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  • 1.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Erfani, Behnaz
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Matura, Mihály
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden ; Unit of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lidén, Carola
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chromium(III) release from chromium-tanned leather elicits allergic contact dermatitis: a use test study.2018Inngår i: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 78, nr 5, s. 307-314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chromium (Cr) is a common skin sensitizer. The use of Cr(VI) in leather is restricted in the EU, but that of Cr(III) is not.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether prolonged exposure to Cr-tanned leather with mainly Cr(III) release may elicit allergic contact dermatitis in Cr-allergic individuals.

    METHOD: Ten Cr-allergic subjects and 22 controls were patch tested with serial dilutions of Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and with leather samples. They then conducted a use test with a Cr-tanned and a Cr-free leather bracelet over a period of 3 weeks, for 12 h per day. Cr deposited on the skin from the bracelets was measured in the controls, and the diphenylcarbazide test for Cr(VI) and extraction tests for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were conducted for the different leathers.

    RESULTS: Four of 10 Cr-allergic subjects developed positive reactions to the Cr-tanned bracelet within 7-21 days, whereas only 1 of 10 had a positive patch test reaction to this leather. Cr released from the Cr-tanned leather was most probably entirely Cr(III), with a quantifiable amount being deposited on the skin.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study strongly suggests that prolonged and repeated exposure to Cr-tanned leather with mainly Cr(III) release is capable of eliciting allergic contact dermatitis in Cr-allergic individuals.

  • 2.
    Hedberg, Yolanda S.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Gumulka, Martin
    Lind, Marie-Louise
    Matura, Mihaly
    Lidén, Carola
    Severe occupational chromium allergy despite cement legislation2014Inngår i: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 70, nr 5, s. 321-U83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Hedberg, Yolanda S.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Liden, Carola
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Chromium released from leather - I: exposure conditions that govern the release of chromium(III) and chromium(VI)2015Inngår i: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 72, nr 4, s. 206-215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Approximately 1-3% of the adult population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). Anew restriction in REACH(Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) based on the ISO 17075 standard has recently been adopted in the EU to limit Cr(VI) in consumer and occupational leather products. Objectives. The aim of this study was to critically assess key experimental parameters in this standard on the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) and their relevance for skin exposure. Material and methods. Four differently tanned, unfinished, leather samples were systematically investigated for their release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in relation to surface area, key exposure parameters, temperature, ultraviolet irradiation, and time. Results. Although the total release of Cr was largely unaffected by all investigated parameters, except exposure duration and temperature, the Cr oxidation state was highly dynamic, with reduced amounts of released Cr(VI) with time, owing to the simultaneous release of reducing agents from the leather. Significantly more Cr(III) than Cr(VI) was released from the Cr-tanned leather for all conditions tested, and it continued to be released in artificial sweat up to at least 1 week of exposure. Conclusions. Several parameters were identified that influenced the outcome of the ISO 17075 test.

  • 4.
    Hedberg, Yolanda S.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Lidén, Carola
    Chromium(III) and chromium(VI) release from leather during 8 months of simulated use2016Inngår i: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 75, nr 2, s. 82-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Chromium ( Cr) release from Cr-tanned leather articles is amajor cause of Cr contact dermatitis. It has been suggested that Cr( VI) release from leather is not necessarily an intrinsic property of the leather, but is strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Objectives. To test this hypothesis for long-term ( 8 months) simulated use. Materials and methods. The release of total Cr and Cr( VI) from Cr-tanned, unfinished leather was analysed in subsequent phosphate buffer ( pH 8.0) immersions for a period of 7.5 months. The effect of combined ultraviolet treatment and alkaline solution ( pH 12.1) was tested. Dry storage [ 20% relative humidity ( RH)] was maintained between immersions. Atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and diphenylcarbazide tests were used. Results. Cr( VI) release was dependent on previous dry storage or alkaline treatment, but not on duration or number of previous immersions. Cr(III) release decreased with time. Fifty-two percent of the total Cr released during the last immersion period was Cr( VI). Cr( VI) release exceeded 9 mg/kg in all immersion periods except in the first 10-day immersion ( 2.6mg/kg). Conclusions. Cr( VI) release is primarily determined by environmental factors ( RH prior to immersion, solution pH, and antioxidant content). The RH should be kept low prior to testing Cr( VI) release from leather.

  • 5. Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Midander, Klara
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Thyssen, Jacob P.
    White, Ian R.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Liden, Carola
    New UK nickel-plated steel coins constitute an increased allergy and eczema risk2013Inngår i: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 68, nr 6, s. 323-330Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Nickel-plated steel coins have recently been introduced in the United Kingdom. Objectives. To compare the performance and allergy risk of the new nickel-plated coins (five and ten pence) with those of the cupro-nickel coins being replaced. Materials and methods. Coin handling studies with assessment of skin exposure and metal release in artificial sweat were performed. Six volunteers participated. Results. The amount of nickel deposited onto skin during the handling of nickel-plated coins for 1 hr was 7.5 mu g/cm(2), four times higher than that from cupro-nickel coins. The nickel content in the oxidized surface of nickel-plated coins was higher, explaining the higher skin dose. Initial nickel release rates were 10-27 times higher than 1-week rates, emphasizing that brief and repeated contact results in significant nickel exposure. Conclusions. Nickel-plated coins deposit higher levels of nickel onto skin than cupro-nickel coins, and hence pose an increased allergy risk. One-week release in artificial sweat is not suitable for determining the risk of handling items with high nickel release that come into short, repeated contact with the skin. The nickel skin dose is recommended for risk assessment. UK citizens are now, because of this change in coinage, unnecessarily exposed to higher levels of nickel on the skin. This is of public health concern.

  • 6.
    Mathiason, Frederik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Liden, Carola
    Hedberg, Yolanda S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Chromium released from leather - II: the importance of environmental parameters2015Inngår i: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 72, nr 5, s. 275-285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Approximately 1-3% of the adult population in Europe are allergic to chromium (Cr). A new restriction in Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) based on the ISO 17075 standard has recently been adopted in the EU to limit Cr(VI) in consumer and occupational leather products to < 3 mg/kg. Objectives. To investigate the influence of storage conditions [relative humidity, temperature, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and duration] on Cr release, and to assess several parameters relevant for occupational exposure (repeated exposure, wear, alkaline solutions, and sequential wet and dry exposures). Material and methods. A leather of relevance for work gloves was investigated for its release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) under these different experimental conditions. Results. Relative humidity (water content in leather) during storage prior to Cr extraction was the single most important parameter. Cr(VI) levels could vary from non-detectable to levels significantly exceeding the restriction limit, depending on the relative humidity. Leather contact with alkaline solution and UV irradiation during storage could increase the Cr(VI) levels in subsequent extractions. Conclusions. The amount of Cr(VI) in leather is not an intrinsic property, but is influenced by environmental conditions of relevance for occupations and skin exposure.

  • 7.
    Midander, Klara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Heim, Katherine
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Nickel release from nickel particles in artificial sweat.2007Inngår i: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 325-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel is widely used in a broad range of products, primarily made of alloys, used by humans on a daily basis. Previous assessments have shown that skin contact with some such products may cause nickel allergic contact dermatitis, induced by the release of nickel. However, data on nickel release from small nickel particles in artificial sweat for assessment of potential risks of workers in nickel-producing and nickel-using facilities are not available. The objective of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by determining nickel release from fine nickel powder ( approximately 4 microm diameter) of different loadings varying from 0.1 to 5 mg/cm(2), when immersed in artificial sweat. The amount of nickel released increased with increasing particle loading, whereas the highest release rate per surface area of particles was observed for the medium particle loading, 1 mg/cm(2), at current experimental conditions. All particle loadings showed time-dependent release rates, reaching a relative steady-state level of less than 0.1 microg/cm(2)/hr after 12 hr of immersion, whereby less than 0.5% of the nickel particle loading was released. Nickel release from particles was influenced by the surface composition, the active surface area for corrosion, particle size, and loading.

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