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  • 1.
    Abbasiasl, Taher
    et al.
    Sabanci University.
    Niazi, Soroush
    Sabanci University.
    Sheibani Aghdam, Araz
    Sabanci University.
    Chen, Hongjian
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Cebeci, Fevzi Cakmak
    Sabanci University.
    Ghorbani, Morteza
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning. 1 Sabanci University Nanote.
    Grishenkov, Dmitry
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Kosar, Ali
    Sabanci University.
    Effect of intensified cavitation using poly (vinyl alcohol) microbubbles on spray atomization characteristics in microscale2020Inngår i: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 10, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, cavitating flows inside a transparent cylindrical nozzle with an inner diameter of 0.9 mm were visualized, and the effect of cavitation on atomization characteristics of emerging sprays was investigated. Different patterns of cavitating flows inside the nozzle were visualized using a high-speed camera. In-house codes were developed to process the captured images to study the droplet size distribution and droplet velocity in different flow regimes. The results show that cavitating flows at the microscale have significant effects on atomization characteristics of the spray. Two working fluids, namely, water and poly(vinyl alcohol) microbubble (PVA MB) suspension, were employed. Accordingly, the injection pressures were detected as 690 kPa, 1035 kPa, and 1725 kPa for cavitation inception, supercavitation, and hydraulic flip flow regimes in the case of water, respectively. The corresponding pressures for the aforementioned patterns for PVA MB suspension were 590 kPa, 760 kPa, and 1070 kPa, respectively. At the microscale, as a result of a higher volume fraction of cavitation bubbles inside the nozzle, there is no large difference between the cavitation numbers corresponding to cavitating and hydraulic flip flows. Although the percentage of droplets with diameters smaller than 200 μm was roughly the same for both cases of water and PVA MB suspension, the Sauter mean diameter was considerably lower in the case of PVA MBs. Moreover, higher droplet velocities were achieved in the case of PVA MBs at lower injection pressures.

  • 2.
    Abdirahman, Khalid
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Förnberg, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Styrsystem för solcellsladdade batterier2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Användandet av solceller ökar kontinuerligt i Sverige och effekten som genererasav solcellerna förvaras oftast i bly-syra batterier. Dessa batterier har en dåligpåverkan på miljön eftersom det krävs mycket energi och miljöfarliga material såsom bly och svavelsyra för att tillverka dessa batterier. Östersjökompaniet AB ochmånga av dess kunder inser vikten av ett hållbart tänkande och var intresseradeav att veta om det var möjligt att maximera livslängden av dessa batterier. Underarbetets gång analyserades olika metoder för upp- och urladdning av batterier somkan påverka ett batteris livslängd och hur man kan bära sig åt för att optimera det.En laddningskontroller användes för att optimera laddningen av batteriet. För attberäkna laddningsnivån i batteriet användes metoden ”Extended voltmeter”. Enprototyp som kunde ladda batterierna på ett optimalt sätt, varna då batterietsladdningsnivå blev för låg samt en användarvänlig applikation för övervakning avbatteriet konstruerades. Ett batteris beräknade livslängd är ingen exakt vetenskap.Enligt studier kan livslängden av ett batteri fördubblas om det laddas upp ochladdas ur på ett optimalt sätt i jämförelse med då det laddas ur helt.

  • 3.
    Abraham, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Romano, Robin
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Automatisk kvalitetssäkring av information för järnvägsanläggningar: Automatic quality assurance of information for railway infrastructure2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Järnvägsbranschen står i dagsläget inför stora utmaningar med planerade infrastrukturprojekt och underhåll av befintlig järnväg. Med ökade förväntningar på  utbyggnaden av den framtida järnvägen, medför det en ökad risk för belastning på det nuvarande nätet. Baksidan av utbyggnaden kan bli fler inställda resor och  förseningar. Genom att dra nytta av tekniska innovationer såsom digitalisering och  automatisering kan det befintliga system och arbetsprocesser utvecklas för en  effektivare hantering.  Trafikverket ställer krav på Byggnadsinformationsmodeller (BIM) i upphandlingar. Projektering för signalanläggningar sker hos Sweco med CAD-programmet  Promis.e. Från programmet kan Baninformationslistor (BIS-listor) innehållande  information om objekts attribut hämtas. Trafikverket ställer krav på att attributen ska bestå av ett visst format eller ha specifika värden. I detta examensarbete  undersöks metoder för att automatisk verifiera ifall objekt har tillåtna värden från projekteringsverktyget samt implementering av en metod. Undersökta metoder  innefattar kalkyleringsprogrammet Excel, frågespråket Structured Query Language (SQL) och processen Extract, Transform and Load (ETL).  Efter analys av metoder valdes processen ETL. Resultatet blev att ett program  skapades för att automatiskt välja vilken typ av BIS-lista som skulle granskas och för att verifiera om attributen innehöll tillåtna värden. För att undersöka om kostnaden för programmen skulle gynna företaget utöver kvalitetssäkringen utfördes en  ekonomisk analys. Enligt beräkningarna kunde valet av att automatisera  granskningen även motiveras ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv.

  • 4. Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Diaz-Olivazrez, Jose A.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH).
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH).
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH).
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH).
    Seoane, Fernando
    Teriö, Heikki
    Mediavilla Martinez, Cesar
    Aso, Santiago
    Tiemann, Christian
    Big Data & Wearable Sensors Ensuring Safety and Health @Work2017Inngår i: GLOBAL HEALTH 2017, The Sixth International Conference on Global Health Challenges, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    —Work-related injuries and disorders constitute a major burden and cost for employers, society in general and workers in particular. We@Work is a project that aims to develop an integrated solution for promoting and supporting a safe and healthy working life by combining wearable technologies, Big Data analytics, ergonomics, and information and communication technologies. The We@Work solution aims to support the worker and employer to ensure a healthy working life through pervasive monitoring for early warnings, prompt detection of capacity-loss and accurate risk assessments at workplace as well as self-management of a healthy working life. A multiservice platform will allow unobtrusive data collection at workplaces. Big Data analytics will provide real-time information useful to prevent work injuries and support healthy working life

  • 5.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17165 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi.
    Diaz-Olivares, Jose A.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17165 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Seoane, Fernando
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Halsovagen 7, S-14157 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Boras, Swedish Sch Text, Allegatan 1, S-50190 Boras, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Biomed Engn, S-17176 Solna, Sweden..
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17165 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Boras, Sci Pk,Allegatan 1, S-50190 Boras, Sweden..
    Wearable Sensors Enabling Personalized Occupational Healthcare2018Inngår i: INTELLIGENT ENVIRONMENTS 2018 / [ed] Chatzigiannakis, I Tobe, Y Novais, P Amft, O, IOS PRESS , 2018, s. 371-376Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents needs and potentials for wearable sensors in occupational healthcare. In addition, it presents ongoing European and Swedish projects for developing personalized, and pervasive wearable systems for assessing risks of developing musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular diseases at work. Occupational healthcare should benefit in preventing diseases and disorders by providing the right feedback at the right time to the right person. Collected data from workers can provide evidence supporting the ergonomic and industrial tasks of redesigning the working environment to reduce the risks.

  • 6.
    Aghdam, Araz Sheibani
    et al.
    Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Ghorbani, Morteza
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem. Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, Mechatron Engn Program, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey;Sabanci Univ, Ctr Excellence Funct Surfaces & Interfaces NanoDi, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Deprem, Gokberk
    Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, Mechatron Engn Program, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Cebeci, Fevzi Cakmak
    Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, SUNUM Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Kosar, Ali
    Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, Mechatron Engn Program, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, Ctr Excellence Funct Surfaces & Interfaces NanoDi, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey.;Sabanci Univ, SUNUM Nanotechnol Res & Applicat Ctr, TR-34956 Istanbul, Turkey..
    A New Method for Intense Cavitation Bubble Generation on Layer-by-Layer Assembled SLIPS2019Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 11600Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of surface topology for the generation of cavitating flows in micro scale has been emphasized during the last decade. In this regard, the utilization of surface roughness elements is not only beneficial in promoting mass transportation mechanisms, but also in improving the surface characteristics by offering new interacting surface areas. Therefore, it is possible to increase the performance of microfluidic systems involving multiphase flows via modifying the surface. In this study, we aim to enhance generation and intensification of cavitating flows inside microfluidic devices by developing artificial roughness elements and trapping hydrophobic fluorinated lubricants. For this, we employed different microfluidic devices with various hydraulic diameters, while roughness structures with different lengths were formed on the side walls of microchannel configurations. The surface roughness of these devices was developed by assembling various sizes of silica nanoparticles using the layer-by-layer technique (D2). In addition, to compare the cavitating flow intensity with regular devices having plain surfaces (D1), highly fluorinated oil was trapped within the pores of the existing thin films in the configuration D2 via providing the Slippery Liquid-Infused Porous Surface (D3). The microfluidic devices housing the short microchannel and the extended channel were exposed to upstream pressures varying from 1 to 7.23 MPa. Cavitation inception and supercavitation condition occured at much lower upstream pressures for the configurations of D2 and D3. Interestingly, hydraulic flip, which rarely appears in the conventional conical nozzles at high pressures, was observed at moderate upstream pressures for the configuration D2 proving the air passage existence along one side of the channel wall.

  • 7.
    Ahluwalia, A.
    et al.
    Italy.
    De Maria, C.
    Italy.
    Lantada, A. D.
    Spain.
    Pietro, L. D.
    Italy.
    Ravizza, A.
    Italy.
    Mridha, Mannan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Madete, J.
    Kenya.
    Makobore, P. N.
    Uganda.
    Aabloo, A.
    Estonia.
    Kitsing, R.
    Estonia.
    Leivobits, A.
    Estonia.
    Towards open source medical devices current situation, inspiring advances and challenges2018Inngår i: BIODEVICES 2018 - 11th International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices, Proceedings; Part of 11th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, BIOSTEC 2018, SciTePress, 2018, s. 141-149Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Open Source Medical Devices may be part of the solution towards the democratization of medical technologies pursuing Universal Health Coverage as part of the Sustainable Development Goals for United Nations. Recent technological advances, especially in information and communication technologies, combined with innovative collaborative design methodologies and manufacturing techniques allow for the mass-personalization of biodevices and help to optimize the related development times and costs, while keeping safety in the foreground through the whole life cycle of medical products. These advantages can be further promoted by adequately fostering collaboration, communication, high value information exchange, and sustainable partnerships and by extending the employment of open source strategies. To this end, within the UBORA project, we are developing a framework for training the biomedical engineers of the future in open-source collaborative design strategies and for supporting the sharing of information and the assessment of safety and efficacy in novel biodevices. An essential part of this open-source collaborative framework is the UBORA e-infrastructure, which is presented in this study, together with some initial success cases. Main future challenges, connected with regulatory harmonization, with educational issues and with accessible and open design and manufacturing resources, among others, are also presented and discussed.

  • 8.
    Ahluwalia, Arti
    et al.
    Univ Pisa, Dept Ingn Informaz, Bioengn, Pisa, Italy..
    De Maria, Carmelo
    Univ Pisa, Dept Ingn Informaz, Bioengn, Pisa, Italy..
    Diaz Lantada, Andres
    UPM, ETSII, Dept Mech Engn, Madrid, Spain..
    Madete, June
    Univ Pisa, Res Ctr E Piaggio, Pisa, Italy.;Kenyatta Univ, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Makobore, Philippa Ngaju
    Uganda Ind Res Inst, Instrumentat Div, Kampala, Uganda..
    Ravizza, Alice
    Univ Pisa, Pisa, Italy..
    Di Pietro, Licia
    Mridha, Mannan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Munoz-Guijosa, Juan Manuel
    UPM, ETSII, Dept Mech Engn, Madrid, Spain..
    Tanarro, Enrique Chacon
    UPM, ETSII, Dept Mech Engn, Madrid, Spain..
    Torop, Janno
    Tartu Ulikool, Inst Technol, Tartu, Estonia..
    Biomedical Engineering Project Based Learning: Euro-African Design School Focused on Medical Devices2018Inngår i: International Journal of Engineering ,Science and Innovative Technology, ISSN 0949-149X, E-ISSN 2277-3754, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 1709-1722Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomedical engineering (BME) has the potential of transforming medical care towards universal healthcare by means of the democratization of medical technology. To this end, innovative holistic approaches and multidisciplinary teams, built upon the gathering of international talent, should be encouraged within the medical industry. However, these transformations can only be accomplished if BME education also continuously evolves and focuses on the internationalization of students, the promotion of collaborative design strategies and the orientation towards context relevant medical needs. In this study we describe an international teaching-learning experience, the "UBORA (Swahili for 'excellence') Design School". During an intensive week of training and collaboration 39 engineering students lived through the complete development process for creating innovative open-source medical devices following the CDIO ("conceivedesign-implement-operate") approach and using the UBORA e-infrastructure as a co-design platform. Our post-school survey and analyses showed that this integral teaching-learning experience helped to promote professional skills and could nurture the future generation of biomedical engineers, who could transform healthcare technology through collaborative design oriented to open source medical devices.

  • 9.
    Aldahan, Leith
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Kudoori, Ivan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Utvärdering av roterande borstlösfrekvensomformare tillspårledningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Spårledningar används inom tunnelbanan för att visa tågets position samt bestämma tågets hastighet genom att bryta spänningsamplituden i signalen vid olika frekvenser. Frekvensen till spårledningen fås från en roterande frekvensomformare. I dagens anläggning används roterande frekvensomformare med borstar. Dessa avger i relärum mycket värme och ger miljöproblem i form av koldamm från borstarna. Det befintliga systemet är gammal och har funnits i drift över 30 år, därför håller reservdelar på att ta slut samt service till systemet svårtillgängligt.

    Detta examensarbete har undersökt möjligheten att uppgradera till nyare system som bygger på en lösning med roterande borstlös frekvensomformare där reservdelarna och service är tillgängliga i minst 25 år.

    Undersökningen jämför olika roterande borstlösa frekvensomformare från olika leverantörer för att hitta en frekvensomformare där kraven från Trafikförvaltningen uppfylls.

    Studien har haft fokus på problemområdet med borstade frekvensomformaren som producerar skadliga ämnen såsom koldamm och värmen i relärum. Diskussioner med tillverkningsföretag av roterande borstlös frekvensomformaren har skett under denna studies gång där möjliga alternativ för vidare utveckling av systemet i relärum analyseras. I projektet har även diskuterat möjligheten att använda det nya systemet av frekvensomformare med borstlösa motor och generator istället för den nuvarande borstade frekvensomformaren som finns i anläggningen. Resultatet har även visat att den roterande borstlösa frekvensomformaren kan omvandla frekvensen till 75 Hz. Det nya systemet uppfyller kraven från Trafikförvaltningen samt att systemet håller i minst 25 år till. Att systemet håller minst i 25 år till var ett stort krav av Trafikförvaltningen som uppfylldes under denna studie.

  • 10.
    Alfrijat, Christopher
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Eriksson, Rasmus
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Analys och utvärdering av LED-belysning i Stockholms tunnelbana2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafikförvaltningen, som ansvarar för kollektivtrafiken i Stockholm, har startat ett projekt för att byta ut befintliga armaturer i Stockholms tunnelbana mot LED-armaturer. Denna rapport utför förarbetet inför en kommande upphandling.

    Detta arbete utvärderar olika LED-armaturers tekniska specifikationer som är lämpliga för Stockholms tunnelbana där armaturerna ska bytas ut. För denna miljö saknas det i dagsläget standarder som är anpassade för LED-armaturer. Med hjälp av litteraturstudier och mätningar kunde underlag för en kravspecifikation skapas. Mätningar har gjorts på ett urval av LED-armaturer och deras tekniska specifikation har presenterats. Samtliga armaturer klarade EMC-testerna (elektromagnetisk kompabilitet) där inga störningar uppstod vid frekvenserna för Storstockholms Lokaltrafiks (SL) radiokommunikationssystem.

    Arbetet har även hanterat miljö- samt den ekonomiska aspekten av implementeringen av LED-belysning.

  • 11.
    Alkhatib, Husam
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Developing an Optimal Design for A Heart Container Operated Via Drone2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the healthcare system when a patient is waiting for a donated heart, the choice of the transportation method is critical. Thus, the efficiency of this procedure relies on the traveling time, which could affect the ischemic time, which is the time that heart can be discharged outside the human body. For best patient outcome, the heart has to be transplanted within four hours from the donor to the recipient. By transporting the donated heart via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV, or drone), both the time and the cost required for the heart transportation will be minimized. This thesis intends to explore the specifications needed for the design and manufacture of a heart container and pick-up system for a drone, which will be able to transport a donated heart between hospitals.

  • 12.
    Alsaeede, Mustafa
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Test and Evaluation of a Novel Passive Tool Used For Blood Dilution in Hematology Analyzers2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Executive Summary

    The Complete Blood Count (CBC) is considered one of the most commonly performed screening tests in medical diagnostics. The CBC is performed using a hematological analyzer, which counts the numbers and types of different cells within the blood. However, due to the high concentration of cells in the blood samples to be counted, the dilution process is considered an essential factor for obtaining accurate counting results. Below is an investigation for an invention of a unique method and device for blood sample dilution in hematology analyzers. As mentioned, before starting an analysis a hematology cell counter device must dilute a precise defined volume of a whole blood sample with a diluent reagent (in this study 20ml of a blood sample is diluted with 4,5ml of diluent reagent). This dilution process must be accurate and repeatable with a high precision to produce the target dilution ratio (here 1:200). Exclusive to almost all hematology analyzers today, shear values (SV) are used to obtain highly precise volumes. These SV components are however very costly and add a higher complexity to the systems. This thesis was therefore aimed as an experimental evaluation for a novel passive dilution tool called shearing block (SB), which could possibly then replace the SV and be used in the coming Haematology Analyzer Devices manufactured by Boule Medical AB. The SB has the advantages of being low cost, having a simple mechanism, being much more flexible for integration with any microfluidic system and also eliminates the need for complex control systems or equipment, thereby lowering the need for calibration and maintenance. If a SB could replace the SV with an equally precise accuracy on the 20ml blood volume it would be highly beneficial.

     

    The set hypothesis was that the dilution process via the SB, will only be affected by blood viscosity. Through changing the blood’s viscosity, via changing the hematocrit concentration (HCT) and blood sample temperature, this study aimed to conclude if this gave a significant effect on the blood sample dilution via the SB. This was achieved through two performed experiments both including the same control group (CG) along with a test group (TG). All tests were performed using the same blood sample, the same reference measuring device (Medonic M32) and experimental setup. The experimental setup included the control group, CG, (N=30) consisting of 20µl blood samples aspirated through an electronic pipette in room temperature condition being mixed with 4,5ml of diluent reagent that had been automatically dispensed by the Medonic M32 instrument. The 20µl blood together with the 4,5ml diluent resulted in the targeted 1:200 dilution ratio. The test group, TG, (where N=30 for each respective group) was diluted through the SB through a fully automated process for the targeted 1:200 dilution. All diluted blood samples were then analyzed on the Medonic M32 for all hematology parameters and the hemoglobin (HGB) parameter was used as an indicator to quantify the blood volume in the TG runs as compared to the CG reference runs. Two test groups (TG) were analyzed: the first investigating the effect of the HCT and the second of the sample temperature on the blood volume (before dilution) in the SB. The HCT concentration levels were tested at 15%, 27%, 33% and 58% with samples and test run and kept at a constant 25°C. The second test group investigated the effect of 15°C, 25°C, 35°C and 39°C on a blood sample with a constant HCT of 33%.

    The main aim of this experimental study was to validate the SB simulation. However, the experiments results, showed that the diluted blood volume via SB was strongly influenced by changes in hematocrit concentration and that the unwanted additional blood volume, was increasing directly proportionally with hematocrit concentration.  On the other hand, there seemed to be no apparent change in the blood volume on the SB diluted samples for the various temperature differences between 15-35°C. To conclude, the experiments results were not consistent with predictions of SB simulation model and there are two reasons that could explain that. Firstly, in the simulation the blood was approximated with a homogeneous fluid with a given viscosity. The second reason is the mismatch between the dilution process via the SB and the simulation (the simulation started with an idealized initial status, whereas the SB channel was prefilled by blood). This means that the simulation excluded any effect that may occur as a convection effect during blood flow inside the channel and whilst encountering diluent reagent. These two reasons explain why the results of the simulation was not consistent with that of the experiments, regarding the unwanted blood volume. Therefore, a new simulation is required. Recommendations for future actions: undoubtedly there are several optimizations that may increase the accuracy of the proposed SB design such as; removing the diluent's reservoir for eliminating the effect of bubbles, changing the geometrical angles or use a smaller diameter for the inlets and outlets of the microchannels to reduce the convection and diffusion effect, (which in turn would reduce the unwanted blood volume). Therefore, determining the best SB's microchannel structure to perform the dilution process with minimum unwanted blood volume remains a near future next step follow-up project.

  • 13.
    Alvarez, Victor
    et al.
    KTH.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Neuronik.
    The Influence of Neck Muscle Tonus and Posture on Brain Tissue Strain in Pedestrian Head Impacts2014Inngår i: 58th SAE Stapp Car Crash Conference, STAPP 2014, Vol. 58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedestrians are one of the least protected groups in urban traffic and frequently suffer fatal head injuries. An important boundary condition for the head is the cervical spine, and it has previously been demonstrated that neck muscle activation is important for head kinematics during inertial loading. It has also been shown in a recent numerical study that a tensed neck musculature also has some influence on head kinematics during a pedestrian impact situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence on head kinematics and injury metrics during the isolated time of head impact by comparing a pedestrian with relaxed neck and a pedestrian with increased tonus. The human body Finite Element model THUMS Version 1.4 was connected to head and neck models developed at KTH and used in pedestrian-to-vehicle impact simulations with a generalized hood, so that the head would impact a surface with an identical impact response in all simulations. In order to isolate the influence of muscle tonus, the model was activated shortly before head impact so the head would have the same initial position prior to impact among different tonus. A symmetric and asymmetric muscle activation scheme that used high level of activation was used in order to create two extremes to investigate. It was found that for the muscle tones used in this study, the influence on the strain in the brain was very minor, in general about 1-14% change. A relatively large increase was observed in a secondary peak in maximum strains in only one of the simulated cases. 

  • 14.
    Alvarez, Victor S
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Neuronik.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Neuronik.
    Effect of pediatric growth on cervical spine kinematics and deformations in automotive crashes2018Inngår i: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 71, s. 76-83, artikkel-id S0021-9290(18)30075-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Finite element (FE) models are a powerful tool that can be used to understand injury mechanisms and develop better safety systems. This study aims to extend the understanding of pediatric spine biomechanics, where there is a paucity of studies available. A newly developed and continuously scalable FE model was validated and scaled to 1.5-, 3-, 6-, 10-, 14- and 18-year-old using a non-linear scaling technique, accounting for local topological changes. The oldest and youngest ages were also scaled using homogeneous geometric scaling. To study the effect of pediatric spinal growth on head kinematics and intervertebral disc strain, the models were exerted to 3.5 g acceleration pulse at the T1 vertebra to simulate frontal, rear and side impacts. It was shown that the head rotation increases with age, but is over predicted when geometrically scaling down from 18- to 1.5-year-old and under predicted when geometrically scaling up from 1.5- to 18-year-old. The strain in the disc, however, showed a clear decrease with age in side impact and for the upper cervical spine in rear impact, indicating a higher susceptibility for neck injury at younger ages. In the frontal impact, no clear age dependence could be seen, suggesting a large contribution from changed facet joint angles, and lower levels of strain, suggesting a lower risk of injury. The results also highlight the benefit of rearward facing children in a seat limiting head lateral motion.

  • 15. Ambort, D.
    et al.
    Johansson, M.E.V.
    Gustafsson, J. K.
    Nilsson, Harriet
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Strukturell bioteknik.
    Ermund, A.
    Johansson, B.R.
    Koeck, Philip J. B.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Strukturell bioteknik (Stängd 20130701).
    Hebert, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Strukturell bioteknik (Stängd 20130701).
    Hansson, G.C.
    Calcium and pH-dependent packing and release of the gel-forming MUC2 mucin2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, nr 15, s. 5645-5650Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    MUC2, the major colonic mucin, forms large polymers by N-terminal trimerization and C-terminal dimerization. Although the assembly process for MUC2 is established, it is not known how MUC2 is packed in the regulated secretory granulae of the goblet cell. When the N-terminal VWD1-D2-D'D3 domains (MUC2-N) were expressed in a goblet-like cell line, the protein was stored together with full-length MUC2. By mimicking the pH and calcium conditions of the secretory pathway we analyzed purified MUC2-N by gel filtration, density gradient centrifugation, and transmission electron microscopy. At pH 7.4 the MUC2-N trimer eluted as a single peak by gel filtration. At pH 6.2 with Ca2+ it formed large aggregates that did not enter the gel filtration column but were made visible after density gradient centrifugation. Electron microscopy studies revealed that the aggregates were composed of rings also observed in secretory granulae of colon tissue sections. TheMUC2-N aggregates were dissolved by removing Ca2+ and raising pH. After release from goblet cells, the unfolded full-length MUC2 formed stratified layers. These findings suggest a model for mucin packing in the granulae and the mechanism for mucin release, unfolding, and expansion.

  • 16.
    Amiri, Fatemeh
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Nouiser, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Optisk metod för glukosmätning: En studie för framtida icke-invasiva blodglukosmätningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag lever cirka 365 000 personer med diabetes i Sverige. Mätningen av blodsocker kan upplevas som besvärlig och smärtsam med den apparatur som idag finns på marknaden. Vidare måste sjukvårdspersonal vara försiktiga vid hanteringen av teststickor pga. av den smittorisk som finns i kontakten med blod. Därför krävs en icke-invasiv mätmetod av blodglukos för att underlätta för diabetiker, eliminera risker för vårdpersonal och ge en möjlighet åt friska personer att ha koll på sitt blodglukosvärde på ett enkelt sätt.Följande examensarbete presenterar sjukdomen, dess följdsjukdomar och problematiken kring blodglukosmätningen. Arbetet har sin grund i en tidigare studie som gjorts kring optisk mätning av glukos, där resultatet visade på att glukos har en ljusabsorberande förmåga. Det påvisades genom att belysa en blandning av natriumkloridlösning och glukos, med infrarött ljus från en lysdiod. Det ljus som transmitterades bearbetades av en krets som bland annat bestod av en fotodetektor. Fotodetektorn genererade vidare en ström som i sin tur gjordes om till en utspänning som förstärktes.Under det arbete som redovisas i denna rapport testas en modifiering av kretsen för att undersöka om det går att upprätta, en korrelation mellan glukoskoncentrationen och utspänningen med hjälp av en transimpedansförstärkare kring fotodetektorn.De uppmätta spänningsvärdena redovisas i grafer och resultatet ger slutsatsen att kretsen ger en bättre korrelation mellan utspänning och glukoskoncentration, men en otillräcklig sådan vilket gör att tekniken inte kan användas kliniskt.

  • 17.
    Ammendrup, Katrin
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Framework for Wireless Acquisition of Surface EMG and Real-Time Control2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Muscle driven devices are controlled or powered with muscle activation. These devices open up the possibility of offering patients with limited muscle function to automatically control assistive devices - for instance exoskeletons - with input from their own muscles. This solution would help a number of patient groups suffering from common conditions, such as spinal cord injuries, stroke and cerebral palsy.

    To use muscle activation as input it is necessary to have a way to communicate with the mus- cles. Electromyography (EMG) is a technology used to gain information about muscle function and activation. It is performed by measuring and analyzing electrical signals conducted by the muscles during activation. Activation and activation level can be seen from analyzed EMG signal. EMG signals are frequently measured and analyzed afterwards, however, to use it as a controlling an assistive devices, real time analysis is necessary. In this thesis real time acquisi- tion and analysis of EMG was performed. The measured signal was used as an input to control a simple MATLAB computer game.

    The EMG of a muscle of the forearm, Brachioradialis, was measured with Myon Aktos sys- tem. The measured signal was written to a server as soon as the measurements were acquired. MATLAB was used to connect to the server and performing the signal analysis. The analysis was kept simple in order to limit delay.

    The result showed that it was possible to acquire real time signal with this method. The delay was negligible, both for the testing and for the game play.

    Showing that it is possible to play a game with muscle activation supports the idea of a motor that can be controlled automatically with muscle input. Future work should focus on understanding movement intent with respect to EMG and on analyzing multiple signals from different muscles at the same time.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Julius
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Engström, David
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    A study in how to inject steganographic data into videos in a sturdy and non-intrusive manner2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    It is desirable for companies to be able to hide data inside videos to be able to find the source of any unauthorised sharing of a video. The hidden data (the payload) should damage the original data (the cover) by an as small amount as possible while also making it hard to remove the payload without also severely damaging the cover. It was determined that the most appropriate place to hide data in a video was in the visual information, so the cover is an image. Two injection methods were developed and three methods for attacking the payload. One injection method changes the pixel values of an image directly to hide the payload and the other transforms the image to cosine waves that represented the image and it then changes those cosine waves to hide the payload. Attacks were developed to test how hard it was to remove the hidden data. The methods for attacking the payload where to add and remove a random value to each pixel, to set all bits of a certain importance to 1 or to compress the image with JPEG. The result of the study was that the method that changed the image directly was significantly faster than the method that transformed the image and it had a capacity for a larger payload. The injection methods protected the payload differently well against the various attacks so which method that was the best in that regard depends on the type of attack.

  • 19. Andersson, Thord
    et al.
    Romu, Thobias
    Karlsson, Anette
    Norén, Bengt
    Forsgren, Mikael F
    Smedby, Örjan
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk bildbehandling och visualisering. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning. Linköping University.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Almer, Sven
    Lundberg, Peter
    Borga, Magnus
    Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist
    Consistent intensity inhomogeneity correction in water-fat MRI2015Inngår i: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ISSN 1053-1807, E-ISSN 1522-2586, Vol. 42, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the water-signal performance of the consistent intensity inhomogeneity correction (CIIC) method to correct for intensity inhomogeneities

    METHODS: Water-fat volumes were acquired using 1.5 Tesla (T) and 3.0T symmetrically sampled 2-point Dixon three-dimensional MRI. Two datasets: (i) 10 muscle tissue regions of interest (ROIs) from 10 subjects acquired with both 1.5T and 3.0T whole-body MRI. (ii) Seven liver tissue ROIs from 36 patients imaged using 1.5T MRI at six time points after Gd-EOB-DTPA injection. The performance of CIIC was evaluated quantitatively by analyzing its impact on the dispersion and bias of the water image ROI intensities, and qualitatively using side-by-side image comparisons.

    RESULTS: CIIC significantly ( P1.5T≤2.3×10-4,P3.0T≤1.0×10-6) decreased the nonphysiological intensity variance while preserving the average intensity levels. The side-by-side comparisons showed improved intensity consistency ( Pint⁡≤10-6) while not introducing artifacts ( Part=0.024) nor changed appearances ( Papp≤10-6).

    CONCLUSION: CIIC improves the spatiotemporal intensity consistency in regions of a homogenous tissue type.

  • 20.
    Anette, Kniberg
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Nokto, David
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    A Benchmark of Prevalent Feature Selection Algorithms on a Diverse Set of Classification Problems2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Feature selection is the process of automatically selecting important features from data. It is an essential part of machine learning, artificial intelligence, data mining, and modelling in general. There are many feature selection algorithms available and the appropriate choice can be difficult. The aim of this thesis was to compare feature selection algorithms in order to provide an experimental basis for which algorithm to choose. The first phase involved assessing which algorithms are most common in the scientific community, through a systematic literature study in the two largest reference databases: Scopus and Web of Science. The second phase involved constructing and implementing a benchmark pipeline to compare 31 algorithms’ performance on 50 data sets.The selected features were used to construct classification models and their predictive performances were compared, as well as the runtime of the selection process. The results show a small overall superiority of embedded type algorithms, especially types that involve Decision Trees. However, there is no algorithm that is significantly superior in every case. The pipeline and data from the experiments can be used by practitioners in determining which algorithms to apply to their respective problems.

  • 21.
    Anthony, Diana
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Creating an Individualized Predictive Model of PAO2 and PACO2 Changes During Voluntary Static Apnea for Sedentary Subjects2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this study was to fill a gap in the literature in understanding maximal BH in untrained, non-divers by generating a predictive numerical model for PAO2 and PACO2 throughout BH. There have been little to no previous attempts at explicitly characterizing the influence of impermanent personal or environmental factors on PAO2 or PACO2 at BH breakpoint. The metabolic human consumption of O2 and production of CO2 as measured through alveolar partial pressures was observed over time during a voluntary maximum breath-hold for 18 members of the general population. The coefficient of determination was used to determine accuracy of the model in fitting participants’ BH data from this experiment. The volume of the last inhalation pre-BH, time to subjective breakpoint, and breath-to-breath calculated respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were identified as the most influential combination of key variables that improved PAO2 model fit (from R2 = 0.8591 to R2 = 0.8840). Clustering methods coupled with two sample t-tests or ANOVA were then used to identify survey responses most correlated to inter-BH similarities. These were barometric pressure, age, height, weight, resting HR, smoker/ freediver/scuba experience, and weekly frequency of engaging in physical exercise. The model was validated on testing data from an experienced free-diver, from non-rebreathing trials of a sample of the participants, and from simulated dives of 5 participants from research in the Environmental Physiology Department of Karolinska in 1994 [1]. It has been suggested that the presented model can be a valuable tool in developing safer free diving practices. Furthermore, interesting trends in continuous HR, starting PACO2 values, and O2 consumption were observed and analyzed using statistical analysis. Findings were discussed with connection to the underlying physiological principles that might explain the results obtained.

  • 22.
    Arousell, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Engdahl, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Can Surface Scanning Improve the Workflow of Elekta Linac Treatments?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project was to compare the workflow for an Elekta Linac with and without the surfacescanning system Catalyst and describe pros and cons with both workflows. The findings in the reportcan be used as decision support in development of Elekta products and workflow improvements.

    The method for the project was to do interviews, observations and time measurements at Södersjukhuset(not using Catalyst) and Sundsvalls sjukhus (using Catalyst). The workflows were graded in an as-sessment protocol covering time efficiency, comfort, noise, resources, reliability, cost, dosage and sideeffects. Different workflow scenarios were simulated in AnyLogic.

    The result of the project was that, according to our protocol, the workflow with Catalyst was ratedhigher than without it. The simulations in Anylogic showed that minimizing gaps in the treatment sched-ule generated the same number of patients treated per day, if the positioning could not be done faster.The simulations also showed that removing position verification with cone beam computer tomography(CBCT), an imaging system which is used in addition to the Catalyst system, would increase the numberof treated patients with approximately 33%.

    The conclusion was that there were no great differences in time efficiency between the workflows. How-ever, considering the higher reliability and comfort for the patient, optical surface scanning can improvethe positioning for Elekta Linac and is therefore worth implementing. Minimizing treatment gaps wouldnot improve the workflow. Removing the use of CBCT would increase the number of treated patientsper day.

  • 23.
    Ashok, Joshua David
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    The use of and attitudes to voice amplification in higher education institutions2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Voice is still the most important tool used by teachers, but voice is varied and subject to problems. Teachers who lecture for long hours or have taught for most of their professional lives, face issues such as voice discomfort, chronic voice disorders, occupational voice disorder, stress, physiological and psychological problems. Due to issues such as poor acoustics in the classroom and absence of any installed voice amplification system, teachers might be subject to increase their vocal load to reach all the students in the classroom.

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to study the fundamental frequency (fo) and the strength Leq[dB(C)] of the teacher’s voice, with and without voice amplification system. 

    Method: Students from the preparatory year of their studies at KTH (CBH), were asked if they would like to participate in this study that researches on the voice health of teacher. Two days of teaching sessions were recorded using a microphone attached to the teacher’s mouth and three other static microphones placed in different parts of the room. The voice amplification system used in the study, was the one that was already in use at some of the classrooms at KTH. The students and the participating teacher were given questionnaires, towards the end of the teaching session to voice their opinion on the teaching voice, with and without the voice amplification system. 

    Results: The results from the data collected from the recordings, have shown that the SPL increased between 0.6 dB(C) and 5 dB(C) when the voice amplification system was turned on. The fundamental frequency (fo) of the teacher’s voice reduced by 1.4% with the use of the voice amplifier. The response of the students was overwhelmingly in support of the voice amplification system used during the recordings. 60-62% of female respondents and 68-79% of male respondents felt that the voice amplification system increased the audibility in the classroom.

    Conclusion: Leq [dB(C)] values from the mics around the classroom showed a considerable increase and thus the amplification system provides a good acoustic condition for the teacher to communicate with his students and a significant improvement in student’s comprehension of the teacher’s voice and learning conditions. There was a decrease in the fo of the teacher’s voice with the amplification, which is good for the teacher’s vocal health and reduces voice disorders while improving the quality and audibility of teacher’s voice. Majority of the students felt that the amplification system was beneficial during the teaching sessions and would like to see more amplifiers installed in more classrooms.

  • 24.
    Askfors, Ylva
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik.
    Samverkan för innovation: En fallstudie av mötet mellan akademi, industri och sjukvård2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samverkan kan leda till innovation, konkurrenskraftiga företag, förstklassig forskning samt välfungerande myndigheter och institutioner. I den politiska debatten idag finns en förväntan att Sverige ska upprätthålla sin konkurrenskraft och bemöta samhällets utmaningar genom innovation och att vägen till innovation går via samverkan. Avhandlingen bygger på en studie av ett samverkansprojekt vars syfte var att skapa innovation för att minska antalet vårdrelaterade infektioner i Sverige. Projektet som studerats ses som en transdisciplinär ansats med aktörer som representerade akademi, industri samt hälso- och sjukvård.

    Syftet med avhandlingen är att vidareutveckla kunskapen om interorganisatorisk samverkan för innovation. Detta görs genom ett tredelat bidrag, till teoribildningen kring samverkan för innovation som börjat växa fram, till den samverkande praktiken inom både privat och offentlig sektor samt till politiker och beslutsfattare som styr fördelning av statliga anslag till forskning och innovation.

    Fallstudien som ligger till grund för avhandlingen är baserad på en etnografiskt inspirerad studie. Empiriskt material samlades in och skapades tillsammans med aktörerna i projektet under drygt två års tid genom intervjuer och deltagande observation.

    Studien visar att interorganisatorisk samverkan består av flera dimensioner och kan förstås på flera nivåer. Interorganisatorisk samverkan innebär inte bara att det är olika organisationer som ska göra en gemensam ansträngning. Organisationerna består av olika människor med olika discipliner och professioner vilka bygger på olika utgångspunkter och sätt att se på världen. Samverkan kan ses som ett sätt att fylla mellanrummen mellan organisationer istället för att bygga broar över gränser. I de organisatoriska mellanrummen kan aktörer från olika organisationer, med olika discipliner och professioner mötas utan institutionaliserade roller, i en receptiv kontext där innovation kan skapas.

  • 25.
    Askfors, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik.
    Fornstedt, Helena
    Uppsala universitet.
    The clash of managerial and professional logics in public procurement: Implications for innovation in the health-care sector.2018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 78-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the enactment of public procurement and its influence on adoption and diffusion of innovation, using a case study of public procurement of a low-tech medical device innovation in Swedish healthcare. Based on interviews and documentation, the article illustrates the various perspectives of the different professions involved in the complex task of setting the requirement specification for the tender. The technology identities of the medical device (innovation) are constructed and negotiated by the actors: procurement administrators, health-care professionals and suppliers within the adoption space. Examining the enactment of the procurement process as part of the adoption space is a way to deepen our understanding of the social component within public procurement.

  • 26.
    Astaraki, Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Toma-Dasu, I.
    Smedby, Örjan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Wang, Chunliang
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Normal Appearance Autoencoder for Lung Cancer Detection and Segmentation2019Inngår i: 22nd International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2019, Springer, 2019, Vol. 11769, s. 249-256Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major differences between medical doctor training and machine learning is that doctors are trained to recognize normal/healthy anatomy first. Knowing the healthy appearance of anatomy structures helps doctors to make better judgement when some abnormality shows up in an image. In this study, we propose a normal appearance autoencoder (NAA), that removes abnormalities from a diseased image. This autoencoder is semi-automatically trained using another partial convolutional in-paint network that is trained using healthy subjects only. The output of the autoencoder is then fed to a segmentation net in addition to the original input image, i.e. the latter gets both the diseased image and a simulated healthy image where the lesion is artificially removed. By getting access to knowledge of how the abnormal region is supposed to look, we hypothesized that the segmentation network could perform better than just being shown the original slice. We tested the proposed network on the LIDC-IDRI dataset for lung cancer detection and segmentation. The preliminary results show the NAA approach improved segmentation accuracy substantially in comparison with the conventional U-Net architecture.

  • 27.
    Astaraki, Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Wang, Chunliang
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Buizza, G.
    Toma-Dasu, I.
    Lazzeroni, M.
    Smedby, Örjan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Early survival prediction in non-small cell lung cancer with PET/CT size aware longitudinal pattern2019Inngår i: Radiotherapy and Oncology, ISSN 0167-8140, E-ISSN 1879-0887, ISSN 0167-8140, Vol. 133, s. S208-S209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Astaraki, Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning. Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Chunliang
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Buizza, Giulia
    Politecn Milan, Dept Elect Informat & Bioengn, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 42, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Toma-Dasu, Iuliana
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lazzeroni, Marta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Smedby, Örjan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Early survival prediction in non-small cell lung cancer from PET/CT images using an intra-tumor partitioning method2019Inngår i: Physica medica (Testo stampato), ISSN 1120-1797, E-ISSN 1724-191X, Vol. 60, s. 58-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To explore prognostic and predictive values of a novel quantitative feature set describing intra-tumor heterogeneity in patients with lung cancer treated with concurrent and sequential chemoradiotherapy. Methods: Longitudinal PET-CT images of 30 patients with non-small cell lung cancer were analysed. To describe tumor cell heterogeneity, the tumors were partitioned into one to ten concentric regions depending on their sizes, and, for each region, the change in average intensity between the two scans was calculated for PET and CT images separately to form the proposed feature set. To validate the prognostic value of the proposed method, radiomics analysis was performed and a combination of the proposed novel feature set and the classic radiomic features was evaluated. A feature selection algorithm was utilized to identify the optimal features, and a linear support vector machine was trained for the task of overall survival prediction in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Results: The proposed novel feature set was found to be prognostic and even outperformed the radiomics approach with a significant difference (AUROC(sALop) = 0.90 vs. AUROC(radiomic) = 0.71) when feature selection was not employed, whereas with feature selection, a combination of the novel feature set and radiomics led to the highest prognostic values. Conclusion: A novel feature set designed for capturing intra-tumor heterogeneity was introduced. Judging by their prognostic power, the proposed features have a promising potential for early survival prediction.

  • 29.
    Baban, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Grauning, Olivia
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Using Fetal Myocardial Velocity Recordings to Evaluate an AI Platform to Predict High-risk Deliveries2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Diagnosing abnormal fetal cardiac function using ultrasound is a complicated procedure which makes it difficult to obtain high quality results from ultrasound examinations that are performed shortly before delivery. Color tissue Doppler imaging (cTDI) is the echocardiographic technique that has been used to obtain the data for this project. Subtle changes in the fetal cardiac function caused by a variety of complications can possibly be detected using cTDI. Fetuses suffering from these complications are often involved in high-risk deliveries. Combining the data obtained from cTDI with Artificial Intelligence (AI) may improve precision and accuracy when it comes to diagnosing pathological conditions involving fetal cardiac function before delivery. AI uses machines to perform and execute tasks that are characteristic of human intelligence. AI can be achieved by using deep learning. Deep learning uses algorithms called artificial neural networks that are inspired by the biological structure and function of the human brain. The neural networks classify information in a similar manner to the human brain. A platform that uses deep learning can make statements or predictions based on the data fed to it. The AI platform Peltarion uses deep learning to perform tasks. The aim of this project was to use Peltarion to evaluate the possibility of predicting high-risk deliveries with abnormal perinatal outcome by using data obtained by cTDI velocity recordings of the fetal heart. The data included myocardial velocity recordings from 107 pregnancies, out of the 107 pregnancies 82 of the babies were born healthy while 25 babies had an adverse perinatal outcome. The data was uploaded in the platform and three models were built and trained in order to evaluate the performance of the platform using the data. The parameters that have been used to determine the results are loss, accuracy and precision. The results showed that the accuracy parameter was measured to be 0.8 in all cases which means that the model correctly predicts if a fetal heart is healthy or likely to have an adverse outcome 80% of the time. The precision parameter was measured to be around 0.4 which means out of all the times the model predicted a fetal heart to have an adverse outcome, only 40% truly had an adverse outcome. It was concluded that a substantially larger amount of evenly distributed data is required to appropriately evaluate the possibility of using fetal myocardial velocity recordings as data for the AI platform Peltarion to predict high-risk deliveries.

  • 30. Babapour, Maral
    et al.
    Rolfö, Linda
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi.
    Policies in Activity-based Flexible Offices: ‘I am sloppy with clean-desking. We don’t really know the rules.’2018Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs) are offices with unassigned desks that provide a variety of workspaces. This paper presents desk-sharing and speech rules identified in A-FOs in four Swedish organisations, the emergence of and compliance with these rules, and their consequences for work conditions. Data collection involved 105 semi-structured interviews, document analyses, and observations. The identified rules were: (1) to remove belongings, (2) temporal restrictions on using the same workstations, (3) temporal restrictions on using scarce zones, (4) restrictions on verbal interactions, and (5) restrictions on phone conversations. The cases with extensive user involvement in their planning process had explicit unambiguous rules. A better compliance with rules occurred when (i) the employees were well-prepared and had a unified understanding regarding how and why to follow the rules, (ii) the rules were explicitly communicated and were regarded as easy to follow, and (iii) following the rules facilitated work and improved work conditions.

  • 31.
    Batool, Nazre
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Chowdhury, Manish
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Smedby, Örjan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Moreno, Rodrigo
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Estimation of trabecular bone thickness in gray scale: a validation study2017Inngår i: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, Vol. 12, nr Supplement 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Beijner, David
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik.
    Ökad lokal nytta av förnyelsebar energiproduktion med hybridkraftverk2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Förnyelsebar och miljövänlig elproduktion är en förutsättning för det mer eller mindre miljömässigt positiva värdet hos de produkter och processer som förbrukar elenergi. Det räcker inte med att dessa produkter och processer är effektiva i sitt användande av el om denna el är producerad med icke förnyelsebara metoder. Målet simuleringsprogram som kan simulera ett hybridkraftverk som använder sig av vindkraft och vattenkraft. Resultatet av detta projekt är ett simuleringsprogram som kan uppskatta storleken på ett pumpkraftverk i form av hur många megawatt dess vattenturbin behöver vara samt hur stor reservoar som behövs. Dessutom uppskattas hur många vindkraftverk som krävs i kombination med vattenkraftverket för att nå en önskad minskning av elektricitet från icke förnyelsebara källor.  med detta projekt är skapandet av ett

  • 33. Beillas, Philippe
    et al.
    Giordano, Chiara
    Alvarez, Victor
    Li, Xiaogai
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Neuronik.
    Ying, Xingjia
    Chevalier, Marie-Christine
    Kirscht, Stefan
    Kleiven, Svein
    Development and performance of the PIPER scalable child human body models2016Inngår i: 14th International Conference on the Protection of Children in Cars, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34. Beillas, Philippe
    et al.
    Lafon, Yoann
    Frechede, Bertrand
    Janak, Tomas
    Dupeux, Thomas
    Mear, Matthieu
    Kleiven, Svein
    Giordano, Chiara
    Alvarez, Victor
    Li, Xiaogai
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Neuronik.
    Chawla, Anoop
    Chhabra, A
    Paruchuri, S an Singh, S
    Kaushik, D
    Mukherjee, S
    Kumar, S
    Devane, K
    Mishra, K
    Machina, G
    Jolivet, Erwan
    Lemaire, Thomas
    Faure, François
    Gilles, Benjamin
    Vimont, Ulysse
    Lecomte, Christophe
    D3. 8 Final version of the personalization and positioning software tool with documentation. PIPER EU Project2017Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 35. Beillas, Philippe
    et al.
    Wang, Xuguang
    Lafon, Yoann
    Frechede, Bertrand
    Janak, Tomas
    Dupeux, Thomas
    Mear, Matthieu
    Pacquaut, Guillaume
    Chevalier, Marie-Christine
    Le Ruyet, Anicet
    Eichene, Alexandre
    Theodorakos, Ilias
    Yin, Xingjia
    Gardegaront, M
    Collot, Jerome
    Petit, Philippe
    Eric, Song
    Moreau, Baptiste
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Neuronik.
    Giordano, Chiara
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Neuronik.
    Strömbäck, Alvarez Victor
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Neuronik.
    Li, Xiaogai
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Neuronik.
    et al,
    PIPER EU Project Final publishable summary2017Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36.
    Bekius, Femke
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol, Jaffalaan 5, NL-2628 BX Delft, Netherlands..
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    de Bruijn, Hans
    Delft Univ Technol, Jaffalaan 5, NL-2628 BX Delft, Netherlands..
    Collaboration patterns in the Dutch railway sector: Using game concepts to compare different outcomes in a unique development case2018Inngår i: RESEARCH IN TRANSPORTATION ECONOMICS, Vol. 69, s. 360-368Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-making on changes to large infrastructural systems is complex. It involves many actors, the system shows unpredictable behaviour and the environment in which decision-making takes place is dynamic. In a unique development case of the Dutch railway sector two decision-making processes regarding the same issue are performed in two consecutive years. Although, from a technical perspective, the elements of the processes are similar, the decisions in each year are different. In this paper, we use game concepts to explain the different outcomes. Other frequently adopted decision-based models that focus on the technical perspective do not distinguish between both processes. Game concepts are able to reveal the hidden actor and context dynamics of the process and provide action perspective. To identify the game concepts present in the decision-making process, we first consider whether these concepts are mentioned in interviews with decision-makers in our case. Thereafter, we interpret the processes using the identified game concepts. The fact that, in the second year, more external issues are discussed and pressure increased created room for another decision.

  • 37.
    Bendazzoli, Simone
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Brusini, Irene
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Alfred Nobels Alle 23,D3, S-14152 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Damberg, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Tomtebodavagen 18A P1 5, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Smedby, Örjan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol, Sci Life Lab Uppsala, Biomedicinskt Ctr BMC, Husargatan 3, S-75237 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wang, Chunliang
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Automatic rat brain segmentation from MRI using statistical shape models and random forest2019Inngår i: MEDICAL IMAGING 2019: IMAGE PROCESSING / [ed] Angelini, ED Landman, BA, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2019, artikkel-id 1094920Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In MRI neuroimaging, the shimming procedure is used before image acquisition to correct for inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field within the brain. To correctly adjust the field, the brain's location and edges must first be identified from quickly-acquired low resolution data. This process is currently carried out manually by an operator, which can be time-consuming and not always accurate. In this work, we implement a quick and automatic technique for brain segmentation to be potentially used during the shimming. Our method is based on two main steps. First, a random forest classifier is used to get a preliminary segmentation from an input MRI image. Subsequently, a statistical shape model of the brain, which was previously generated from ground-truth segmentations, is fitted to the output of the classifier to obtain a model-based segmentation mask. In this way, a-priori knowledge on the brain's shape is included in the segmentation pipeline. The proposed methodology was tested on low resolution images of rat brains and further validated on rabbit brain images of higher resolution. Our results suggest that the present method is promising for the desired purpose in terms of time efficiency, segmentation accuracy and repeatability. Moreover, the use of shape modeling was shown to be particularly useful when handling low-resolution data, which could lead to erroneous classifications when using only machine learning-based methods.

  • 38.
    Bentersten, William
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Upptäcka kritiska ändringar i JSON-meddelanden i webb-API:er2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett sätt att utveckla webbapplikationer är att göra det i två delar. Dels ett API, dels en klient. Denna rapport fokuserar på JSON-API:er och på att hitta en lösning för att identifiera kritiska ändringar i JSON-meddelanden innan de påverkar sin avseddaklient på ett oönskat sätt.

    En fallstudie är genomförd hos ett företag som utvecklar sina webbapplikationer i två delar. Resultatet är en utvecklad webbapplikation (ett verktyg) som löser problemet genom att spela in API-förfrågningar som repeteras mot flera olika versioner av API:et. Versionstaggade svar samlas in och jämförs mot varandra med olika avseenden.

    Webbapplikationen (verktyget) lyckas på ett tillfredställande sätt identifiera kritiska ändringar i JSON-meddelanden. Detta verifieras med hjälp av ett test-API, och bekräftar därmed examensarbetets hypotes.

    För att kunna testa ett API, vars bakomliggande applikation är stateful, förväntas den applikationen vara återställd till ett standardiserat tillstånd inför varje användning av verktyget. Detta är en begränsning.

    Det finns en utvecklingspotential i att få verktyget att fungera även mot autentiserade API:er.

  • 39.
    Bentersten, William
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Upptäcka kritiska ändringar i JSON-meddelandeni webb-API:er2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett sätt att utveckla webbapplikationer är att göra det i två delar. Dels ett API, dels en klient. Denna rapport fokuserar på JSON-API:er och på att hitta en lösning för att identifiera kritiska ändringar i JSON-meddelanden innan de påverkar sin avseddak lient på ett oönskat sätt.En fallstudie är genomförd hos ett företag som utvecklar sina webbapplikationer i två delar. Resultatet är en utvecklad webbapplikation (ett verktyg) som löser problemet genom att spela in API-förfrågningar som repeteras mot flera olika versioner av API:et. Versionstaggade svar samlas in och jämförs mot varandra med olika avseenden. Webbapplikationen (verktyget) lyckas på ett tillfredställande sätt identifiera kritiska ändringar i JSON-meddelanden. Detta verifieras med hjälp av ett test-API, och bekräftar därmed examensarbetets hypotes.För att kunna testa ett API, vars bakomliggande applikation är stateful, förväntas den applikationen vara återställd till ett standardiserat tillstånd inför varje användning av verktyget. Detta är en begränsning. Det finns en utvecklingspotential i att få verktyget att fungera även mot autentiserade API:er.

  • 40.
    Berezkin, Nikita
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Heidari, Ahmed
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Berika receptdata med innehållshanteringssystem2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The problem today is that people do not eat climate-smart food; this results in that the food will not suffice, and what we eat may harm the greenhouse effect. The problem is that people do not have the time or knowledge to cook climate-smart food. A solution is to use a Content Management System (CMS). A Content Management System processes selected type of data in a specific way which is then stored. This report will address the basics and the making of a CMS in a recommendation system for a user. The system will entail a more climate-smart food alternative to achieve the individual's personal needs. The result was that with the help of data from various sources, an ingredient of a recipe could add additional information such as nutritional value, allergies, and whether it is vegetarian. Tests such as performance tests on the execution time for the CMS, parsing accuracy, and matching product accuracy, a better result was achieved. Most of the ingredients in the recipe became enriched, which leads to more climate-smart food alternatives, which are better for the environment. The accuracy is the matching of ingredients in the recipe to the names of products in the business. The next step was to enrich the recipes using enriched ingredients.

  • 41.
    Berglund, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Analys av olika positioneringssystem för Trafikförvaltningens järnvägsbanor2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Positioneringssystem har en vital roll när det gäller att kontrollera säkra tågrörelser. Det finnsmånga olika typer av positioneringssystem. Det här arbetet behandlar hur axelräknare, communications-based train control (CBTC) och olika typer av spårledningar fungerar. Det innehåller ocksåen analys av växelströmsspårledningar och axelräknare med RAMS-parametrar (Reliability, Availability,Maintenance and Safety) som utgångspunkt för att dra slutsats om vilken typ som passar bästför Trafikförvaltningens spårburna banor. Genom intervjuer med erfarna personer inom järnvägsbranscheni Stockholm erhölls kunskap om för- och nackdelar med olika system. En felträdsanalys(FTA) utfördes för axelräknare och spårledningar för att åskådliggöra potentiellt farliga situationer.Felstatistik för två järnvägsbanor togs fram för att visa felfrekvens för en bana med axelräknare ochen bana med spårledningar. Resultatet är inte entydigt men visar ändå att axelräknare undvikerfelkällor som finns hos spårledningar. Det som tydligast kommit fram var att förvaltningen behöverstandardisera till färre typer av system för de olika banorna. Det skulle underlätta vid förvärvandetav personal med rätt kompetens som ska utföra underhåll. Det skulle också göra det lättare att säkerställatillgången till ersättningsprodukter.

  • 42.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi. HELIX Competence Centre and Division of Logistics and Quality Management, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Arman, Oscar
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi.
    From Safety I to Safety II: Applying an HTO Perspective on Supervisory Work Within Aviation2019Inngår i: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 821, s. 558-565Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In aviation, there is a strong focus on safety to prevent accidents. This paper deals with how supervisory authorities in aviation can apply a Safety II perspective. In particular, the aim is to analyze how the concept of HTO (Humans, Technology, Organization) is related to a possible shift from Safety I to Safety II within supervisory work within aviation. Data for this case study research was collected through semi-structured interviews with inspectors at the civil aviation authority in Sweden. The study showed that the important building stone of proactivity in Safety II could be promoted by the Safety Management System (SMS), the Safety Performance Indicator, and systems for reporting incidents and near-accidents. These systems constituted examples of Technology. Similarly, the Humans consisted of the inspectors, and the Organization included international and national regulations that the inspectors needed to follow during inspections. In the analysis, it was clear that an internal HTO-perspective could be taken. The study indicated that the shift towards Safety II should first be done within the supervisory authority by applying an internal HTO-perspective. This could later be developed to an external HTO-perspective also including the operator organizations.

  • 43.
    Bergström, Aileen
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Occupat Therapy, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Borell, Lena
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Occupat Therapy, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Guidetti, Susanne
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Occupat Therapy, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Evaluation of an intervention addressing a reablement programme for older, community-dwelling persons in Sweden (ASSIST 1.0): a protocol for a feasibility study2019Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 7, artikkel-id e025870Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Older persons with functional limitations often need assistance from home care staff to thrive and continue to live in their home environments. Reablement, a proactive, preventative approach administered by home care staff, stimulating active engagement of the older person, is often recommended. Even though reablement has a potential to become a new rehabilitation model and has been implemented in different countries in various degrees, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the process of establishing reablement, the theoretical underpinnings and the conditionality and outcomes in different contexts. This knowledge is needed before fullscale recommendations can be made for implementation in specific contexts. Aim This study protocol aims to present a feasibility study of the intervention, ASSIST 1.0, a theory-based reablement programme, which includes coaching of home care staff and digitally based smart products, in a Swedish context. Methods and analysis This feasibility study will evaluate the perceived value and acceptability of ASSIST 1.0 intervention programme regarding fidelity, reach and dose, and potential outcomes by using a pretest and post-test design involving an intervention group and a control group (n=30) of older persons living at home, needing home care services. Qualitative interviews with home care staff delivering ASSIST and the older adults receiving the intervention as well as their significant others will be conducted to explore aspects affecting the intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the regional ethics board. The results of the feasibility study will form the base for refinement of the ASSIST programme and for the subsequent planning of a full-scale randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of the programme on a larger scale. Dissemination will include peer-reviewed publications and presentations at national and international conferences as well as information to involved stakeholders.

  • 44.
    Bergström, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Johansson, Ida
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Improved Spatial Resolution in Segmented Silicon Strip Detectors2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Semiconductor detectors are attracting interest for use in photon-counting spectral computed tomography. In order to obtain a high spatial resolution, it is of interest to find the photon interaction position. In this work we investigate if machine learning can be used to obtain a sub-pixel spatial resolution in a photon-counting silicon strip detector with pixels of 10 µm. Simulated charge distributions from events in one, three, and seven positions in each of three pixels were investigated using the MATLAB® Classification Learner application to determine the correct interaction position. Different machine learning models were trained and tested in order to maximize performance. With pulses originating from one and seven positions within each pixel, the model was able to find the originating pixel with an accuracy of 100% and 88.9% respectively. Further, the correct position within a pixel was found with an accuracy of 54.0% and 29.4% using three and seven positions per pixel respectively. These results show the possibility of improving the spatial resolution with machine learning.

  • 45.
    Björck, Linnea
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Petersen, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik.
    Höjdmätare för fallskärmshoppning: Metoder för höjdmätning samt framtagning av algoritmer för vald metod2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom fallskärmshoppning behövs förutom ett välfungerande fallskärmssystem även en precis höjdmätare. Båda är avgörande komponenter när det gäller utrustning för att kunna genomföra ett säkert hopp. Genom digitalisering och den tekniska utvecklingen finns det idag intressen för att ta fram en digital höjdmätare med bättre precision, flera funktioner och bättre samt tydligare användargränssnitt.

    Det existerar ett flertal tekniker för mätning av höjd. De tekniker som tas upp i examensarbetet är global positioning system (GPS), radar och barometer. Målet med examensarbetet var att ta fram en robust algoritm för mätning av höjd, med möjlighet till utveckling. Examensarbetet skulle även innehålla riskanalys av vald(a) teknik(er) , samt förslag på lämpliga presentationstekniker och systemlösningar satt i ett större perspektiv. Systemlösningarna skulle vara anpassade för enkel integration av nya funktioner. I mån av tid skulle även en prototyp utvecklas samt testas.

    Metoden som valdes var en digital höjdmätare på grund av att den passade bäst för det mål som upprättats för projektet. Fr att beräkna höjden med den digitala höjdmätaren användes sambandet mellan lufttryck och höjd. Resultatet av dessa beräkningar visade på ett tillräckligt precist mätvärde för att vara godtagbart. Eftersom mätvärdets precision var godtagbar beslutades det att inga ytterligare rättningar skulle göras. Arbetet fortsattes med att utveckla en prototyp och testning av denna utfördes. Resultatet blev att en fungerande prototyp togs fram. Framtida utvecklingsmöjligheter finns inom presentationsteknik, chassi, ytterligare rättningar av formeln för höjdmätning och fler iterationer av hårdvaran.

  • 46.
    Bodin, Theo
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Occupat Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Solnavagen 4, S-11365 Stockholm, Region Stockhol, Sweden..
    Berglund, Karin
    Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Solnavagen 4, S-11365 Stockholm, Region Stockhol, Sweden..
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi.
    Activity in neck-shoulder and lower arm muscles during computer and smartphone work2019Inngår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 74, artikkel-id UNSP 102870Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Relevance to industry: There is emerging evidence of musculoskeletal problems related to smartphone work and a rapid transition to mobile workplaces, where smartphones are key working tools. Aim: The study's aim was to compare muscle activity during computer work with smartphone work and to see what possible effects ergonomic recommendations for smartphone usage have on muscle activity. Methods: Activity was measured bilaterally from the upper trapezius muscle and from lower arm muscles on the right hand side, on twelve participants with surface electromyography who performed e-mail work on the computer using ergonomic recommendations, smartphone in a self-chosen way of working and on smartphone with ergonomic recommendations. Effects on productivity was not assessed in this study. Results: Activity in m. trapezius and m. extensor digitorum was significantly higher during computer work (p < 0.05) than during the two smartphone usages and activity in m. interossei dorsalis 1 was, vice versa, significantly higher during smartphone work fp < 0.05). Comparison of smartphone in self-chosen way of working and smartphone with ergonomic recommendations showed no significant differences. Conclusions: Previous research has highlighted the benefits of variation of work postures. This paper indicates that replacing the computer with a smartphone gives the trapezius muscle an opportunity to rest.

  • 47.
    Boltshauser, Rasmus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Zheng, Jimmy
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem.
    Automatisering av skjuvvågselastografidata för kärldiagnostisk applikation.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Hjärt- och kärlsjukdommar är den ledande dödsorsaken i världen. En av det vanligaste hjärt- och kärlsjukdomarna är åderförkalkning. Sjukdomen kännetecknas av förhårdning samt plackansamling i kärl och bidrar till stroke och hjärtinfarkt. Information om kärlväggens styvhet kan spela en viktig roll vid diagnostiseringen av bland annat åderförkalkning. Skjuvvågselastografi (SWE) är en noninvasiv ultraljudsbaserad metod som idag används för att mäta elasticitet och styvhet av större mjuka vävnader som lever- och bröstvävnad. Dock används inte metoden inom kärlapplikationer, då få genomgående studier har utförts på SWE för kärl. Målet med projektet är att automatisera kvantifieringen av skjuvvågshastigheten för SWE och undersöka hur automatiseringens förmåga och begränsningar beror av automatiseringsinställningar. Med verktyg erhållna från CBH (skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa) skapades ett MATLAB-program med denna förmåga. Programmet applicerades på två fantommodeller. Automatiseringsinställningarna påverkade automatiseringen av dessa modeller olika, vilket innebar att generella optimala inställningar inte kunde finnas. Optimala inställningar beror på vad automatiseringen skall undersöka.

     

  • 48.
    Borglund, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Lärande.
    Carlsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI).
    Colarieti-Tosti, Massimiliano
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH).
    Edström, Simon
    Havtun, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Tillämpad termodynamik och kylteknik.
    Henriksson, Ann-Sofie
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Lärande.
    Hjelm, Niclas
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Grundläggande naturvetenskap.
    Naimi-Akbar, Ida
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskaplig kommunikation och lärande (ECE), Lärande, Lärande i teknikvetenskap.
    Collaborative Course Evaluation and Development at KTH: Progress, Lessons Learned and Way Forward2017Inngår i: 6th USIU Conference, 2017, artikkel-id 68Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49.
    Brodin Kont, August
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Hälsoinformatik och logistik. KTH.
    Positioning and parking analysis for an indoor positioning system: A comparative study between Bluetooth Low Energy and Ultra Wideband technology2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The work done in this report as requested by H&D Wireless is performed by using an already developed real time positioning system called Griffin Enterprise Positioning Service and integratingit with ultrasound sensors for presence detection in order to enable assets to park in a visualized environment being actualized by tagging the asset with radio technology hardware. The testing environment was deployed with radio technology hardware equipped for transmitting and receiving radio signals for position estimation of tagged objects where hardware tags emits radio signals being received by sensing radio technology chips called sensepoints which also serves as communication links for further data processing.The thesis focus is on evaluating how different radio technologies combined with different positioning techniques perform in terms of accuracy and precision in positioning tests to assess eachones positioning performance characteristic and the technologies upsides and downsides.This was firstly evaluated by comparing three different technology positioning techniques based on one for Bluetooth Low Energy and two using Ultra Wideband technology being subject to generic tests including a static, dynamic and a walking positioning test for each technology.These initial tests were utilized as a foreground to evaluate which of the two positioning techniques based on Ultra Wideband technology that would compete in the parking tests alongside Bluetooth Low Energy that would serve as the primary objective to accomplish in the thesis.A final implication on parking tags between the two technologies is that Bluetooth Low Energy had to be implemented with higher requirement restrictions for parking due to insufficient relative accuracy and precision in parking positioning which also limited its ability to be parked in alternative manners explored but with power efficiency as a highly valuable aspect for consideration of this technology. Parking tag using Ultra Wideband technology proved highly successful as it saw large distance margins to be allowed parking in all test cases as well as exhibiting sufficient positioning performance to be considered for alternative parking methods without risk of exposure for failed attempts of parking.

  • 50.
    Brusini, Irene
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Carneiro, Miguel
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet CIBIO, InBIO, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Dept Biol, Fac Ciencias, P-4169007 Porto, Portugal..
    Wang, Chunliang
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Rubin, Carl-Johan
    Uppsala Univ, Sci Life Lab Uppsala, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ring, Henrik
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Afonso, Sandra
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet CIBIO, InBIO, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal..
    Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A.
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet CIBIO, InBIO, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.;CSIC, Inst Invest Recursos Cineget IREC, Ciudad Real 13005, Spain.;UCLM, CSIC, Ciudad Real 13005, Spain..
    Ferrand, Nuno
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet CIBIO, InBIO, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Dept Biol, Fac Ciencias, P-4169007 Porto, Portugal.;Univ Johannesburg, Dept Zool, ZA-2006 Auckland Pk, South Africa..
    Rafati, Nima
    Uppsala Univ, Sci Life Lab Uppsala, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Villafuerte, Rafael
    CSIC, IESA, Cordoba 14004, Spain..
    Smedby, Örjan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Medicinsk avbildning.
    Damberg, Peter
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Expt Res & Imaging Ctr, S-17176 Solna, Sweden..
    Hallbook, Finn
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Psychol, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala Univ, Sci Life Lab Uppsala, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.;Texas A&M Univ, Coll Vet Med & Biomed Sci, Dept Vet Integrat Biosci, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Changes in brain architecture are consistent with altered fear processing in domestic rabbits2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, nr 28, s. 7380-7385Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The most characteristic feature of domestic animals is their change in behavior associated with selection for tameness. Here we show, using high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging in wild and domestic rabbits, that domestication reduced amygdala volume and enlarged medial prefrontal cortex volume, supporting that areas driving fear have lost volume while areas modulating negative affect have gained volume during domestication. In contrast to the localized gray matter alterations, white matter anisotropy was reduced in the corona radiata, corpus callosum, and the subcortical white matter. This suggests a compromised white matter structural integrity in projection and association fibers affecting both afferent and efferent neural flow, consistent with reduced neural processing. We propose that compared with their wild ancestors, domestic rabbits are less fearful and have an attenuated flight response because of these changes in brain architecture.

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