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  • 1.
    Alam, Assad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Björk, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Garcia Alonso, Liliana
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Khaksari, Farzad
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Khan, Altamash
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Kjellberg, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Liang, Kuo-Yun
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Lyberger, Rickard
    Scania CV AB.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Nilsson, John-Olof
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    Scania CV AB.
    Pettersson, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Stålklinga, Elin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Sundman, Dennis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Zachariah, Dave
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Cooperative driving according to Scoop2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Scania are entering the GCDC 2011 under the name Scoop –Stockholm Cooperative Driving. This paper is an introduction to their team and to the technical approach theyare using in their prototype system for GCDC 2011.

  • 2.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    A Functional Brake Architecture for Autonomous Heavy Commercial VehiclesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy commercial vehicles constitute the dominant form of inland freight transport. There is a strong interest in making such vehicles autonomous (self-­‐driving), in order to improve safety and the economics of fleet operation. Autonomy concerns affect a number of key systems within the vehicle. One such key system is brakes, which need to remain continuously available throughout vehicle operation. This paper presents a fail-­‐operational functional brake architecture for autonomous heavy commercial vehicles. The architecture is based on a reconfiguration of the existing brake systems in a typical vehicle, in order to attain dynamic, diversified redundancy along with desired brake performance. Specifically, the parking brake is modified to act as a secondary brake with capabilities for monitoring and intervention of the primary brake system. A basic fault tree analysis of the architecture indicates absence of single points of failure, and a reliability analysis shows that it is reasonable to expect about an order of magnitude improvement in overall system reliability.

  • 3.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Architecting Autonomous Automotive Systems: With an emphasis on Cooperative Driving2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing usage of electronics and software in a modern automobile enables realization of many advanced features. One such feature is autonomous driving. Autonomous driving means that a human driver’s intervention is not required to drive the automobile; rather, theautomobile is capable of driving itself. Achieving automobile autonomyrequires research in several areas, one of which is the area of automotive electrical/electronics (E/E) architectures. These architectures deal with the design of the computer hardware and software present inside various subsystems of the vehicle, with particular attention to their interaction and modularization. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how automotive E/E architectures should be designed so that 1) it ispossible to realize autonomous features and 2) a smooth transition canbe made from existing E/E architectures, which have no explicit support for autonomy, to future E/E architectures that are explicitly designed for autonomy.The thesis begins its investigation by considering the specific problem of creating autonomous behavior under cooperative driving condi-tions. Cooperative driving conditions are those where continuous wireless communication exists between a vehicle and its surroundings, which consist of the local road infrastructure as well as the other vehicles in the vicinity. In this work, we define an original reference architecture for cooperative driving. The reference architecture demonstrates how a subsystem with specific autonomy features can be plugged into an existing E/E architecture, in order to realize autonomous driving capabilities. Two salient features of the reference architecture are that it isminimally invasive and that it does not dictate specific implementation technologies. The reference architecture has been instantiated on two separate occasions and is the main contribution of this thesis. Another contribution of this thesis is a novel approach to the design of general, autonomous, embedded systems architectures. The approach introduces an artificial consciousness within the architecture, that understands the overall purpose of the system and also how the different existing subsystems should work together in order to meet that purpose.This approach can enable progressive autonomy in existing embedded systems architectures, over successive design iterations.

  • 4.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Architecture support for automobile autonomy:A state of the art survey2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Reference Architectures for Highly Automated Driving2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly automated driving systems promise increased road traffic safety, as well as positive impacts on sustainable transportation by means of increased traffic efficiency and environmental friendliness. The design and development of such systems require scientific advances in a number of areas. One area is the vehicle's electrical/electronic (E/E) architecture. The E/E architecture can be presented using a number of views, of which an important one is the functional view. The functional view describes the decomposition of the system into its main logical components, along with the hierarchical structure, the component inter-connections, and requirements. When this view captures the principal ideas and patterns that constitute the foundation of a variety of specific architectures, it may be termed as a reference architecture. Two reference architectures for highly automated driving form the principal contribution of this thesis. The first reference architecture is for cooperative driving. In a cooperative driving situation, vehicles and road infrastructure in the vicinity of a vehicle continuously exchange wireless information and this information is then used to control the motion of the vehicle. The second reference architecture is for autonomous driving, wherein the vehicle is capable of driver-less operation even without direct communication with external entities. The description of both reference architectures includes their main components and the rationale for how these components should be distributed across the architecture and its layers. These architectures have been validated via multiple real-world instantiations, and the guidelines for instantiation also form part of the architecture description. A comparison with similar architectures is also provided, in order to highlight the similarities and differences. The comparisons show that in the context of automated driving, the explicit recognition of components for semantic understanding, world modeling, and vehicle platform abstraction are unique to the proposed architecture. These components are not unusual in architectures within the Artificial Intelligence/robotics domains; the proposed architecture shows how they can be applied within the automotive domain. A secondary contribution of this thesis is a description of a lightweight, four step approach for model based systems engineering of highly automated driving systems, along with supporting model classes. The model classes cover the concept of operations, logical architecture, application software components, and the implementation platforms. The thesis also provides an overview of current implementation technologies for cognitive driving intelligence and vehicle platform control, and recommends a specific setup for development and accelerated testing of highly automated driving systems, that includes model- and hardware-in-the-loop techniques in conjunction with a publish/subscribe bus. Beyond the more "traditional" engineering concepts, the thesis also investigates the domain of machine consciousness and computational self-awareness. The exploration indicates that current engineering methods are likely to hit a complexity ceiling, breaking through which may require advances in how safety-critical systems can self-organize, construct, and evaluate internal models to reflect their perception of the world. Finally, the thesis also presents a functional architecture for the brake system of an autonomous truck. This architecture proposes a reconfiguration of the existing brake systems of the truck in a way that provides dynamic, diversified redundancy, and an increase in the system reliability and availability, while meeting safety requirements.

  • 6.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Scoop Technical Report: Year 20112011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with the technical solution that was implemented for the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2011. The GCDC involved developing a system to drive a vehicle autonomously in specific situations. Some reflections on the design process are also included. The goal of the report is to make the user understand the technical solution and the motivations behind the design choices made.

  • 7.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Systems Engineering and Architecting for Intelligent Autonomous Systems2016Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides insights into architecture and systems engineering for autonomous driving systems, through a set of complementary perspectives. For practitioners, a short term perspective uses the state of the art to define a three layered functional architecture for autonomous driving, consisting of a vehicle platform, a cognitive driving intelligence, and off-board supervisory and monitoring services. The architecture is placed within a broader context of model based systems engineering (MBSE), for which we define four classes of models: Concept of Operations, Logical Architecture, Application Software Components, and Platform Components. These classes aid an immediate or subsequent MBSE methodology for concrete projects. Also for concrete projects, we propose an implementation setup and technologies that combine simulation and implementation for rapid testing of autonomous driving functionality in physical and virtual environments. Future evolution of autonomous driving systems is explored with a long term perspective looking at stronger concepts of autonomy like machine consciousness and self-awareness. Contrasting these concepts with current engineering practices shows that scaling to more complex systems may require incorporating elements of so-called \emph{constructivist} architectures. The impact of autonomy on systems engineering is expected to be mainly around testing and verification, while implementations shall continue experiencing an influx of technologies from non-automotive domains.

  • 8.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.). The SP Technical Research Institute, Sweden.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Architecture challenges for intelligent autonomous machines: An industrial perspective2016Inngår i: 13th International conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-13), Springer, 2016, Vol. 302, s. 1669-1681Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Machines are displaying a trend of increasing autonomy. This has a far reaching impact on the architectures of the embedded systems within the machine. The impact needs to be clearly understood and the main obstacles to autonomy need to be identified. The obstacles, especially from an industrial perspective, are not just technological butalso relate to system aspects like certification, development processes and product safety. In this paper, we identify and discuss some of the main obstacles to autonomy from the viewpoint of technical specialists working on advanced industrial product development. The identified obstacles cover topics like world modeling, user interaction, complexity and system safety.

  • 9.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Liljeqvist, Björn
    EIS by Semcon.
    Towards Autonomous Architetures: An Automotive Perspective2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of embedded computers in modern automobiles is enabling increasingly autonomous features. Electronic power train management and applications in active safety, cooperative driving and navigation show an underlying trend of the transfer of responsibilities from the human driver to a vehicle's (semi-)autonomous subsystems. The logical culmination ofthis trend would be a completely autonomous vehicle. How should existing vehicle architectures be evolved to sustain the development and growth of autonomous functions? We explore the principal problems with existing architectures, caused due to ad hoc addition of (semi-) autonomous features and argue that it is time to rethink automotive architectures from an autonomous systems perspective. We introduce a pattern that can help architects and designers to think in terms of autonomy and suggest where the application of autonomous systems thinking should begin, in the context of architecture development.

  • 10.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    A functional architecture for autonomous driving2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) of self-driving vehicles increase, it is necessary to investigate the Electrical/Electronic(E/E) system architectures for autonomous driving, beyond proof-of-concept prototypes. Relevant patterns and anti-patterns need to be raised into debate and documented. This paper presents the principal components needed in a functional architecture for autonomous driving, along with reasoning for how they should be distributed across the architecture. A functional architecture integrating all the concepts and reasoning is also presented.

  • 11.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    A Functional Reference Architecture for Autonomous Driving2016Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 73, s. 136-150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

    As autonomous driving technology matures towards series production, it is necessary to take a deeper look at various aspects of electrical/electronic (E/E) architectures for autonomous driving.

    Objective

    This paper describes a functional architecture for autonomous driving, along with various considerations that influence such an architecture. The functionality is described at the logical level, without dependence on specific implementation technologies.

    Method

    Engineering design has been used as the research method, which focuses on creating solutions intended for practical application. The architecture has been refined and applied over a five year period to the construction of protoype autonomous vehicles in three different categories, with both academic and industrial stakeholders.

    Results

    The architectural components are divided into categories pertaining to (i) perception, (ii) decision and control, and (iii) vehicle platform manipulation. The architecture itself is divided into two layers comprising the vehicle platform and a cognitive driving intelligence. The distribution of components among the architectural layers considers two extremes: one where the vehicle platform is as "dumb" as possible, and the other, where the vehicle platform can be treated as an autonomous system with limited intelligence. We recommend a clean split between the driving intelligence and the vehicle platform. The architecture description includes identification of stakeholder concerns, which are grouped under the business and engineering categories. A comparison with similar architectures is also made, wherein we claim that the presence of explicit components for world modeling, semantic understanding, and vehicle platform abstraction seem unique to our architecture.

    Conclusion

    The concluding discussion examines the influences of implementation technologies on functional architectures and how an architecture is affected when a human driver is replaced by a computer. The discussion also proposes that reduction and acceleration of testing, verification, and validation processes is the key to incorporating continuous deployment processes.

  • 12.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Educating embedded systems hackers: A practitioner's perspective2014Inngår i: 2014 Workshop on Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems Education, WESE 2014 - Proceedings, ACM Digital Library, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some practical skills which bridge the gap between a sound theoretical education in embedded systems and the skillset acquired by experienced practitioners in the field. The presentation of each skill is accompanied by common solution patterns, state-of-practice technologies, and a set of exercises to provide practical uptake of each skill.

  • 13.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Systems Engineering and Architecting for Intelligent Autonomous Systems2017Inngår i: Automated Driving: Safer and More Efficient Future Driving / [ed] Watzenig, Daniel, Horn, Martin, Springer, 2017, s. 313-351Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of architecture and systems engineeringfor autonomous driving system, through a set of complementaryperspectives. For practitioners, a short term perspective uses the state of theart to dene a three layered functional architecture for autonomous driving,consisting of a vehicle platform, a cognitive driving intelligence, and o-board supervisory and monitoring services. The architecture is placed withina broader context of model based systems engineering (MBSE), for which wedene four classes of models: Concept of Operations, Logical Architecture,Application Software Components, and Platform Components. These classesaid an immediate or subsequent MBSE methodology for concrete projects.Also for concrete projects, we propose an implementation setup and technologiesthat combine simulation and implementation for rapid testing of autonomousdriving functionality in physical and virtual environments. Futureevolution of autonomous driving systems is explored with a long term perspectivelooking at stronger concepts of autonomy like machine consciousnessand self-awareness. Contrasting these concepts with current engineering practicesshows that scaling to more complex systems may require incorporatingelements of so-called constructivist architectures. The impact of autonomy onsystems engineering is expected to be mainly around testing and verication,while implementations shall continue experiencing an in ux of technologiesfrom non-automotive domains.

  • 14.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Inbyggda styrsystem.
    A reference architecture for cooperative driving2013Inngår i: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 59, nr 10: Part C, s. 1095-1112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative driving systems enable vehicles to adapt their motion to the surrounding traffic situation by utilizing information communicated by other vehicles and infrastructure in the vicinity. How should these systems be designed and integrated into the modern automobile? What are the needed functions, key architectural elements and their relationships? We created a reference architecture that systematically answers these questions and validated it in real world usage scenarios. Key findings concern required services and enabling them via the architecture. We present the reference architecture and discuss how it can influence the design and implementation of such features in automotive systems.

  • 15.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Izosimov, Viacheslav
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    A Functional Brake Architecture for Autonomous Heavy Commercial Vehicles2016Inngår i: SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition, sae international , 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy commercial vehicles constitute the dominant form of inland freight transport. There is a strong interest in making such vehicles autonomous (self-driving), in order to improve safety and the economics of fleet operation. Autonomy concerns affect a number of key systems within the vehicle. One such key system is brakes, which need to remain continuously available throughout vehicle operation. This paper presents a fail-operational functional brake architecture for autonomous heavy commercial vehicles. The architecture is based on a reconfiguration of the existing brake systems in a typical vehicle, in order to attain dynamic, diversified redundancy along with desired brake performance. Specifically, the parking brake is modified to act as a secondary brake with capabilities for monitoring and intervention of the primary brake system. A basic fault tree analysis of the architecture indicates absence of single points of failure, and a reliability analysis shows that it is reasonable to expect about an order of magnitude improvement in overall system reliability. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.

  • 16.
    Mohan, Naveen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Roos, Per
    Svahn, Johan
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    ATRIUM - Architecting Under Uncertainty for ISO 26262 compliance2017Inngår i: 2017 11TH ANNUAL IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (SYSCON), IEEE , 2017, s. 786-793Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 26262 is currently the dominant functional safety standard for electrical and electronic systems in the automotive industry. The Functional Safety Concept sub-phase in the standard requires the Preliminary Architectural Assumptions (PAA) for allocation of functional safety requirements. This paper justifies the need for, and defines a process ATRIUM, for consistent design of the PAA. ATRIUM is subsequently applied in an industrial case study for a function enabling highly automated driving at one of the largest heavy vehicle manufacturers in Europe, Scania CV AB. The findings from this study, which contributed to ATRIUM's institutionalization at Scania, are presented. The benefits of ATRIUM include (i) a fast and flexible way to refine the PAA, and a framework to (ii) incorporate information from legacy systems into safety design and (iii) rigorously track and document the assumptions and rationale behind architectural decisions under uncertain information. The contributions of this paper are (i) the analysis of the problem (ii) the process ATRIUM and (iii) findings and the discussion from the case study at Scania.

  • 17.
    Mohan, Naveen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    A Method towards the Systematic Architecting of Functionally Safe Automated Driving- Leveraging Diagnostic Specifications for FSC design2017Inngår i: SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191, Vol. 2017-March, nr MarchArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advent of ISO 26262 there is an increased emphasis on top-down design in the automotive industry. While the standard delivers a best practice framework and a reference safety lifecycle, it lacks detailed requirements for its various constituent phases. The lack of guidance becomes especially evident for the reuse of legacy components and subsystems, the most common scenario in the cost-sensitive automotive domain, leaving vehicle architects and safety engineers to rely on experience without methodological support for their decisions. This poses particular challenges in the industry which is currently undergoing many significant changes due to new features like connectivity, servitization, electrification and automation. In this paper we focus on automated driving where multiple subsystems, both new and legacy, need to coordinate to realize a safety-critical function. This paper introduces a method to support consistent design of a work product required by ISO 26262, the Functional Safety Concept (FSC). The method arises from and addresses a need within the industry for architectural analysis, rationale management and reuse of legacy subsystems. The method makes use of an existing work product, the diagnostic specifications of a subsystem, to assist in performing a systematic assessment of the influence a human driver, in the design of the subsystem. The output of the method is a report with an abstraction level suitable for a vehicle architect, used as a basis for decisions related to the FSC such as generating a Preliminary Architecture (PA) and building up argumentation for verification of the FSC. The proposed method is tested in a safety-critical braking subsystem at one of the largest heavy vehicle manufacturers in Sweden, Scania C.V. AB. The results demonstrate the benefits of the method including (i) reuse of pre-existing work products, (ii) gathering requirements for automated driving functions while designing the PA and FSC, (iii) the parallelization of work across the organization on the basis of expertise, and (iv) the applicability of the method across all types of subsystems.

  • 18.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Alam, Assad
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Khan, Altamash
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Kjellberg, Joakim
    Liang, Kuo-Yun
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    Sundman, Dennis
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Kommunikationsteori. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    The development of a cooperative heavy-duty vehicle for the GCDC 2011: Team Scoop2012Inngår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 1033-1049Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The first edition of the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) was held in the Netherlands in May 2011. Nine international teams competed in urban and highway platooning scenarios with prototype vehicles using cooperative adaptive cruise control. Team Scoop, a collaboration between KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, and Scania CV AB, Sodertalje, Sweden, participated at the GCDC with a Scania R-series tractor unit. This paper describes the development and design of Team Scoop's prototype system for the GCDC. In particular, we present considerations with regard to the system architecture, state estimation and sensor fusion, and the design and implementation of control algorithms, as well as implementation issues with regard to the wireless communication. The purpose of the paper is to give a broad overview of the different components that are needed to develop a cooperative driving system: from architectural design, workflow, and functional requirement descriptions to the specific implementation of algorithms for state estimation and control. The approach is more pragmatic than scientific; it collects a number of existing technologies and gives an implementation-oriented view of a cooperative vehicle. The main conclusion is that it is possible, with a modest effort, to design and implement a system that can function well in cooperation with other vehicles in realistic traffic scenarios.

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