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  • 1. Dragutescu, Ana
    et al.
    Jones, Peter
    Smeds, Emilia
    Horvat, Marko
    Meskovic, Elma
    European City Typology for context-sensitive framework and tools development: Deliverable D1.32020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to better understand the factors that hinder SUMP development and address urban mobility challenges, CIVITAS SUMP-PLUS is working within six co-creation laboratories in six cities. Yet due to the varying circumstances and mobility contexts in the project’s partner and (more generally) European cities, SUMP-PLUS determined the need for a city typology that enables the comparison of and the identification of differences between these varied city contexts. This report delivers an overview of the sources and methods used by different organisations, projects and other institutions when creating city typologies. Finally, this report sets out SUMP-PLUS’s own mobility-focused city typology, whose development has drawn on the aforementioned city typologies.

  • 2. Gaupp-Berghausen, M
    et al.
    Raser, E
    Anaya-Boig, E
    Avila-Palencia, I
    De Nazelle, A
    Dons, E
    Franzen, H
    Gerike, R
    Götschi, T
    Iacorossi, F
    Hössinger, R
    Nieuwenhuijsen, M
    Rojas-Rueda, D
    Sanchez, J
    Smeds, Emilia
    Deforth, M
    Standaert, A
    Stigell, E
    Cole-Hunter, T
    Panis, L I
    Evaluation of different recruitment methods: Longitudinal, web-based, pan-european physical activity through sustainable transport approaches (PASTA) project2019Inngår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 14388871, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. e11492-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sufficient sample size and minimal sample bias are core requirements for empirical data analyses. Combining opportunistic recruitment with a Web-based survey and data-collection platform yields new benefits over traditional recruitment approaches. Objective: This paper aims to report the success of different recruitment methods and obtain data on participants' characteristics, participation behavior, recruitment rates, and representativeness of the sample. Methods: A longitudinal, Web-based survey was implemented as part of the European PASTA (Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches) project, between November 2014 and December 2016. During this period, participants were recruited from 7 European cities on a rolling basis. A standardized guide on recruitment strategy was developed for all cities, to reach a sufficient number of adult participants. To make use of the strengths and minimize weakness, a combination of different opportunistic recruitment methods was applied. In addition, the random sampling approach was applied in the city of Örebro. To reduce the attrition rate and improve real-time monitoring, the Web-based platform featured a participant's and a researchers' user interface and dashboard. Results: Overall, 10,691 participants were recruited; most people found out about the survey through their workplace or employer (2300/10691, 21.51%), outreach promotion (2219/10691, 20.76%), and social media (1859/10691, 17.39%). The average number of questionnaires filled in per participant varied significantly between the cities (P<.001), with the highest number in Zurich (11.0, SE 0.33) and the lowest in Örebro (4.8, SE 0.17). Collaboration with local organizations, the use of Facebook and mailing lists, and direct street recruitment were the most effective approaches in reaching a high share of participants.

  • 3. Jones, Peter
    et al.
    Smeds, Emilia
    Dean, Marco
    Initial conceptual framework to map and establish cross-sector Links between major trip-generating sectors of the economy2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport is largely a derived demand and serves the needs of producers and consumers acrossthe various sectors of the economy. Hence, business decisions taken by these non-transport sectorscan have a major influence on passenger and freight travel patterns (particularly in terms of then umbers and location of trips); yet these transport consequences and the impacts on traffic congestion, accidents, air pollution and CO2 emissions, are rarely taken into account when these sectors develop their models for (public) service delivery and business models. This deliverable provides an initial conceptual framework to help address this problem.

    It first presents (Chapter 3) an international review of locational and service delivery decision-makingin several sectors, with a more in-depth analysis of case studies from the health sector. It concludes that, while there is a credible academic literature, there is limited public documentation about actual business decision-making processes and no underpinning conceptual framework.

    The latter issue is addressed in Chapter 4, where seven conceptual cornerstones are introduced, as inputs to aproposed conceptual framework. Chapter 5 considers the applicability of this embryonic conceptual framework to four sectors (health, education, retail and tourism), while Chapter 6 explores existing forms and degrees of cross-sectorcoordination in each of the six SUMP-PLUS cities.

  • 4. Kahlmeier, Sonja
    et al.
    Boig, Esther Anaya
    Castro Fernandez, Alberto
    Smeds, Emilia
    Benvenuti, Fabrizio
    Eriksson, Ulf
    Iacorossi, Francesco
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
    Panis, Luc Int
    Rojas-Rueda, David
    Wegener, Sandra
    Nazelle, Audrey de
    Assessing the Policy Environment for Active Mobility in Cities—Development and Feasibility of the PASTA Cycling and Walking Policy Environment Score2021Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 986-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of setting a policy focus on promoting cycling and walking as sustainable and healthy modes of transport is increasingly recognized. However, to date a science-driven scoring system to assess the policy environment for cycling and walking is lacking. In this study, spreadsheet-based scoring systems for cycling and walking were developed, including six dimensions (cycling/walking culture, social acceptance, perception of traffic safety, advocacy, politics and urban planning). Feasibility was tested using qualitative data from pre-specified sections of semi-standardized interview and workshop reports from a European research project in seven cities, assessed independently by two experts. Disagreements were resolved by discussions of no more than 75 minutes per city. On the dimension “perception of traffic safety”, quantitative panel data were used. While the interrater agreement was fair, feasibility was confirmed in general. Validity testing against social norms towards active travel, modal split and network length was encouraging for the policy area of cycling. Rating the policy friendliness for cycling and walking separately was found to be appropriate, as different cities received the highest scores for each. Replicating this approach in a more standardized way would pave the way towards a transparent, evidence-based system for benchmarking policy approaches of cities towards cycling and walking.

  • 5. McArthur, Jenny
    et al.
    Robin, Enora
    Smeds, Emilia
    Socio-spatial and temporal dimensions of transport equity for London’s night time economy2019Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 121, s. 433-443Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable mobility paradigm has dominated the urban transport research agenda for more than a decade. This paradigm focuses on the environmental impacts of travel and the imperative for climate change mitigation, however the specific outcomes of transport in terms of trip type and purpose are not robustly conceptualised, with limited intellectual foundations to understand the ethical considerations of transport service provision. This paper critically considers transport strategies recently developed for London's Night Time Economy, including policy discourse and technical approaches that shape of transport services provision at night. The case study evaluates the spatiotemporal dimensions of equity. Analysis of policy discourses revealed how night time transport are conceived as an instrumental means to grow the 'Night Time Economy', drawing from the conventional wisdom linking accessibility improvements with economic expansion. This strategy viewed 'London at night'€™ as a vehicle for economic development, focusing on the consumption-side of the economy and improving individuals’ access to entertainment and recreation. Policy discourse recognised the existence of night-time workers in sectors outside arts and recreation, however, attempts to broaden the 'Night Time Economy' agenda to accommodate the travel needs of night-time workers were lost through the narrow selection of accessibility metrics used in transport planning practice. This case demonstrates a missed opportunity to improve transport equity across spatial and temporal dimensions, as night-time workers face severe accessibility barriers, often relying on low-frequency bus services that have inadequate service coverage across Greater London. Scrutinising socio-spatial and temporal dimensions of transport provision can advance more systematic critical perspectives on transport equity by integrating a variety of distributional issues and linking more closely to the practical barriers faced by night-time workers to access transport.

  • 6.
    McArthur, Jenny
    et al.
    Urban Infrastructure and Policy, UCL.
    Smeds, Emilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Singerman Ray, Rosalie
    Transportation Technology and Society, University of Connecticut.
    Coronavirus showed the way cities fund public transport is broken: here’s how it needs to change2020Inngår i: The Conversation, ISSN 2201-5639Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7.
    Robin, Enora
    et al.
    Urban Governance (Cities, Networks and Knowledge Management), UCL.
    Smeds, Emilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    McArthur, Jenny
    Urban Governance (Infrastructure Governance, Policy and Planning), UCL.
    Nurses, drivers and delivery people: meet the real stars of the night time economy2017Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 8. Ryghaug, M
    et al.
    Subotički, I
    von Wirth, T
    Smeds, Emilia
    Scherrer, A
    Foulds, C
    Bertolini, L
    Beyazit İnce, Eda
    Brand, R
    Cohen-Blankshtain, G
    Dijk, M
    Freudendal-Pedersen, M
    Gössling, S
    Guzik, R
    Kivimaa, P
    Klöckner, C
    Nikolova, H L
    Lis, A
    Marquet, O
    Milakis, D
    Mladenović, M
    Mom, G
    Mullen, C
    Ortar, N
    Pucci, P
    Olivieira, C S
    Schwanen, T
    Seidenglanz, D
    Tuvikene, T
    Wentland, A
    100 Social Sciences and Humanities priority research questions for transport and mobility in Horizon Europe2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Full report
  • 9. Ryghaug, Marianne
    et al.
    Subotički, Ivana
    Smeds, Emilia
    Wirth, Timo von
    Scherrer, Aline
    Foulds, Chris
    Robison, Rosie
    Bertolini, Luca
    İnce, Eda Beyazit
    Brand, Ralf
    Cohen-Blankshtain, Galit
    Dijk, Marc
    Pedersen, Marlene Freudendal
    Gössling, Stephan
    Guzik, Robert
    Kivimaa, Paula
    Klöckner, Christian
    Nikolova, Hristina Lazarova
    Lis, Aleksandra
    Marquet, Oriol
    Milakis, Dimitris
    Mladenović, Milos
    Mom, Gijs
    Mullen, Caroline
    Ortar, Nathalie
    Paola, Pucci
    Oliveira, Catarina Sales
    Schwanen, Tim
    Tuvikene, Tauri
    Wentland, Alexander
    A Social Sciences and Humanities research agenda for transport and mobility in Europe: key themes and 100 research questions2023Inngår i: Transport Reviews, ISSN 01441647, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 755-779Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport and mobility systems need to be transformed to meet climate change goals and reduce negative environmental and social effects. Despite EU policies having targeted such problems for more than three decades, transitions have been slow and geographically uneven. For effective change to happen, transport and mobility research needs fresh perspectives and better integration of knowledge from the Social Sciences and Humanities. Based on a Horizon Scanning approach, which allowed for a great deal of openness and variety in scholarly viewpoints, this paper presents a novel research agenda consisting of 8 themes and 100 research questions that may contribute to achieving environmentally sustainable mobility transitions within Europe. This research agenda highlights the need to not only support technological solutions for low-carbon mobility, but the importance of transformative policies that include new processes of knowledge production, civic participation and epistemic justice. We contend that the agenda points to the need for further research on the dynamics of science-society interactions.

  • 10.
    Smeds, Emilia
    Department for Science, Technology, Engineering and Public Policy (STEaPP), University College London, United Kingdom.
    Automobile peripheries: travel to school in suburban London through the lens of social practice2019Inngår i: A Companion to Transport, Space and Equity / [ed] Hickman, R; Mella Lira, B; Givoni, M; Geurs, K, Edward Elgar Publishing , 2019, s. 76-89Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emilia Smeds considers journeys to school in relation to social practices and the dimensions of material, meaning and competency. This is viewed as a more complete framework for assessing social change than psychological theories which concentrate on attitudes at the individual level. Two schools are analysed, using interviews, in Ealing, West London. The prevalence for driving to school is based on a range of issues, including lack of suitable walking and cycling facilities, space-time constraints on parents’ mobility, poor public transport provision, availability of school choice, and negative meanings such as fear of traffic. Hence the difficulties in moving people away from the use of the private car for journeys to school – they are much more fundamental than changing individual behaviours and very often involve deeper, structural issues.

  • 11.
    Smeds, Emilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Citizen Epistemologies as the Driver of Public Plaza Equity in New York City2023Inngår i: Planning Theory & Practice, ISSN 1464-9357, E-ISSN 1470-000X, Vol. 24, nr 5, s. 703-708Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inequitable access to open public space has been debated for decades in New York City, as a high-density context where much of the city’s land surface is taken up by streets dominated by motor vehicles. In 2008, a new era in the city’s public space provision began with the launch of the NYC Department of Transportation’s Plaza Program, focused on the creation of new pedestrian plazas fashioned from street space formerly dedicated to traffic. By 2017, the Program had expanded from one to over 70 plazas city-wide and continues to operate using a ‘tactical urbanism’ approach with temporary materials like paint and planters. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in 2019 (Smeds, Citation2021), this essay describes how citizens’ epistemologies surrounding Diversity Plaza in the Jackson Heights neighbourhood became a key driver for the reform of NYC’s Plaza Program towards greater public space equity. Based on this case, I argue that citizens’ struggles for epistemic justice can pave the way for realising greater distributive and procedural justice in transitions towards post-car cities.

  • 12. Smeds, Emilia
    Moving Towards Transition: Commoning Mobility for a Low-Carbon Future2023Inngår i: The AAG Review of Books, ISSN 2325-548X, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 17-20Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Smeds, Emilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Municipal capacity for transformative experimentation: how much of a constraint is projectification?2022Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How local autonomy is shaped by structuring of funding opportunities by higher-level government is a long-established research theme. Studies of experimentation in UK and European cities have found that reliance on short-term, project-based and competitive funding is a major constraint on local actors’ capacities (Ehnert et al. 2018, Schwanen 2015, Hodson et al. 2018). Hodson et al. (2013) have shown how this may lead to ‘piecemeal’, rather than ‘systemic’, modes of urban energy innovation. Recently, these debates have been recast as ‘projectification’ of urban experimentation (Smeds 2018, Torrens and von Wirth 2020): the increasing reliance on temporary organising within the public sector (Godenhjelm et al. 2015). 

    This paper engages this debate with a focus on municipal government capacity for experimenting with urban mobility innovations in ways that are transformative and may contribute to transitions towards post-car cities (Smeds 2021). We extend Hodson et al.’s (2013) framework by drawing on organisational studies literature (Lundin and Söderholm 1995). We argue for a distinction between two dimensions of projectification: 1) forms of organising experiments, e.g. as a fixed-term project; and 2) funding that is awarded on a project, short-term and/or competitive basis. Mobility funding landscapes are examined as a driver that may cause experimentation to be organised in project-based, piecemeal forms. 

    We ask: how much of a constraint is projectification on municipal capacity, compared to other constraints on local autonomy in the context of state restructuring and austerity urbanism (Peck 2012)? This is answered through a comparative analysis of Bristol City Council and New York City government from 1996-2016, as contrasting cases with high and low degrees of fiscal autonomy, and representative cases of UK and US multi-scalar governance contexts. The study draws on large-N databases on the outcomes of 108 experiments, 48 interviews, and analysis of funding and municipal budget data. 

  • 14.
    Smeds, Emilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Smart transport can change people’s lives: but austerity is suppressing new transit tech2018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 15. Smeds, Emilia
    The Greener State: Public services for a carbon-neutral Europe2020Inngår i: Public Service Futures: Welfare States in the Digital Age / [ed] Harrop, A; Murray, K; Nogarede, J, Foundation for European Progressive Studies and Fabian Society , 2020, s. 51-63Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16. Smeds, Emilia
    Unpacking the Politics of C40: ‘Critical Friendship’ for a Second Decade2019Inngår i: Global Policy, ISSN 1758-5880, E-ISSN 1758-5899, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 720-722Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Smeds_2019_Global Policy
  • 17. Smeds, Emilia
    Urban Mobility Transitions: Governing through Experimentationin Bristol and New York City2021Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitions away from car-dominance is one of the key debates in urban research, policy and practice today. Car-free public space, cycling and convenient public transport services are widely seen as desirable, yet the reconfiguration of our streets and transport networks has been incremental. This doctoral research examines how mobility in cities is governed through experiments, commonly understood as pilot projects, and whether experiments hold potential for transformative change in urban mobility systems, including transitions away from automobility. The research draws on a synthesis of sustainability transitions, transport studies and urban studies literature, and traces the outcomes of 108 experiments undertaken over two decades in two cities: Bristol (UK) and New York City (USA) between 1996/7 and 2016. The findings demonstrate that experiments can contribute to transforming the physical shape of urban mobility systems and the institutions involved in governing them, and can even contribute to transitions, if assessed as change in commuting patterns away from car use. The research compares the capacity of respective municipal governments, Bristol City Council and NYC city government for ‘transformative experimentation’, and presents an institutionalist analysis of why the transformation of Bristol’s mobility system was more limited than NYC’s. To unpack the problematisation of piecemeal, ‘project-based’ experimentation driven by competitive funding landscapes, the research compares Bristol City Council and NYC city government as two municipalities with a different degree of reliance on external funding. The stronger capacity of NYC city government can be explained by its higher degree of fiscal autonomy and mobility policy discretion, whereas Bristol City Council’s capacity was limited by the centralisation of the UK state. Yet the thesis also shows that both municipalities pursued successful endogenous strategies in response to multi-scalar structure, and points to organisational and governance practices that can create ‘political space’ for urban actors to further transitions.

  • 18.
    Smeds, Emilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Urban transport experimentation: a network or hybrid governance process?2024Inngår i: Handbook of Transportation and Public Policy / [ed] Anthony Perl, Rosalie Ray, Louise Reardon, London: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2024Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative sustainable transport policies are often tested through experiments or pilots. This chapter focuses on how urban transport experimentation is governed, in today’s context where collaboration and partnerships beyond government are often posited as the key to policy innovation. It critically discusses whether experimentation can be understood as a ‘network governance’ process. First, it analyses the claim that the future role of municipal government is to primarily govern by ‘enabling’ activities led by civil society and private actors. Second, it analyses whether voluntary experiment partnerships based on shared normative sustainability goals are particularly effective for co-creating policy innovations. These two propositions are examined against findings from empirical research on 108 sustainable transport experiments implemented in Bristol and New York City between 1996 and 2016. While non-state involvement and network partnerships were in many cases important for realising transformative impacts from experimentation, they were by no means a precondition. Rather than urban transport experimentation being a network governance process per se, we suggest it reflects ‘hybrid governance’ with multiple co-existing governance modes.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19. Smeds, Emilia
    et al.
    Acuto, Michele
    Networking Cities after Paris: Weighing the Ambition of Urban Climate Change Experimentation2018Inngår i: Global Policy, ISSN 17585880, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 549-559Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades, cities have repeatedly demonstrated high levels of ambition with regard to climate action. Global environmental governance has been marked by a proliferation of policy actions taken by local governments around the world to demonstrate their potential to advance climate change mitigation and adaptation. Leading ‘by example’ and demonstrating the extent of action that it is possible to deliver, cities have aspired to raise the ambition of national and international climate governance and put action into practice via a growing number of ‘climate change experiments’ delivered on the ground. Yet accounts of the potential of cities in global environmental governance have often stopped short of a systematic valuation of the nature and impact of the networked dimension of this action. This article addresses this by assessing the nature, and challenges faced by, urban climate governance in the post-Paris era, focusing on the ‘experimentation’ undertaken in cities and the city networks shaping this type of governance. First, we unpack the concept of ‘urban climate change experimentation’, the ways in which it is networked, and the forces driving it. In the second and third parts of the article, we discuss two main pitfalls of networked urban experimentation in its current form, focusing on issues of scaling experiments and the nature of experimentation. We call for increased attention to ‘scaling up’ experiments beyond urban levels of governance, and to transformative experimentation with governance and politics by and in cities. Finally, we consider how these pitfalls allow us to weigh the potential of urban climate ambition, and consider the pathways available for supporting urban climate change experimentation.

  • 20.
    Smeds, Emilia
    et al.
    Centre for Transport Studies, University College London.
    Cavoli, Clemence
    Cavoli Centre for Transport Studies, University College London.
    Pathways for accelerating transitions towards sustainable mobility in European cities2021Inngår i: Towards a European Green Deal with Cities: The urban dimension of the EU’s sustainable growth strategy. / [ed] Abdullah, H, Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB) , 2021, s. 75-91Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Meeting the European Green Deal’s (EGD) target of climate-neutrality by 2050 will require a 90% reduction in emissions from the transport sector, as formulated in the European Commission’s Communication on the EGD in December 2019 (EC, 2019a). “Accelerating the shift to sustainable and smart mobility” is identified as one of eight thematic priorities in the Communication and places an emphasis on:

    • shifts from road transport to rail and inland waterways;
    • automated and connected multimodal mobility;
    • phasing out fossil-fuel subsidies and extension of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme to aviation and maritime transport;
    • increased production and deployment of alternative transport fuels, specifically zero- and low-emission vehicles;
    • transport becoming “drastically” less polluting “especially in cities”, including more stringent air pollutant emissions standards and CO2 emission standards for vehicles.

    It is notable that the urban context is not given much emphasis in the Commission’s priorities for future mobility: beyond emphasising the need to reduce air pollution in cities, the Communication does not mention walking, cycling, public transport or new mobility services that are central to daily mobility in urban areas. The formulation of new sectoral policy instruments linked to the EGD is still in its infancy, but the omission is nevertheless surprising, considering that tackling urban emissions is critical for meeting the 90% reduction target for transport. Road transport accounts for approximately 72% of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU (EC, 2019b), with urban areas contributing 40% of total road transport CO2 emissions (EC, 2020). Overall, urban areas are estimated to account for 23% of CO2 emissions from transport in the EU (EEA, 2019).

  • 21. Smeds, Emilia
    et al.
    Jones, Peter
    Developing transition pathways for mobility in European cities: challenges and new approaches2021Inngår i: Urban Mobility after COVID-19: Long-term strategies for the sustainable mobility transition in European cities / [ed] Abdullah, H; Serrano Robles, E, Barcelona: Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB) , 2021Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Meeting the European Union’s 2050 climate-neutrality target will require a 90% reduction in transport-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A large proportion of these reductions will need to come from Europe’s city-regions, and urban mobility in Europe will need to change fundamentally as a result. The question for European municipalities is how they can pursue mobility planning that ensures GHG emissions decline at sufficient scale and speed to meet the EU’s 2030 and 2050 climate targets.

    The European Commission’s current policy framework for supporting urban mobility transitions includes the Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning (SUMP) approach as one of its cornerstones, with the SUMP practitioner guidelines currently in their second iteration and EU funding for municipalities likely to become conditional on adherence to these planning principles. Based on our work within the H2020 SUMPPLUS project, we argue that new long-term planning approaches to developing transition pathways are needed that complement existing SUMP planning focused on a five- to ten-year time horizon (Smeds & Jones, 2020). In this chapter, we make reference to the cities of Barcelona and Stockholm as illustrative examples, based on conversations with representatives of the respective city governments during the webinar “Urban Mobility after COVID-19” hosted by CIDOB in April 2021.

  • 22. Smeds, Emilia
    et al.
    Jones, Peter
    Developing Transition Pathways towards Sustainable Mobility in European Cities: Conceptual framework and practical guidance2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    SUMP-PLUS D1.2 includes a review of the state-of-the-art in academic and practitionerevidence regarding the development of longer-term Transition Pathways for urban mobility,and sets out some key concepts for addressing this issue. It identifies some majorimplementation barriers to sustainable mobility policies in European cities, and proposes anew planning approach to overcome the ‘implementation gap’ and enable sustainablemobility transitions. The final two chapters develop two sets of practical guidance supportingcities to develop: (i) longer-term Transition Pathways towards carbon-neutral mobility andliveable cities by 2050, and (ii) a series of shorter-term Implementation Strategies that detailhow measure packages will be implemented in practice, and how organisational and politicalissues can be managed. These are designed to complement existing guidance ondeveloping Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    SUMP-PLUS D1.2 Developing Transition Pathways towards Sustainable Mobility in European cities
  • 23. Smeds, Emilia
    et al.
    McArthur, Jenny
    Robin, Enora
    Equitable transport provision for night-time workers in 24-hour London2017Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, cities across Europe and the US have begun to take the notion of a ‘24- hour city’ more seriously. Having recognised the economic value of night-time activities, cities such as Amsterdam and London have appointed night-time mayors to help foster the Night- Time Economy (NTE). This short research report unpacks current understandings of the NTE in London, highlighting the discrepancies between NTE as framed in policy strategies and the real nature of the NTE. It seeks to understand to what extent planning for night-time transport caters to those working in the sectors that make up the most of the NTE (health and social care services, transport and logistics), identifying blind spots in London’s current approach to night-time transport. Whilst this research project is in its early stages, this report aims to provide new methodological insights on how spatial data analysis can be leveraged to map the transport needs of night-time workers, in order to inform the design of more inclusive transport policy. More broadly, the report highlights that 

    more inclusive framings of night-time strategies are possible if the NTE is viewed from the perspective of labour and the transport demand generated by workers, rather than from the perspective of consumption and the leisure-based economy alone; in addition to investing in the extension of rail services to operate at night, policy development should include investigating options to improve night bus services further, such as express night buses to serve major night-time employment areas; access to transport needs to be understood and modelled not just in terms of access to consumption, the London Central Activities Zone or day-time destinations, but crucially include access to employment as a cornerstone. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    UCL City Leadership Lab - Night time transport
  • 24.
    Smeds, Emilia
    et al.
    School of Architecture and Cities, University of Westminster, UK, 35 Marylebone Rd, London NW1 5LS, United Kingdom.
    Papa, Enrica
    School of Architecture and Cities, University of Westminster, UK, 35 Marylebone Rd, London NW1 5LS, United Kingdom.
    The value of street experiments for mobility and public life: Citizens’ perspectives from three European cities2023Inngår i: Journal of Urban Mobility, ISSN 2667-0917, Vol. 4, s. 100055-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Street experiments’ (SE) are increasingly used to reallocate street space from traffic to space for people through temporary interventions. Existing research suggests that SE can mobilise the public in favour of post-car transitions and focuses on evaluating SE from an upscaling, public acceptability, or practitioner perspective, while there are few studies that explore what citizens value about SE in the context of everyday street life in an open-ended way. To fill this gap, this paper analyses how N = 458 citizens value five SE parklets and plazas in three neighbourhoods of London, Munich, and Bologna. We develop a primarily inductive and qualitative survey method for understanding what mobility and public life dimensions of SE that citizens value, considering both use value and the broader social meanings of street transformations. Based on empirical analysis, we develop a framework for analysing the value of SE with 10 categories spanning functional, social, safety, environmental and economic dimensions. The findings show that across all three European cities, the majority of citizens value the public life dimensions of SE more highly than SE benefits for active mobility: including the added value of SE for the attractiveness of the streetscape, making public space available for stationary activities, and creating opportunities for social and civic interaction within neighbourhoods. Our analytical approach can be used to understand citizens’ qualitative evaluations of SE, while our practitioner recommendations can help inform the design of more effective and inclusive SE interventions.

  • 25.
    Smeds, Emilia
    et al.
    Urban Innovation and Policy Laboratory, Department for Science, Technology, Engineering and Public Policy (STEaPP), University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Robin, Enora
    Urban Institute, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    McArthur, Jenny
    Urban Innovation and Policy Laboratory, Department for Science, Technology, Engineering and Public Policy (STEaPP), University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Night-time mobilities and (in)justice in London: Constructing mobile subjects and the politics of difference in policy-making2020Inngår i: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 82, s. 102569-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing interest in urban night-time economies and night-time transport policies presents an important context in which to examine how mobility justice is conceived and operationalised in policy-making. Literature on transport exclusion and transport justice documents the disadvantages experienced by different social groups and advances theoretical frameworks for distributive justice and transport accessibility. However, this literature has rarely considered the politics of whether and how mobility difference is recognised and planned for in transport policy, including issues of deliberative justice (participation) and epistemic justice (knowledge production). To address these research gaps, this paper engages with Sheller's (2018) theorisation of mobility justice and critically analyses the construction of mobile subjects in policy discourse on night-time mobility. We analyse policy documents part of night-time policy for Greater London to examine the extent to which the differentiated night-time mobilities across social categories (gender, age, ethnicity, income, etc.) are recognised – in other words, how the ‘politics of difference’ play out in transport policy-making. Findings show that the discursive construction of mobile subjects in London's night-time policy distinguishes between workers, consumers, and transport users, yet, these broad categories poorly account for differentiated mobility needs and practices. Publicly available data on differentiated night-time mobilities in London does not inform current policy discourse, obscuring disadvantages experienced by different groups of people moving through the city at night, and thus limits the capacity of existing policy interventions to address mobility injustices. These findings reaffirm the need for transport research to move beyond distributive justice and accessibility analysis, towards exploring the potential of thinking about distributive and epistemic justice for challenging the status quo of transport policy.

  • 26.
    Smeds, Emilia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Verlinghieri, Ersilia
    Kocsis, Joanna
    Connolly, James J. T.
    Polgár, Ana
    Manaugh, Kevin
    Waygood, E. O. D.
    Castañeda, Paola
    Wargent, Matthew
    ‘Seeing Like a Citizen’: Rethinking City Street Transformations through the Lens of Epistemic Justice2023Inngår i: Planning Theory & Practice, ISSN 1464-9357, E-ISSN 1470-000X, Vol. 24, nr 5, s. 697-729Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27. Torrens, J.
    et al.
    Westman, L.
    Wolfram, M.
    Broto, V. C.
    Barnes, J.
    Egermann, M.
    Ehnert, F.
    Frantzeskaki, N.
    Fratini, C. F.
    Håkansson, I.
    Hölscher, K.
    Huang, P.
    Raven, R.
    Sattlegger, A.
    Schmidt-Thomé, K.
    Smeds, Emilia
    Vogel, N.
    Wangel, J.
    von Wirth, T.
    Advancing urban transitions and transformations research2021Inngår i: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, Vol. 41, s. 102-105Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban transitions and transformations research fosters a dialogue between sustainability transitions theory an inter- and transdisciplinary research on urban change. As a field, urban transitions and transformations research encompasses plural analytical and conceptual perspectives. In doing so, this field opens up sustainability transitions research to new communities of practice in urban environments, including mayors, transnational municipal networks, and international organizations.

1 - 27 of 27
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