon season. This naturally occurring effect can be additionally superimposed by groundwater extraction, as demonstrated on a local scale by an in situ experiment simulating extensive groundwater withdrawal during the dry post-monsoon season. Results of this experiment suggest that groundwater extraction promoted an enduring change within the distribution of dissolved As in the local aquifer. Presented outcomes contribute to the discussion of anthropogenic pumping influences that endanger the limited and yet arsenic-free groundwater resources of the BDP.

  • 27.
    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Wern, Hannes
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Johnsson, Fredrick
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Sracek, O.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Quintanilla, J.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano2013Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 262, s. 924-940Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater.Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2μg/L (the detection level) to 207μg/L and averages 72μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na-Cl-HCO3 type or the Ca-Na-HCO3 type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health.Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and analysed. Sequential extractions of the sediments together with the calculation of the mineral saturation indices indicate that iron oxides and hydroxides are the important secondary minerals phases which are important adsorbents for As. High pH values, and the competition of As with HCO3 and dissolved silica for the adsorption sites probably seems to be an important process for the mobilisation of As in the shallow groundwaters of the region. Continuous monitoring and expansion of monitoring systems are necessary prerequisites for better understanding of the pattern of As mobilisation in the Southern Poopó Basin.

  • 28.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Teknisk geologi och geofysik.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    Metal removal by bed filter materials used in domestic wastewater treatment2009Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 166, nr 2-3, s. 734-739Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bed filters using reactive materials are an emerging technology for on-site wastewater treatment. Used materials, which are enriched with phosphorus, can be used as a fertiliser or soil amendment. However the materials can also be enriched with metals from the wastewater. Six materials (opoka, sand, Polonite (R), limestone, two types of blast furnace slag) exposed to long-term wastewater loading in columns and in a compact filter well filled with Polonite were investigated for metal removal and accumulation. Wastewater applied to the columns had low heavy metal concentrations in the order Zn > Cu > Mn > Ni > Cr. All columns were able to remove 53%-83% of Zn except those filled with sand. Polonite demonstrated a high removal capacity of Mn (>98%), while only the slag materials were able to remove Ni. All materials showed increased Cu, Cr(III). Mn. Pb and Zn content after filtration. Speciation calculations showed that high concentrations of dissolved organic matter might have prevented efficient metal removal, particularly in the case of Cu. The low content of toxic heavy metals in the studied filter materials studied would probably not restrict their use as a fertiliser or soil amendment.

  • 29. Roed-Larsen, S
    et al.
    Valvisto, T
    Harms-Ringdahl, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Kirchsteiger, C
    Accident investigation practices in Europe - main responses from a recent study of accidents in industry and transport2004Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 111, nr 1-3, s. 7-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe has during recent, years been shocked by disasters from natural events and technical breakdowns. The consequences have been comprehensive, measured by lost lives, injuries, and material and environmental damage. ESReDA wanted in 2000 - by setting up a special expert group on accident investigation - to clarify the state of art of accident investigation practices and to map the use of thoroughly accident investigation in order to learn lessons from past disasters and prevent new ones. The scope was to cover three sectors in the society: transport, production processes and storage of hazardous materials, and energy production. The main method used was a questionnaire, which was sent in 2001 to about 150 organisations. About 50 replies were analysed. The replies showed great variations but also similarities, among others in definition of accident and incident, the objectives of the investigation team, criteria used to start an investigation, the status of the investigation organisation, the flow of information, the composition of the investigation team, and the use of internal or international procedures or rules. Several methods (in total 14 different methods were mentioned) were used for carrying out accident/incident investigations. Most of the respondents were willing to co-operate in one or another way with ESReDA. Although there are important biases in the material, the results from questionnaire are important inputs to the future work of ESReDA Expert group in this field. 3 safety approaches have been identified.

  • 30.
    Sui, Xin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Ji, Guodong
    Impact of ultrasonic power density on elution of super heavy oil and its biomarkers from aging soils using Triton X-100 micellar solution2010Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 176, nr 1-3, s. 473-480Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An ultrasound-enhanced elution system employing Triton X-100 solutions was used for remedying aging soils contaminated with super heavy oil. The effect of varying the ultrasonic power density on the elution of the oil and three characteristic biomarkers was analyzed using GC/MS and FTRS. The oil and biomarkers remaining in treated soils decreased as a similar first-order function of increasing ultrasonic power density. Elution of the three biomarkers in the absence of ultrasound was closely related to carbon numbers in the marker: smaller molecules were more readily eluted. This trend was reversed upon application of ultrasound at higher power densities, with improved elution of molecules containing a greater carbon numbers. The two ratios, both 22S/(22S + 22R) of C26-34 17 alpha 25-norhopanes and 20S/(20S + 20R) of C26-28 triaromatic steroids, in treated soils decreased with increasing power density from 20 to 100 W L-1. The results of SEM, FTRS, XRD, and energy spectroscopy experiments indicated that the mineral and chemical compositions of soils eluted at power densities greater than 60 W L-1 closely resembled clean soils.

  • 31. Ullah, R.
    et al.
    Dutta, Joydeep
    Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes with manganese-doped ZnO nanoparticles2008Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 156, nr 1-3, s. 194-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32. Zhang, Man
    et al.
    Wang, Rui
    Shi, Zhenqiang
    Huang, Xuelian
    Zhao, Weifeng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymerteknologi.
    Zhao, Changsheng
    Multi-responsive, tough and reversible hydrogels with tunable swelling property2017Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 322, s. 499-507Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel family of multi-responsive, tough, and reversible hydrogels were prepared by the combination of dipole-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding interaction and slightly chemical cross-linking, using monomers of acrylonitrile, sodium allylsulfonate and itaconic acid. Reversible gel-sol transition was achieved by the flexible conversion of the dipole-dipole interactions between acrylonitrile-acrylonitrile and acrylonitrile-sodium thiocyanate, and the hydrogels could freely form desired shapes. The dipole dipole and hydrogen bonding interactions improved the mechanical strength of the hydrogels with a compressive stress of 2.38 MPa. Meanwhile, the hydrogels sustained cyclic compressive tests with 60% strain, and exhibited excellent elastic property. The hydrogels were sensitive to pH and ionic strength, and could keep their perfect spherical structures without any obvious cracks even after immersing in strong ionic strength (or pH) solution for several reversible cycles. Furthermore, the hydrogels were recycled for environmental pollution remediation, and showed great potential to be applied in water treatments and other related fields.

1 - 32 of 32
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