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  • 1.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    On Optimisation and Design of Geodetic Networks2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimisation of a geodetic network is performed to provide its pre-set quality requirements. Today, this procedure is almost run with the aid of developed analytical approaches, where the human intervention in the process cycle is limited to defining the criteria. The existing complication of optimisation problem was terminated by classifying it into several stages. By performing these steps, we aim to design a network with the best datum, configuration and the observation weights, which meets the precision, reliability and cost criteria.

    In this thesis, which is a compilation of four papers in scientific journals, we investigate the optimisation problem by developing some new methods in simulated and real applications.

    On the first attempt, the impact of different constraints in using a bi-objective optimisation model is investigated in a simulated network. It is particularly prevalent among surveyors to encounter inconsistencies between the controlling constraints, such as precision, reliability and cost. To overcome this issue in optimisation, one can develop bi-objective or multi-objective models, where more criteria are considered in the object function. We found out that despite restricting the bi-objective model with precision and reliability constraints in this study, there is no significant difference in results compared to the unconstrained model. Nevertheless, the constrained models have strict controls on the precision of net points and observation reliabilities.

    The importance of optimisation techniques in optimal design of displacement monitoring networks leads to the development of a new idea, where all the observations of two epochs are considered in the optimisation procedure. Traditionally, an observation plan is designed for a displacement network and repeated for the second epoch. In the alternative method, by using the Gauss-Helmert method, the variances of all observations are estimated instead of their weights to perform the optimisation. This method delivers two observation plans for the two epochs and provides the same displacement precision as the former approach, while it totally removes more observations from the plan.

    To optimise a displacement monitoring network by considering a sensitivity criterion as a main factor in defining the capacity of a network in detecting displacements, a real case study is chosen. A GPS displacement monitoring network is established in the Lilla Edet municipality in the southwest of Sweden to investigate possible landslides. We optimised the existing monitoring network by considering all quality criteria, i.e. precision, reliability and cost to enable the network for detecting 5 mm displacement at the net points. The different optimisation models are performed on the network by assuming single baseline observations in each measurement session. A decrease of 17% in the number of observed baselines is yielded by the multi-objective model. The observation plan with fewer baselines saves cost, time and effort on the project, while it provides the demanded quality requirements.

    The Lilla Edet monitoring network is also used to investigate the idea, where we assume more precise instruments in the second of two sequential epochs. In this study, we use a single-objective model of precision, and constrained it to reliability. The precision criterion is defined such that it provides the sensitivity of the network in detecting displacements and has a better variance-covariance matrix than at the first epoch. As the observations are GPS baselines, we assumed longer observation time in the second epoch to obtain higher precision. The results show that improving the observation precision in the second epoch yields an observation plan with less number of baselines in that epoch. In other words, separate observation plans with different configurations are designed for the monitoring network, considering better observation precision for the latter epoch.

  • 2.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Optimal Design in Geodetic GNSS-based Networks2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal design of a geodetic network helps the surveying engineers maximise the efficiency of the network. A number of pre-defined quality requirements, i.e. precision, reliability, and cost, of the network are fulfilled by performing an optimisation procedure. Today, this is almost always accomplished by implementing analytical solutions, where the human intervention in the process cycle is limited to defining the requirements. Nevertheless, a trial and error method can be beneficial to some applications. In order to analytically solve an optimisation problem, it can be classified to different orders, where an optimal datum, configuration, and optimal observation weights can be sought such that the precision, reliability and cost criteria are satisfied.

    In this thesis, which is a compilation of six peer-reviewed papers, we optimised and redesigned a number of GNSS-based monitoring networks in Sweden by developing new methodologies. In addition, optimal design and efficiency of total station establishment with RTK-GNSS is investigated in this research.

    Sensitivity of a network in detecting displacements is of importance for monitoring purposes. In the first paper, a precision criterion was defined to enable a GNSS-based monitoring network to detect 5 mm displacements at each network point. Developing an optimisation model by considering this precision criterion, reliability and cost yielded a decrease of 17% in the number of observed single baselines implying a reliable and precise network at lower cost. The second paper concerned a case, where the precision of observations could be improved in forthcoming measurements. Thus a new precision criterion was developed to consider this assumption. A significant change was seen in the optimised design of the network for subsequent measurements. As yet, the weight of single baselines was subject to optimisation, while in the third paper, the effect of mathematical correlations between GNSS baselines was considered in the optimisation. Hence, the sessions of observations, including more than two receivers, were optimised. Four out of ten sessions with three simultaneous operating receivers were eliminated in a monitoring network with designed displacement detection of 5 mm. The sixth paper was the last one dealing with optimisation of GNSS networks. The area of interest was divided into a number of three-dimensional elements and the precision of deformation parameters was used in developing a precision criterion. This criterion enabled the network to detect displacements of 3 mm at each point.

    A total station can be set up in the field by different methods, e.g. free station or setup over a known point. A real-time updated free station method uses RTK-GNSS to determine the coordinates and orientation of a total station. The efficiency of this method in height determination was investigated in the fourth paper. The research produced promising results suggesting using the method as an alternative to traditional levelling under some conditions. Moreover, an optimal location for the total station in free station establishment was studied in the fifth paper. It was numerically shown that the height component has no significant effect on the optimal localisation.

  • 3.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Optimization of Lilla Edet Land Slide GPS Monitoring Network2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Optimization of Deformation Monitoring Networks using Finite Element Strain Analysis2018Inngår i: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024, Vol. 12, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal design of a geodetic network can fulfill the requested precision and reliability of the network, and decrease the expenses of its execution by removing unnecessary observations. The role of an optimal design is highlighted in deformation monitoring network due to the repeatability of these networks. The core design problem is how to define precision and reliability criteria. This paper proposes a solution, where the precision criterion is defined based on the precision of deformation parameters, i.e. precision of strain and differential rotations. A strain analysis can be performed to obtain some information about the possible deformation of a deformable object. In this study, we split an area into a number of three-dimensional finite elements with the help of the Delaunay triangulation and performed the strain analysis on each element. According to the obtained precision of deformation parameters in each element, the precision criterion of displacement detection at each network point is then determined. The developed criterion is implemented to optimize the observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Skåne monitoring network in Sweden. The network was established in 1989 and straddled the Tornquist zone, which is one of the most active faults in southern Sweden. The numerical results show that 17 out of all 21 possible GPS baseline observations are sufficient to detect minimum 3 mm displacement at each network point.

  • 5.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. University West, Division of Surveying Engineering.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Optimisation of Lilla Edet Landslide GPS Monitoring Network2015Inngår i: Journal of Geodetic Science, ISSN 2081-9919, E-ISSN 2081-9943, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 57-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the year 2000, some periodic investigations have been performed in the Lilla Edet region to monitor and possibly determine the landslide of the area with the GPS measurements. The responsible consultant has conducted this project by setting up some stable stations for GPS receivers in the risky areas of Lilla Edet and measured the independent baselines amongst the stations according to their observation plan. Here, we optimise the existing surveying network and determine the optimal configuration of the observation plan based on different criteria. We aim to optimise the current network to become sensitive to detect 5 mm possible displacements in each net point. The network quality criteria of precision, reliability and cost are used as object functions to perform single-, bi- and multi-objective optimisation models. It has been shown in the results that the single-objective model of reliability, which is constrained to the precision, provides much higher precision than the defined criterion by preserving almost all of the observations. However, in this study, the multi-objective model can fulfil all the mentioned quality criteria of the network by 17% less measurements than the original observation plan, meaning 17% of saving time, cost and effort in the project.

  • 6.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    The Effect of Instrumental Precision on Optimisation of Displacement Monitoring Networks2016Inngår i: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica, ISSN 2213-5820, Vol. 51, nr 4, s. 761-772Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to detect the geo-hazards, different deformation monitoring networks are usually established. It is of importance to design an optimal monitoring network to fulfil the requested precision and reliability of the network. Generally, the same observation plan is considered during different time intervals (epochs of observation). Here, we investigate the case that instrumental improvements in sense of precision are used in two successive epochs. As a case study, we perform the optimisation procedure on a GPS monitoring network around the Lilla Edet village in the southwest of Sweden. The network was designed for studying possible displacements caused by landslides. The numerical results show that the optimisation procedure yields an observation plan with significantly fewer baselines in the latter epoch, which leads to saving time and cost in the project. The precision improvement in the second epoch is tested in several steps for the Lilla Edet network. For instance, assuming two times better observation precision in the second epoch decreases the number of baselines from 215 in the first epoch to 143 in the second one.

  • 7.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    The Effect of Instrumental Precision on Optimisation of Epoch-Wise Displacement Networks2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Horemuž, Milan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Vium Andersson, Johan
    WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Optimal Vertical Placement of Total Station2018Inngår i: Journal of Surveying Engineering, ISSN 0733-9453, E-ISSN 1943-5428Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When using the free station method, a Total Station (TS) is established by performing distance and angle observations toward a number of Control Points (CPs). The quality of the establishment is crucial for the quality of subsequent measurements. The optimal horizontal location of the TS has been investigated in previous studies. Even the vertical precision is important in many applications, especially with significant height variations. Therefore in this paper, we focus on the optimality of vertical location of the TS. As an optimality criterion, the sum of TS coordinates and orientation variances is used. To investigate the optimization problem, an analytical as well as a trial and error method is developed. Both methods showed that the height component has no significant influence on the optimal vertical placement of the TS. Inspection of results from the trial and error method, where the CPs are moved in different height layers, indicates differences in the height uncertainty of the establishment in micrometer range, which is negligible for most engineering applications.

  • 9.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Horemuž, Milan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Andersson, Johan Vium
    WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Investigation of the RUFRIS Method with GNSS and Total Station for Leveling2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The establishment of leveling benchmarks for performing geodetic measurements, for instance in construction works, is usually costly and laborious due to a mass of field works in transferring the height from nearby known benchmarks. In this study, a real-time updated free station (RUFRIS) method is investigated to be used as an alternative approach for the traditional leveling. The coordinates of a RUFRIS station are determined by establishing a total station on the point, and performing a free-station by observing some points with both Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GNSS and total station distance and direction observations. The study is conducted based on data from the East Link project in Sweden, where a 150 km long high-speed railway is to be constructed. The results show a standard deviation of 7 mm between the RUFRIS and leveling heights in this project and imply the feasibility of replacing the traditional leveling methods with RUFRIS in projects with low accessibility to benchmarks.

  • 10.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Optimisation of GNSS Networks - Considering Baseline Correlations2017Inngår i: Survey review - Directorate of Overseas Surveys, ISSN 0039-6265, E-ISSN 1752-2706, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By considering GNSS observations one can perform optimisation according to some pre-defined criteria and come up with the best location of receivers and optimum number of baselines. In practice, it is quite common to neglect the effect of correlations between baselines, and instead assume single-baseline adjusted data in the optimisation procedure. However, in each session of observation usually more than two receivers are simultaneously taking data from a number of common GNSS satellites, implying that the single or double difference observations are correlated. Our study designs an optimal observation plan for a GPS network in Skåne in southern Sweden, with the aim of determining possible displacements. Assuming three receivers in each session of observations leads to correlation between the GPS baselines, and consequently a fully populated weight matrix for each session of observation. A bi-objective optimisation model of precision and reliability is chosen to optimise the variance factor of each session, and eventually, design an observation plan. It is shown in this study that observing 6 out of 10 possible sessions are sufficient to enable the network to detect a 5 mm displacement at each station. Assuming that the double difference phase observations are uncorrelated changes the observation plan by retaining 2 more sessions. However, defining the weight matrix based on the double difference observations requires the correlations to be taken into account, and neglecting them leads to incorrect results.

  • 11.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Optimization of GNSS Deformation Monitoring Networks by Considering Baseline Correlations2016Inngår i: FIG Working Week 2016 Proceedings, 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study of deformations of man-made constructions or in geodynamics one usually needs to carefully monitor fixed objects attached to the deformable body. The purpose is to use precise observations to build up an accurate, reliable and possibly low-cost network around the objects to study their motion in short- or long-time intervals and to estimate the possible displacements or deformations among those objects. Frequently, such studies are performed to prevent unwanted disasters (e.g. due to earthquakes and landslides as well as the progressive or abrupt destruction of large-scale structures). This study is concerned with designing an optimal GNSS network to monitor possible deformations of a geodetic network.

    By considering GNSS observations one can perform the optimization according to some pre-defined criteria and come up with the best location of receivers and optimum number of baselines. In practice, it is quite common to neglect the effect of correlations between baselines, and instead use single-baseline adjusted data in the optimisation procedure. However, in each session of observation usually more than two receivers are simultaneously taking data from a number of common GNSS satellites. This procedure inevitably leads to between-baseline correlations. Our study designs an optimal observation plan for a GNSS monitoring network with the aim of determining possible displacements and deformations. The developed methodology will be tested on a simulated network with five points, where three receivers simultaneously take data from four satellites.

  • 12.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Amin, Shoaib
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    ATM, University of Gävle.
    Measurement and analysis of frequency-domainVolterra kernels of nonlinear dynamic 3x3 MIMO systems2016Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) frequency-domain Volterra kernels of nonlinear order 3 are experimentally determined in bandwidth-limited frequency regions. How the effect of higher nonlinear orders can be reduced and how this affects the estimated errors are discussed. The magnitude and phase of the kernels areKramers-Kronig consistent. The self- and cross-kernels have different symmetries and the kernels are therefore determined and analyzed in different regions in the 3D frequency space. By analyzing the properties along certain paths in the 3D frequency space, the block structures for the respective kernels are determined. These block structures contain the significant blocks of the general block structures for third-order kernels. The device under test is a MIMO transmitter for radio frequency signals.

  • 13.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. University West, Division of Surveying Engineering.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    The effect of constraints on bi-objective optimisation of geodetic networks2015Inngår i: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica, ISSN 2213-5820, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 449-459Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the problems in the single-objective optimisation models (SOOMs) foroptimising geodetic networks is the contradiction of the controlling constraints, which maylead to their violation or infeasibility in the optimisation process. One way to solve thisproblem is to use a bi-objective optimisation model (BOOM) instead of SOOMs. In thispaper, we will use the BOOM of precision and reliability and investigate the influence ofthe controlling constraints in a two-dimensional simulated network. Our studies show thatthe unconstrained BOOM is a good model, which almost fulfils our precision and reliabilitydemands of the network. This model is also economical as more observables are removedfrom the plan whilst adding the controlling constraints leads to including more observables,which have no significant role.

  • 14.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. University West, Sweden.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Two-epoch optimal design of displacement monitoring networks2015Inngår i: Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas, ISSN 1413-4853, E-ISSN 1982-2170, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 484-497Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the traditional method of optimal design of displacement monitoring networks a higher precision,  times better than the desired accuracy of displacements, is considered for the net points in such a way that the accuracy of the detected displacements meets the desired one. However, in this paper, we develop an alternative method by considering the total number of observations in two epochs without such a simple assumption and we call it two-epoch optimisation. This method is developed based on the Gauss-Helmert adjustment model and the variances of the observations are estimated instead of the weights to optimise the observation plan. This method can deliver the same results as the traditional one, but with less required observations in each epoch.

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