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  • 1. Abate, M.
    et al.
    De Jong, Gerard
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    The optimal shipment size and truck size choice - The allocation of trucks across hauls2014Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 59, s. 262-277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a growing interest in understanding how firms allocate their trucks across hauls, and how this allocation changes under various economic environments. This study investigates how variations in route/haul, carrier and vehicle characteristics affect the optimal vehicle size choice and the associated choice of shipment size. We show that the two choices are derived from the same optimization problem. There can be a continuum of shipment sizes, but decision-makers in freight transport have to choose from a limited number of vehicle alternatives. Therefore, we use a discrete-continuous econometric model where shipment size is modeled as a continuous variable, and vehicle size/type choice as a discrete variable. The results indicate that when faced with higher demand, and during longer trips firms are more likely to use heavier vehicles and ship in larger quantities which suggest that firms are realizing economies of scale and economies of distance. The study also discusses the effect of vehicle operating cost on the vehicle selection process and its policy implications.

  • 2.
    Abenoza, Roberto F.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Ettema, Dick F.
    Univ Utrecht, Fac Geosci, 7,POB 80115, NL-3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Do accessibility, vulnerability, opportunity, and travel characteristics have uniform impacts on the traveler's experience?2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 114, s. 38-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Abenoza, Roberto F.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Liu, C.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    What is the role of weather, built-environment and accessibility geographical characteristics in influencing travelers’ experience?2019Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 122, s. 34-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effect of weather, accessibility and built-environment characteristics on overall travel experience as well as the experience with the latest trips. These are factors that are often disregarded in the travel satisfaction literature even though they are believed to largely influence the first mile of the door-to-door trip. This study fills a research gap in investigating all these factors by using, amongst other, a relatively large travel satisfaction survey from years 2009 to 2015 and by focusing on urban and peri-urban geographical contexts, the city and county of Stockholm (Sweden), respectively. The ordered logit model results show that county dwellers living close to a metro station and in well linked-to-all areas report higher overall travel satisfaction evaluations. In addition, precipitation and ground covered with snow have a negative influence on travel satisfaction. Our findings indicate that built-environment characteristics exert a rather weak influence on the travel experience, especially in the peri-urban context. However, some aspects such as living in areas with medium densities, low income and with high safety perceptions around public transport stations are associated with higher satisfaction levels. In turn, areas with single land uses are found to have lower travel satisfactions. These results are important for public transport planners and designers in devising measures to prevent and mitigate the negative outcome of some weather conditions and to conceive better designed transit oriented developments.

  • 4.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Observing dynamic behavioural responses due to the extension of a tram line by using panel survey2016Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 86, s. 78-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a four-wave panel survey of individuals' trips and psychological attributes collected among residents along a new tram line extension in the city of Stockholm, Sweden, this study aims to investigate factors that determine the individuals' learning and decision-making processes in using a new transport option. This includes investigating which group of travellers have used the new tram extension earlier than others, and integrated the tram extension as a part of their daily travel patterns. This paper also describes the design and construction of the four-wave panel data collection, which was collected from two weeks before and up to seven months after the opening of the new option. Descriptive analysis shows that within a seven-month period, 79% of the respondents tried the new tram extension but only 14.9% of them adopted the new option as their daily travel mode. During the observed period, about 49.3% of the respondents migrated between travel modes for non-discretionary trips. Further multivariate analysis shows that middle-income travellers and travellers who owned car(s) used the new tram extension earlier than others. The effect of past experience on the current use of the tram extension on a day-to-day basis was also examined by using a mixed logit model with panel data. The purpose of the model is to examine whether individuals' daily experiences with the new tram extension that result from repeated previous choices would affect their decisions to maintain using the new option in subsequent waves.

  • 5. Ait Ali, A.
    et al.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Eliasson, J.
    Pricing commercial train path requests based on societal costs2020Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 132, s. 452-464Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On deregulated railway markets, efficient capacity allocation is important. We study the case where commercial trains and publicly controlled traffic (“commuter trains”) use the same railway infrastructure and hence compete for capacity. We develop a method that can be used by an infrastructure manager trying to allocate capacity in a socially efficient way. The method calculates the loss of societal benefits incurred by changing the commuter train timetable to accommodate a commercial train path request, and based on this calculates a reservation price for the train path request. If the commercial operator's willingness-to-pay for the train path exceeds the loss of societal benefits, its request is approved. The calculation of these benefits takes into account changes in commuter train passengers’ travel times, waiting times, transfers and crowding, and changes in operating costs for the commuter train operator(s). The method is implemented in a microscopic simulation program, which makes it possible to test the robustness and feasibility of timetable alternatives. We show that the method is possible to apply in practice by demonstrating it in a case study from Stockholm, illustrating the magnitudes of the resulting commercial train path prices. We conclude that marginal societal costs of railway capacity in Stockholm are considerably higher than the current track access charges.

  • 6.
    Almlöf, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Farkostteknik och Solidmekanik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Will leisure trips be more affected than work trips by autonomous technology?: Modelling self-driving public transport and cars in Stockholm, Sweden2022Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 165, s. 1-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-driving technology may lead to a paradigm shift for the transport industry with shared cars available to every-one. However, this vision has increasingly been challenged as too optimistic and unsubstantiated. In this study we explore societal impacts of using this technology for both cars and public transport and investigate differences depending on geography and trip purpose. Four scenarios were designed through workshops with 130 transport experts, modelled using a conventional four-step model for Stockholm, Sweden and evaluated in terms of changes to mode choice, number of trips and person kilometres.We find larger increases for non-commuting trips, i.e. service and leisure trips, than for commuting trips, questioning the view of the 'productive work trip' as self-driving technology's main impact on society. As these trips are primarily made outside of rush hours, this may lead to a changed transport system. Geographic differences are substantial and heavily dependent on the cost model for car alternatives, even indicating a reduction in car travel in rural areas if private ownership would be replaced by shared cars. Furthermore, walking and cycling levels decreased in all scenarios while enhancing public transport using self-driving technology had a limited impact on ridership.These results show that the impacts of self-driving technology may have varied societal impacts even within a region and may lead to increased car travel, especially off-peak. These conclusions stress the need for policies that are sensitive to both geography and time.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Centrum för transportstudier, CTS, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS; Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Box 55685, SE-10215 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Centrum för transportstudier, CTS, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS; Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Box 55685, SE-10215 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Centrum för transportstudier, CTS, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS; Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Box 55685, SE-10215 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marginal railway track renewal costs: A survival data approach2016Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 87, s. 68-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, renewal costs for railway tracks are investigated using survival analysis. The purpose is to derive the effect from increased traffic volumes on rail renewal cycle lengths and to calculate associated marginal costs. A flow sample of censored data containing almost 1300 observations on the Swedish main railway network is used. We specify Weibull regression models, and estimate deterioration elasticities for total tonnage as well as for passenger and freight tonnages separately. Marginal costs are calculated as a change in present values of renewal costs from premature renewal following increased traffic volumes. The marginal cost for total tonnage is estimated to approximately SEK 0.002 per gross ton kilometre.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Matts
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap. WSP Analysis & Strategy, Sweden.
    Brundell-Freij, K.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Validation of aggregate reference forecasts for passenger transport2017Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 96, s. 101-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have compared Swedish national forecasts for passenger transport produced from 1975 to 2009 with the actual outcomes, and we found substantial differences between forecasts of passenger kilometers by mode and actual outcomes. In forecasts produced since the early 1990 s, road and air traffic growth rates have generally been overpredicted. Aggregate railway growth has been fairly accurate, but commercial long-distance railway growth has been overpredicted, and the growth of subsidized intra-regional railway travel has been underpredicted (following vast unanticipated supply increases). Focusing on car traffic forecasts, we show that a very large share of forecast errors can be explained by input variables turning out to be different than what was assumed in the forecasts. Even the original forecasts are much closer to actual outcomes than simple trendlines would have been, and once the input assumptions are corrected, the forecasts vastly outperform simple trendlines. The potential problems of using cross-sectional models for forecasting intertemporal changes thus seem to be limited. This tentative conclusion is also supported by the finding that elasticities from the cross-sectional models are consistent with those from a time-series model.

  • 9.
    Andruetto, Claudia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Bin, Elisa
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Susilo, Yusak
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, Austria.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Transition from physical to online shopping alternatives due to the COVID-19 pandemic: A case study of Italy and Sweden2023Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 171, artikkel-id 103644Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using 530 responses from an online questionnaire, this study aims to investigate the transition from physical to online shopping alternatives during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic at the individual level. The focus areas of the study are Sweden and Italy, two European countries that implemented contrasting prevention measures. This study analyses the impacts of the pandemic on the transition to online shopping activities, and identifies who among the respondents changed their shopping behaviour the most and how; and what the different shopping strategies are and who adopted them. Multivariate statistical analyses, including linear and binary logistic regressions and multinomial logit models, were used to analyse the dataset. In the analysis, the dataset was split between Italy and Sweden to take into account the contrasting prevention measures and the different social and economic backgrounds of the two countries; the results of this study confirm and highlight these differences. Moreover, the socio-demographic and household structures of the respondents were found to influence the amount and the direction of change in shopping behaviour during the first wave of the pandemic. The study also indicates some policies that can be implemented and/or further strengthened to increase the resilience of citizens in facing pandemics and to derive benefit from the behavioural changes that took place during the first wave of the pandemic.

  • 10. Asplund, Disa
    et al.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Does uncertainty make cost-benefit analyses pointless?2016Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 92, s. 195-205Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is widely used in public decision making on infrastructure investments. However, the demand forecasts, cost estimates, benefit valuations and effect assessments that are conducted as part of CBAs are all subject to various degrees of uncertainty. The question is to what extent CBAs, given such uncertainties, are still useful as a way to prioritize between infrastructure investments, or put differently, how robust the policy conclusions of CBA are with respect to uncertainties. Using simulations based on real data on national infrastructure plans in Sweden and Norway, we study how investment selection and total realized benefits change when decisions are based on CBA assessments subject to several different types of uncertainty. Our results indicate that realized benefits and investment selection are surprisingly insensitive to all studied types of uncertainty, even for high levels of uncertainty. The two types of uncertainty that affect results the most are uncertainties about investment cost and transport demand. Provided that decisions are based on CBA outcomes, reducing uncertainty is still worthwhile, however, because of the huge sums at stake. Even moderate reductions of uncertainties about unit values, investment costs, future demand and project effects may increase the realized benefits infrastructure investment plans by tens or hundreds of million euros. We conclude that, despite the many types of uncertainties, CBA is able to fairly consistently separate the wheat from the chaff and hence contribute to substantially improved infrastructure decisions.

  • 11.
    Badia, Hugo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Design and operation of feeder systems in the era of automated and electric buses2021Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 152, s. 146-172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the impact of vehicle automation and electrification on the applicability of fixed routes and door-to-door services to supply a feeder transit solution in suburban areas. These technologies will modify the current cost structure of the bus system depending on how mature they are, reducing operating costs and increasing capital costs. By means of a continuum approximation model, we evaluate the performance for users and agency of the two feeder strategies in different scenarios of technological development. The results show that automation has the main impact on the applicability between the two feeder alternatives while the effects of electrification are considerably smaller. The future applicability of door-to-door trips reaches wider ranges, although this change is especially significant under some circumstances of technology, service area and users. The expansion of this range is relevant in case the automated bus is mature enough (high reduction of operating cost and low vehicle acquisition price), the areas are small, the trips are short and the value of time is high. However, the results reveal that fixed routes will remain a competitive feeder solution in a wide range of scenarios. We identify that the demand density threshold grows sharply in front of any reduction of agency costs once its value is around 200-300 pax/km2-h. Therefore, flexible services will gain applicability especially in environments that allow reaching this threshold.

  • 12.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Börjesson, M.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Response to Wadud and Baierl: “Explaining ‘peak car’ with economic variables: An observation”2017Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 95, s. 386-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Explaining “peak car” with economic variables2016Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 2016, nr 88, s. 236-250Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many western countries have seen a plateau and subsequent decrease of car travel during the 21st century. What has generated particular interest and debate is the statement that the development cannot be explained by changes in traditional explanatory factors such as GDP and fuel prices. Instead, it has been argued, the observed trends are indications of substantial changes in lifestyles, preferences and attitudes to car travel; what we are experiencing is not just a temporary plateau, but a true “peak car”. However, this study shows that the traditional variables GDP and fuel price are in fact sufficient to explain the observed trends in car traffic in all the countries included in our study: the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Sweden and (to a large extent) Australia and Germany. We argue that the importance of the fuel price increases in the early 2000s has been underappreciated in the studies that shaped the later debate. Results also indicate that GDP elasticities tend to decrease with rising GDP, and that fuel price elasticities tend to increase at high price levels and during periods of rapid price increases.

  • 14.
    Bauner, David
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    International private and public reinforcing dependencies for the innovation of automotive emission control systems in Japan and USA2011Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 45, nr 5, s. 375-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of the 1970s, the economies of USA and Japan were growing fast and environmental pollution was increasing to alarming levels. As passenger car emissions were found to be significant and rapidly increasing, their reduction was specially targeted. Following a bill passed by US Congress in 1968, requirements were set in 1970 for the vehicle manufacturers to reduce the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) with 90% by 1975, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with 90% by 1976. These requirements were soon adapted to the Japanese regulatory framework, and were known in both countries as the "Muskie Act" or "Muskie Law" after the senator who developed the original bill. The new requirements spurred tremendous research and development efforts. Car manufacturers and research institutions in USA, Japan and Europe investigated and developed alternative solutions, including gas turbine and steam engine vehicles. California, the USA state with the most severe air quality problems and the only state at the time allowed to establish more strict requirements than federal regulation, established requirements implying the use of oxidation catalysts in 1975 and three-way catalysts (TWC's) in 1977. Japan as a nation adopted similar requirements 1976 and 1978. Export of cars from Japan to USA increased rapidly. The rest of USA adopted emission standards similar to California's only in 1981, timing USA vehicle sales rebound after the energy crisis and grave economic downturn. Strict requirements were thus established only after more than a decade of civic and legal processes between federal authorities, the car manufacturers and NGO's. The history of vehicle development is one of cooperation and competition. This paper argues that the international cooperation on different levels of society (government, industry and science) together with commercial competition between the two countries was strong, continuous and instrumental in enabling the development of technology, appropriate regulation and infrastructural changes and thus created a market for cleaner cars and effectively reduced emissions from the growing vehicle fleet. In other words, the introduction of TWCs was reinforced by the simultaneous development of mitigating technology in two car producing countries competing for market space.

  • 15.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Quantifying uncertainties in a national forecasting model2005Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 39, nr 6, s. 531-547Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainties related to demand model system outputs is an important issue in travel demand models. This paper focuses on uncertainties arisen from the fact that models are estimated on a sample of the population (and not the whole population). Forecasting systems can be quite complex, and may contain procedures that not easily permit analytically derived statistical measures of uncertainty. In this paper, the possibilities to use computer-intensive numerical methods to compute statistical measures for very complex systems, without being bound to an analytical approach, are explored. Here, the bootstrap method is used to obtain statistical measures of outputs produced by the forecasting system SAMPERS. The SAMPERS system is used by Swedish transport authorities. The bootstrap method is briefly described as well as the procedure of applying bootstrap on the SAMPERS system. Numerical results are presented for selected forecast results at different levels such as total traffic demand, origin-destination demand, train line demand and the demand on specific links. Also, the uncertainty related to the value of time estimate is analysed. 

  • 16.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Forecasting demand for high speed rail2014Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 70, s. 81-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is sometimes argued that standard state-of-practice logit-based models cannot forecast the demand for substantially reduced travel times, for instance due to High Speed Rail (HSR). The present paper investigates this issue by reviewing the literature on travel time elasticities for long distance rail travel and comparing these with elasticities observed when new HSR lines have opened. This paper also validates the Swedish long distance model, Sampers, and its forecast demand for a proposed new HSR, using aggregate data revealing how the air-rail modal split varies with the difference in generalized travel time between rail and air. The Sampers long distance model is also compared to a newly developed model applying Box-Cox transformations. The paper contributes to the empirical literature on long distance travel, long distance elasticities and HSR passenger demand forecasts. Results indicate that the Sampers model is indeed able to predict the demand for HSR reasonably well. The new non-linear model has even better model fit and also slightly higher elasticities.

  • 17.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Experiences from the Swedish Value of Time study2014Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 59, s. 144-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a synthesis of results and insights from the Swedish Value of Time study, with focus on what is relevant for transport appraisal and understanding travel behavior. We summarize recent econometric advances, and show how these enable a better understanding and identification of the value of time distribution. The influence of the sign and size of changes is estimated and discussed, including the problems of loss aversion and the value of small time savings. Further, we show how the value of time depends on trip and traveler characteristics, discuss in what dimensions the value of time should be differentiated in appraisal, and provide recommended values for use in applied transport appraisal.

  • 18.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    On the use of "average delay" as a measure of train reliability2011Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 171-184Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how passengers on long-distance trains value unexpected delays relative to scheduled travel time and travel cost. For scheduled services with high reliability and long headways, the value of delays is most commonly assumed to be proportional to the average delay. By exploring how the valuation of train delays depends on delay risk and delay length, using three different stated choice data sets, we find that the "average delay" approach does not hold: the disutility increases slower than linearly in the delay risk. This means that using the average delay as a performance indicator, a guide for operations planning or for investment appraisal will underestimate the value of small risks of long delays relative to large risks for short delays. It also means that estimated valuations of "average delay" will depend on the delay risk level: valuations will be higher the lower the risk levels in the study are.

  • 19.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle appraisal2012Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 673-683Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the value of time savings, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists' value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time savings on alternative modes. Cyclists also value other improvements highly, such as separated bicycle lanes. As to additional benefits of cycling improvements in the form of health and reduced car traffic, our results do not support the notion that these will be a significant part in a cost-benefit analysis. Bicyclists seem to take health largely into account when making their travel choices, implying that it would be double-counting to add total health benefits to the analysis once the consumer surplus has been correctly calculated. As to reductions in car traffic, our results indicate that the cross-elasticity between car and cycle is low, and hence benefits from traffic reductions will be small. However, the valuations of improved cycling speeds and comfort are so high that it seems likely that improvements for cyclists are cost-effective compared to many other types of investments, without having to invoke second-order, indirect effects. In other words, our results suggest that bicycle should be viewed as a competitive mode of travel and not primarily as a means to achieve improved health or reduced car traffic.

  • 20.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Johnsson Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Why experience changes attitudes to congestion pricing: The case of Gothenburg2016Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 85, s. 1-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities have seen public support for congestion charges increase substantially after charges have been introduced. Several alternative explanations of this phenomenon have been suggested, but so far little evidence has been available to assess the relative importance of these explanations. We study attitudes to congestion pricing in Gothenburg before and after congestion charges were introduced in January 2013. Attitudes to the charges did indeed become more positive after the introduction, just as in previous cities. Using a two-wave postal survey, we separate contributions to the attitude change from a number of sources: benefits and costs being different than anticipated, use of hypothecated revenues, reframing processes, and changes in related attitudes such as attitudes to environment, equity, taxation and pricing measures in general. We conclude that the dominant reason for the attitude change is status quo bias, rather than any substantial changes in beliefs or related attitudes, although some of these factors also contribute. Contrary to a common belief, nothing of the attitude change is due to benefits being larger than anticipated.

  • 21.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Catching the tail: Empirical identification of the distribution of the value of travel time2012Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Transportation Research Part A, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 378-391Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    On the income elasticity of the value of travel time2012Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 368-377Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport infrastructure is long-term and in appraisal it is necessary to value travel timesavings for future years. This requires knowing how the value of time (VTT) will develop over time as incomes grow. This paper investigates if the cross-sectional incomeelasticity of the VTT is equal to inter-temporal income elasticity. The study is based ontwo identical stated choice experiments conducted with a 13. year interval. Results indicate that the relationship between income and the VTT in the cross-section has remained unchanged over time. As a consequence, the inter-temporal income elasticityof the VTT can be predicted based on cross-sectional income elasticity. However, theincome elasticity of the VTT is not a constant but increases with income. For this reason, the average income elasticity of the VTT in the cross-sections has increased between the two survey years and can be expected to increase further over time. 

  • 23.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH. VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Fung, C. M.
    Proost, S.
    Yan, Zifei
    KTH.
    Do buses hinder cyclists or is it the other way around?: Optimal bus fares, bus stops and cycling tolls2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 111, s. 326-346Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper optimises the number of bus stops, and prices for car, bus and cycling in the busiest inner city corridor in Stockholm. We adopt the representative consumer approach and calibrate the current equilibrium using the quasi-linear utility function. We find that the number of bus stops is already close to optimal. Welfare would increase if the peak frequency was increased, if the bus fares were lowered and differentiated between long trips and short trips and, and that the toll for longer car trips was increased. The optimal toll for cyclists, and the welfare benefit from it, is small and does not compensate the transaction costs. The distributional effects of bus fare changes and higher car tolls are small because on one hand, high income groups place more value on travel time gains, but on the other hand, low income groups travel less frequently by car. Surprisingly, we find that in the welfare optimum, the bus service only requires a small subsidy due to congestion in the bus lane, crowding in the buses, and extra boarding and alighting time per passenger. The Mohring effect is limited because the demand, and thereby the baseline frequency, is already high.

  • 24.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Hamilton, Carl J.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Papaix, Claire
    Factors driving public support for road congestion reduction policies: Congestion charging, free public transport and more roads in Stockholm, Helsinki and Lyon2015Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 78, s. 452-462Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an across-the-board survey conducted among residents of Stockholm, Helsinki and Lyon, we explore the opinions on three policy measures to combat road congestion: congestion charging, free public transport and building more roads. The support for the two latter policies is substantially higher than the support for congestion charging, which is only supported by a majority in Stockholm. Self-interest is important for the formation of the opinion to all three policies. However, fundamental values and general political views, indicated by four attitudinal factors, are even more important in forming opinions towards the three transport policies. Of all attitudinal factors, the one indicating environmental concern most influences the support for all policies. Equity concerns, however, increase the support for free public transport and opposition to taxation increases the support for building more roads. Our results further suggest that the opinions towards free public transport and building more roads can be mapped along the left right political axis, where Environment and Equity are to the left and Pricing and Taxation are to the right. However, the opinion towards congestion charging cuts right through the political spectrum. The impact of the fundamental values and self-interest variables are similar for Stockholm and Helsinki, indicating that even if experience increases the overall support for charging, it does not change the relative strength of different political arguments to any major extent.

  • 25.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Jonsson, R. Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    An ex-post CBA for the Stockholm Metro2014Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 70, s. 135-148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper performs an ex-post cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the Metro system in Stockholm built in the 1950s. We find that the Metro was socially beneficial and that the largest benefit of the Metro is its capacity, making it possible for many people to travel to and from the city center. We also assess the significance of the wider economic impacts due to labor market distortions and the land-use effects in the case of the Stockholm Metro. The wider economic impacts increase the consumer surplus with 48%, and the yearly income in the county with 1.5%. A land-use model is used to simulate how the land-use has been influenced by the Metro over the years 1956-2006. This simulation indicates that the historical centralized planning of housing along transit corridors has developed the region into a more dispersed region than if the market forces had ruled. The simulation also suggests that the land-use impact from the investment itself is small, but that the land-use impact from the planning accompanying the decision to build the Metro has been substantial.

  • 26.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Kristofferesson, Ida
    Sweco.
    The gothenburg congestion charge. Effects, design and politics2015Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 75, s. 134-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the traffic effects of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013. The system is similar to the system introduced in Stockholm in 2006; both are designed as time-of-day dependent cordon pricing systems. We find that many effects and adaptation strategies are similar to those found in Stockholm, indicating a high transferability between smaller and larger cities with substantial differences in public transport use. However, there are also important differences regarding some of the effects, the accuracy of the model forecasts and public support arising from different topologies, public transport use, congestion levels and main objectives communicated to the public. Finally, the Gothenburg case suggests that whether congestion charges are introduced or not depends on the support among the political parties, and that this is determined primarily by the prevailing institutional setting and power over revenues, and to a lower extent by the public support, and benefits from congestion reduction.

  • 27.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap. VTI Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    The Swedish congestion charges: Ten years on2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 107, s. 35-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-of-day dependent cordon-based congestion charging systems were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, and in Gothenburg in 2013. The Stockholm system was significantly extended in 2016, and the peak charge has been increased in the two cities. This paper analyses the effects of the first decade with the Swedish congestion charges, specifically effects of the system updates, and draws policy lessons for the years to come. Should we introduce congestion charges in more cities? Should we extend the systems that we have? We synthesize previous research findings and focus on the long-term effects that have varied over time including the recent years: the price elasticities on the traffic volume across the cordon, the revenue and system operating cost, the public and political support, and consequences for the transport planning process. We also explore the effects on peak and off-peak, and different types of traffic (trucks, company cars and private passenger cars), because of access to novel data that make this analysis possible. We find that the price elasticities have increased over time in Stockholm, but decreased in Gothenburg. We find that the public support increased in the two cities after their introduction until the systems were revised; since then, the public support has declined in both cities. We find that the price elasticity was substantially lower when the charging levels were increased, and when the Stockholm system was extended, than when the charges were first introduced, a likely reason being that the most price-sensitive traffic was already priced off-the road at the introduction.

  • 28.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands .
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Planning for the Unexpected: The Value of Reserve Capacity for Public Transport Network Robustness2015Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 81, s. 47-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport networks (PTN) are subject to recurring service disruptions. Most studies of the robustness of PTN have focused on network topology and considered vulnerability in terms of connectivity reliability. While these studies provide insights on general design principles, there is lack of knowledge concerning the effectiveness of different strategies to reduce the impacts of disruptions. This paper proposes and demonstrates a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of a strategic increase in capacity on alternative PTN links to mitigate the impact of unexpected network disruptions. The evaluation approach consists of two stages: identifying a set of important links and then for each identified important link, a set of capacity enhancement schemes is evaluated. The proposed method integrates stochastic supply and demand models, dynamic route choice and limited operational capacity. This dynamic agent-based modelling of network performance enables to capture cascading network effects as well as the adaptive redistribution of passenger flows. An application for the rapid PTN of Stockholm, Sweden, demonstrates how the proposed method could be applied to sequentially designed scenarios based on their performance indicators. The method presented in this paper could support policy makers and operators in prioritizing measures to increase network robustness by improving system capacity to absorb unexpected disruptions.

  • 29.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Loutos, Gerasimos
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Evaluating the added-value of online bus arrival prediction schemes2016Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 86, s. 35-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Online predictions of bus arrival times have the potential to reduce the uncertainty associated with bus operations. By better anticipating future conditions, online predictions can reduce perceived and actual passenger travel times as well as facilitate more proactive decision making by service providers. Even though considerable research efforts were devoted to the development of computationally expensive bus arrival prediction schemes, real-world real-time information (RTI) systems are typically based on very simple prediction rules. This paper narrows down the gap between the state-of-the-art and the state-of-the-practice in generating RTI for public transport systems by evaluating the added-value of schemes that integrate instantaneous data and dwell time predictions. The evaluation considers static information and a commonly deployed scheme as a benchmark. The RTI generation algorithms were applied and analyzed for a trunk bus network in Stockholm, Sweden. The schemes are assessed and compared based on their accuracy, reliability, robustness and potential waiting time savings. The impact of RTI on passengers waiting times are compared with those attained by service frequency and regularity improvements. A method which incorporates information on downstream travel conditions outperforms the commonly deployed scheme, leading to a 25% reduction in the mean absolute error. Furthermore, the incorporation of instantaneous travel times improves the prediction accuracy and reliability, and contributes to more robust predictions. The potential waiting time gains associated with the prediction scheme are equivalent to the gains expected when introducing a 60% increase in service frequency, and are not attainable by service regularity improvements.

  • 30.
    Chee, Pei Nen Esther
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Civil & Environm Engn, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore..
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci BOKU, Inst Transport Studies, Peter Jordan St 82, A-1190 Vienna, Austria..
    Wong, Yiik Diew
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Civil & Environm Engn, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore..
    Determinants of intention-to-use first-/last-mile automated bus service2020Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 139, s. 350-375Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The successful adoption of a product or service by its target market or users relies on delivering a product or service in line with their needs and expectations. Failure to do so will likely result in a low rate of uptake or use of the product or service. This study sought to identify the criteria by which potential users of a first-/last-mile automated bus (AB) service would evaluate the service, and accordingly decide whether to use or disregard the service. This research investigated var-ious explanatory factors affecting users' perceptions of the service's quality and utility, and which enhanced or diminished their intentions to use it. The data analysed in this study was collected from a survey conducted in February and March of 2018 in Stockholm, Sweden, during a trial operation of a first-/last-mile AB service. Three-factor theory analysis, commonly used to analyse services, was applied to this data in order to identify users' core perceptions about the service, which in turn influence their intention-to-use the service. Structural equation modelling was used to identify the significant factors that influence the identified perceptions influencing the in-tention-to-use the service. This study found that different subgroups of users prioritised different attributes. Prospective users (with no prior experience with the service) were most concerned with the frequency of service. Their intention-to-use the service greatly increased when the service frequency is comparable to the service frequency of a regular public bus service. Experienced users' intentions to continue using the service greatly increased when the buses were made more comfortable. This study additionally found that users' perceptions of the service's quality were also influenced by numerous factors including the passenger's age, income level, preferred mode of travel for daily trips, preferred mode of travel for first-/last-mile trips, being tech-savvy or not, and their level of familiarity with automated driving technology.

  • 31.
    Dharmowijoyo, Bayu Endrayana
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Susilo, Yusak O
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Adiredja, L. S.
    Collecting a multi-dimensional three-weeks household time-use and activity diary in the Bandung Metropolitan Area, Indonesia2015Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 80, s. 231-246, artikkel-id 1641Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a comprehensive panel data collection and analysis at household level, including detailed travel behaviour variables and comprehensive in-home and out-of-home activities, individual cognitive habits and affective behaviours, the rate of physical activity, as well as health related quality of life (QoL) information in the Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA) of Indonesia. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to collect an individual's activity diary over an extended period as it captures the multi-tasking activities and multidisciplinary factors that underlie individual activity-travel patterns in a developing country. Preliminary analyses of the collected data indicate that different beliefs, anticipated emotions, support and attachment to motorised modes significantly correlate with different groups of occupation, gender, age, activity participation, multi-tasking activities, and physical health, but not with different social and mental health. This finding highlights the reason why implementing car reduction policies in Indonesia, without breaking or changing the individual's habits and influencing his/her attitudes have not been fruitful. The results also show that endorsing more physical activities may result in a significant reduction in the individual's motorised mode use, whilst individuals who demonstrate a tendency to use their spare time on social activities tend to have better social health conditions. Furthermore, undertaking multi-tasking out-of-home discretionary activities positively correlates with better physical health. All these highlight the importance of properly understanding and analysing the complex mechanisms that underlie these fundamental factors that shape individual daily activity-travel patterns in developing countries. This type of multidisciplinary approach is needed to design better transport policies that will not only promote better transport conditions, but also a healthier society with a better quality of life.

  • 32.
    Dziekan, Katrin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi, Trafik och Logistik.
    Kottenhoff, Karl
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi, Trafik och Logistik.
    Dynamic At-stop Real-time Information Displays for Public Transport: Effects on Customers2007Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 41, nr 6, s. 489-501Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic at-stop real-time information displays are becoming more and more ubiquitous in modern public transport. Reactions and attitudes towards these systems are very positive. But there is a need to provide a comprehensive framework of the possible effects that these kinds of displays can have on customers. The seven main effects described in this paper are: (A) reduced wait time, (B) positive psychological factors, such as reduced uncertainty, increased ease-of-use and a greater feeling of security, (C) increased willingness-to-pay, (D) adjusted travel behaviour such as better use of wait time or more efficient travelling, (E) mode choice effects, (F) higher customer satisfaction and finally (G) better image. Two studies are presented in this paper. Study I supports and proves that perceived wait times can be reduced by 20% by employing a before-after implementation evaluation study with questionnaires on a tramline. Study II shows the effects of real-time displays on behaviour in the form of adjusted walking speeds, by using a behaviour observation method in a subway station. The effect framework does not claim completeness and many effects are related to each other. However, the framework is a useful basis for designing evaluation studies and provides arguments in favour of at-stop real-time information displays.

  • 33.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Stockholm Congestion Charging System2009Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 468-480Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a cost-benefit analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging system, based on the observed rather than on the model-forecasted data. The most important data sources are travel time and traffic flow measurements made in the year before the charges were introduced (during April 2005) and during the first spring with the charges (during April 2006, 4 months after the charges were introduced). Using matrix calibration, effects on the non-observed link flows and travel times are extrapolated, enabling us to calculate the social value of changes in travel times and travel costs. Impacts on traffic safety and emissions are calculated using standard Swedish CBA relationships. The system is shown to yield a significant social surplus, well enough to cover both investment and operating costs, provided that it is kept for a reasonable lifetime: investment and startup costs are "recovered" in terms of social benefits in around 4 years.

  • 34.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    The role of attitude structures, direct experience and reframing for the success of congestion pricing2014Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 67, s. 81-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion pricing was introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, and permanently from 2007. Public attitudes to the charges became more negative during the period from the decision to the start of the system. Once the trial started, public attitudes became dramatically more positive over the following years, going from 2/3 against the charges to more than 2/3 in favor of the charges. Self-reported changes in behavior and attitudes considerably underestimate actual changes: about 3/4 of the decrease in car trips and more than half of the change in attitudes seem to have gone unnoticed by respondents, ex post. Self-interest and belief in the charges' effectiveness strongly affect attitudes at any given point in time, but can only explain a minor part of the change in attitudes. I suggest that the debate and the shift in attitudes can be understood as a public and political reframing of the congestion charges over time.

  • 35.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    van Amelsfort, Dirk
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Accuracy of congestion pricing forecasts2013Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 52, s. 34-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares forecast effects of the Stockholm congestion charges with actual outcomes. The most important concerns during the design of the congestion charging scheme were the traffic reduction in bottlenecks, the increase in public transport ridership, the decrease of vehicle kilometres in the city centre, and potential traffic effects on circumferential roads. Comparisons of forecasts and actual outcomes show that the transport model predicted all of these factors well enough to allow planners to draw correct conclusions regarding the design and preparations for the scheme. The one major shortcoming was that the static assignment network model was unable to predict the substantial reductions of queuing times. We conclude that the transport model worked well enough to be useful as decision support, performing considerably better than unaided "experts' judgments", but that results must be interpreted taking the model's limitations into account. The positive experiences from the Stockholm congestion charges hence seem to be transferable to other cities in the sense that if a charging system is forecast to have beneficial effects on congestion, then this is most likely true.

  • 36.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Hultkrantz, L.
    Smidfelt-Rosqvist, L.
    SPECIAL ISSUE STOCKHOLM CONGESTION CHARGING TRIAL Introduction2009Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 237-239Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Smidfelt-Rosqvist, Lena
    The Stockholm Congestion-Charging Trial 2006: Overview of the effects2009Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 240-250Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm congestion charging trial in 2006 demonstrated the effects of a full-scale time-differentiated urban road toll scheme. Improvements in travel times were large enough to be perceived by the general public. This was pivotal to the radical change of public attitudes that occurred during the trial and that resulted in a positive outcome of a subsequent referendum on a proposal for making the system permanent. This paper summarises the effects of the trial and analyses to what extent targets were met. Effects on congestion reduction were larger than anticipated, which also resulted in favourable economic and environmental effects. The trial showed that a single-cordon toll could affect traffic within a large area, i.e., not just close to the zone limits.

  • 38.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Infrastruktur och samhällsplanering.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Infrastruktur och samhällsplanering.
    A model for integrated analysis of household location and travel choices2000Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 375-394Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a model for integrated analysis of household location and travel choices and investigate it from a theoretical point of view. Each household makes a joint choice of location (zone and house type) and a travel pattern that maximizes utility subject to budget and time constraints. Prices for housing are calculated so that demand equals supply in each submarket. The travel pattern consists of a set of expected trip frequencies to different destinations with different modes. The joint time and budget constraints ensure that time and cost sensitivities are consistent throughout the model. Choosing the entire travel pattern at once, as opposed to treating travel decisions as a series of isolated choices, allows the marginal utilities of trips to depend on which other trips are made. When choosing trip frequencies to destinations, households are assumed to prefer variation to an extent varying with the purpose of the trip. The travel pattern will tend to be more evenly distributed across trip ends the less similar destinations and individual preferences are. These heterogeneities of destinations and individual preferences, respectively, are expressed in terms of a set of parameters to be estimated.

  • 39.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi, Transport och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Equity effects of congestion pricing. Quantitative methodology and a case study for Stockholm2006Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 40, nr 7, s. 602-620Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognised that congestion pricing could be an effective measure to solve environmental and congestion problems in urban areas—a reform that normally also would generate a net welfare surplus. Despite this the implementation of congestion pricing has been very slow. One reason for a low public and political acceptance could be that equity impacts have not been given enough concern. In studies of distributional impacts of congestion pricing it has often been claimed that the reform is regressive rather than progressive even if there are studies claiming the opposite. We develop a method for detailed, quantitative assessment of equity effects of road pricing and apply it to a real-world example, namely a proposed congestion-charging scheme for Stockholm. The method simultaneously takes into account differences in travel behaviour, in preferences (such as values of time) and in supply of travel possibilities (car ownership, public transport level-of-service etc.). We conclude that the two most important factors for the net impact of congestion pricing are the initial travel patterns and how revenues are used. Differences in these respects dwarf differences in other factors such as values of time. This is accentuated by the fact that the total collected charges are more than three times as large as the net benefits. With respect to different groups, we find that men, high-income groups and residents in the central parts of the city will be affected the most. If revenues are used for improving public transport, this will benefit women and low-income groups the most. If revenues are used for tax cuts, the net benefits will be about equal for men and women on the average, while it naturally will benefit high-income groups. Given that it is likely that the revenues will be used to some extent to improve the public transport system, we conclude that the proposed congestion-charging scheme for Stockholm is progressive rather than regressive.

  • 40.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Savemark, Christian
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    The impact of land use effects in infrastructure appraisal2020Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 141, s. 262-276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When benefits of proposed infrastructure investments are forecasted, residential location is usually treated as fixed, since very few operational transport models are able to forecast residential relocation. It has been argued that this may constitute a source of serious error or bias when evaluating and comparing the benefits of proposed infrastructure investments. We use a stylized simulation model of a metropolitan region to compare calculated benefits for a large number of infrastructure investments with and without taking changes in residential location into account. In particular, we explore the changes in project selection when assembling an optimal project portfolio under a budget constraint. The simulation model includes endogenous land prices and demand for residential land, heterogeneous preferences and wage offers across residents, and spillover mechanisms which affect wage rates in zones. The model is calibrated to generate realistic travel patterns and demand elasticities. Our results indicate that ignoring residential relocation has a small but appreciable effect on the selected project portfolio, but only a very small effect on achieved total benefits.

  • 41.
    Engholm, Albin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    VTI Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, Linköping, Sweden..
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Impacts of large-scale driverless truck adoption on the freight transport system2021Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 154, s. 227-254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of large-scale adoption of driverless trucks on transport patterns and system costs for a national freight transport system with Sweden as a case study. The analysis is performed by extending the application domain of the Swedish national freight transport model Samgods to analyze two types of driverless truck scenarios. The first scenario represents a full adoption of driverless trucks that can operate the complete road network and thereby substitute manually driven trucks. In this scenario, road transport tonne-kilometers on Swedish territory increase by 22%, vehicle kilometers traveled by trucks increase by 35% and annual total system costs decrease by 1.7 B(sic) compared to a baseline scenario without driverless trucks. In the second scenario, the current fleet of manually driven trucks is complemented by driverless trucks that can operate on major roads between logistics hubs, but not in complex traffic environments like urban areas due to a limited operational design domain. This may be an initial use-case for driverless trucks operating on public roads. In this scenario, road tonne-kilometers increase by 11%, truck vehicle kilometers traveled increase by 15%, and annual total system costs decrease by 1.2 B_ compared to the baseline. For both scenarios, the impacts of driverless trucks vary significantly between commodity types and transport distances which suggests heterogeneity of benefits of automated driving between different types of freight flows. A sensitivity analysis is performed in which the costs for driverless truck operations is varied, and for the second scenario, also which parts of the road network that driverless trucks can operate are varied. This analysis indicates that the magnitude of impacts is highly dependent on the cost level of driverless trucks and that the ability for DL-trucks to perform international, cross-border transport is crucial for achieving reductions in system costs. An overarching conclusion of the study is that driverless trucks may lead to a significant increase in road transport demand due to modal shifts from rail and sea as a result of the improved cost performance of road transport. This would further strengthen the need to decarbonize road transport to meet non-negotiable climate targets. Important topics for future research include assessing potential societal costs related to driverless trucks due to infrastructure investments and negative externalities such as increasing CO2 emissions and congestion.

  • 42. Evers, R.
    et al.
    Proost, Stefaan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap. KU Leuven, Belgium.
    The myth of traffic-responsive signal control: Why common sense does not always make sense2015Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 77, s. 350-357Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intuitively, one is inclined to think that traffic-responsive signal control is the most efficient control policy. In this paper, however, we show that for an intersection of two routes connecting one origin-destination pair where only one route is subject to congestion, anticipatory signal control performs better than traffic-responsive signal control. Furthermore, the unfolded logic behind this result suggests that the superiority of anticipatory signal control also extends to other networks.

  • 43.
    F. Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH. VTI.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. TU Delft.
    Octavius Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    What is the role of weather, built-environment and accessibility geographical characteristics in influencing travelers’ experience?2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effect of weather, accessibility and built-environment characteristics on overall travel experience as well as the experience with the latest trips. These are factors that are often disregarded in the travel satisfaction literature even though they are believed to largely influence the first mile of the door-to-door trip. This study fills a research gap in investigating all these factors by using, amongst other, a relatively large travel satisfaction survey from years 2009 to 2015 and by focusing on urban and peri-urban geographical contexts, the city and county of Stockholm (Sweden), respectively. The results show that county dwellers living close to a metro station and in well linked-to-all areas report higher overall travel satisfaction evaluations. In addition, precipitation and ground covered with snow have a negative influence on travel satisfaction. Our findings indicate that built-environment characteristics exert a rather weak influence on the travel experience, especially in the peri-urban context. However, some aspects such as living in areas with medium densities, low income and with high safety perceptions around public transport stations are associated with higher satisfaction levels. In turn, areas with single land uses are found to have lower travel satisfactions. These results are important for public transport planners and designers in devising measures to prevent and mitigate the negative outcome of some weather conditions and to conceive better designed transit oriented developments.

  • 44.
    Fernandez Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak Octavius
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Travel satisfaction with public transport: Determinants, user classes, regional disparities and their evolution2017Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 95, s. 64-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing public transport ridership while providing a service that better caters to individual travelers poses an important goal and challenge for society, particularly public transport authorities and operators. This study identifies and characterizes current and potential users of public transport in Sweden and identifies the most important determinants of travel satisfaction with Public Transport services for each segment of travelers. In addition, it investigates the changes over time of attribute importance among the different segments and the inter-segment geographical variation of overall satisfaction. The analysis is based on a dataset of almost half a million records. Travelers were clustered based on their socio-demographics, travel patterns and accessibility measures to enable the analysis of determinants of satisfaction for different market segments. The cluster analysis results with five segments of Swedish travelers include: (i) inactive travelers; (ii) long distance commuters; (iii) urban motorist commuters; (iv) rural motorist commuters and;(v) students. By contrasting satisfaction with the importance of each quality of service attribute, three key attributes that should be prioritized by stakeholders are identified: customer interface, operation, network and  length  of  trip time. Interestingly, the results suggest an overall similarity in the importance of service attributes among traveler segments. Nevertheless, some noticeable differences could be observed. The quality of service attributes’ importance levels reveal overall changes in appreciations and consumption goals over time. The more frequent public transport user segments are more satisfied across the board and are characterized by a more balanced distribution of attribute importance while rural motorist commuters are markedly dissatisfied with service operation attributes. This work can help authorities to tailor their policies to specific traveler groups.

  • 45.
    Fernandez Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Ettema, Dick
    Octavius Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Do accessibility, vulnerability, opportunity, and travel characteristics have uniform impacts on traveler experience?2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 114, s. 38-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a door-to-door travel survey (METPEX) for Stockholm and the year 2014, this study analyzed the effects of quality of infrastructure and design of public transport premises on the overall travel experience and on the trip stages for different traveler segments. The market segmentation approach was based on travel characteristics, captivity, vulnerability and travel attitudes which were either found to be impactful in previous literature or that had not been deeply explored.

     

    A latent class cluster model segmentation process yields 4 traveler segments: i) content urban commuters, ii) unfulfilled rural travelers, iii) active leisure travelers, and, iv) vulnerable mode switchers. The model estimation results show similarities in terms of appreciations and needs between the attributes that influence the whole trip and the different trip stages. Two attributes are found to be of outermost importance across all trip stages but especially for the whole trip and the main mode: travel modes integration and quality of infrastructure for the entire trip.

     

    This study also unveils particularities and important differences amongst different trip stages and traveler segments. Therefore stakeholders would do well in treating travelers differently when evaluating infrastructure and design characteristics of PT. This study can help stakeholders to tailor their policies to tackle with specific traveler’s needs.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Järnvägsgruppen, JVG.
    Byström, C.
    Competition on the tracks - Passengers' response to deregulation of interregional rail services2013Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 56, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On the West Coast Line (WCL) in Sweden, de facto competition in interregional rail travel has been in effect since 2009. While the Öresund trains are subsidized by regional authorities, SJ runs interregional services on a commercial basis in parallel. How do passengers' valuations affect demand?This paper presents the findings of a study conducted to examine the newly deregulated market for train journeys and travelers' preferences as regards two different train operators and several service levels. A stated choice study was conducted among existing train travelers, and a multinomial logit model structure was applied in the study to examine the benefits derived from choosing a specific train. The models are estimated on segments of the train travelers in order to investigate how the preferences differ among different categories of travelers. In addition, more questions were asked on the supply to provide better understanding of the effects.The findings show that fares and short travel times are important factors for interregional passengers (more than 100. km) when they choose an operator on the WCL. Frequency of departures is also important but seems to be less significant when respondents are asked about suitable departure times. However, the importance of traveling time and comfort increases with longer journeys, which gives advantages for the commercial operator (SJ) over Öresund trains. Moreover, well-known SJ was ranked higher than Öresund trains by all passengers except a group of particularly price-sensitive travelers.This case shows that operators together have achieved a better supply and a widened travel market for interregional journeys and also that segmentation has occurred between price-sensitive and time-sensitive passengers.

  • 47. Gao, Song
    et al.
    Frejinger, Emma
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Ben-Akiva, Moshe
    Cognitive cost in route choice with real-time information: An exploratory analysis2011Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 45, nr 9, s. 916-926Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time traffic information is increasingly available to support route choice decisions by reducing the travel time uncertainty. However it is likely that a traveler cannot assess all available information on all alternative routes due to time constraints and limited cognitive capacity. This paper presents a model that is consistent with a general network topology and can potentially be estimated based on revealed preference data. It explicitly takes into account the information acquisition and the subsequent path choice. The decision to acquire information is assumed to be based on the cognitive cost involved in the search and the expected benefit defined as the expected increase in utility after the search. A latent class model is proposed, where the decision to search or not to search and the depth of the search are latent and only the final path choices are observed. A synthetic data set is used for the purpose of validation and ease of illustration. The data are generated from the postulated cognitive-cost model, and estimation results show that the true values of the parameters can be recovered with enough variability in the data. Two other models with simplifying assumptions of no information and full information are also estimated with the same set of data with significantly biased path choice utility parameters. Prediction results show that a smaller cognitive cost encourages information search on risky and fast routes and thus higher shares on those routes. As a result, the expected average travel time decreases and the variability increases. The no-information and full-information models are extreme cases of the more general cognitive-cost model in some cases, but not generally so, and thus the increasing ease of information acquisition does not necessarily warrant a full-information model.

  • 48.
    Gil Ribeiro, Carolina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energisystem.
    Silveira, Semida
    Systems Engineering Program, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
    The impact of financial incentives on the total cost of ownership of electric light commercial vehicles in EU countries2024Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 179, artikkel-id 103936Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many EU countries have used financial incentives to promote electric light commercial vehicles and decarbonise urban freight transport. However, the high costs of electric light commercial vehicles still pose a significant adoption barrier. This paper evaluates the impact of financial incentives on the total cost of ownership of electric light commercial vehicles in the European Union and their role in achieving the cost-competitiveness of electric vehicles. A pairwise comparison is performed for three weight categories of electric and diesel vehicles in twelve countries. Our analysis shows that financial incentives have a high impact on the total cost of ownership and have proven necessary to achieve electric vehicles' cost-competitiveness in most cases. However, in specific cases, financial incentives may no longer be needed as the cost of electric vehicles' ownership would have been lower than diesel vehicles even without them. This paper demonstrates the importance of adjusting government incentives to avoid unnecessary funding allocations while promoting the decarbonisation of light commercial vehicles, particularly as the number of incentives does not directly correlate with electric vehicles penetration.

  • 49.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Transitioning towards the deployment of line-based autonomous buses: Consequences for service frequency and vehicle capacity2020Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 138, s. 491-507Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of autonomous buses (AB) is expected to have consequences for service design facilitated by its cost function structure. We study the impacts of AB deployment in line-based public transport (PT) systems. In particular, we examine the transition phase where AB is sequentially deployed, involving the selection of lines for which AB will be introduced. To this end, we develop a modeling framework using a dynamic public transportation assignment and operations simulation model that captures users' adaptive path choices. An analytical model is used to determine the initial solutions in terms of service frequency and vehicle capacity for the simulation framework. Due to their different cost function structures, the deployment of AB may be accompanied by changes in the service frequency and vehicle capacity settings and consequently also on passenger flow distribution across the network. Both the simultaneous and the sequential deployment of AB on multiple lines are investigated. Deployment solutions are assessed in terms of the both total operator and user cost. The decision variables are vehicle capacity per line, service frequency per line and vehicle technology per line - i.e. either manually driven or fully automated buses. The framework is applied to a case study in Kista, Stockholm. The study shows that AB service have the potential to attract passengers through improved service provision. A sensitivity analysis is carried out concerning the effects of different cost parameters and demand levels on the deployment of AB in fixed line operations.

  • 50.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.
    Modular vehicle routing for combined passenger and freight transport2023Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 173, s. 103688-103688, artikkel-id 103688Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the potential of modular vehicle concepts and consolidation to increasethe efficiency of urban freight and passenger transport. Modularity is achieved by connectingmultiple vehicles together to form a platoon. Consolidation is realized by integrating passengerand freight demand in the routing problem. Vehicles are specific for each demand type but canbe connected freely, allowing the transport of multiple demand types in the same platoon. Therouting problem formulation considers travel time costs, travel distance costs, fleet size costs,and unserved requests costs. The operations are modeled in a novel modular multi-purposepickup and delivery problem (MMP-PDP) which is solved using CPLEX and Adaptive LargeNeighborhood Search (ALNS). In an extensive scenario study, the potential of the modularvehicle type is explored for different spatial and temporal demand distributions. A parameterstudy on vehicle capacity, vehicle range and platoon cost saving is performed to assess theirinfluence on efficiency. The experiments indicate a cost saving of 48% due to modularity and anadditional 9% due to consolidation. The reduction mainly stems from reduced operating costsand reduced trip duration, while the same number of requests can be served in all cases. Emptyvehicle kilometers are reduced by more than 60% by consolidation and modularity. A large-scalecase study in Stockholm highlights the practical applicability of the modular transport system.The proposed model and optimization framework can be used by companies and policy makersto identify required fleet sizes, optimal vehicle routes and cost savings due to different typesof operation and vehicle technology

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