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  • 1.
    Abaid, Mohammed
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Evaluation of Jatropha Curcas as future en-ergy crop in some African countries.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels now days consider as one of the successful alternative to meet the challenges associated with climate change and peak oil, as well as a way for poorer countries to develop an industry in order to enhance social and economic development. In many developing countries and particularly in Africa, this has led to large-scale investments in lands by foreign companies, and as a consequence there has been a debate on whether these actions are environmentally sustainable and whether this kind of activity actually brings economic development. The investments of biofuels in Africa, espe-cially the Jatropha plantations are debatable. Several arguments have been concentrat-ed on development goals, economic issues and environmental concerns. This report evaluates the status of some Jatropha projects in Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanza-nia, the outcomes of the report show that biofuels from Jatropha lead to a significant socio -economic benefits by creating many jobs opportunities and improve the stand-ard of living in Africa. However, inadequate funding’s, high investment costs, no clear policies for biodiesel are the most challenging for Jatropha in Africa which need fur-ther mechanisms and ideology by African scientists, leaders, NGOs, farmers and deci-sion makers. In the studied countries, it was reported that the Jatropha produce low yields of oil seeds especially in the marginal lands with no enough water supplies. In Kenya the productivity of Jatropha is very low for large scale- project. Moreover some social and environmental impacts are also seen for Jatropha cultivations in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. Some Jatropha projects have impacted the food security nega-tively; nevertheless some biofuels experts believe that Jatropha has no any adverse im-pacts on food security since it is inedible and grown on marginal lands. In Ethiopia, the main environmental impacts of Jatropha are related to biodiversity, water quality and quantity. In Kenya, the environmental impacts are related to biodiversity, carbon emissions, water withdrawal, pollution of agro- chemicals usage, deforestation and soil erosion, whereas in Tanzania, the main environmental issues are connected to the change of land use system, impacts on biodiversity and impacts on water resources.

  • 2.
    Abdo, Aslan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Modeling contingency infiltration scenarios in MODFLOW: Stockholm Bypass and tunnel induced groundwater drawdown2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Subsurface constructions, such as tunnels, create hydrogeological challenges in mitigating risk of subsidence due to groundwater drawdown. Presenting readily made precautionary mitigation plans, such as strategically planned artificial recharge applications, can help effectivise the mitigation process.

    The Bypass Stockholm project comprises of several subsurface constructions which may lower the surrounding groundwater level through tunnel leakage. Risk of land subsidence persists in the nearby urban area of Vinsta, Stockholm, where a groundwater drawdown may cause the clays in the area to experience land subsidence. A hydrogeological modelling approach was used in the area to create strategic artificial infiltration plans that could be employed as a mitigative response to the drop in groundwater head.

    In order to simulate the potential tunnel drainage, a steady state hydrogeological model was built using MODFLOW. A 220 l/s tunnel leakage was then simulated. Four different artificial groundwater infiltration scenarios were then conceptualized and simulated to observe effects on groundwater heads.

    The groundwater levels of the baseline model of the area fit the calibration targets with average absolute deviation of 0.18 m. The tunnel drainage scenario lowered the groundwater level in the till aquifer and bedrock by 0 - 1.5 m and 0.5 - 5 m respectively, with higher drawdowns observed closer to the tunnel. The infiltration scenarios mitigate the groundwater drawdown with different efficacies; proximity to the recharge point, and discharge into the till aquifer were observed to have the highest effect on groundwater recharge in the model. The model could have been improved by improving the data quality surrounding the hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock, as it had the highest effect according to the parameter sensitivity analysis.

  • 3.
    Abraham, Jonatan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Strand, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Reseavdrag: En analys av ett arbetsmarknadspolitiskt styrmedel ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    För att öka rörligheten på arbetsmarknaden har man i Sverige haft möjlighet att göra skatteavdrag för kostnader som uppstår kring arbetspendling. Idag ifrågasätts det dock om syftet verkligen uppfylls, samt om det är samhällsekonomiskt lönsamt att behålla avdraget. Den ökande bilismen som uppstår som effekt av subventioneringen gör även det hela till en miljöfråga.

    Syftet med följande kandidatexamensuppsats är ge läsaren och oss författare ökad kunskap kring reseavdraget, samt ge underlag för fortsatt utveckling av styrmedlet. Arbetet är består av fyra större delar:

    • En litteraturstudie med bakgrundsfakta kring reseavdraget och dess historia, tidigare forskning och den politiska debatten idag.
    • En enkätundersökning där allmänhetens åsikter kring avdraget utforskas.
    • En diskussion av möjliga justeringar av reseavdragets olika parametrar förs, där det (enligt vår mening) mest optimala förändringsförslaget tas fram.
    • En styrmedelsanalys av 3 olika sorters reseavdrag; det nuvarande, förändringsförslaget som togs fram, samt ett borttaget.

    Av resultaten kunde slutsatsen dras att ett förändrat reseavdrag skulle vara märkbart mer samhällsekonomiskt lönsamt samt miljövänligt, gentemot det nuvarande. Ett borttaget reseavdrag skulle dock vara det mest optimala. Dessutom visade enkätundersökningen att allmänheten mestadels är positiv till reseavdraget, men att mångas åsikter kan skiftas snabbt när man presenterar fakta.

  • 4. Abu-Khader, M. M.
    et al.
    Shawaqfeh, A. T.
    Naddaf, Z.
    Maity, J. P.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Radon in the groundwater in the Amman-Zarqa Basin and related environments in Jordan2018Inngår i: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 7, s. 73-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of radon (222Rn) in environment (groundwater and indoor air) from geogenic sources is receiving an growing attention due to its adverse impact on human health worldwide including Jordan. Highlighting the current status of radon in Jordan, the present study of radon concentrations in ground waters in the Amman-Zarqa basin (AZB) was investigated. Groundwater samples were collected from fifteen wells located in three main areas of Ras Al-Ain, Al-Rsaifeh and Al-Hashemite. Radon concentration was measure using Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) Tri- Carb 3110 with discriminator and the highest values for radon concentration in water were observed in Al-Rsaifeh area and ranged from 4.52 up to 30.70 Bq/l with an average of 11.22 Bq/l, which were attributed to the decay of naturally distributed uranium in phosphate rock from Al-Rsaifeh mines. In Ras Al-Ain area, the radon concentration were noted ranged from 0.6 to 5.55 Bq/l with an average of 2.82 Bq/l, and also in Al-Hashemite area were ranged from 0.77 to 5.37 Bq/l with an average of 4.04 Bq/l. The overall average concentration of tested samples was 5.77 Bq/l and found within the acceptable international levels. Ground water samples of Ras Al-Ain area showed good quality as was tested of low salinity. It recorded the lowest average radon concentration of 2.82 Bq/l. Also, Radon indoor and building materials was reviewed. In conclusion, this study presented an urged need for developing national regulations and standards as well as awareness program concerning the radon status in Jordan.Elsevier B.V.

  • 5.
    Acheampong, Isaac
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Urban biodiversity; a global perspective.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of the world’s cities are situated in or near areas of high biodiversity. Rise in global urban population resulting in rapid urban expansions (larger cities) is a threat to urban biodiversity, which has implications for the ecological health and general well being of humans. The study exploits consistent global land use data to compare 102 cities across the globe on a measure of urban biodiversity, within 15 km and 30 km from the approximate centres of the cities. Cities with high population and higher percentage of land use dedicated to artificial infrastructure recorded lower percentage size reserved for natural habitat, and vice versa. Further testing in regression analysis with birds and plants species as response variables shows a relation with urban extent and size of natural habitat which seeks to promote sustaining ecosystems services. Since urban biodiversity has implications for human ecological health, its indicators must be constantly measured and monitored, while adhering to best practices that conserve nature.

  • 6.
    Ackebo, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Brandt, Anna-Clara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Dobraja, Kristine
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Isaksson, Sarah
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Liebmann, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Lindberg, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Lundgren, Monia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Song, Meng
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Zachrisson, Maja
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    What is the potential to create a just social-ecological in Fisksätra/Saltsjöbaden?: Report from the Ecosystem support and Environmental Justice course (AG2803)2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Agarwal, Tushar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    The Ganges drainage basin: Hydrological transitions due to anthropogenic water use.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrological changes in catchments world over have affected regional climate and pose serious challenge to future water resource management. The Ganges drainage basin (GDB) is one such region which has undergone rapid transformation in land and water use, more specifically in the latter half of 20th century. GDB has a population of more than half a billion people and is spread across India, China (Tibet), Nepal and Bangladesh. Further, hydrological investigations accounting land and water use changes in GDB are rare. This study is an attempt to resolve hydrological changes in the Ganges basin using the fundamental water balance, focusing particularly on water use changes through irrigation. Between the period 1951-1959 and 1991- 2000, precipitation (P) in the Ganges basin has reduced by 11.25 % while evapotranspiration (ET) has only reduced by 3.61 %. In addition, the ET/P has increased from 0.483 to 0.525 during the same period suggesting a larger partitioning of P towards ET. This suggests greater utilization of P to release water vapor in the atmosphere and thus causing a reduced water flow downstream. With water availability at the fulcrum of future concern for regional and national water security, these findings should encourage policy makers to account for hydrological changes in the GDB in planning sustainable water use.

  • 8.
    Agewall, John
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Wallgren, Kim
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Mikroplastutsläpp från däckslitage: Ett rullande utsläpp2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet bilar har ökat stadigt genom åren och i mars 2019 befann sig nästan 4,9 miljoner personbilar i aktiv användning i Sverige. Något som inte får lika mycket uppmärksamhet som koldioxidutsläpp från trafiken och slitage av vägar är slitaget av bildäck. Regeringen har därmed tillsatt ett uppdrag där mängden mikroplastutsläpp ska kvantifieras, sprida kunskap om problemet och utveckla åtgärder mot utsläppen. En av myndigheterna som fått detta uppdrag är Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI), med vilka detta arbete genomfördes. Arbetet går ut på att försöka kvantifiera utsläppen av mikroplastutsläpp från personbilar samt undersöka vilka typer av slitage som är vanligast förekommande. Rapporten består av två delar, en litteraturstudie som ska ge en klar bild av nuläget, typer av däck, vad mikroplaster är samt varför slitage uppstår. Under den andra delen genomfördes mätningar på kasserade däck, där mönsterdjupsprofiler, vikt, mönsterdjup, DOT märkning, modell, märke, typ av däck och dimensioner antecknades. Med hjälp av profilerna och originaldata som tillhandahölls av olika däcktillverkare kunde de vanligaste slitagen bestämmas och den bortslitna vikten och volymen kunde uppskattas. De vanligaste typerna av slitage är centrum-, jämnt- och sidoslitage, vilket beror på för högt lufttryck i däcken, samt fel hjulinställningar. Den totala årliga mängden utsläpp av mikroplaster från personbilar uppskattades ligga mellan 8 300 och 16 700 ton.

  • 9.
    Agnarsson, Madelene
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Larsson, Marie
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hjälpmedel vid beräkning av grundvattensänkning för att underlätta prissättning i anbudsfas.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Grundvattensänkningar är något som ofta behöver utföras innan konstruktion av anläggningar i jord. Att sätta pris på en grundvattensänkning är inte särskilt lätt när information eller kompetenser saknas som krävs för att göra en rimlig bedömning. Veidekke Entreprenad Anläggning Öst är ett anläggningsföretag som oftast jobbar i generalentreprenadsform. Vid en generalentreprenad så är projekteringen redan gjord och pris ska sättas på de olika posterna som behöver utföras.

    Denna rapport presenterar en förenklad process för kalkylberäkningar i anbudsfas. Därför har en mall har tagits fram åt Veidekke. Denna mall består av fyra representativa typjordar och ekvationer som gör den användarvänlig. För att kontrollera mallens duglighet så testades den sedan på tre projekt som Veidekke utfört grundvattensänkningar på. Mallens beräknade resultat kunde då jämföras med observerade resultat. Det visade sig att mallen ger en god approximation på hur grundvattensänkningen kan se ut och en fingervisning på hur lång tid det kan ta innan stationär grundvattensänkning uppkommer.

  • 10.
    Ahlberg, Fanny
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Ökad avbördningskapacitet hos befintliga dammar i Sverige: En fallstudie över damm i mellersta Norrland2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för klimatförändringar, och problem som kommer med dessa, har ökat de senaste årtiondena. En effekt som dessa drar med sig är att de beräknade extremflödena förväntas öka vilket påverkar säkerheten hos befintliga dammar. Flödesdimensioneringsriktlinjerna, vilket kortfattat är riktlinjer för att bestämma dimensionerande flödet i Sverige, reviderades 2015 till att också ta hänsyn till ett föränderligt klimat. Detta leder till krav på befintliga dammar att öka sin avbördningskapacitet samtidigt som intresset för mindre traditionella utskovsanordningar ökar för att säkerställa tillförlitligheten hos utskoven. Denna studie är en fallstudie över en dammanläggning i mellersta Norrland som på grund av en förhöjd klassificering måste öka sin avbördningskapacitet. Syftet med studien är att föreslå åtgärder på dammen som leder till att avbördningskapaciteten blir i linje med flödesdimensioneringsriktlinjerna och att denna rapport ska kunna användas som stöd och underlag när andra dammar i Sverige har motsvarande utmaning. Åtgärderna togs fram genom att först identifiera möjliga utskovsanordningar med avseende på dammens konstruktions- och geologiska förutsättningar samt driftaspekter i ett svenskt klimat. De fördelaktiga utskovsanordningarna anpassades för den aktuella dammanläggningen och avbördningsberäkningar för möjlig design av utskoven utfördes. De åtgärder som kunde avbörda flöden enligt flödesdimensioneringsriktlinjerna utvärderades med avseende på stabilitet i de fall som ansetts möjliga. Efter en diskussion kring olika för-och nackdelar med de olika åtgärderna, med avseende på bland annat ekonomi, föreslogs möjliga lösningar. De utskovsanordningar som enligt resultatet var fördelaktiga att implementera för dammanläggningen var överfallsutskov, både kontrollerat och okontrollerat, och labyrintutskov. Avbördnings-och stabilitetsberäkningarna samt diskussionen kring för och nackdelar kring åtgärderna ledde fram till att tre åtgärder kunde föreslås. Alla tre alternativen innefattade ytvattenutskov, även kallade överfallsutskov med lucka, och var antingen att bygga om befintliga utskov, bygga till ett ytterligare utskov eller en kombination av de två. Labyrintutskovet visade sig ha ganska hög kapacitet, men uppfyllde inte kravet om klass II-flöde vid dämningsgräns. En generell slutsats som kunde dras av studien var att det finns ganska många olika alternativ på utskovsanordningar, men problem och osäkerheter med igenfrysning, drivgods och kavitation måste kunna hanteras i Svenskt klimat. Okontrollerade utskov kan vara ett alternativ, och då främst labyrintutskov, men det förutsätter att dammen med befintlig avbördningskapacitet kan avbörda klass II-flöde.

  • 11.
    Ahlberg, Fanny
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Ivansen, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Analys över variationer i vattenförbrukning och dess påverkandefaktorer: En fallstudie över områden i Borås2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The steady supply of fresh water is, and has always been, one of the most important functions in human societies. Different users have been able to take advantage of this resource in different extents and for different purposes. The major areas for water usage are drinking water, water supply for industrial purposes and the usage in agricultural sector.

    By dimensioning the supply- and sewer systems accordingly to the demand of the users a more sustainable and optimal system can be achieved. A proper dimensioning has six general factors it should to take in consideration. These are the size of the population, water consumption in residents, general water consumption in schools and offices, water consumption in industry, leakage and different water losses. With a background of these factors this reports main focus and purpose is analysing the variation in water consumption for different consumers (such as residential houses or apartment blocks) in different time intervals (in this report during days and years) and in respect to different factors. The factors that has been chosen to be examined is how water consumption depends on mean age of the consumers and the outdoor temperature. To complete this study water consumption data of different areas in Borås has been provided from the Swedish consultant firm Tyréns. Before analysing the data another study was made by Victor Eliasson, which included the revealing of different faults in the provided data. As a result of this study the most reliable data was chosen to further analysis with respect to the chosen aspects. During the project the calculation- and modelling program Matlab was used alongside the chart program excel. These two programs combined made it possible to handle large amounts of data and present it in different graphs and models. Conclusions could later be made by analyses and different statistical methods. The result from the comparison between areas with different mean ages of the residents showed that the area with high mean age (80 years) hade a higher water consumption than the other areas. The variation in water consumption differed as well between the area with the high mean age compared to the other areas. A regression- and correlation analysis between water consumption and temperature was performed to see if water consumption is depending on the outdoor temperature. The function of a regression analysis is to describe the relation between different parameters with a mathematic model (in this study a linear model). A correlation analysis is then performed to tell how well the mathematic model describes the relation. A conclusion could be made that the water consumption tends to increase with increasing temperature during parts of the year, since a correlation could be found during mars to September. The strongest correlation was in general during May and July for all the areas. No conclusion of how the variation i water consumption depends on different consumers could be made for the analysis during a day and a year. In contrast to the parameters that had a correlation with water consumption there was no visible connection between water consumption over a year or day depending on different users. 

  • 12.
    Ahlfors, Charlotta
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Bergkrantz, Malin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Energieffektivisering av en bandybana: Analys av kompressorkylteknik och fjärrvärmedriven absorptionskylteknik2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Energianvändningen ökar i både Sverige och i världen och därför är ett arbete mot en hållbar utveckling essentiellt. För att framtida generationer ska kunna få samma möjligheter som dagens befolkning är ett viktigt steg att analysera vilka energieffektiviseringar som kan göras fram till att nästa generations teknik lanseras. På så sätt kan jordens energiresurser sparas och det leder till kostnadsbesparingar, eftersom driftkostnader sjunker med en minskad energianvändning. En lägre efterfrågan på energi leder till minskad energiproduktion, vilket medför mindre utsläpp av ämnen som i sin tur medför mindre miljöpåverkan. Västerviks kommun har länge lagt vikt vid hållbar utveckling och månar därmed om att energieffektiviseringar i den offentliga sektorn kan genomföras.

    Med en litteraturstudie samt beräkningar har en analys utförts i syfte att studera om ett byte av kylmaskin till utomhusbandybanan i Gamleby, Västerviks kommun, skulle medföra energieffektivisering och därmed kostnadsbesparingar. Studien syftar till att dels analysera den befintliga maskinen, en kompressorkylmaskin, dels en alternativ absorptionskylmaskin som kan sammankopplas med fjärrvärme från ett lokalt fjärrvärmeverk. För att driva kylprocessen skulle överskottsvärme från fjärrvärmeverket vara en potentiell värmekälla och på så sätt skulle detta främja miljön och hållbar utveckling.

    Genom beräkningar av kylbehov, ekonomisk hållbarhet samt CO2-utsläpp har slutsatser om vad bytet innebär kunnat dras. Då köldfaktorn för en absorptionskylmaskin är lägre än köldfaktorn för en kompressorkylmaskin och totala energimängden (el och fjärrvärme) som behöver tillföras i en absorptionskylmaskin är större, skulle den alternativa tekniken medföra ökade CO2-utsläpp och minskad resurseffektivitet.

    Investeringskostnaden för en absorptionskylmaskin är dubbelt så stor jämfört med kostnaden för en kommersiell kompressorkylmaskin och beräkningar visar att det skulle dröja över 18 år för att ett byte av kylsystem ska kunna ses som ekonomiskt lönsamt. Detta gäller vid optimala värden på köldfaktorn samt då gratis överskottsvärme kan erhållas, dock visar beräkningarna på att om fjärrvärmen kostar kommer ett byte av kylsystem inte att löna sig. Antagandena för det optimala alternativet är inte bekräftade och då en kylmaskins tekniska livslängd beräknas till 25 år anser författarna till denna rapport att en rekommendation om ett byte av kylmetod till absorptionskyla inte kan lämnas baserat på denna studie. Istället skulle en analys av det befintliga systemet kunna göras för att identifiera vilka effektiviseringsmöjligheter som finns, vad gäller till exempel optimering av styrsystem samt effektivisering av bandyisens kylbehov genom minskad värmeöverföring från omgivningen. 

  • 13.
    Ahlgren, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Nordborg, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Rainwater harvesting på Storsudret: Potential för implementering på södra Gotland2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Vattenbrist är ett stort problem i många delar av världen. En lösning som tar vara på nederbörden och eventuellt kan säkerställa vattenförsörjningen lokalt är rainwater harvesting metoden. Det som denna rapporten analyserar är huruvida det finns potential att implementera rainwater harvesting system på Storsudret, på södra Gotland. Projektet inleddes med en litteraturstudie över befintliga metoder för rainwater harvesting. En sammanställning och utvärdering har gjorts för vad som lämpar sig för området. Detta tillsammans med data från lokala myndigheter, SMHI och Lantmäteriet har analyserats och sammanställts med hjälp av programmen Excel och ArcMap för att bedöma potentialen. Resultatet av rapporten visar att, utifrån de beräkningar och kartanalyser som gjorts, potential finns för rainwater harvesting metoder på Storsudret, Gotland. De bidragande faktorerna till hur stor potential metoden har är nederbördens fördelning över året, den totala mängden nederbörd samt boendesituationen som råder på Storsudret. Boendesituationen handlar främst om storleken på takytor i relation till antalet människor som är bosatta i de fem socknar som utgör området. Slutsatsen av i hur stor grad rainwater harvesting lösningar kan påverka det enskilda hushållets vattenförsörjning är individuellt, och beror på främst på hushållens förbrukning, takyta och lagringspotential. Lösningar som denna bidrar inte enbart med minskad belastning på grundvattendepåerna, utan hjälper även de hushåll där vattnet är otjänligt och/eller där det kommunala vattennätet inte är tillgängligt. Rainwater harvesting är därför en ingenjörsteknik som kan vara en del av det vattenbristproblem som råder, inte bara på Storsudret, utan även på andra platser i Sverige och världen med vattenbrist på grund av gällande hydrogeologiska förutsättningarna.

  • 14.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    SLU.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Ekman, Anna
    Lund University.
    Karlsson, H
    SLU.
    Berlin, Johanna
    SP.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers.
    Strid, Ingrid
    SLU.
    LCA of biorefinieries -identification of key issues and methodological recommendations2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Ekman, Anna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Berlin, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Strid, Ingrid
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Review of methodological choices in LCA of biorefinery systems: key issues and recommendations2015Inngår i: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 606-619Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend in biomass conversion technologies is toward more efficient utilization of biomass feedstock in multiproduct biorefineries. Many life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biorefinery systems have been performed but differ in how they use the LCA methodology. Based on a review of existing LCA standards and guidelines, this paper provides recommendations on how to handle key methodological issues when performing LCA studies of biorefinery systems. Six key issues were identified: (i) goal definition, (ii) functional unit, (iii) allocation of biorefinery outputs, (iv) allocation of biomass feedstock, (v) land use, and (vi) biogenic carbon and timing of emissions. Many of the standards and guidelines reviewed here provide only general methodological recommendations. Some make more specific methodological recommendations, but these often differ between standards. In this paper we present some clarifications (e.g. examples of research questions and suitable functional units) and methodological recommendations (e.g. on allocation).

  • 16.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Brabant Water NV, 5200 BC 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands.
    Evaluation and optimization of advanced oxidation coagulation filtration (AOCF) to produce drinking water with less than 1 μg/L of arsenic2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic is an extremely poisonous element. It has been reported to cause contamination of drinking water sources in many parts of the world. The current drinking water permissible limit for arsenic in the European Union is 10 μg/L. The World Health Organization has a general rule that no substance may have a higher lifetime risk of more than 1 in 100,000. However, several studies on toxicity of arsenic suggest that purely based on health effects the arsenic limit of 10 μg/L is not sufficient. The main goal of this research was to develop an efficient arsenic removal technology that could be able to produce drinking water with an arsenic concentration of less than 1 μg/L. For this purpose, an innovative three step technique, Advanced Oxidation - Coagulation - Filtration (AOCF), was investigated through bench-scale and pilot scale experiments in the Netherlands at the water treatment plant of Dorst. Firstly, prior to the investigations on AOCF, the existing arsenic removal at the water treatment plant was investigated. Secondly, through a series of bench-scale experiments, the optimum type of coagulant, its combination dose with the selected chemical oxidant and optimum process pH were determined. Eventually, the partially optimized technique from the bench-scale was implemented at the pilot scale physical model of water treatment plant Dorst where AOCF was evaluated for arsenic removal and its effect on the removal of other common undesirable groundwater constituents. The optimized AOCF technology consistently removed arsenic from groundwater to below 1 ug/L when implemented at pilot scale. The overall effluent quality also remained acceptable. The method is efficient with both types of filtration media tested in this research i.e., virgin sand and metal oxide coated sand, however virgin sand media showed slightly better arsenic removal efficiency.

  • 17.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Evaluation of organic residues and their mixtures with Peepoos to produce fertilizer.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Peepoo, self-sanitising, biodegradable toilet is characterized by low carbon to nitrogen (C-N) ratio and low dry matter (DM) content. Principal nutrients (nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K)) are also not in a balance as required by most crops. It was expected that the mixing of used Peepoos with other organic materials might balance its chemical characteristics. In this thesis, availability and suitability of common organic materials produced in Kenya has been investigated for mixing with used Peepoo bags to obtain a balanced fertilizer product from the crop nutrition aspect. Seven organic residues were selected from the list of 13 on the basis of their availability near the processing site in Nairobi. The selected residues were then chemically analyzed for their individual plant nutrient content. The analysis results were used subsequently to simulate the chemical composition of a wide range of Peepoo-Residue mixtures. The evaluation of the theoretical mixtures based on DM content, C-N ratio and NPK ratio showed that the majority of investigated mixtures had DM content below 60 %. Majority of the mixtures showed C-N ratio between 10-1:1. All the mixtures deviated from the common nutrient uptake ratio of crops (1:0.5:1.4). Composite mixtures with more than 2 ingredients resulted in a balanced fertilizer product. The study concludes and recommends that the composite mixtures with more than two ingredients should be considered for practical processing of Peepoos into a commercial fertilizer product.

  • 18.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Arsenic in Drinking Water: Is 10 μg/L a Safe Limit?2019Inngår i: Current Pollution Reports, ISSN 2198-6592, Vol. 5, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Environmental arsenic in a changing world2019Inngår i: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 8, s. 169-171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet och miljöteknik. KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Nieuwegein, Netherlands.;WUR, Dept Environm Technol, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Cornelissen, Emile
    KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Nieuwegein, Netherlands.;Nanyang Technol Univ, Nanyang Environm & Water Res Inst, Singapore Membrane Technol Ctr, Singapore, Singapore.;Univ Ghent, Particle & Interfacial Technol Grp, Ghent, Belgium..
    van de Wetering, Stephan
    Brabant Water NV Breda, Breda, Netherlands..
    van Dijk, Tim
    Brabant Water NV Breda, Breda, Netherlands..
    van Genuchten, Case
    Univ Utrecht, Fac Geosci, Dept Earth Sci Geochem, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Deputy Vice Chancellors Off Res & Innovat, Toowoomba, Qld, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Fac Hlth Engn & Sci, Toowoomba, Qld, Australia..
    van der Wal, Albert
    WUR, Dept Environm Technol, Wageningen, Netherlands.;Evides Water Co NV Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld, Australia..
    Arsenite removal in groundwater treatment plants by sequential Permanganate-Ferric treatment2018Inngår i: JOURNAL OF WATER PROCESS ENGINEERING, ISSN 2214-7144, Vol. 26, s. 221-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dutch drinking water sector is actively investigating methods to reduce arsenic (As) to < 1 mu g/L in drinking water supply. We investigated (1) the effectiveness of sequential permanganate (MnO4-)-ferric (Fe(III)) dosing during aeration-rapid sand filtration to achieve < 1 mu g/L As (2) the influence of MnO4--Fe(III) dosing on preestablished removal patterns of As(III), Fe(II), Mn(II) and NH4+ in rapid sand filters and (3) the influence of MnO4--Fe(III) dosing on the settling and molecular-scale structural properties of the filter backwash solids. We report that MnO4--Fe(III) dosing is an effective technique to improve arsenite [As(III)] removal at groundwater treatment plants. At a typical aeration-rapid sand filtration facility in the Netherlands effluent As concentrations of < 1 mu g/L were achieved with 1.2 mg/L MnO4--and 1.8 mg/L Fe(III). The optimized combination of MnO4-and Fe(III) doses did not affect the removal efficiency of Fe(II), Mn(II) and NH4+ in rapid sand filters, however, the removal patterns of Fe(II) and Mn(II) in rapid sand filter were altered, as well as the settling behaviour of backwash solids. The characterization of backwash solids by Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the changed settling velocity of backwash solids with MnO4-Fe(III) in place was not due to changes in the molecular-scale structure of Fe-precipitates that constitute the major portion of the backwash solids.

  • 21.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Hoofd Ingenieursbureau, Brabant Water N.V., 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands .
    Van De Wetering, S.
    Groenendijk, M.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Advanced Oxidation-Coagulation-Filtration (AOCF) - An innovative treatment technology for targeting drinking water with <1 μg/L of arsenic2014Inngår i: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, CRC Press, 2014, s. 817-819Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Oxidation-Coagulation-Filtration (AOCF) has been investigated for producing drinking water with less than 1 μg L-1 of As through a series of bench scale and pilot scale experiments. At bench scale, the suitable coagulant, its combination dose with KMnO4 oxidant, the optimum process pH and kinetics of As removal were determined. The optimized AOCF technique was capable of consistently reducing the As concentration to below 1 μg L-1 when implemented at pilot scale and did not adversely affect the already existing removal processes of Fe, Mn and NH4 +. Dual media filter solved the filter run time reduction issue.

  • 22.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Nieuwegein, Netherlands.;WUR, Dept Environm Technol, Wageningen, Netherlands.;Evides Water Co NV, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    van der Wal, Albert
    WUR, Dept Environm Technol, Wageningen, Netherlands.;Evides Water Co NV, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, Toowoomba, Qld, Australia..
    van Genuchten, Case M.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland GEUS, Geochem Dept, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Utrecht, Fac Geosci, Dept Earth Sci Geochem, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Characteristics of Fe and Mn bearing precipitates generated by Fe(II) and Mn(II) co-oxidation with O-2, MnO4 and HOCl in the presence of groundwater ions2019Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 161, s. 505-516Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we combined macroscopic measurements of precipitate aggregation and chemical composition (Mn/Fe solids ratio) with Fe and Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the solids formed by co-oxidation of Fe(II) and Mn(II) with O-2, MnO4, and HOCl in the presence of groundwater ions. In the absence of the strongly sorbing oxyanions, phosphate (P) and silicate (Si), and calcium (Ca), O-2 and HOCl produced suspensions that aggregated rapidly, whereas co-oxidation of Fe(II) and Mn(II) by MnO4 generated colloidally stable suspensions. The aggregation of all suspensions decreased in P and Si solutions, but Ca counteracted these oxyanion effects. The speciation of oxidized Fe and Mn in the absence of P and Si also depended on the oxidant, with O-2 producing Mn(III)-incorporated lepidocrocite (Mn/Fe = 0.01-0.02 mol/mol), HOCl producing Mn(III)-incorporated hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) (Mn/Fe = 0.08 mol/mol), and MnO4 producing poorly-ordered MnO2 and HFO (Mn/Fe > 0.5 mol/mol). In general, the presence of P and Si decreased the crystallinity of the Fe(III) phase and increased the Mn/Fe solids ratio, which was found by Mn K-edge XAS analysis to be due to an increase in surface-bound Mn(II). By contrast, Ca decreased the Mn/Fe solids ratio and decreased the fraction of Mn(II) associated with the solids, suggesting that Ca and Mn(II) compete for sorption sites. Based on these results, we discuss strategies to optimize the design (i.e. filter bed operation and chemical dosing) of water treatment plants that aim to remove Fe(II) and Mn(II) by co-oxidation.

  • 23.
    Ahmad, Zoe
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    An Assessment of the Swedish Bioeconomical Development2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Bioeconomy is an emerging term defined by the European Commission as ‘an economy based on biological,renewable resources to produce bioenergy, biobased products, services and food’. Unlike neighbouring countries Germany and Finland, Sweden lacks an official national bioeconomy strategy and the Swedish bioeconomical development is not mapped. Previous literature has not addressed the topic specifically and to do so, it was believed necessary to address relevant actors currently undergoing the bioeconomical development. It is investigated if the Swedish bioeconomical development is too slow and inefficiently regulated and if so, what measure can be taken. A literature study and 13 interviews with actors relevant to the bioeconomical transition were used to achieve the objective of the study. Concluded, the field of bioeconomy severely needs parameters to make its definition and quantification possible. Despite lacking a national bioeconomy strategy, Sweden’s bioeconomical development is not stalled. The government pursues the transition through specifically created institutions and big investments. Compared to Finland, Sweden performs well within the current bioeconomical sectors (biomass production and biobased sectors were assessed). Parameters must be established to enable a better mapping of the process and to complete the bioeconomical transition within Sweden.

  • 24.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Exploring the Effects of ICT on Environmental Sustainability: From Life Cycle Assessment to Complex Systems Modeling2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) products and services continue to grow worldwide. This trend is accompanied by a corresponding increase in electricity use by ICT, as well as direct environmental impacts of the technology. Yet a more complicated picture of ICT’s effects is emerging. Positive indirect effects on environmental sustainability can be seen in substitution and optimization (enabling effects), and negative indirect effects can be seen in additional demand due to efficiency improvements (rebound effects).

    A variety of methods can be employed to model and assess these direct and indirect effects of ICT on environmental sustainability. This doctoral thesis explores methods of modeling and assessing environmental effects of ICT, including electronic media. In a series of five studies, three methods were at times applied in case studies and at others analyzed theoretically. These methods include life cycle assessment (LCA) and complex systems modeling approaches, including System Dynamics (SD) and agent-based (AB) modeling.

    The first two studies employ the LCA approach in a case study of an ICT application, namely, the tablet edition of a Swedish design magazine. The use of tablets has skyrocketed in recent years, and this phenomenon has been little studied to date. Potential environmental impacts of the magazine’s tablet edition were assessed and compared with those of the print edition. The tablet edition’s emerging version (which is marked by a low number of readers and low reading time per copy) resulted in higher potential environmental impacts per reader than did the print edition. However, the mature tablet edition (with a higher number of readers and greater reading time per copy) yielded lower impacts per reader in half the ten impact categories assessed.

    While previous studies of electronic media have reported that the main life-cycle contributor to environmental impacts is the use phase (which includes operational electricity use as well as the manufacture of the electronic device), the present study did not support those findings in all scenarios studied in this thesis. Rather, this study found that the number of readers played an important role in determining which life-cycle phase had the greatest impacts. For the emerging version, with few readers, content production was the leading driver of environmental impacts. For the mature version, with a higher number of readers, electronic storage and distribution were the major contributors to environmental impacts. Only when there were many readers but low overall use of the tablet device was the use phase the main contributor to environmental impacts of the tablet edition of the magazine.

    The third study goes beyond direct effects at product- and service-level LCAs, revisiting an SD simulation study originally conducted in 2002 to model indirect environmental effects of ICT in 15 European countries for the period 2000-2020. In the current study, three scenarios of the 2002 study were validated in light of new empirical data from the period 2000–2012. A new scenario was developed to revisit the quantitative and qualitative results of the original study. The results showed, inter alia, that ICT has a stimulating influence on total passenger transport, for it makes it more cost- and time-efficient (rebound effects).

    The modeling mechanism used to represent this rebound effect is further investigated in the fourth study, which discusses the feedback loops used to model two types of rebound effects in passenger transport (direct economic rebound and time rebound). Finally, the role of systems thinking and modeling in conceptualizing and communicating the dynamics of rebound effects is examined.

    The aim of the fifth study was to explore the power of systems modeling and simulation to represent nonlinearities of the complex and dynamic systems examined elsewhere in this thesis. That study reviews previous studies that have compared the SD and AB approaches and models, summarizing their purpose, methodology, and results, based on certain criteria for choosing between SD and AB approaches. The transformation procedure used to develop an AB model for purposes of comparison with an SD model is also explored.

    In conclusion, first-order or direct environmental effects of ICT production, use, and disposal can be assessed employing an LCA method. This method can also be used to assess second-order or enabling effects by comparing ICT applications with conventional alternatives. However, the assessment of enabling effects can benefit from systems modeling methods, which are able to formally describe the drivers of change, as well as the dynamics of complex social, technical, and environmental systems associated with ICT applications. Such systems methods can also be used to model third-order or rebound effects of efficiency improvements by ICT.

  • 25.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Modeling the Effects of ICT on Environmental Sustainability: Revisiting a System Dynamics Model Developed for the European Commission2015Inngår i: ICT Innovations for Sustainability / [ed] Hilty, L.M.; Aebischer, B., Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2015, s. 449-474Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter revisits a System Dynamics model developed in 2002 with the aim of exploring the future impacts of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on environmental sustainability in the EU, which then consisted of 15 countries. The time horizon of the study was 20 years (2000–2020). We analyze the results in light of empirical data that is now available for 2000–2012. None of the three scenarios that were developed by experts to specify the external factors needed to run the model were realistic from today’s point of view. If the model is re-run with more realistic input data for the first half of the simulation period, however, the main results regarding the impact of ICT remain qualitatively the same; they seem to be relatively robust implications of the causal system structure, as it is represented in the model. Overall, the impacts of ICT for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental burdens for 2020 tend to be slightly stronger if the simulation is based on the empirical data now available.

  • 26.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology. Department of Informatics, University of Zurich.
    Modelling Rebound Effects in System Dynamics2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 28th Conference on Environmental Informatics - EnviroInfo 2014 - ICT for Energy Efficiency / [ed] Marx Gómez, J., Sonnenschein, M., Vogel, U., Winter, A., Rapp, B., Giesen, N., Germany: BIS Oldenburg, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The induction of demand by increasing the efficiency of a production or consumption process is known as the rebound effect. Feedback loops in System Dynamics can be used to conceptualize the structure of this complex phenomenon and also for communicating model-based insights. In passenger transport, the rebound effect can be induced through increased cost efficiency (direct economic rebound) and/or increase in speed (time rebound). In this paper we review and compare two models on environmental effects of passenger transport—including a model on the role of information and communication technology. We highlight the feedback mechanisms used to deal with the rebound effect (price, efficiency, and time rebound).

  • 27.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa) and University of Zurich, Department of Informatics.
    System Dynamics vs. agent-based modeling—comparing models and approaches: A literature review and a transformation procedureManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems modeling and simulation methods such as System Dynamics (SD) and agent-based (AB) modeling have been used to foster a better understanding of the dynamics and complexity of natural, technical, and social systems. System Dynamics provides an aggregate-level perspective, highlighting thinking in feedback loops and employing differential equations to model the causal relations in a system, exploring the system's dynamics by numerically solving the equations. Agent-based modeling, in a bottom-up method, focuses on constituent units (agents) and their interactions to explore the emerging behavior at a system level by means of simulation. Comparing these modeling methods can help us understand their strengths and weaknesses in order to choose the right approach for a given modeling problem. It may also support the analysis of a given system to build multiple models using the different approaches and comparing them, in particular to treat fundamental uncertainties in systems modeling and simulation. In this paper, we review the existing studies comparing the SD and AB approaches and models, investigating the aims, methodology, and results of such comparative studies. We also highlight lessons learned for future model comparisons by examining how the corresponding SD and AB models are built for the purpose of comparison. A procedure for transforming System Dynamics models into agent-based models is presented and discussed using examples from the literature.

  • 28.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab , 9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland .
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. University of Zürich, , Department of Informatics, CH-8050 Zürich, Switzerland; Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab , 9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland .
    Using Systems Thinking and System Dynamics Modeling to Understand Rebound Effects2016Inngår i: Advances And New Trends In Environmental And Energy Informatics / [ed] Jorge Marx Gómez, Michael Sonnenschein, Andreas Winter, Ute Vogel, Barbara Rapp Nils Giesen, Cham, Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2016, s. 237-255Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Processes leading to an increase of demand for a resource as a consequence of increasing the efficiency of using this resource in production or consumption are known as (direct) rebound effects. Rebound effects at micro and macro levels tend to offset the reduction in resource consumption enabled by progress in efficiency. Systems thinking and modeling instruments such as causal loop diagrams and System Dynamics can be used to conceptualize the structure of this complex phenomenon and also to communicate model-based insights. In passenger transport, the rebound effect can be invoked by increased cost efficiency (direct economic rebound) and/or increase in speed (time rebound). In this paper we review and compare two existing models on passenger transport—including a model on the role of information and communication technology—with regard to the feedback loops used to conceptualize rebound effects.

  • 29.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Life Cycle Assessment of a Magazine: Part I: Tablet Edition in Emerging and Mature States2015Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is providing new ways to access media content. ICT has environmental benefits and burdens. The overall goal of the present study was to assess the environmental impacts of production and consumption of magazines read on tablets from a life cycle perspective. Important goals were to identify the activities giving rise to the main impacts and the key factors influencing the overall environmental impacts. Data gaps and uncertainties were also addressed. The results are compared against those for the print edition of the magazine in a separate article (part 2). The methodology used in the study was life cycle assessment. The environmental impacts assessed included climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater/marine eutrophication, fossil depletion, human toxicity, and ecotoxicity. The results indicate that content production can be the major contributor to environmental impacts if readers are few (as for the emerging version of the magazine studied). Assuming more readers (more mature version) or a larger file size for the tablet magazine, electronic storage and distribution may be the major contributor. Thus, in contrast to previous studies on electronic media, which reported a dominant impact of the use phase, this study found a higher impact for content production (emerging version) and electronic storage and distribution (mature version). However, with inefficient, low overall use of the tablet with a mature version of the tablet magazine, the greatest impact was shown to come from the reading activity (i.e., the use phase). In conclusion, the relative impacts of the tablet magazine would decrease considerably with high numbers of readers, their efficient use of the tablet (i.e., for many purposes over a long life of the device), and a smaller magazine file.

  • 30.
    Ahmadi, Leila
    et al.
    Energy, Mining and Environment, National Research Council Canada.
    Young, Steven B.
    School of Environment, Enterprise and Development|, University of Waterloo.
    Fowler, Michael
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo.
    Fraser, Roydon A.
    Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    A cascaded life cycle: reuse of electric vehicle lithium-ion battery packs in energy storage systems2015Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery packs recovered from end-of-life electric vehicles (EV) present potential technological, economic and environmental opportunities for improving energy systems and material efficiency. Battery packs can be reused in stationary applications as part of a “smart grid”, for example to provide energy storage systems (ESS) for load leveling, residential or commercial power. Previous work on EV battery reuse has demonstrated technical viability and shown energy efficiency benefits in energy storage systems modeled under commercial scenarios. The current analysis performs a life cycle assessment (LCA) study on a Li-ion battery pack used in an EV and then reused in a stationary ESS.

    Methods

    A complex functional unit is used to combine energy delivered by the battery pack from the mobility function and the stationary ESS. Various scenarios of cascaded “EV mobility plus reuse in stationary clean electric power scenarios” are contrasted with “conventional system mobility with internal combustion engine vehicles plus natural gas peaking power.” Eight years are assumed for first use; with 10 years for reuse in the stationary application. Operational scenarios and environmental data are based on real time-of-day and time-of-year power use. Additional data from LCA databases are utilized. Ontario, Canada, is used as the geographic baseline; analysis includes sensitivity to the electricity mix and battery degradation. Seven environmental categories are assessed using ReCiPe.

    Results and discussion

    Results indicate that the manufacturing phase of the Li-ion battery will still dominate environmental impacts across the extended life cycle of the pack (first use in vehicle plus reuse in stationary application). For most impact categories, the cascaded use system appears significantly beneficial compared to the conventional system. By consuming clean energy sources for both use and reuse, global and local environmental stress reductions can be supported. Greenhouse gas advantages of vehicle electrification can be doubled by extending the life of the EV batteries, and enabling better use of off-peak low-cost clean electricity or intermittent renewable capacity. However, questions remain concerning implications of long-duration use of raw material resources employed before potential recycling.

    Conclusions

    Li-ion battery packs present opportunities for powering both mobility and stationary applications in the necessary transition to cleaner energy. Battery state-of-health is a considerable determinant in the life cycle performance of a Li-ion battery pack. The use of a complex functional unit was demonstrated in studying a component system with multiple uses in a cascaded application.

  • 31.
    Ahmed, Amber
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Gong, Jindan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Assessment of the Electricity Generation Mix in Ghana: the Potential of Renewable Energy2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity is a fundamental part a functioning society. Ghana’s electricity system is strained by an ever-growing climate instability and increase of population. Therefore, it is crucial for the country's development that it's electricity supply is done in a sustainable way.

    This report aims to analyze Ghana’s ability to reach SDG 7.1 and the Marrakech Vision, an outcome from the COP 22 meeting in Morocco. This was done by creating a model over Ghana’s electricity system and how it develops over time, called BAU, using the analytical tools: OSeMOSYS and OnSSET. A practical implementation of BAU was then discussed. After that, three development scenarios with different renewable energy targets for the electricity system, were implemented in the model. The results show that CSP and natural gas power plants were the most prominent electricity producers. The growing share of renewable energy in the target scenarios was mostly due to wind power, replacing the natural gas power plants.

    Ghana has local natural gas resources as well as high solar potential. The rising share of renewable energy limits the fossil fuel emission. At the same time, this increased share also endangers the reliability of the electricity supply, as the capacity of renewable energy resources fluctuate and could lead to high investment costs. BAU can be a possible solution which minimizes the fossil fuel consumption and limits the CO2 emissions, but at the risk of possibly having an unreliable electricity supply. To be able to meet SDG 7.1, increasing the share of renewable energy in electricity generation can be a solution, but at the same time, not all requirements of the goal will be fulfilled.

  • 32. Ahmed, K. M.
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Groundwater arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh: Two decades of advancements in scientific research and policy instruments2014Inngår i: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, 2014, s. 886-888Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two decades have passed since the first detection of arsenic above allowable limits in groundwater of Bangladesh. A good number of scientific research and mitigation projects have so far been completed but still today more than 22 million people are exposed to arsenic leaves of 50 μg L-1 or more. As there are many untested new wells, it is not precisely known how many people are exposed to what level. Scientific knowledge about occurrences, distribution and release mechanisms have enhanced significantly. Although deep tube wells have emerged as the most effective mitigation measure over most of the country, still there are areas where this does not work. Recent studies reported effectiveness of alternative options like intermediate deep wells and subsurface arsenic removal. There has been a major paradigm shift in the policy arena regarding arsenic mitigation.

  • 33. Ahtiainen, Heini
    et al.
    Artell, Janne
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Hasselström, Linus
    Enveco.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Baltic Sea nutrient reductions: What should we aim for?2014Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 145, s. 9-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient load reductions are needed to improve the state of the Baltic Sea, but it is still under debate how they should be implemented. In this paper, we use data from an environmental valuation study conducted in all nine Baltic Sea states to investigate public preferences of relevance to three of the involved decision-dimensions: First, the roles of nitrogen versus phosphorus reductions causing different eutrophication effects; second, the role of time – the lag between actions to reduce nutrient loads and perceived improvements; and third; the spatial dimension and the roles of actions targeting the coastal and open sea environment and different sub-basins. Our findings indicate that respondents view and value the Baltic Sea environment as a whole, and are not focussed only on their local sea area, or a particular aspect of water quality. We argue that public preferences concerning these three perspectives should be one of the factors guiding marine policy. This requires considering the entire range of eutrophication effects, in coastal and open sea areas, and including long-term and short-term measures.

  • 34.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Lysenkova, Mariya
    Smedberg, Niklas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Looplocal - a heuristic visualization tool to support the strategic facilitation of industrial symbiosis2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, s. 328-335Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) developments have been differentiated as self-organized, facilitated, and planned. This article introduces a tool, Looplocal, which has been built with objectives to support the strategic facilitation of IS. Looplocal is a visualization tool built to assist in 1) Simplifying the identification of regions susceptible to new industrial symbiosis facilitation activities 2) Enabling proactive and targeted marketing of potential exchanges to key actors in specific regions and 3) Assisting facilitators to assess the various strategies and consequential engagement and analysis methodologies suitable for additional IS development in specific regions. The tool compares industrial symbiosis data and estimated regional material and energy flows (on a facility level) to identify potential IS transfer information along with key stakeholder and network data. The authors have performed a proof of concept run of this tool on Sweden. In its early stages of application the method has given results seen as useful for identifying regions susceptible to the investment of symbiosis facilitators' time and resources. The material focus and customization possibilities for the tool show potential for a spectrum of potential facilitators: from waste management companies to national or regional authorities. In conjunction with long term business models, such a tool might be utilized throughout an adaptive chain of facilitation activities and aims.

  • 35.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    Ragn-Sells AB.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi. Finnish Environment Institute SYKE.
    Kihl, Anders
    Ragn-Sells AB.
    Waste to Resources: Moving Toward the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Aigner, Joachim Felix
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Environmental Implications of Media Consumption embedded in Digital Ecosystems: A bottom-up systems approach to the perennial case of paperless reading in Germany2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization has been reshaping the media landscape in recent years, often conveying an implicit promise of becoming less dependent on physical resources. At the same time, the current understanding of digital reading goes beyond dedicated e-readers or definable digital media products such as magazines or newspapers. In fact, it must be perceived as a function or service obtained from existing and ever-expanding “digital ecosystems”. There is furthermore a clear and unambiguous trend that relatively small and mobile devices are on the rise for consuming all kinds of media.

    Next to potentially enabling environmental gains compared to traditional paper-based media consumption, there are agreeing indications of a shift from overall electricity consumption dominated by end-user devices towards an increasing importance of less tangible data transmission networks and data centers. Therefore, a bottom-up analysis is deemed to compliment more general top-down observations and assessments. To this end, an elaborated reference scenario is proposed as to bridge the mere analytical method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with behavioral aspects based on German market observations and surveys. The prevailing aim of this study is to detect environmental hot-spots and absolute impacts linked to the service of accessing text-based content via connected electronic devices. In doing so, this study takes the position that both types of media consumption – digital and paper-based - are incommensurable due to the very evident differences in provided functions, markets, and industries. Therefore, an attributional and stand-alone LCA is considered appropriate.

    The perceived current situation (reference scenario) evolves around substantiated estimates and assumptions concerning production of devices, use of devices as well as operation of essential data transmission network components. Looking at potential hot-spots, electricity consumption linked to data transmission could be a decisive factor for the environmental performance of digital reading. However, the actual importance of data transmission infrastructures depends on both methodological choices and a range of parameters or trends. For instance, the relative importance is shifted when more recent estimates of electricity intensities are incorporated. Depending on actual and localized electricity intensity of data transmission, the amount of data required to provide an expected function may inhibit environmental potentials of digital media consumption.

    Postulating average annual consumption of digital contents and assuming actual substitution of equivalent printed media products, about 50 kg CO2-equivalents. could potentially be avoided. This theoretical potential is based on the calculated global warming potential (GWP) associated with digital reading according to the reference scenario which amounts to about 29 kg CO2-equivalents. Therefore, this study supports findings from previous studies that indicated environmental benefits of digital reading.

    Compared to other functions or services (e.g. video/music streaming, podcasts, audio books) embedded in the same “digital ecosystems”, reading requires little amount of data. If allocation of upstream effects is based on time, the relative importance of data transmission networks could be gauged and compared by adopting a “data-to-service time” ratio. Taking the reference scenario as a starting point, a perceivable ratio for digital reading is 0.015 GB/h, including systemic inefficiencies. In contrast, streaming of high-definition video contents can easily consume 3 GB/h, a 200-fold increase.

    The audience of this study comprises providers of digital reading services and/or other media services as well as end-users as integral element in “digital ecosystems”. Besides, the report proposes a conceptual assessment framework which can be applied to other contemporary digital services or functions.

  • 37.
    Akram, Muhammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    A Freundlich-based model for prediction of pH-dependent sulfate adsorption in forest soil.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The period of industrialization after the second World War in Europe released SO2 and NOx by combustion of fossil fuels and contributed the formation of S and N compounds in the forest ecosystem. The Swedish forest soil systems were influenced by emissions of SO2 followed by H2SO4 deposition, consequently the pool of SO42- had increased in the forest ecosystem. This thesis studied SO42- adsorption in a podzolic Bs horizon soils taken from a Swedish forest soil system. The soil samples from five different sampling sites were collected and the results revealed different amounts of adsorbed SO42- in response to changes in equilibrium concentration and pH. This study found that the amount of adsorbed SO42- (mmol/kg) increased with an added equilibrium concentration of SO42- (mmol/l) and with a decreasing pH. This was determined by equilibration experiments. Based on the results a Freundlich-based model was developed to predict the pool of adsorbed SO42- in the soil samples. The model predicted the pool of adsorbed SO42- (mmol/kg) as a function of pH and the equilibrium concentration of SO42- (mmol/l) in the soil solution system. The extended Freundlich model was optimized in three different ways: by use of unconstrained, constrained and simplified two-point calibration. The results showed that the adsorption of sulfate in the Kloten Bs1 and Risbergshöjden B soils was higher as compared to the Tärnsjo B, Österström B, and Risfallet B soils. The coefficient of determination (R2) determined from an unconstrained fit of the extended Freundlich model (with three adjustable parameters) for Risbergshöjden B and Kloten Bs1 were R2 =0.998 and R2=0.993. Nearly as good fits were found in a constrained fit with two adjustable parameters when it was assumed that nearly 2 protons (2 H+) are co-adsorbed with one SO42- ion (Risbergshöjden B; R2=0.997 and Kloten Bs; R2=0.992). The simplified two-point calibration with two adjustable parameters showed similar parameter values for all most soils and was considered the best optimization method of extended Freundlich model, especially as it requires only limited input data.

  • 38.
    Alam, Mohammad Faiz
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Evaluating the benefit-cost  ratio of groundwater abstraction for additional irrigation water on global scale.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Projections show that to feed a growing population which is expected to reach 9.1 billion in 2050 would require raising overall food production by some 70 percent by 2050. One of the possible ways to increase agricultural production is through increasing yields by expanding irrigation. This study assesses the potential costs and benefits associated with sustainable groundwater abstraction to provide for irrigation.The feasibility of groundwater abstraction is determined using a combination of three indicators:groundwater recharge, groundwater quality (salinity) and sustainability (no depletion). Global groundwater recharge estimates used, are simulated with the Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamic global vegetation model with managed lands (LPJmL). The cost of groundwater abstraction is determinedon a spatially explicit scale on global level at a grid resolution of 0.5°. Groundwater abstraction cost is divided into two parts: capital costs and operational costs. The potential benefit of increased water supply for irrigation is given by the water shadow price which is determined by using a Model of Agricultural Production and its Impact on the Environment (MAgPIE). The water shadow price for water is calculated in areas where irrigation water is scarce based on the potential increase in agricultural production through additional water and it reflects the production value of an additional unit of water. The water shadow price is given on a 0.5° grid resolution in US $/m3. Combining the cost of abstraction and the water shadow price, the benefit cost ratio is calculated globally on a spatially explicit scale to determine where investment in groundwater irrigation wouldbe beneficial. Finally, the results are analysed in global, regional and country perspectives. The results show that groundwater abstraction is beneficial for an area of 135 million hectares which is around 8.8% of the total crop area in the year 2005. Europe show the highest potential with an area of ~ 50 million hectares with a majority of the area located in France, Italy, Germany and Poland. Second is North America with an area of ~ 43.5 million hectares located in the Eastern states where the irrigation infrastructure is less developed as compared to the Western states. Sub-Saharan Africa shows a potential of ~ 15.4 million hectares in the Southern and Eastern countries of Zimbabwe, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Ethiopia and some parts of South Africa. South Asia despite extensive groundwater extraction shows only a moderate potential of ~ 9 million hectares, mostly located in India whereas China shows almost no potential. This is due to extensive groundwater depleted areas which were removed from the analysis and low water shadow prices which made abstraction not beneficial. Well installation costs play an important role in developing countries in regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where a reduction in costs would lead to an increase in area by more than 30%. Subsidy analyses shows that substantial increase in crop land areas where a benefit cost ratio >1 takes place in India with subsidised energy prices but this effect is found to be negligible in Mexico. This study is, to the author’s knowledge, the first to assess the benefit cost ratio of groundwater abstraction on a global scale by determining spatially explicit abstraction costs. The results show that a great potential for groundwater abstraction exists in all regions despite problems of groundwater depletion due to disparity in distribution and development of groundwater resources. Energy subsidies and cheap well installation techniques are the two factors that could bring down the abstraction costs which are quite important in developing regions where farm incomes are low. Also, groundwater irrigation potential not only exists in arid areas of Africa and South Asia where irrigation is needed but also in humid areas of Europe and North America where groundwater irrigation can play an important role in building resilience to events of drought. However, it is essential to not to follow the path that has led to groundwater depletion in many parts of the world and develop this potential in a sustainable way through groundwater use regulations, policies and efficient technologies.

  • 39.
    Al-Azawi, Sundus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hydrophobic sand to combat water scarcity – Properties and possible chemical risk.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The city of Dubai, which lies in the Middle East is, as many other cities in the area, suffering from shortage of fresh water resources. This issue is handled by desalination of sea water, which is a rather expensive procedure. Recently, the city tends to promote using hydrophobic sand in order to reduce irrigation water quantity and watering durations. Economically, this procedure has fewer costs than water desalination but concerns were raised regarding whether the chemical compounds, used in the treatment process of normal sand, impose any contamination risks for soil and groundwater.

    Due to the fact that normal sand has high permeability comparing to other types of soil, such as silt and clay, the rates of water seepage in normal sand is considerably high which results high water consumption in agriculture. One of the objectives of this thesis is to identify the most effective design for utilizing hydrophobic sand and normal sand layers to obtain the most suitable permeability rates for plantation purposes. Another objective is to discuss the probability of organic chemicals and heavy metals seepage when using the hydrophobic sand in soil; leaching tests were carried out to provide input to this discussion. The study showed that the hydrophobic sand has higher permeability than normal sand when it is saturated with water. However, it needs a considerably longer time in order to reach the saturation stage so recommendations were provided to use a separate layer of hydrophobic sand beneath the normal sand layer where vegetation is planted and avoid using sand mixtures.

    Based on the leaching tests’ results, it was also concluded that negligible concentrations of the organic silica compounds will be released into soil and ground water and the rates of heavy metals in leaching water were within the allowable limits. However, the possibility of the transformation of the organic compounds, used for normal sand treatment, into silica-free organic compounds was not discussed in this thesis. In other words, the usage of hydrophobic sand for agriculture purposes does not threaten the safety of neither soil nor groundwater concerning the leaching of the chemical compounds and metals that were tested in this study.

  • 40.
    Albarède, Manon
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    How to facilitate the implementation of Industrial Ecology?: Development of a grid analysis framework to assess a territory's potential based on case studies in South Korea, Japan, China, Great-Britain and Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 41.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Enabling socio-technical transitions – electric vehicles and high voltage electricity grids as focal points of low emission futures2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today humankind is facing numerous sustainability challenges that require us to question CO2 intensive practices like those present in the transport and energy sector. To meet those challenges, many countries have adopted ambitious climate targets. Achieving such targets requires an understanding of the wider socio-technical context of transitions. The aim of this licentiate thesis is therefore to analyse such socio-technical transitions towards low-emission futures enabled by the electrification of passenger cars and high voltage grid development.

    A combination of different transitions theories (for ex. Multi-level perspective and Technological innovation systems) and institutional theory has been used. To reach the aim paper I analyses the climate impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and policy measures to achieve a breakthrough scenario for EVs. The results show that a mixture of short and long term policies are needed that take into account the technology development stage and behavioural aspects of EV adopters. Paper II addresses the need to include the high voltage transmission grid and its planning procedures as a central part of debates on transitions. Therefore the opportunities, challenges and reasons for conflict in the established regime are studied. The results show that in order to achieve a sustainable grid development regime, it is necessary to spend time on achieving legitimacy and social sustainability. The third paper uses semi-structured expert interviews and focuses on innovation dynamics for EV adoption. By focusing on dynamics instead of single policy measures, it is possible to grasp interactions within a niche, but also in between a niche, regime and landscape. The results show that strong initial technology legitimacy was needed to start substantial innovation dynamics. This could be further strengthened with a strong and broad coalition of actors. Both those factors led, if present, to an improved variety and match of policy instruments.

    As such this thesis has shown that transitions are not just about technology or policy instruments as such but about the dynamics and processes needed to enable them. This can be relevant in other transitions that otherwise may underestimate the importance of these components.

  • 42.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Nordic power road map 2050: Strategic choices towards carbon neutrality. D4.1.R Institutional grid review.2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 43.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    System innovation dynamics around electric vehicles. The cases of Norway, Denmark and Sweden.Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the comparison of electric car innovation patterns in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Doing so, it takes a closer look at what the most essential dynamics in the systems were over time and what enabled those dynamics. The main research aim is to contribute to a wider understanding of why Norway is so much ahead of Sweden and Denmark in electric car adoption. The purpose is also to adopt a perspective that goes beyond a mere focus on economic policy instruments. In order to do so different theory elements are combined in a framework. These elements stem from the transition theory literature field, especially the technological innovation system (TIS) and the multi-level perspective (MLP). This combination allows analysing the development behind a dynamic, not just when it comes to an innovation itself but also with regards to the established regime. The data is gathered through analysis of existing documents and data as well as a series of 27 expert interviews conducted in the three case countries. The findings suggest that there are important differences in transition patterns that can account for the electric vehicle (EV) diffusion situation we can find nowadays in the three Nordic countries. An important stepping stone was the need for a very strong legitimacy of the original EV vision that is also anchored in a coordinated, sector overarching coalition of actors that thinks strategically and long term. Moreover some general beneficial dynamics could be identified across the countries in question. In Norway these beneficial dynamics can be summarised as a systems motor, in Denmark as a failed entrepreneurial motor that shifted towards a constrained municipal motor and in Sweden as a loosely, coordinated and weaker version of a systems motor.

  • 44.
    Albrecht, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Electrification of vehicles – policy drivers and impacts in two scenarios.2013Inngår i: Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets / [ed] Qiuwei Wu, John Wiley & Sons, 2013Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines current policy drivers of battery electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid EVs, the current and anticipated impacts on carbon emissions, as well as what potential role policy can play in enhancing the innovation system and market development around such vehicles in the future. We start with a policy review of key targets in the Nordic countries and the EU, up to 2030, and discuss to what extent they are consistent with industry and expert estimates of how the systems can grow. On the basis of this, the second part elaborates two simple scenarios of EV development in the EU: one breakthrough expansion scenario and one incremental expansion scenario. Building on that is an analysis of the climate impacts of the two scenarios, given different assumptions relating to, for example, electricity production as well as EV penetration in the fleet. The third part examines what policy drivers might be needed to enable the breakthrough scenario, using a technological innovation systems perspective to describe the needed processes, drivers and developments.

  • 45.
    Albrecht, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Nilsson, Måns
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Nordic power road map 2050:Strategic choices towards carbon neutrality. D4.2.R Policy and Institutional Review Electric Vehicles (EV).2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines policy drivers of electric vehicles (EVs), and what potential role policy can play in enhancing the innovation and market development of EVs. We start with a policy review of key targets in the Nordic countries and the EU, up to 2030, and discuss to what extent they are consistent with industry, government and expert estimates of how the EV innovation systems can grow. On the basis of this, the second part examines what policy drivers might be needed to enable a breakthrough scenario, using a technological innovation systems (TIS) perspective to describe the needed processes, drivers and developments in policy and technology.

  • 46.
    Alcalá Borao, Raquel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Oxidation of pharmaceuticals by chlorine dioxide in wastewater effluent.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment has raised an emerging interest due to the fact that they pose negative environmental impact and health hazards related to long-term toxicity effects. As conventional treatments are not able to totally remove these substances it is necessary to seek for alternative advanced technologies such as oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO2). The objective of this master thesis is thus to find the most optimal dose – reaction time of ClO2 for the oxidation and maximum removal of selected environmentally relevant pharmaceuticals. Factorial design and subsequent optimization with MODDE was selected as the best approach to find the optimal dose – time. Batch oxidation tests were conducted on 100mL aliquots treated with ClO2 using wastewater effluent from Henriksdal WWTP. Thereafter solid phase extraction and final determination of pharmaceuticals was carried out on a high performance liquid chromatography- triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Results showed that applying a dose of 5 mg ClO2/L and a reaction time of 10 minutes, it is possible to remove more than a half of the 17 analyzed substances. Besides most of the pharmaceuticals with high and moderate environmental risk, would pose a low risk for the environment after treatment with the optimal ClO2 dose – reaction time. Despite the fact that ClO2 could successfully degrade most environmentally relevant pharmaceuticals, deeper research concerning the formation of toxic by-products after oxidative treatment needs to be done before upscaling this technology to pilot or full scale as a suitable end of pipe technology for pharmaceuticals removal.

  • 47.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Bengtsson, Magnus
    Szejnwald Brown, Halina
    Isenhour, Cindy
    Lorek, Sylvia
    Stevis, Dimitris
    Vergragt, Philip
    Why achieving the Paris Agreement requires reduced overall consumption and production2018Inngår i: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, ISSN 1548-7733, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological solutions to the challenge of dangerous climate change are urgent and necessary but to be effective they need to be accompanied by reductions in the total level of consumption and production of goods and services. This is for three reasons. First, private consumption and its associated production are among the key drivers of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, especially among highly emitting industrialized economies. There is no evidence that decoupling of the economy from GHG emissions is possible at the scale and speed needed. Second, investments in more sustainable infrastructure, including renewable energy, needed in coming decades will require extensive amounts of energy, largely from fossil sources, which will use up a significant share of the two-degree carbon budget. Third, improving the standard of living of the world’s poor will consume a major portion of the available carbon allowance. The scholarly community has a responsibility to put the issue of consumption and the associated production on the research and policy agenda.

  • 48.
    Alfredsson, Eva C.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Malmaeus, J. Mikael
    Prospects for economic growth in the 21st century: A survey covering mainstream, heterodox and scientifically oriented perspectives2017Inngår i: Economic Issues, ISSN 1363-7029, Vol. 22, s. 65-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of economic growth for the current economy, business and societal planning there are few long-term growth projections undertaken. There is, however, a vivid debate on what is called the 'new normal' - secular stagnation - which is undertaken within academic disciplines. This overview covers mainstream, heterodox and scientifically oriented economic perspectives on the prospects for economic growth in the 21st century. The survey shows that existing long-term projections and scenarios indicate growth rates ranging from around half a percentage point less than during the last two decades (projected by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD), to dramatically lower growth rates). Differences stem from different perspectives on the determinants of economic growth and the potential for improvements in productivity. Headwinds are: an aging population, especially in OECD countries; resource constraints, including energy; increasing environmental costs in particular due to the consequences of climate change; overaccumulation; increasing income differences; and declining social capital. One conclusion is that policymaking based on the assumption that economic growth will continue at pre-crisis levels is unwise and risky.

  • 49.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    Real capital investments and sustainability: - The case of Sweden2019Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 161, s. 216-224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Real capital investments are important for a transition to a more sustainable economy and for the continuous process of creative destruction and economic development. At the same time investments have negative environmental effects. In this paper we analyze to what extent the current investments in real capital (i.e.,buildings, machinery and infrastructures) in Sweden are sustainable in regard of the most important resources used in investments and in terms of CO2 emissions. This is evaluated based on Sweden's share of a sustainable use of these resources and our share of the remaining carbon budget for achieving the Paris agreement. In the analysis we have used best publicly available data and methods to indicatively establish sustainable levels of resource use and emissions. We find that 1 million invested SEK (US$ 110,000) generate 15–75 tonnes of CO2 emissions and use 80–260 MWh of energy, and on average 4.8 tonnes of iron, 0.2 tonnes of aluminum, 260 tonnes of gravel and sand and 6 tonnes of timber. Our analysis shows that within 50 years current investment would use up Sweden's CO2 budget available for achieving the Paris agreement, leaving no room for emissions from consumption. The use of timber, gravel and sand is above Sweden's share of a global yearly sustainable production. The current use of iron and aluminum can be maintained for 20–50 years, but approaches the sustainability criteria with a 200 year perspective.

  • 50.
    Almqvist, Ludvig
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Groundwater investigation at Storsudret, Gotland2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden have faced decreasing groundwater storage with critical low groundwater levels for several years. Gotland is one example with issues of providing freshwater due to the low groundwater levels. These circumstances can be related to impacts caused by early agriculture development, an increased demand of freshwater and climate change. There is a need in this region to increase the groundwater storage to ensure enough freshwater. The aim of the study is to increase freshwater storage. Digital geographical information system (GIS) was chosen as a tool in this study in order to cover large geographical areas.  The study was divided into two parts, with focus to determine hydrological and hydrogeological conditions and to identify suitable areas where groundwater storage could be increased. The first part studied: specific capacity, groundwater storage, groundwater balance and topographic wetness index. The second part locked at four methods to increase freshwater storage: Lakes, controlled drainage, wetland and subsurface dam. The result tells us that lakes have the potential to provide freshwater for the municipal distribution network. The controlled drainage method has the ability reduce the outflow of surface water and to increase the groundwater infiltration. Earlier drained wetland areas was identified which could serve as freshwater storage. Suitable areas for subsurface dams were identified. They could work as a large groundwater storage as a decentralized system with the ability to provide groundwater for wells that are spread out. However the identified areas for each methods needs further investigations in more detail to determine the accuracy of the results.

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