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  • 1.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Bengtsson, Magnus
    Szejnwald Brown, Halina
    Isenhour, Cindy
    Lorek, Sylvia
    Stevis, Dimitris
    Vergragt, Philip
    Why achieving the Paris Agreement requires reduced overall consumption and production2018Inngår i: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, ISSN 1548-7733, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological solutions to the challenge of dangerous climate change are urgent and necessary but to be effective they need to be accompanied by reductions in the total level of consumption and production of goods and services. This is for three reasons. First, private consumption and its associated production are among the key drivers of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, especially among highly emitting industrialized economies. There is no evidence that decoupling of the economy from GHG emissions is possible at the scale and speed needed. Second, investments in more sustainable infrastructure, including renewable energy, needed in coming decades will require extensive amounts of energy, largely from fossil sources, which will use up a significant share of the two-degree carbon budget. Third, improving the standard of living of the world’s poor will consume a major portion of the available carbon allowance. The scholarly community has a responsibility to put the issue of consumption and the associated production on the research and policy agenda.

  • 2.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    Real capital investments and sustainability: - The case of Sweden2019Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 161, s. 216-224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Real capital investments are important for a transition to a more sustainable economy and for the continuous process of creative destruction and economic development. At the same time investments have negative environmental effects. In this paper we analyze to what extent the current investments in real capital (i.e.,buildings, machinery and infrastructures) in Sweden are sustainable in regard of the most important resources used in investments and in terms of CO2 emissions. This is evaluated based on Sweden's share of a sustainable use of these resources and our share of the remaining carbon budget for achieving the Paris agreement. In the analysis we have used best publicly available data and methods to indicatively establish sustainable levels of resource use and emissions. We find that 1 million invested SEK (US$ 110,000) generate 15–75 tonnes of CO2 emissions and use 80–260 MWh of energy, and on average 4.8 tonnes of iron, 0.2 tonnes of aluminum, 260 tonnes of gravel and sand and 6 tonnes of timber. Our analysis shows that within 50 years current investment would use up Sweden's CO2 budget available for achieving the Paris agreement, leaving no room for emissions from consumption. The use of timber, gravel and sand is above Sweden's share of a global yearly sustainable production. The current use of iron and aluminum can be maintained for 20–50 years, but approaches the sustainability criteria with a 200 year perspective.

  • 3. Bengtsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Cohen, Maurie
    New Jersey Inst Technol, Newark, NJ 07102 USA..
    Lorek, Sylvia
    Sustainable Europe Res Inst, Cologne, Germany..
    Schroeder, Patrick
    Inst Dev Studies, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Transforming systems of consumption and production for achieving the sustainable development goals: moving beyond efficiency2018Inngår i: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 1533-1547Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations formulated the sustainable development goals (SDGs) in 2015 as a comprehensive global policy framework for addressing the most pressing social and environmental challenges currently facing humanity. In this paper, we analyse SDG 12, which aims to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. Despite long-standing political recognition of this objective, and ample scientific evidence both on its importance and on the efficacy of various ways of promoting it, the SDGs do not provide clear goals or effective guidance on how to accomplish this urgently needed transformation. Drawing from the growing body of research on sustainable consumption and production (SCP), the paper identifies two dominant vantage pointsone focused on promoting more efficient production methods and products (mainly through technological improvement and informed consumer choice) and the other stressing the need to consider also overall volumes of consumption, distributional issues, and related social and institutional changes. We label these two approaches efficiency and systemic. Research shows that while the efficiency approach contains essential elements of a transition to sustainability, it is by itself highly unlikely to bring about sustainable outcomes. Concomitantly, research also finds that volumes of consumption and production are closely associated with environmental impacts, indicating a need to curtail these volumes in ways that safeguard social sustainability, which is unlikely to be possible without a restructuring of existing socioeconomic arrangements. Analysing how these two perspectives are reflected in the SDGs framework, we find that in its current conception, it mainly relies on the efficiency approach. On the basis of this assessment, we conclude that the SDGs represent a partial and inadequate conceptualisation of SCP which will hamper implementation. Based on this determination, this paper provides some suggestions on how governments and other actors involved in SDGs operationalisation could more effectively pursue SCP from a systemic standpoint and use the transformation of systems of consumption and production as a lever for achieving multiple sustainability objectives.

  • 4.
    Bisander, Iza
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. Environmental strategies.
    Låga parkeringstal i utbyte mot grön mobilitet: erfarenheter från och jämförelse mellan kommuner i Sverige2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har undersökt hur flexibla parkeringstal ser ut och motiveras i olika kommuner men har även undersökt ett specifikt fall där flexibla parkeringstal har tillämpats. Studien hade tre syften varav det första var att undersöka hur kommuner motiverar övergången till mer flexibla parkeringstal och det andra syftet var att undersöka hur kommunerna utformar principerna för flexibla parkeringstal för att tillmötesgå deras motiv. Det sista syftet var att analysera om mobilitetsåtgärder som införs i samband med flexibla parkeringstal påverkar de boendes resmönster och vardagsliv.

    För att besvara studiens syften användes kvalitativa forskningsmetoder. För att undersöka olika kommuners utformning och motivering av flexibla parkeringstal har en kvalitativ dokumentanalys genomförts. Alla kommuner använder inte flexibla parkeringstal utan det är ett relativt nytt fenomen. Denna studie identifierade 24 kommuner som tillåter flexibla parkeringstal i deras policydokument. När kommunernas parkeringspolicys jämfördes märkes en stor variation av utformningen av flexibla parkeringstal. Vissa kommuner har tydliga riktlinjer på vilka åtgärder som ger ett visst procentuellt avdrag medan andra kommuner lämnar det öppet för byggherren att utforma vilka åtgärder denne önskar göra utan förutbestämt avdrag.

    Området Fullriggaren i Malmö var ett av de första områdena som tillämpade flexibla parkeringstal. Området har varit bebott i cirka fem år och har inte utvärderats grundligt. Kvalitativa semi-strukturerade intervjuer utfördes med personer som bor i området Fullriggaren och det visade sig att de boende har influerats av mobilitetstjänsterna till en viss del men att deras resmönster också kan spåras till andra faktorer. Cykelinfrastrukturen, normer, attityder och närhet till service tros påverka respondenternas val av färdmedel.

  • 5.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Oreskovic, N.
    Linder, N.
    Svensdotter, M.
    Schewenius, M.
    Emmelin, A.
    Tuvendal, M.
    Lokala initiativ - En outnyttjad potential i Stockholmsregionens arbete för hållbar utveckling2017Inngår i: YMER, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 137, s. 189-211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Bradley, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Schalk, Meike
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur.
    Futurist Feminist Political Ecology: Rewriting Stockholm’s Vision 20302017Inngår i: Feminist Futures of Spatial Practice: Materialisms, Activisms, Dialogues, Pedagogies, Projections / [ed] Meike Schalk, Thérèse Kristiansson, Ramia Mazé, Baunach DE: AADR / Spurbuchverlag , 2017, s. 301-327Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    A passage to carsharing: The case of implementing a municipal carsharing schemeManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Carsharing is a transportation mode that has existed for a long time but that has been rapidly growing the last decades, mainly due to the ongoing digitisation of society. Carsharing has qualities that places it within the intersection of sustainable mobility and the sharing economy. Carsharing is therefore often proposed in policies and planning documents as a measure to facilitate sustainable mobility. But what does the transition from theoretical solution to actual implemented service, accessible to users actually look like?

    This paper presents the findings of qualitative study that describes and analyses the case of Täby, a Swedish municipality in the Stockholm region, that decided to address its set sustainability targets and business travel practices by procuring a carsharing service and installing an in-house bicycle pool for officials. The study, that draws findings from document studies and semi-structured interviews, applies an actor-network theory inspired approach. The analysis of the process, show how the involved actors, both human and non-human, together drove the process forward, and eventually led to the implementation of a carsharing scheme for the officials.

    The paper concludes that carsharing as a program of action, was translated from an in-house carsharing open to citizens, to a procured service for the officials, and that the move to new premises acted as obligatory passage point for this process. The paper also concludes that during the process, the program of action was associated with policy documents such as the environmental goals and the Climate and Energy Strategy who served in a legitimising way and thus helped to fend of anti-programs such as cost efficiency, which otherwise was a prevalent managerial and operational strategy. 

  • 8.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    What is a sustainable everyday life?: Exploring and assessing the sustainability of everyday travel, sharing and ICT.2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world where the general trend is unsustainable consumption patterns, can sustainable everyday life be enabled? This thesis sought to expand the knowledge base for policies and measures for sustainability, based on the assumption that consumption can be viewed as the outcome of practices in which people engage in their day-to-day life. The thesis addressed the overall aim by examining the following questions: How can information and communication technology (ICT) practices contribute to sustainable everyday practices? How can sharing practices, ICT-based and other, contribute to sustainable everyday practices? and How can travel practices, ICT-based and other, contribute to sustainable everyday practices?

    Empirical and conceptual studies revealed that ICT has become a fundamental and integral part of everyday practices and that digitalisation is a tangible material companion with implications for sustainability. ICT changes practices in ways that can be both positive and negative from a sustainability perspective. These second-order effects need to be addressed early when developing ICT solutions/services.

    ICT has also contributed to development of the sharing economy, by making sharing easier and scalable. However, although some sharing practices can contribute to overall sustainability, others could display a high potential and risk, simultaneously. It is therefore important to identify and mitigate negative effects and exploit the full potential of sustainable sharing activities from a policy perspective.

    Everyday travel is the outcome of people’s social practices. Travel practices are therefore ultimately interlocked with other practices and spatially and temporally structured. It can thus be quite difficult for city dwellers, although not impossible, to fit in new ways of carrying out everyday city travel rather than existing travel practices. New travel practices should be viewed as complementary if there are no other enabling factors at play, such as convenience, pricing, policies and/or infrastructural changes. If some form of policy and/or infrastructural change is introduced, it is possible to change travel patterns and ultimately reduce travel. Here too, ICT could enable changes in travel practices, e.g. through mediated meetings or vehicle sharing. However, for sustainable everyday travel to become widespread, urban planning issues are important. Policy documents and environmental targets can be used proactively to legitimise new policies that enable more sustainable travel practices.

    This thesis shows that everyday practices, in a relatively affluent European urban context, contribute greatly to environmental impacts. Hence, how everyday practices are structured, or could be re-structured, is critical for sustainable development. Practices shape, and are shaped, by their socio-material context. This requires an overall, holistic approach, as offered by practice theory and actor-network theory. A holistic approach is crucial from a sustainability policy perspective, as it enables measures that target some, or all, of the different elements (material, meaning, skills) that constitute practice. It may also be crucial for policies addressing temporal and spatial aspects that structure practices, e.g. societal schedules and people’s homes in relation to their workplace. This presents an opportunity that policymakers could further explore and exploit.

  • 9.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Björn, Michael
    Lund School of Economics and Management.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Why share?: An outline of a policy framework for sharing.Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     The sharing economy has received much attention in recent years, partly because it carries a promise of reducing environmental impacts. This decrease is expected to take place through higher utilization of raw materials and energy when physical products are shared to a greater extent . However, our reading of current literature on sharing suggests that such environmental impacts have rarely been assessed at the societal level, e.g. nationally or along a supply chain. Neither are definitions and classifications of sharing found in literature, in general, particularly helpful for estimating environmental potentials and risks. We argue that there is a need for a framework supporting policy to clarify the importance of policy when it comes to the final effects of sharing.

    The aim of this paper is to outline a policy framework for environmental potentials and risks of the sharing economy. We have here delimited this paper to discuss levels of energy use as an example of environmental impact, but argue that the tentative policy framework presented can be used for any sustainability factor. In the paper we populate the policy framework with a spectrum of sharing initiatives and discuss the possible changes in energy use connected to these initiatives. Furthermore, we also discuss in what areas research on the environmental impacts of sharing initiatives could be specifically important, based on the outcome of populating the policy framework for potentials and risks.

  • 10.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Wester, Misse
    LTH, Div Risk Management & Societal Safety, Lund, Sweden..
    Snickare, Lotta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Söderberg, Inga-Lill
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Climate change mitigation efforts among transportation and manufacturing companies: The current state of efforts in Sweden according to available documentation2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 196, s. 588-593Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, transportation and manufacturing emit large amount of greenhouse gases that needs to be lowered for reaching agreed upon slim ate goals. In this context evidence of mitigation activities among eighty-five companies and their forty-five parent companies in these two polluting sectors were traced focusing on a country that has committed itself to leading the implementation of ambitious climate mitigation goals worldwide. Documentation from the companies in the transportation and manufacturing sectors was scrutinized (yearly reports, homepages and sustainability reports, if available) for evidence of any mitigation efforts, including emissions reporting and reduction goals. The study's results found that two thirds of the companies seemed to have done nothing to mitigate climate change, while efforts in the remaining companies were modest at best; mitigation activities among the forty-five parent companies were only slightly more ambitious. The implications of these depressing findings are discussed in the light of possible caveats and the possibilities of new policy measures such as gender quotas in company boards. The conclusion is that the study's results most likely reflect reality in the studied sectors and that novel approaches and more sector oriented research is needed in the quest for a carbon-neutral society..

  • 11.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Rädda maten - Åtgärder för svinnminskande beteendeförändringar hos konsument2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten redovisas resultat av en litteraturstudie av studier där man har försökt minska matsvinnet genom någon form av intervention som inriktar sig på privatpersoner. De interventioner som fokuseras är åtgärder som har vidtagits för att för- ändra ett existerande beteende, och som har utvärderats på ett vetenskapligt sätt. Med matsvinn avses i den här rapporten livsmedel som skulle kunna ha ätits om det hanterats annorlunda, men som slängts. Privatpersoners matsvinn kan uppstå både i hemmen och när de äter på restaurang och i de studier vi har hittat har olika typer av åtgärder använts: t.ex. utbildning och information om betydelsen av att minska matsvinn; appar och andra hjälpmedel så att människor kan hålla reda på vad de har hemma och inte köper ny mat i onödan; liksom appar som gör att de kan dela överbliven mat. Man har också provat att helt enkelt ge gästerna mindre tallrikar när de äter ute. Privatpersoner kan också uppmuntras till att bidra till minskat matsvinn i andra delar av kedjan, till exempel genom att de uppmuntras till inköp av mat som närmar sig bäst-före-datum. Ofta har de interventioner som gjorts bara utvärderats med en liten grupp personer och långsiktiga utvärderingar av resultaten saknas helt. De utvärderingar som gjorts visar dock på en märkbar effekt, både vad gäller minskning av matsvinnet och vad gäller medvetandegörande och reflektion hos hushållen. Samtidigt finns en rad initiativ för att minska konsumentens matsvinn som inte utvärderats alls. Med tanke på matsvinnets miljömässiga och ekonomiska konsekvenser anser vi att det är väl värt att utvärdera en del av dessa pågående initiativ både kort-och långsiktigt, t.ex. de pågående initiativ som finns för att minska matsvinn från restauranger genom att sälja överbliven mat billigare. Vi anser också att interventioner som provats i andra länder också bör implementeras i Sverige, exempelvis olika hjälpmedel för att hålla reda på vad som finns i kylen samt för att stimulera delning av överbliven mat. Det finns också behov av mer forskning om hur individen och den omgivande samhällsstrukturen kan samverka för att minska matsvinnet samt behov av utvärdering med större grupper av hushåll än vad som gjorts hittills. 

  • 12.
    Corvellec, Hervé
    et al.
    Institutionen för service management och tjänstevetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Ek, Richard
    Institutionen för service management och tjänstevetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Svingstedt, Anette
    Institutionen för service management och tjänstevetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Zapata, Patrik
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Zapata-Campos, María-José
    Management och Organisation, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Avfallsförebyggande handlar om effektiv produktion och genomtänkt konsumtion –inte om avfall.: sju lärdomar från forskningsprojektet från avfallshantering till avfallsförebyggande2018Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 13. Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Hennlock, Magnus
    Neij, Lena
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Engström, Gustav
    Berg, Lars
    Turesson, Anders
    Möjligheter och begränsningar med samhällsekonomiska analyser.2018Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14.
    Fauré, Eléonore
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Sharing the doughnut: Exploring sustainable and just futures2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite decades of international discussions or summits on the need to radically reduce e.g. increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) or biodiversity loss, these are still rising. While these negative environmental trends continue, it is important to discuss alternative futures in an attempt to redirect society on a more sustainable and just path.

    The overall aim of the thesis is to develop images of the future and explore what sustainable and just futures might look like. The current environmental impact of Swedish consumption, both in Sweden and abroad, is shown using eight indicators of environmental pressures and resource use – illustrating where in the world the pressures or resource use occur and for which product groups. This gives us a starting point as to where we are today regarding some of the environmental challenges facing Sweden.

    Alternative futures that can challenge existing unsustainable trends are explored using four images of the future – so-called backcasting or long-term transformative scenarios. All of these need to fulfil two environmental and two social sustainability goals and do not rely on continued GDP growth.

    These images represent different strategies to reach the four selected goals.

    Such strategies may however have different consequences not just for these four specific goals but also for other sustainability issues and may have different implications for various groups in society. Therefore, they need to be evaluated accordingly. Existing methods to evaluate future scenarios regarding sustainability aspects are discussed in this thesis as well as the need to develop new methods to encompass all issues.

    A combination of methods and data is used to evaluate what it would actually mean if the scenarios were to fulfil a climate target for Swedish consumption in line with the 1.5°C. trajectory suggested as the target to strive for in the Paris Climate Agreement and in the latest IPCC report (IPCC, 2018) as regards reduction of goods consumption and altered consumption patterns in Sweden.

    This thesis stresses the need to clarify the assumptions made when formulating goals such as whether a perspective on intergenerational (between different generations) and intragenerational justice (within the current generation) is considered. It also underlines the need to identify and discuss potential goal conflicts that necessarily occur when considering several sustainability goals, whether they can be avoided or require potential trade-offs. It highlights the importance of making the underlying values embedded in assessment methods more visible. The intention in revealing goal conflicts, contradictions or hidden values is not to reach consensus but to ensure that the decisions are informed and made in a transparent manner.

    Indeed, these considerations imply moving from a first and rather vague level of meaning of the concept of sustainability where everyone can agree on a definition but no concrete and practical guidance can be gained to a second level where conflicts arise and values differ.

  • 15.
    Fauré, Eléonore
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Low-carbon futures for a Swedish society beyond GDP growthManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how different backcasting scenarios for developments beyond traditional GDP growth 2050,  in Sweden may fulfill a climate goal corresponding to keeping global warming to a maximum 1.5 degrees with 50% likelihood. This corresponds to  a 92% decrease of GHG emissions from Swedish consumption from today’s level. The four scenarios illustrate different strategies: 1) collaborative economy, 2) local self-sufficiency, 3) automation for quality of life and 4) circular economy in the welfare state. The aim is to further precise and quantify the scenario narratives with a focus on GHG emissions occurring as a result of Swedish consumption, both private and public. Preliminary results show that, as we assume that Sweden is fossil-free 2050, particular areas of attention are diets, air travel, emission intensities in other countries and the level of imports.. Potential implications for other environmental goals are discussed.

  • 16.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Gullberg, Anders
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Summerton, Jane
    Östlig förbindelse löser inte trängselproblemen.2018Inngår i: Svenska DagbladetArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Framtiden för Naturvårdsverket: tre workshoppar med Naturvårdsverkets personal2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Hedin, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Pargman, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    A Systematic Review of Digital Behaviour Change Interventions for More Sustainable Food Consumption2019Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikkel-id 2638Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food production and consumption present major sustainability challenges, and finding ways to reduce the environmental impact of food, for example through behavioural changes by consumers, is becoming increasingly important. In recent years, digital interventions have become important tools to change behaviours in many areas. In this review, we evaluate the status of current scientific knowledge of digital behaviour change interventions for sustainable food consumption practices. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist for how to conduct systematic reviews, we searched multiple databases for papers containing terms related to food, sustainability and digital behaviour change interventions. Only studies where the digital interventions were actually implemented and evaluated from a behaviour change perspective were included, resulting in 15 primary studies in the final review. The quality of the studies was evaluated from a behaviour change perspective, and the approaches used were categorised using two intervention frameworks, the Behaviour Change Wheel and the Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1. The results show that all of the included studies had major quality issues when evaluated from a behaviour change perspective. This means that we could not find any evidence regarding whether the digital behaviour change interventions examined worked or not. Most studies further lacked theoretical grounding or a clear approach to how or why they should be effective for behaviour change for more sustainable food consumption practices. Our main recommendation for future research in the field is to expand from the current exploratory phase to conducting scientifically rigorous studies of higher quality, more thoroughly grounded in behaviour change theory and methods. Furthermore, based on our study, we suggest changes to the Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1.

  • 19.
    Hedin, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Pargman, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    En systematisk forskningsöversikt av digitala interventioner för mer hållbara beteenden kring livsmedelskonsumtion2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Livsmedelsproduktion och livsmedelskonsumtion medför stora hållbarhetsutmaningar, och det blir allt viktigare att hitta sätt att minska miljöpåverkan orsakad av mat, till exempel genom beteendeförändringar hos konsumenterna. Under de senaste åren har digitala interventioner blivit viktiga verktyg för att förändra beteenden på många områden. I detta projekt har vi gjort en systematisk forskningsöversikt där vi gått igenom forskningsläget rörande digitala beteendeinterventioner för hållbar matkonsumtion. Vi har utgått från PRISMA-checklistan för hur sådana systematiska forskningsöversikter ska genomföras, och vi har genomsökt flera forskningsdatabaser för att hitta vetenskapliga artiklar som rör mat, hållbarhet och digitala beteendeinterventioner. Endast studier där de digitala interventionerna har implementerats och testats ur ett förändringsperspektiv har inkluderats, vilket resulterade i 15 primära studier som ingått i vår slutliga granskning. Kvaliteten på studierna utvärderades ur ett beteendeförändringssperspektiv, och de metoder för beteendeförändring som använts har kategoriserats med hjälp av två ramverk, “Behavior Change Wheel” och “Behavior Change Technique taxonomy v1”. Resultaten visade att alla inkluderade studier hade stora kvalitetsproblem när de utvärderades ur ett beteendeförändrings-perspektiv. Det innebär att vi inte kunde hitta några resultat som visade på om de digitala beteendeinterventionerna som undersöktes fungerade eller ej. De flesta studier saknade vidare en teoretisk bas för hur eller varför interventionerna skulle kunna leda till beteendeförändring för mer hållbar livsmedelskonsumtion. Vår huvudsakliga rekommendation för framtida forskning inom området är att gå vidare från en utforskande fas till att genomföra vetenskapliga studier med tydligare teoretisk bas och metodik.

  • 20.
    Henriksson, Malin
    et al.
    VTI.
    Hultman, Martin
    Chalmers.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Kaijser, Anna
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Social and ecological entrepreneurship in a circular economy: the need for understanding transitional agency2019Inngår i: A Research Agenda for Social Entrepreneurship / [ed] Anne de Bruin and Simon Teasdale, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019, 1 st, s. 113-120Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ways of organizing matter to circulate longer in societies are gaining much political and business interest. Simultaneously, research has seen an upsurge. In this chapter we argue that this focus on circulating matter is welcome, but that the practice of Circular Economy, might greenwash destructive industrial modern production. Current research into Circular Economy is mainly done at a large industrial scale, thereby focusing on re-circulating waste into resources. We propose that research needs also to be done on a more human, down to earth, scale in which forms of Social Entrepreneurship and Ecopreneurship might help show how to organize transitional agency towards living within planetary boundaries. From this perspective decentralized and small-scale solutions can be illuminated that will be part of re-designing systems, making circular flows not only focusing on waste, but also display choices about what matter could circulate more and what should not.

  • 21.
    Henriksson, Patrick
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Sludge Treatment Systems: Is recycling aluminium based coagulant from chemical sludge the way of the future?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical coagulation is a widely used wastewater treatment method around the world to reduce impurities from the process water in various industries. However, the large amounts of coagulation chemicals that are required for the removal of dissolved particles create a chemical sludge which poses a great environmental problem. Purac AB, a Swedish wastewater treatment company attempts to solve this problem with a new technology called the ReAl process. The ReAl process can recycle the aluminium ions from the commonly used coagulant aluminium sulfate, which reduces the amount of chemical sludge and the amount of aluminium sulfate needed in the coagulation process. In this study, a comparative life cycle assessment was conducted with a cradle-to-grave approach and mostly in accordance with the ISO-14040 series with the only deviation of not including resource-based impact categories. The goal was to evaluate the environmental impact of two sludge treatment systems – a conventional system (system 1) and a system which includes the ReAl process (system 2). Furthermore, the environmental performance of two dewatering equipment’s, a decanter centrifuge and a filter press, were examined in system 1, while in system 2, the exclusion of sludge drying was investigated.

    The scope of the study did not include the infrastructure of the sludge treatment systems and the ReAl process since previous studies have shown that, the environmental impact from the infrastructure in the wastewater treatment industry is relatively small compared to other factors, such as the energy and coagulation chemical used in these systems.

    The characterization results showed that system 2 had the lowest environmental impact on all the evaluated impact categories. The results also revealed that system 1 would have a slightly lower environmental impact if the chemical sludge was dewatered with a decanter centrifuge instead of a filter press. Similarly, system 2 would have a slightly lower environmental impact if sludge drying was excluded from the system. However, the environmental performance gain from selecting the best dewatering and drying equipment is limited and considered within the margin of error. Thus, this thesis suggests selecting the sludge treatment equipment based on their economic and technical factors before their environmental performance.

    The largest environmental impact in system 1 derived from the use of the coagulation chemical aluminium sulfate, while in system 2, sulfuric acid used in the ReAl process contributed the most to its environmental impact. The sensitivity analysis showed that a “clean” electricity mix is essential for system 2 and the ReAl process overall impact on the environment compared to system 1.

  • 22.
    Höjer, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Eklandagatan 86, S-41261 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Measures and Steps for More Efficient Use of Buildings2018Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 6, artikkel-id 1949Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As urbanization continues and more people move into cities and urban areas, pressure on available land for new constructions will continue to increase. This situation constitutes an incentive to review the need for interior space and uses of existing buildings. A great deal can be gained from using existing buildings more efficiently instead of constructing new ones: Reduced resource usage during construction (investments, natural resources, and energy), operation, and maintenance; more activity per square meter of buildings creates a greater basis for public transport and other services; more intensive use of buildings creates a more vibrant city without building on virgin land. The aim of this paper is to initiate a discussion regarding how digitalization can affect the demand and supply of interior space in existing buildings and elaborate on how policy can support more resource-efficient uses of space. New activity-based resource measurements intended for use in buildings are proposed, and several principles that have the potential to decrease environmental impact through more efficient usage of space are outlined. Based on these ideas for encouraging the flexible use of building spaces that are facilitated by digitalization and the new measurement approaches, a four-step principle for construction is proposed: The first step is to reduce the demand for space, the second is to intensify usage of existing space, the third is to reconstruct and adapt existing buildings to current needs, and the fourth is to construct new buildings. Urging political, municipal, construction, and real-estate decision makers to contemplate this principle, particularly in view of the new conditions that digitalization entails, will lead to more sustainable construction and, in the long term, a sustainable built environment.

  • 23. Isaksson, Anna
    et al.
    Börjesson, Emma
    Gunn, Maja
    Andersson, Camilla
    Ehrnberger, Karin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Norm Critical Design and Ethnography: Possibilities, Objectives and Stakeholders2017Inngår i: Sociological research online, ISSN 1360-7804, E-ISSN 1360-7804, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 232-252Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to describe the potential of combining norm critical design and ethnography in a collaborative project seeking to promote social change. In doing so the article will contribute with new perspectives on how design and ethnography can be practised in a joint effort between researchers and organisations. The article examines the following research questions: How can norm critical design and ethnography be used in a collaborative project seeking to promote change towards gender equality in an organisation? What distinguishes a norm critical design approach from other approaches using design and ethnography for intervention and social change? By taking their point of departure in a collaborative project with the Swedish fire and rescue service the authors demonstrate how a norm critical perspective on design in combination with ethnography provides a pedagogical tool for different stakeholders seeking to promote change in organisations. Even though a norm critical design approach like this shares the same interest in social change as more conventional ethnography and design projects do, there are some crucial and interesting differences when it comes to objectives and the collection of stakeholders that will be explored in this article.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Towards a sustainable mobility paradigm? An assessment of three policy measures2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation and mobility are important components in the organisation and structure of people´s daily activities, but the transport sector has considerable environmental impacts, e.g. greenhouse gas emissions and land use. Governance of the sector is difficult, as there is an ongoing a shift in governance structures away from hierarchical towards more collaborative governance. Given these challenges, it may be necessary to shift the focus from mobility to accessibility and to adopt a new paradigm in transport planning.

    This thesis critically investigates what a paradigm shift might mean for the Swedish national and municipal transport, housing and parking planning context and examines what a Social Practice Theory framework could contribute in analysing such a paradigm shift. This is done by investigating three different policies that are arguably in line with a shift in planning paradigms.

    All three policy measures open up decision making to different stakeholders or even citizens, reflecting a shift in governance, and all highlight the need to shift the focus from physical infrastructure to accessibility, through collaboration with a range of stakeholders. However, in each case, current conditions and practices render a transition more difficult.

    The Swedish Transport Administration (STA) states the importance of reducing the need to travel and of using existing infrastructure more efficiently, and stipulates that these types of measures should be considered before new infrastructure investments. However, the STA has a limited mandate to finance these measures, resulting in ambiguous signals and frustration among regional STA officials. This thesis shows that making the STA’s mandate more function-oriented would facilitate a transition in line with the sustainable mobility paradigm.

    Another policy measure discussed in the thesis is a shift from minimum parking requirements, where developers are required to build a minimum number of parking spaces, to flexible parking requirements, where the number of parking spaces provided depends on the local context and where other mobility services may replace the need for physical parking spaces. In this thesis, people who have bought apartments in developments with flexible parking requirements were surveyed in order to understand their practices and how they perceive and plan to use the mobility services provided.

    The feasibility of using a new parking management tool, Parking Benefit Districts, in a European context (Stockholm, Sweden) was assessed. In a Parking Benefit Districts system, parking charges are implemented, increased or extended to curb parking, with the revenues being returned to the area where the charges are imposed and with citizens, or other stakeholders, participating in decisions on how to use the revenues. The underlying intention is to increase acceptance of parking charges, as on-street parking charges may be deemed necessary by planners, but are unpopular among citizens and other stakeholders. This thesis shows that there are no legal barriers to implementing a Parking Benefit District programme in Sweden, but there are some limitations on how revenues can be used. Moreover, Sweden does not have this planning tradition and the programme may not be perceived as legitimate. Another important issue is equity and participation, e.g. it is important to consider who to include and how to include them.

    Overall, the policy measures studied involve a shift away from an infrastructure-centred to a people-centred approach. However, other planning practices and institutions may push in different directions. This thesis shows that a Social Practice Theory framework can be useful as a lens through which researchers and policymakers view possible changes needed to achieve a sustainable mobility paradigm.

  • 25.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    En modern entré till mer bilfria vardagsliv i Älvsjö och Haninge?: Lägenhetsköpares resvanor, dagliga aktiviteter och förväntningar före flytt till BRF On Track och BRF Blicken, med mobilitetstjänster och låga parkeringstal.2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    (as published, with the title “A Modern Entrance to Car-free Everyday lives (Fredrik Johansson, Greger Henriksson)” at Polis Conference “Innovation in Transport for Sustainable Cities and Regions”, November 2018)

     

    Sweden, as well as many other countries, has used minimum parking requirements since the 50s, where the city requires the developer to provide a minimum number of parking spaces. Several researchers have criticized the appropriateness of this approach, highlighting that these requirements contribute to urban sprawl, increase construction costs and car use, and that they may reduce the number of apartments being built (Shoup, 1999). In the light of these criticisms many Swedish cities, such as Stockholm, have revised their parking policies, and now use lower and more flexible parking standards for apartments. These standards vary depending on the apartments’ location, public transport supply and supply of services in the area. Furthermore, the developer can substitute a certain amount of parking for other mobility services (such as membership in a car club).

    The results from a research project are presented, where two residential developments in the Stockholm region are planned according to these new more flexible principles. Interviews and surveys have been carried out with people who bought an apartment before they moved in, and a post-evaluation will be carried out when they have moved in (early autumn 2018). The presentation will mostly focus on the pre-evaluation, but some tentative results from the post-evaluation will also be presented.

     

    The principal focus was to understand:

    • how and why people travel as they do (e.g. how the travel habits are intertwined with other daily activities)
    • whether people are aware of the parking situation and the provision of mobility services as well as what they think of this.
    • how it affected their decision to move to the apartments and whether and how it influences their (planned) car ownership and travel habits (i.e. do they plan to sell their car, how does this procedure look
    • the car ownership and travel habits of people moving in to the pilot houses before and after they moved in

    Innovative part of project:

    Several cities around the world have started a shift away from minimum parking standards and towards a more flexible approach and with the aim to car traffic. However, these new guidelines, however promising, are not thoroughly evaluated, and planners at the municipalities are worried that not enough parking spaces are built. The innovative parts of this project are twofold:

     

    • Transdisciplinary research that, apart from the researchers, include the developers and the municipality. The research project started in 2011 and the transdisciplinary research group has worked together throughout the process from choosing the developments, planning and building the apartments and finally conducting evaluations before and after people move in (fall 2018). This on-going and participatory research methodology give us deep insights
    • Pre- and post evaluations, with qualitative focus. The second innovative part of the project is the qualitative evaluation methodology. The evaluations are not merely measuring quantitative factors, but focuses more particularly on understanding how habits are entwined in peoples’ daily activities, and perceived and given meaning to by people. Furthermore, the research gives insights into the process of changing habits and on how planners and developers can facilitate and aid in such a process.

    Results achieved:

     

    • Buyers’ car ownership and travel habits are quite similar to socio-demographically comparable populations
    • The distance to the commuter train and local centre is a precondition for reduced car ownership, and made some people starting to consider the need for a car
    • The mobility services and restricted number of parking spaces did not considerably affect the decision to move to the apartments.
    • People buying an apartment had limited experience with the mobility services (e.g. car club). They were positive to the mobility services, and several considered that they did not need a private car if only the mobility services functioned.
    • The developers had provided information about the mobility services throughout the entire process. Despite this, several people did not know about the mobility services, and some had misunderstood the services.
    • Retired people seemed to be a particularly interesting target group. Many retired people traveled more seldom, but still needed a car for some errands. This group was interested in the car club, both as a way to provide access to a car when needed, and to reduce mobility cost. However, they felt unsure about how the car club worked in practice and whether they would have access to a car when needed.

    Lessons learned:

    The results mentioned above will be complemented with a post-evaluation (autumn 2018), and some tentative results from the post-evaluation will also be presented.

    Some lessons learned so far are that these apartments do not seem to attract a specific target group, but seem to be applicable to a more general public. However, young people generally have a lower car ownership (and can be encouraged to not buy a car) and retired people may find it attractive to substitute a private car for mobility services (but feel unsecure about the services).

    Information is needed, but many also need to get tangible experiences (test) of the services. Moving in events may be a way for people to test the services. People are generally very positive to the approach and several informants mention that mobility services are “modern”. They also find it positive to not depend on a car, and to instead have a range of mobility options available.

  • 26.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Parking Benefit Districts – The transferability of a measure to reduce car dependency to a European context2017Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 56, s. 129-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking Benefit Districts (PBDs) are a parking measure where revenues from on-street parking charges are returned to the area where they are charged, and stakeholders in the area participate in prioritizing how the revenues are to be spent. The purpose of this article is to analyse whether and how a PBD programme can be transferred to a European context, and whether it can contribute to reduced car dependency. The first part of the article provides an overview of some salient features of PBD programmes in the USA through a literature survey. This is followed by results from interviews and from a focus group with civil servants and a deputy mayor in Stockholm. The results are used to analyse the conditions for implementing a PBD programme in Stockholm, as well as for analysing how such a programme can be designed to reduce car dependency. A main conclusion is that there are no legal barriers that render a PBD programme impossible in Stockholm, even though there are some legal restrictions. We also conclude that a PBD programme might contribute to reduced car dependency in two different ways, either by increasing acceptance for parking charges or by improving the alternatives to private cars. There seem to be several aspects in a PBD programme that can contribute to increased acceptance for parking charges. However, there is no tradition of working with these principles in Sweden and the programme's redistributional effects need to be taken into account when designing the programme.

  • 27.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Tornberg, Patrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier. WSP, Sweden.
    Fernström, Astrid
    A function-oriented approach to transport planning in Sweden: Limits and possibilities from a policy perspective2018Inngår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 63, s. 30-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on sustainability and transport has paid increasing attention to how the purpose of the transport system is framed, often arguing that there is a need to shift the focus of transport planning and policy from the physical infrastructure to mobility and accessibility. Sweden's national transport policy also has elements of this shift, most noticeable in the so-called four step principle, where the possibility to affect the need for transport and choice of transport mode (step 1) and the possibility to use existing infrastructure more efficiently (step 2) should be considered before large reconstructions (step 3) or new infrastructure (step 4) is chosen as the solution to transport related problems. The aim of this article is to study whether the practical implications of Swedish national transport policy are consistent with the ambitions expressed in the four step principle, with particular focus on the Swedish Transport Administration's (STA) mandate to finance different measures. Based on an analysis of policy documents and semi-structured interviews the main finding of the analysis is that many step 1 and 2 measures do not fall within the financial mandate of the STA. The implementation of the four step principle therefore depends on the commitment among other actors than the STA to implement step 1 and 2 measures. Furthermore, it is concluded that the limits to the STA mandate has consequences for the ability of the STA to engage in collaboration with the actors on which it depends, and that strengthening the STA's mandate to finance a desired function rather than physical infrastructure is likely to increase commitment among other stakeholders to work with these measures. Such a step would imply a different regulatory framework than the current, more in line with ”the sustainable mobility paradigm” (Banister 2008) and could contribute to a good accessibility to different amenities at the same time as negative environmental impacts are reduced.

  • 28.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Gruvdrift eller återvinning av metaller? En politisk fråga2018Inngår i: Svensk gruvpolitik i omvandling: Aktörer, kontroverser, möjliga världar / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Simon Haikola, Björn Wallsten, Halmstad: Gidlunds förlag, 2018, s. 201-214Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    How can conflicts, complexities and uncertainties in a circular economy be handled?: A cross European study of the institutional conditions for sewage sludge and bottom ash utilization2018Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The circulation of waste, where waste is given a new chance as a resource, can potentially replace the environmentally harmful extraction of virgin resources from the Earth crust. But at the same time, waste often contains higher levels of contamination than the corresponding material from the bedrock. Increased use of waste brings thus benefits at the global level, for example by reducing mining and carbon dioxide emissions, but at the same time, the disadvantages of increased levels of contamination affects primary locally.

    This conflict has been exemplified in this study by looking closely at two different waste residues: bottom ash and sewage sludge, which contain both resources and hazards. In Sweden, the utilization of these residues is limited. In central Europe, on the other hand, several countries demonstrate a high utilization of waste.

    The purpose of this study is to map the institutional conditions in Europe that may facilitate the use of waste, without increasing the risk. How can waste in terms of both its resources and hazards be handled in the best way? First, the challenges facing the use of bottom ash and sewage sludge are identified in Sweden. After that, the challenges are brought to Central Europe to see how they have handled the challenges in achieving a higher use of waste. Finally, the lessons learned from Europe are brought back to Sweden to discuss how the use of waste can increase through different political trajectories. The study is based on interviews with three different actors: waste producers, waste recipients and the authorities, mainly in three different countries: Sweden, Denmark and Germany.

    CHALLANGES

    • Trust in the regulation is missing. All stakeholders express that current policy for using waste in Sweden is insufficient. The policy for using bottom ashes are too strict, and for the use of sewage sludge too liberal.
    • Uncertainty about future policies. There are uncertainties about how future polices for bottom ashes and sewage sludge will be reformulated. Therefore, actors await costly investments.
    • Lack of institutional capacity. The capacity to handle resources is low, as municipalities apply the policies differently.
    • Unbalanced resources policy. Waste-based materials face much tougher requirements than conventional materials from the Earth's crust.
    • Lack of interest from the customer. Potential customers see few reasons to use waste-based material instead of conventional virgin material.
    • Available alternatives. There are other waste-based alternatives more interesting to customers than sewage sludge and bottom ash.

     

    FAVORABLE INSTITUIONAL CONDITIONS  

    • Liberal guidelines. Liberal requirements for using waste may potentially increase its use, since a larger proportion of the generated waste will fall within the regulatory requirements.
    • Strict guidelines. Strict requirements can potentially lead to increased use of waste, as reliability in the quality of the waste may increase among costumers.
    • Differentiated guidelines. The use of waste can potentially increase with a flexible regulatory framework with requirements depending on the risk and level of pollution.
    • Political will and objectives. An outspoken political vision can create the necessary predictability for involved actors to meet, invest in learning and technology.
    • Neutral and coherent resource policy. A neutral resource policy that does not differ geographically and geologically creates better market conditions for waste.
    • Cooperation between government and business. Cooperation between government and business can increase the use of waste, if the authorities support the market, while business invest in learning and technology.
    • Acceptance and customer interest. Economically favorable conditions and technical qualifications can increase costumers’ acceptance and interest in waste. 

     

    POLICY TRAJECTORIES

    How can trust in the regulation increase?

    -         Hazards in relation to masses or resources. The limit values of contaminations for using waste can either be expressed according to masses (mg/kg) or according to resources (mg/ kg P).

    -         Leaching concentrations or total concentrations. The limit values of contamination can either be measured in terms of leaching concentrations and/or total concentrations.

    -         Differentiated conditions based on the material or context. Differentiated requirements for waste can be based on the context of the use and/or on the properties of the waste.

    -         Limit values based on the risk or the waste. The limit values can be constructed based on either a risk assessment or the characteristics of the waste.

     

    How can the security increase for future policies?

    -         Bottom-up or top-down formulated policies. Policies for using waste can either be formulated between involved actors or formulated top down by authorities.

    -         End of pipe or preventive solutions. Solutions to increase the use of waste are typically either end of pipe, directing pollution away, or preventive, focusing on avoiding the generation of pollution at the source.

    -         Incremental changes or social transitions. The relationship of the solutions to the existing system can either be incremental or require a radical transformation of the system.

    -         Requirements according to capacity or risk. The requirements for using waste may be the same for all stakeholders (based on risk), or based on the capacity for investment.

     

    How can the institutional capacity for waste as a resource increase?

    -         Centralized or decentralized authority. Criteria for using waste can either be decentralized where each region sets their own criteria or be centralized, where the same rules apply across the country.

    -         Differentiated or similar policies for primary and secondary resources. The requirements for primary and secondary resources can be shared or different.

    -         Institutional fragmentation or coherence. The responsibility of primary and secondary resources are typically divided between two different ministries (industry and environment), but can be shared under the same institutional structure.

    -         Resource or waste oriented organizations. There could be tradeoffs between cleaning the flows as effective as possible and acquire residues of good quality.

    -         National or multilateral policy. Waste polices are normally a national issue, but waste is traded in the international market. Waste polices in one country might thus affect the situation in another country.

     

    How can costumers’ willingness increase?

    -         Financial compensation or investment. Compensation is often required for costumers to accept waste, but the money could also be invested upstream in preventive work, to increase the quality.

    -         Direct or indirect political governance. The authorities normally interfere in the waste market by enforcing rules, but might also become an active part on the waste market as a costumer or through public procurement.

    -         Waste as a hot topic or asleep. Despite the same scientific understanding, the use of waste seems in some region to be politically debated while in other regions the debate is missing, which could affect the acceptance of using waste.

     

    How can access to alternatives be handled?

    -         A material or social challenge. The transition to circular economy can be driven by uncertain resource availability or be a political decision.

    -         Alternatives: primary material or secondary material. Primary material with a high environmental impact can be substituted with either another primary material or by secondary material.

    -         Same or different requirements for secondary material. The requirements for using waste based resources can either be the same, like for waste used in constructions, or differ like between sewage sludge, manure and digestate.

  • 30.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Corvellec, Hervé
    Department of Service Management and Service Studies, Lund University.
    Waste policies gone soft: An analysis of European and Swedish waste prevention plans2018Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 77, s. 322-332Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of European and Swedish national and municipal waste prevention plans to determine their capability of preventing the generation of waste. An analysis of the stated objectives in these waste prevention plans and the measures they propose to realize them exposes six problematic features: (1) These plans ignore what drives waste generation, such as consumption, and (2) rely as much on conventional waste management goals as they do on goals with the aim of preventing the generation of waste at the source. The Swedish national and local plans (3) focus on small waste streams, such as food waste, rather than large ones, such as industrial and commercial waste. Suggested waste prevention measures at all levels are (4) soft rather than constraining, for example, these plans focus on information campaigns rather than taxes and bans, and (5) not clearly connected to incentives and consequences for the actors involved. The responsibility for waste prevention has been (6) entrusted to non-governmental actors in the market such as companies that are then free to define which proposals suit them best rather than their being guided by planners. For improved waste prevention regulation, two strategies are proposed. First, focus primarily not on household-related waste, but on consumption and production of products with high environmental impact and toxicity as waste. Second, remove waste prevention from the waste hierarchy to make clear that, by definition, waste prevention is not about the management of waste.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2020-04-30 12:54
  • 31.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Ek, Richard
    Lunds universitet.
    Svingstedt, Anette
    Lunds universitet.
    Zapata, Patrik
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Vi måste minska mängden avfall2018Inngår i: Göteborgs-Posten, ISSN 1103-9345, Vol. 5 febArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Oförmågan att förebygga avfall leder till att miljövinsten i effektiviseringar äts upp av de växande avfallsmängderna. Tvärtemot vad som behövs för att minska klimatpåverkan och miljögifterna, skriver bland andra miljöstrateg Nils Johansson.

  • 32.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Eklund, Mats
    The institutional capacity for a resource transition: A critical review of Swedish governmental commissions on landfill mining2017Inngår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 70, s. 46-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of minerals from waste deposits could potentially double the recycling flows while offering an opportunity to address the many problematic landfills. However, this type of activity, i.e., landfill mining, brings many advantages, risks and uncertainties and lacks economic feasibility. Therefore, we investigate the capacity of the Swedish authorities to navigate the environmental, resource, and economic conditions of landfill mining and their attitude to support such radical recycling alternatives towards a resource transition.

    By analyzing three governmental commissions on landfill mining, we show how the authorities seem unable to embrace the complexity of the concept. When landfill mining is framed as a remediation activity the authorities are positive in support, but when it is framed as a mining activity the authorities are negative. Landfill mining is evaluated based on how conventional practices work, with one and only one purpose: to extract resources or remediation. That traditional mining was a starting point in the evaluation becomes particularly obvious when the resource potential shall be evaluated. The resource potential of landfills is assessed based on metals with a high occurrence in the bedrock. If the potential instead had been based on metals with low incidence in the Swedish bedrock, the potential would have been found in the human built environment.

    Secondary resources in landfills seem to lack an institutional affiliation, since the institutional arrangements that are responsible for landfills primarily perceive them as pollution, while the institutions responsible for resources, on the other hand, assume them to be found in the bedrock. Finally, we suggest how the institutional capacity for a resource transition can increase by the introduction of a broader approach when evaluating emerging alternatives and a new institutional order.

  • 33.
    Juffer, Elsemieke Jolien
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Where-Else: Creating a dialogue tool to enhance green space allocation for the mitigation of noise and water runoff in urban settings.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Cities around the world encounter global challenges, of which climate change is one. Urbanisation is resulting in inflexible land uses that are hard to reverse and cause fragmentation of green areas, which therefore decline in quality and contribute to the cities’ vulnerability to climate change. In recent years the concept of ecosystem services has gained recognition and is used more often in urban planning. However, focus in these discussions has not always been on urban green spaces. There is a lack of tools that in an operative way link green space allocation to provision of ecosystem services in early discussions about urban development.

    Tools exist that place the focus on the amount of green in urban planning. It is the establishment of a dialogue on how to identify the need for green in an urban area, identifying how the distribution of greenery can be operationalised on different city scales, and how it contributes to mitigating specific problems that are missing. This thesis contributes to the knowledge on the conceptual understanding of the potential and importance of urban green spaces to mitigate water and noise challenges, and contributes to starting semi-large scale discussions on climate change challenges and solutions in urban developments. By visualising the mitigation potentials, with the goal to create better informed decision making and urban planning processes, it contributes to the development of urban planning for sustainable development. Factors that contribute to the identification on where, what and how greenery can be implemented to mitigate the effects of urban sound and water challenges are identified and merged in a discussion tool, Where-Else, that is tested for its applicability.

    This thesis uses a mixed method approach based on grounded theory, and consists of two phases. Phase one is data collection and analysis in order to develop two discussion tools, applying a literature overview. Two questions are answered: how does greenery contribute to mitigating effects of sound and water challenges, and secondly, what are the most important factors to recognise? Both the effects of noise and water can be mitigated using greenery. Identified and noticeable important mitigation factors by greenery are: size, location and design for noise mitigation; and retention time, infiltration, evaporation and transpiration for water. In the second phase “Where-Else” is tested for its applicability and practical value, using interviews with urban ecosystem services experts, resulting in suggestions for improvements and the acknowledgement that there is a practical value for the developed tool.

  • 34.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Bengtsson, Stefan
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Hörstedt, Fredrik
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    EU:s utsläppshandel otillräckligt för flyget.2018Inngår i: Dagens NyheterArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 35.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Bengtsson, Stefan
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Hörstedt, Fredrik
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Hyfs och kunskap krävs i debatten om flyg och klimat.2018Inngår i: Dagens NyheterArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 36.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Zapico, J.
    Dept. of Computer Science and Media Technology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Share or waste?: Using an ICT-platform to share food on a university campus2019Inngår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, CEUR-WS , 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering that food production for human consumption has a large environmental impact, food waste is major challenge for sustainable development. Although food waste occur at all phases in the food supply chain, private consumption has been identified as a major phase of food waste generation. Intervening at this phase provides an opportunity of change. The article reports the testing of a digital prototype designed to facilitate for employees and students at a university campus to share food. A representative group tested the prototype and associated food sharing activities for two weeks. At the closing of the test period they filled in a questionnaire evaluating their experience. Twenty-three responses were obtained showing that twelve people used the prototype for collecting food, whereas nine used it for sharing their food. Six people did both. Main reasons for not collecting food included lack of time, unavailability of shared food in their proximity and inaccessibility of spaces where food was located. Main reasons for not sharing food were that they lack of food to share, lack of time, and that sharing was possible without the prototype. General conclusions from the study are that people will use a digital service for sharing food in the workplace if there is a critical mass of users and if an effective organization of sharing and collecting food is provided.

  • 37.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. RISE-Interactive.
    Nyblom, Åsa
    Interactive Institute.
    Tunheden, Sara
    Interactive Institute.
    Torstensson, Carin
    User-centred design and evaluation of EnergyCoach: an Interactive Energy Service for Households2011Inngår i: Behaviour & Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, s. 1-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents a case study of a user-centred design process of an energy service to be used by households. This case study is used to explore the nature of participation of users in the design process. The purpose of the design was to create a prototype for an IT-based service to facilitate for households to learn about their electricity consumption and implicitly to reduce it. By applying methods from human–computer interaction (HCI) throughout the design process, we designed the digital prototype EnergyCoach. The final prototype of EnergyCoach is structured to visualise electricity consumption in households and to coach members of the household in learning about, and reducing their own consumption. The service is mediated through a combination of a web-based platform and one for the mobile phone. EnergyCoach was tested and evaluated in its intended context. Qualitative interviews were carried out with six households who tested the service for six months in their home environment. Results reveal that although the design of EnergyCoach was appreciated and the service as such considered useful, informants varied in how frequently they used it. Reasons to this are discussed and related to methods for early and later phases of the design process.

  • 38.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, Centra. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Ware, Vanessa
    Video storytelling in a transient, volunteer organization2007Inngår i: Business Communication Quarterly, ISSN 1080-5699, E-ISSN 1552-4191, Vol. 70, nr 3, s. 381-385Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    TO MAKE SENSE of and learn about their work environments, people actively construct their own knowledge and share stories of their experience. Using the metaphor of the landscape, Bruner(1990) likened books’ stories to “mountain tops jutting out of the sea. Self-contained islands though they may seem, they are upthrusts of an underlying geography that is at once local and, [yet] part of a universal pattern”. This is also true for stories. But telling stories is particularly challenging in a transient organization where people are hired on a voluntary, temporary basis. Such is the case of a nonprofit music festival organization in Sweden, which is rebuilt every year starting with recruiting the top management. 

  • 39.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Wessman, Stina
    RISE Interactive.
    Colombo, Sara
    MIT comparative media studies.
    “Mama, It’s Peacetime!”: Planning, Shifting and Designing Activities in the Smart Grid Scenario2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the Conference on Design and Semantics ofForm and Movement: Sense and Sensitivity, DeSForM 2017, INTECH, 2017, s. 134-147Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe a research-through-design (RtD) approach to investigate the potential of households’ electricity load balancing in the smart grid. Through the design probe “Peacetime”, householders explore peak hours as opportunities for serene and non-electricity consuming activities. During two weeks Peacetime was deployed in the homes of three households to explore an alternative framing of non-use of electricity to the commonly used framework for prompting people with feedback on their consumption. Households’ active load balancing included planning of, replacing, reorganizing and skipping everyday domestic activities. Results indicate that focus could be shifted from restricting electricity use to creating alternatives – leading to a positive framing of load balancing. The scenarios reflected in this paper differ from those of rational energy managers basing decisions of domestic life on complex facts and figures. Scenarios from the study portray how planning, reorganization, and time shifting of activities may be obtained with soft means emphasizing values of wellbeing and respect of the variation of households’ social contexts.

  • 40.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE). KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Ringenson, Tina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Sopjani, Liridona
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Arnfalk, Peter
    AaaS and MaaS for reduced environmental and climate impact of transport: Creating indicators to identify promising digital service innovations for reduced demand and optimized use of transport resources2018Inngår i: ICT4S2018. 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Sustainability, 2018, Vol. 52, s. 137-152Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a set of indicators is presented that aim to identify promising service innovations for Accessibility as a Service (AaaS) and Mobility as a Service (MaaS); services that potentially can reduce the demand for transport and optimize use of transport infrastructure and vehicles in urban regions. The proposed indicators characterize service innovations from three different perspectives: 1) Is the service innovation environmentally sustainable? Does it reduce negative impacts on the environment (reduce carbon emissions, use of space), 2) Is it rewardable? Is value created for an organization? Does it make use of new sustainable business models, and 3) How widely is the service spread? How many users are there, what is the geographic distribution and what level of societal transition has occurred? The developed indicators are meant to guide policy makers, decision makers, business developers and academia in the prioritizations that need to be made when allocating land and resources to the most promising and powerful innovations, moving towards more environmentally friendly mobility and accessibility. The next step will be to test the indicators to identify and categorize existing and emerging new services, ideas, pilots and prototypes. The results of this second step will be presented in our next article.

  • 41.
    Kriukelyte, Erika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Gullberg, Anders ()
    KTH.
    Isaksson, Karolina ()
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    The transport sector in transition –: different pathways of handling transport data in urban regions of Helsinki, London, Oslo and Singapore2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The fourth industrial revolution is disrupting almost every industry in every country and the transport sector is not an exception in this discussion, with increasing mobility demands and evolving mobility needs in consideration of global sustainability goals. In light of these technological changes and discussions, public authorities are on the path of transition and the role of public transport authorities is still unclear for themselves, for business or even for society at large. This issue extends to transport data policies as there is still a lack a general overview concerning what pathways different cities are working on and implementing. Therefore, this study, as a part of Swedish research programme Mistra SAMS, aims to provide an overview of policies and the management of data connected with the transport sector in four selected city regions: Helsinki, London, Oslo and Singapore. Three research questions have been examined: 1. How do different transport authorities in urban regions approach transport data and perceive the value of data? 2. What kind of action plan is being implemented to create the public value of transport data within the public authorities? 3. How is all of this reflected in collaboration with third parties? Institutional theory is used in the multi-case analysis to guide the collection of data through document analysis and semi-structured interviews and provides a framework for analysis and structuring of the findings. The findings showcased different approaches to data and overall themes in the institutional context in different regions, which included themes such as policies, administrative reforms, technology, interoperability, partnerships and transport data repository. The final discussion identifies two main development paths: technology-led development and other mobility concept-led development. All regions work actively with transport data management, although each builds their approach on different ideas and practices. The proactive role of the public sector in regulating and implementing new technologies is discussed for each of the urban regions. Partnerships between the public and private sectors are more developed in the urban regions with technology-led development. The study outlines key areas of future research, like the role of public authorities, the importance of public-private partnerships, questions related to the digitalization and interoperability.

  • 42. Larsson, Jorgen
    et al.
    Elofsson, Anna
    Sterner, Thomas
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    International and national climate policies for aviation: a review2019Inngår i: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 787-799Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aviation constitutes about 2.5% of all energy-related CO2 emissions and in addition there are non-CO2 effects. In 2016, the ICAO decided to implement a Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) and in 2017 the EU decided on faster emission reductions in its Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), which since 2012 includes the aviation sector. The effects of these policies on the expected development of air travel emissions from 2017 to 2030 have been analyzed. For the sample country Sweden, the analysis shows that when emissions reductions in other sectors are attributed to the aviation sector as a result of the EU ETS and CORSIA, carbon emissions are expected to reduce by -0.8% per year (however if non-CO2 emissions are included in the analysis, then emissions will increase). This is much less than what is needed to achieve the 2 degrees C target. Our analysis of potential national aviation policy instruments shows that there are legally feasible options that could mitigate emissions in addition to the EU ETS and CORSIA. Distance-based air passenger taxes are common among EU Member States and through increased ticket prices these taxes can reduce demand for air travel and thus reduce emissions. Tax on jet fuel is an option for domestic aviation and for international aviation if bilateral agreements are concluded. A quota obligation for biofuels is a third option.

  • 43.
    Liljenström, Carolina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Toller, Susanna
    The Swedish Transport Administration.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructureManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    By 2045, Sweden is to have zero net emissions of greenhouse gases, implying that also the transport sector must reduce its emissions to nearly zero by that year. Planning for emission reduction measures require network level studies showing environmental impacts of the transport network. Previous studies do not allow assessment of current hotspots in the infrastructure network, which limits their relevance for decision-support in this question. The aim of this paper is to assess the current annual climate impact and primary energy use of Swedish transport infrastructure by using a methodological approach based on life cycle assessment. The scope includes new construction and management of roads, railways, airports, ports, and fairway channels. The climate impact was estimated to 3 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents and the primary energy use was estimated to 27 terawatt hours. Mainly road and rail infrastructure contributed to these impacts. The environmental hotspots in the infrastructure network were identified as management of the infrastructure stock (particularly reinvestment of road and rail infrastructure) and material production (particularly production of asphalt, steel, and concrete). Planners should work systematically with emission and energy efficiency in these areas to reduce impacts of Swedish transport infrastructure. Additional research on impacts of small construction measures, the size of biogenic carbon emissions (in standing biomass as well as soil carbon), and the use and impacts of asphalt used in road construction and management would further increase the understanding of Swedish transport infrastructure at the network level.

  • 44.
    Liljenström, Carolina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Toller, Susanna
    The Swedish Transport Administration.
    Direct and indirect climate impact and primary energy use of the Swedish transport systemManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45.
    Lind, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. Sweden Green Building Council.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH. SLU.
    Belkert, Ann-Kristin
    Sweden Green Building Council, Sweden.
    Citylab Action: Guiding Sustainable Urban Development2017Inngår i: Conference Proceedings - World Sustainable Built Environment Conference 2017 Hong Kong, Hongkong, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 46. Malmaeus, Mikael
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Sundkvist, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Bradley, Karin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Calmer, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Fauré, Eléonore
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Fuehrer, Paul
    Hagbert, Pernilla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Hornborg, Alf
    Isaksson, Karolina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Nyblom, Åsa
    Skånberg, Kristian
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Ölund, Erika
    Riskabelt att tro att tillväxt ska lösa våra problem.2018Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, artikkel-id 28 novemberArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 47.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Kummer, S.
    Hirner, P.
    Does scale matter?: Investigating the growth of a local organic box scheme in Austria2017Inngår i: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 54, s. 304-313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scaling up local organic food systems may be one way to render the overall food system more environmentally friendly and socially just. This paper focuses on an Austrian organic box scheme, specifically on how its relationship with local farmers is experienced in a process of growth. For data collection, we carried out semi-structured interviews with 19 supplying farmers and conducted a focus group discussion with 11 members of the management staff of the box scheme company. We explore the question: how did the growth of the box scheme influence relationships between supplying farmers and the box scheme in this local organic food system – from the farmers’ perspective as well as from the perspective of the box scheme company itself? A major challenge for the box scheme was reconciling its values (e.g. supporting many local organic farms) with practical issues such as logistics and coordination. The box scheme managed its growth by strengthening cooperation with two larger vegetable farms/wholesalers. But its support for diverse local organic farms suffered in this process, and the box scheme was still searching for solutions to efficiently interact with such a high number of suppliers. Having a high number of local producers was central to the box scheme's identity; therefore, internal governance structures needed refinement and reflection. The tension between specific qualities such as procurement from a multitude of local farmers on the one hand, and practical economical and logistical considerations on the other lies at the heart of the experience of scaling up local organic food systems.

  • 48.
    Mulligan, Joe
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. Kounkuey Design Initiat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bukachi, Vera
    Kounkuey Design Initiat, Nairobi, Kenya.;UCL, Ctr Urban Sustainabil & Resilience, London, England..
    Gregoriou, Rodoula
    BuroHappold Engn, Water, Bath, Avon, England..
    Venn, Nilani
    BuroHappold Engn, Water, Bath, Avon, England..
    Ker-Reid, Duncan
    BuroHappold Engn, Water, Bath, Avon, England..
    Travers, Alan
    BuroHappold Engn, Water, Bath, Avon, England..
    Benard, Juma
    Tech Univ Kenya, Dept Civil Engn, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Olang, Luke O.
    Tech Univ Kenya, Dept Biosyst & Environm Engn, Nairobi, Kenya.;Tech Univ Munich, Chair Hydrol & River Basin Management, Munich, Germany..
    Participatory flood modelling for negotiation and planning in urban informal settlements2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Bridge Engineering, ISSN 1478-4629, E-ISSN 1751-7680, Vol. 172, nr 7, s. 354-371Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory modelling in water resource management - involving diverse actors in what is traditionally a purely analytical process - is thought to broaden stakeholder engagement and improve outcomes. Further research and case studies are required to explore the practicalities of integrating meaningful participation within modelling processes in the water sector. Participatory modelling may be of particular interest within the context of urban informal areas, where the confluence of climate change, urbanisation and contested land requires new methods for engagement and planning. This paper develops new case-based knowledge to inform the application of participatory modelling and planning for informal urban areas. A flood-modelling project in the large informal neighbourhood of Kibera in central Nairobi, Kenya, is analysed using a newly established framework for the classification of participatory modelling approaches developed by Basco-Carrera et al. in 2017. Conclusions suggest that the further upstream more diverse stakeholders can be involved, the better the chance of co-producing new knowledge and of creating implementable plans and policies. At the same time, delivering 'co-design' of modelling processes in areas of limited co-operation requires a strong vision for participation, a tolerance for contention, a willingness to learn between actors and a budget to support additional time inputs.

  • 49.
    Pargman, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Hook, Mikael
    Tanenbaum, Joshua
    Pufal, Marcel
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    What if there had only been half the oil?: Rewriting history to envision the consequences of peak oil2017Inngår i: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 31, s. 170-178Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is unequivocal evidence that we are facing the greatest energy transition since the dawn of the industrial age. We need to urgently shift from a global fossil fuel and CO2-emitting energy system to 1) decrease our CO2 emissions and combat the effects of climate change and 2) face a future of depleting fossil fuel resources. Yet there is still a lack of collective action to start taking effective measures to meet these challenges. We argue that there is a need for narratives in general and for a special type of narrative in particular, allohistorical scenarios, that act as thought experiments whose main function is to defamiliarize us with what is taken for granted. Such scenarios invite us to explore plausible parallel paths, thereby making it possible to imagine futures that are essentially different from the path-dependence of an unyielding historical past. Such futures enable us to grapple with a present that is saturated by the inertia of past decisions and the sunken costs of existing infrastructure. We here present the design rationale for the Coalworld scenario: an alternative world where only half the oil ever existed. We also describe the methodology and the assumptions that underlie the Coalworld scenario.

  • 50.
    Pargman, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Ringenson, Tina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Rivera, Miriam Börjesson
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Schmitz, Lisa
    KTH.
    Krinaki, Maria
    KTH.
    Prekratic, Nino
    KTH.
    Lundkvist, Björn
    KTH.
    Smart magic city run: Exploring the implications of public augmented reality games2018Inngår i: 9th International Conference on Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment, INTETAIN 2017, Springer, 2018, Vol. 215, s. 151-158Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an augmented reality smart city gaming concept, Magic Run. Magic Run has entertainment value and fulfills its’ original brief, but several aspects of the game were found to be problematic during a workshop with smart city researchers. We present problematic aspects of the game as well as ideas for how to redesign the game to control or ameliorate problematic interaction between future smart city players and bystanders.

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