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  • 1. Bocken, Nancy M. P.
    et al.
    Olivetti, Elsa A.
    Cullen, Jonathan M.
    Potting, José
    Lifset, Reid
    Taking the Circularity to the Next Level A Special Issue on the Circular Economy2017Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 476-482Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Bouchouireb, Hamza
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Schöggl, Josef-Peter
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Baumgartner, Rupert J.
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Potting, José
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    The inclusion of vehicle shape and aerodynamic drag estimations within the life cycle energy optimisation methodology2019Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 84, s. 902-907Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work describes a widening of the scope of the Life Cycle Energy Optimisation (LCEO) methodology with the addition of shape-related design variables. They describe the curvature of a vehicle which impacts its aerodynamic drag and therewith its operational energy demand. Aerodynamic drag is taken into account through the estimation of the drag coefficient of the vehicle body shape using computational fluid dynamics simulations. Subsequently, the aforementioned coefficient is used to calculate the operational energy demand associated with the vehicle. The methodology is applied to the design of the roof of a simplified 2D vehicle model which is both mechanically and geometrically constrained. The roof is modelled as a sandwich structure with its design variables consisting of the material compositions of the different layers, their thicknesses as well as the shape variables. The efficacy of the LCEO methodology is displayed through its ability to deal with the arising functional conflicts while simultaneously leveraging the design benefits of the underlying functional alignments. On average, the optimisation process resulted in 2.5 times lighter and 4.5 times less life cycle energy-intensive free shape designs. This redesign process has also underlined the necessity of defining an allocation strategy for the energy necessary to overcome drag within the context of vehicle sub-system redesign.

  • 3.
    Bouchouireb, Hamza
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Schöggl, Josef-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Baumgartner, Rupert J.
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Potting, José
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Towards holistic energy-efficient vehicle product system design: The case for a penalized continuous end-of-life model in the life cycle energy optimisation methodology2019Inngår i: 22nd International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED19, Cambridge University Press, 2019, Vol. 1, s. 2901-2910Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Life Cycle Energy Optimisation (LCEO) methodology aims at finding a design solution that uses a minimum amount of cumulative energy demand over the different phases of the vehicle's life cycle, while complying with a set of functional constraints. This effectively balances trade-offs, and therewith avoids sub-optimal shifting between the energy demand for the cradle-to-production of materials, operation of the vehicle, and end-of-life phases. The present work describes the extension of the LCEO methodology to perform holistic product system optimisation. The constrained design of an automotive component and the design of a subset of the processes which are applied to it during its life cycle are simultaneously optimised to achieve a minimal product system life cycle energy. A subset of the processes of the end-of-life phase of a vehicle’s roof are modelled through a continuous formulation. The roof is modelled as a sandwich structure with its design variables being the material compositions and the thicknesses of the different layers. The results show the applicability of the LCEO methodology to product system design and the use of penalisation to ensure solution feasibility.

  • 4. Brito de Figueiredo, Maria Clea
    et al.
    de Boer, Imke J. M.
    Kroeze, Carolien
    Barros, Viviane da Silva
    de Sousa, Joao Alencar
    Souza de Aragao, Fernando Antonio
    Gondim, Rubens Sonsol
    Potting, Jose
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Reducing the impact of irrigated crops on freshwater availability: the case of Brazilian yellow melons2014Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 437-448Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantifies freshwater consumption throughout the life cycle of Brazilian exported yellow melons and assesses the resulting impact on freshwater availability. Results are used to identify improvement options. Moreover, the study explores the further impact of variations in irrigation volume, yield, and production location. The product system boundary encompasses production of seeds, seedlings, and melon plants; melon packing; disposal of solid farm waste; and farm input and melon transportation to European ports. The primary data in the study were collected from farmers in order to quantify freshwater consumption related to packing and to production of seeds, seedlings, and melons. Open-field melon irrigation was also estimated, considering the region's climate and soil characteristics. Estimated and current water consumptions were compared in order to identify impact reduction opportunities. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate variations in the impact because of changes in melon field irrigation, yield, and farm location. This study shows that the average impact on freshwater availability of 1 kg of exported Brazilian yellow melons is 135 l H2O-e, with a range from 17 to 224 l H2O-e depending on the growing season's production period. Irrigation during plant production accounts for 98 % of this impact. Current melon field water consumption in the Low Jaguaribe and A double dagger u region is at least 39 % higher than necessary, which affects the quality of fruits and yield. The impact of melon production in other world regions on freshwater availability may range from 0.3 l H2O-e/kg in Costa Rica to 466 l H2O-e/kg in the USA. The impact of temporary crops, such as melons, on water availability should be presented in ranges, instead of as an average, since regional consumptive water and water stress variations occur in different growing season periods. Current and estimated water consumption for irrigation may also be compared in order to identify opportunities to achieve optimization and reduce water availability impact.

  • 5. Brito de Figueirêdo, M. C.
    et al.
    Potting, José
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Lopes Serrano, L. A.
    Bezerra, M. A.
    da Silva Barros, V.
    Gondim, R. S.
    Nemecek, T.
    Environmental assessment of tropical perennial crops: The case of the Brazilian cashew2015Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an original environmental assessment of the Brazilian cashew, a perennial tree cultivated in 30 tropical countries that yields four products: nuts, apples, gum and wood. While economic and agronomic data regarding cashew are available worldwide, the environmental issues related to the main production systems and products commercialized by Brazilian farms have not been discussed consistently. This environmental assessment is important to guide the efforts of researchers and farmers for improving the environmental performance of cashew cropping systems and products. Life cycle assessment is applied to assess the environmental impacts of cashew systems and products, considering multi-cropping systems, agriculture functions and allocation procedures. Two cashew cropping systems are compared: (i) a high-input system, or reference system, developed through 20 years of research, and (ii) a low input system, as defined by a sample of farms practicing multi-cropping systems. Aspects and impacts of these systems are reported via the following production stages: nursery, establishment, and low and full production. Two agriculture functions are adopted to analyze the cropping systems: land management (impacts per hectare) and financial (impact per US$ from total sales receipts). The impacts of cashew products are evaluated using the crop production function (per kilogram of product). The impacts of products are measured using both mass and economic allocation. This study shows that the low and full production stages account for the majority of impact in both cropping systems, but land transformation for the establishment of cashew orchards is the main contributor of climate change. The analysis of multiple agriculture function shows different results for the study of cashew production systems and products. Considering the land management function (impacts per hectare), the low-input system causes less significant environmental impact, when compared to the high-input system, in all categories but toxicity. When the financial function is analyzed (impacts per US$ from total sales receipts from one ha), the low-input system achieves better performance for only eutrophication and water depletion impact categories. The analysis of the crop production function (impacts per kilogram of product) shows that the choice of allocation procedure also affects the results when comparing the impact values of products from different cropping systems. If the choice is for mass allocation, products from the low-input system achieve better environmental performance, but if economic allocation is chosen, products from the high-input system perform equal or better than when produced in the low-input system. From the joint analysis of agriculture functions, the conclusion is that the best option to improve the environmental performance of the Brazilian cashew production is to adjust the high-input system with modifications regarding fertilization and pest management. From this case study, the benefits of considering multi-agriculture functions and accounting for all production stages in the study of perennial crops are highlighted. The importance of developing emission and characterization factors to reduce uncertainty when estimating pollutant loads and evaluating impacts of perennial crops cultivated in tropical regions is also discussed. This study advances the knowledge base on the environmental assessment of perennial crops in general, and on cashew crops specifically.

  • 6. de Figueiredo, Maria Clea Brito
    et al.
    Kroeze, Carolien
    Potting, José
    Wageningen University, Netherlands .
    Barros, Viviane da Silva
    Sousa de Aragdo, Fernando Antonio
    Gondim, Rubens Sonsol
    Santos, Tayane de Lima
    de Boer, Imke J. M.
    The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon2013Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 47, s. 404-414Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low Jaguaribe and Acu region, including an uncertainty assessment, and to evaluate reduction potentials and improvement options. Exporting farms located in this region account for about 99 percent of Brazilian melon exports, mainly to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. To determine the CF, we followed Life Cycle Assessment, according to ISO standards (14040 and 14044). The results are expressed in kg of CO2-eq/t of exported melon. The production system encompasses processes in the Low Jaguaribe and Acu region (such as seedling, plant production, packing, and disposal of solid wastes from farms), upstream processes (including the production and transportation of inputs, such as seeds, plastics, and fertilizers), and downstream processes (melon transport). The total yellow melon CF in the reference situation is 710 kg CO2-eq/t exported melon. However, scenario results indicate that this value can be reduced by 44 percent if melon fields are located in pre-existing agricultural areas, nitrogen fertilization is reduced, and no plastic field trays are used in melon production. GHG emissions from melon transport are relatively unimportant in the total CF. These results provide melon producers with an insight into the CF of their product, and options to reduce it.

  • 7.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Life Cycle Assessment2014Inngår i: Encyclopedia of Toxicology, vol 3 / [ed] Wexler, P, Elsevier, 2014, 3, s. 74-77Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8. Helder, M.
    et al.
    Chen, W. -S
    Van der Harst, E. J. M.
    Strik, D. P. B. T. B.
    Hamelers, H. V. M.
    Buisman, C. J. N.
    Potting, Josepha
    Wageningen University, Netherlands .
    Electricity production with living plants on a green roof: Environmental performance of the plant-microbial fuel cell2013Inngår i: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 52-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several renewable and (claimed) sustainable energy sources have been introduced into the market during the last century in an attempt to battle pollution from fossil fuels. Especially biomass energy technologies have been under debate for their sustainability. A new biomass energy technology was introduced in 2008: the plant-microbial fuel cell (P-MFC). In this system, electricity can be generated with living plants and thus bioelectricity and biomass production can be combined on the same surface. A green roof producing electricity with a P-MFC could be an interesting combination. P-MFC technology is nearing implementation in the market and therefore we assessed the environmental performance of the system with an early stage life cycle assessment (LCA). The environmental performance of the P-MFC is currently worse than that of conventional electricity production technologies. This is mainly due to the limited power output of the P-MFC and the materials presently used in the P-MFC. Granular activated carbon (anode material), gold wires (current collectors), and Teflon-coated copper wires (connecting anode and cathode) have the largest impact on environmental performance. Use of these materials needs to be reduced or avoided and alternatives need to be sought. Increasing power output and deriving co-products from the P-MFC will increase environmental performance of the P-MFC. At this stage it is too early to compare the P-MFC with other (renewable) energy technologies since the P-MFC is still under development.

  • 9.
    Jank, Merle-Hendrikje
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Baumgartner, Rupert J.
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Schöggl, Josef-Peter
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Potting, José
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Netherlands.
    Advancing energy efficient early-stage vehicle design through inclusion of end-of-life phase in the life cycle energy optimisation methodology2017Inngår i: 12th International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies Conference, EVER, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmentally-friendly energy-efficient vehicles are an important contributor to meet future global transportation needs. To minimise the environmental impact of a vehicle throughout its entire life cycle, the life cycle energy optimisation (LCEO) methodology has been proposed. Using the proxy of life cycle energy, this methodology balances the energy consumption of vehicle production, operation and end-of-life scenarios. The overall aim is to design a vehicle where life cycle energy is at a minimum. While previous work only included vehicle production and operation, this paper aims at advancing the LCEO methodology by including an end-of-life phase. A simplified design study was conducted to illustrate how vehicle design changes when end-of-life treatment is included. Landfilling, incineration and recycling have been compared as end-of-life treatments, although the focus was put on recycling. The results reveal that the optimal design not only changes with the inclusion of an end-of-life phase but it changes with specific end-of-life treatment. 

  • 10.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Singh, Jagdeep
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Unintended environmental consequences of improvement actions: A qualitative analysis of systems' structure and behavior2015Inngår i: Systems research and behavioral science, ISSN 1092-7026, E-ISSN 1099-1743Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We qualitatively analysed how and why environmental improvement actions often lead to unintended environmental consequences. Different theories are integrated to delineate the underlying system structure causing this system behavior. Causal loop diagram technique is utilized to explore and visualize: how incremental improvements in material and energy efficiency can unintendedly cause consumption to increase; how this consumption rebound effect is linked to generation of waste and pollution; and how this can give rise to social and negative externalities, economic inequalities and other broad unintended consequences in our society. Consumption and incremental innovation are found to be the highest leverage points and reinforcing factors driving unintended environmental consequences in this complex system. The paper in addition explores two potential modes of behaviour dissimilar to those of unintended environmental consequences. These emerging modes of behaviour are product-service systems and environmental policy instruments. Their combination forms a prominent transition pathway from a production-consumption-dispose economy to a so-called circular economy.

  • 11.
    Lemperos, Xenofon
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Potting, José
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Comparison of Klimatkalkyl, LICCER & SimaPro: Three models to quantify life cycle energy and carbon dioxide in early road infrastructure planning2015Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Early environmental assessments provide important information for decision making processes in road construction projects. This report is about a comparative study among different Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools used in road construction. These are, KlimatKalkyl, LICCER and SimaPro. KlimatKalkyl was developed by a consultancy firm and used by Trafikverket, LICCER was developed by a collaboration of three universities and used in research studies and SimaPro is used by industry and academia for environmental studies. In this report the results are referring only to primary energy consumption in GJ/year and Global Warming Potential (GWP) in CO2-eq. kg/year.

    The following report includes three cases studies based on different road projects. The results generated from each tool are compared in order to evaluate the tools and present the similarities and differences among them in quantitative and qualitative manner. Variations in the outputs regarding the impact in the environment mainly come from the different input formats and calculation processes that the tools have. Regarding the road type, the three models are generating different results for energy or CO2 emissions. In the qualitative comparison it is showed that the tools have different input formats and at some cases one has more input details against the other. 

  • 12.
    Liljenström, Carolina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    O'Born, Reyn
    University of Agder, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norweigian University of Science and Technology.
    Birgisdottir, Harpa
    Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Toller, Susanna
    The Swedish Transport Administration.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    Ecoloop, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Potting, José
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Life cycle assessment as decision-support in choice of road corridor: case study and stakeholder perspectivesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibilities to influence environmental impacts during the road life cycle are greatest in early planning; however, the lack of project specific data makes it difficult to use life cycle assessment as decision-support. This paper examines how life cycle assessment can be used to support the choice of road corridor, considering the practical prerequisit of simplicity and usefulness of results for decision-making. The model LICCER was used to quantify life cycle impacts of road corridors in a construction project in Sweden. Availability of input data and usefulness of results was discussed with road authorities in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. Traffic operation contributed most to life cycle impacts in all road corridors, thus the shortest construction alternative had the lowest life cycle impacts. However, the shortest alternative had the highest infrastructure related impacts due to large quantities of earthworks. Parameters that had the highest influence on results were those that affected the impacts of traffic, earthworks, and pavement. While workshop participants agreed that project specific data are scarce and uncertain in early planning, they also believed that planners can make satisfactory estimations and that the model output is useful to support the choice of road corridor. To balance simplicity and usefulness of results, data collection should focus on parameters that have high contribution to environmental impacts, that differentiate the road corridors, and are not proportional to the road length. To implement life cycle assessment in practice, models should preferably include nation specific data approved by the national road authority.

  • 13.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Birgisdottir, Harpa
    SBI, Denmark.
    Houlihan Wiberg, Aoife
    NTNU, Trondheim.
    Moncaster, Alice
    University of Cambridge.
    Brown, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    John, Viola
    ETH Zürich.
    Passer, Alexander
    Technical University of Graz.
    Potting, José
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Soulti, Eleni
    University of Cambridge.
    Design strategies for low embodied energy and greenhouse gases in buildings: analyses of the IEA Annex 57 case studies2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the World Sustainable Building Conference, SB14, Barcelona, October 28-30, 2014., 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the IEA Annex 57 case study method, consisting of a format fordescribing individual case studies and an evaluation matrix covering all case studies. Samplecase studies are used to illustrate the method and the evaluation matrix through a firstpreliminary analysis. In compiling and evaluation existing, transparent case studies we havetaken a stakeholder perspective. By so doing it is intended to identify fordecision makers thekey issues affecting EE/EC in buildings. Analysis in this paper focuses on one of the six casestudy themes, building design strategies for EE/EC mitigation and references cases coveringe.g. material selection, building shape, construction stage strategies and strategies to handlethe trade-off between embodied and operational impacts in net-zero emission building design.

  • 14.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Nehasilova, Marie
    Czech Tech Univ, Univ Ctr Energy Efficient Bldg, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Moncaster, Alice
    Open Univ, Sch Engn & Innovat, Milton Keynes, Bucks, England..
    Birgisdottir, Harpa
    Aalborg Univ, Danish Bldg Res Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Rasmussen, Freja Nygaard
    Aalborg Univ, Danish Bldg Res Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Wiberg, Aoife Houlihan
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Architectural Design Hist & Technol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Potting, Jose
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Design and construction strategies for reducing embodied impacts from buildings - Case study analysis2018Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 166, s. 35-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominance of operational energy and related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of most existing buildings is decreasing in new construction, when primary fossil energy of building operation decreases as result of the implementation of energy efficiency measures as well as a decarbonisation of national energy mixes. Stakeholders therefore have a growing interest in understanding the possibilities for reducing embodied impacts in buildings. In the LEA EBC project 'Annex 57' a broad call for case studies was launched with the aim to identify design strategies for reducing embodied energy and GHG emissions (EEG) from buildings. The aim of this paper is to identify and provide a collected and comprehensive overview of quantitative reduction potentials of the particular EEG reduction strategies which should be considered by the stakeholders engaged in, and with the capacity to influence the outcome of, individual building projects. This is done by a systematic analysis of the Annex 57 case study collection as well as additional scientific literature. While it should be noted that the actual EEG savings at building level illustrated in this collection of studies are only applicable to each specific case, importantly this multiple cross-case analysis has provided rigorous evidence of the considerable potential to reduce embodied impacts in the design and construction of new and refurbished buildings.

  • 15.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Kluts, Ingeborg
    Lundberg, Kristina
    Toller, Susanna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), Sweden.
    Brattebø, Helge
    Birgisdóttir, Harpa
    Potting, José
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
    CONSIDERATION OF LIFE CYCLE ENERGY USE AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING PROCESSES: EXAMPLES OF SWEDEN, NORWAY, DENMARK AND THE NETHERLANDS2014Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, E-ISSN 1757-5605, Vol. 16, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with life cycle stages of roadinfrastructure are currently rarely assessed during road infrastructure planning. This studyexamines the road infrastructure planning process, with emphasis on its use of EnvironmentalAssessments (EA), and identifies when and how Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) canbe integrated in the early planning stages for supporting decisions such as choice of roadcorridor. Road infrastructure planning processes are compared for four European countries(Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands).The results show that only Norway has a formalised way of using LCA during choiceof road corridor. Only the Netherlands has a requirement for using LCA in the laterprocurement stage. It is concluded that during the early stages of planning, LCA could beintegrated as part of an EA, as a separate process or as part of a Cost-Benefit Analysis.

  • 16.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Liljenström, Carolina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Brattebø, Helge
    Birgisdóttir, Harpa
    Toller, Susanna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    Potting, José
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Life cycle impacts during early stages of road infrastructure planning: a case study in Sweden2014Inngår i: Transport Research Arena (TRA) 2014 Proceedings, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Road infrastructure has effects on the environment throughout all of its life cycle phases: construction,maintenance, operation and end-of-life. It has been observed, however, that these life cycle impacts are notusually considered during early stages of road infrastructure planning (i.e. decisions on road corridor).The recently developed LICCER tool enables assessment of road corridor alternatives during early stages of roadinfrastructure planning. It includes input data for roads, bridges and tunnels. It also considers future emissionsfrom traffic. The life cycle impact categories covered are energy use and contribution to climate change.The developed tool is being tested in a case study. Construction of a specific road in Sweden was used todemonstrate how the model is able to show differences between road corridor alternatives. Sensitivity analysiswas applied to show the robustness of its results.

  • 17.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Life cycle energy and climate change considerations in the early stages of road infrastructure planning processes2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Life cycle energy and climate change considerations in the road infrastructure planning processes in the Netherlands and Sweden2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    O'Born, Reyn
    et al.
    Univ Agder, Fac Sci & Engn, Jon Lilletunsvei 9, Grimstad, Norway..
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Sem Sxlands Vei 7, Trondheim, Norway..
    Iversen, Ole Magnus Kalas
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Sem Sxlands Vei 7, Trondheim, Norway..
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Environm Strategies Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Potting, José
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Environm Strategies Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Quantifying energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions of road infrastructure projects: An LCA case study of the Oslo fjord crossing in Norway2016Inngår i: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 445-466Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The road sector consumes large amounts of materials and energy and produces large quantities of greenhouse gas emissions, which can be reduced with correct information in the early planning stages of road project. An important aspect in the early planning stages is the choice between alternative road corridors that will determine the route distance and the subsequent need for different road infrastructure elements, such as bridges and tunnels. Together, these factors may heavily influence the life cycle environmental impacts of the road project. This paper presents a case study for two prospective road corridor alternatives for the Oslo fjord crossing in Norway and utilizes in a streamlined model based on life cycle assessment principles to quantify cumulative energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions for each route. This technique can be used to determine potential environmental impacts of road projects by overcoming several challenges in the early planning stages, such as the limited availability of detailed life cycle inventory data on the consumption of material and energy inputs, large uncertainty in the design and demand for road infrastructure elements, as well as in future traffic and future vehicle technologies. The results show the importance of assessing different life cycle activities, input materials, fuels and the critical components of such a system. For the Oslo fjord case, traffic during operation contributes about 94 % and 89 % of the annual CED and about 98 % and 92 % of the annual GHG emissions, for a tunnel and a bridge fjord crossing alternative respectively.

  • 20.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Funazaki, Atsushi
    Japan Automobile Research Institute.
    Suzuki, Tetsuya
    Japan Automobile Research Institute.
    Edlund, Stefan
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Gunnarsson, Cecilia
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Lundow, Jan-Olov
    Bombardier Transportation.
    Cerin, Pontus
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Cameron, Christopher J.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. Swerea SICOMP.
    Wennhage, Per
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Potting, José
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency.
    Life-cycle energy optimisation: A proposed methodology for integrating environmental considerations early in the vehicle engineering design process2016Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 135, s. 750-759Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To enable the consideration of life cycle environmental impacts in the early stages of vehicle design, a methodology using the proxy of life cycle energy is proposed in this paper. The trade-offs in energy between vehicle production, operational performance and end-of-life are formulated as a mathematical problem, and simultaneously balanced with other transport-related functionalities, and may be optimised. The methodology is illustrated through an example design study, which is deliberately kept simple in order to emphasise the conceptual idea. The obtained optimisation results demonstrate that there is a unique driving-scenario-specific design solution, which meets functional requirements with a minimum life cycle energy cost. The results also suggest that a use-phase focussed design may result in a solution, which is sub-optimal from a life cycle point-of-view.

  • 21.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg.
    Potting, José
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Cameron, Christopher J.
    Swerea SICOMP, Sweden.
    Wennhage, Per
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg.
    Life-cycle energy optimisation for sustainable vehicle design2014Inngår i: FISITA World Automotive Congress, 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodology is presented in this paper, in which the trade-offs in energy between vehicle production, operational performance and end-of-life are formulated as a mathematical problem that may be optimised. This methodology enables the consideration of the life-cycle environmental impact, through the proxy of life-cycle energy, in the very first stages of transport vehicle design where it can be concurrently balanced with other functionalities. The methodology is illustrated through a sandwich panel design case study. The optimisation results for this case demonstrate that a design solution does exist, which meets functional requirements with a minimum life-cycle energy cost. They also highlight that a pure lightweight design may result in a solution, which is sub-optimal from a life cycle point-of-view. 

  • 22.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Environmental comparison of disposable beverage cups2014Inngår i: Evaluation WIMEK by visitation committee, Wageningen (the Netherlands), 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Life cycle assessment of Brazilian cashew2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment in the Agri-Food Sector, 2014, s. 395-404Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 24.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Life cycle assessment of undersea tunnel and alternative fjord crossing. (In Norwegian only)2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Life Cycle Considerations in EIA of Road Infrastructure (LICCER)2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Wie van de drie: Wil de meest milieuvriendelijke beker opstaan?2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Potting, Josepha
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Book Review. Life Cycle Impact Assessment by Michael Z. Hauschild and Mark A. J. Huijbregts (Eds.).2015Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 20, s. 1338-1341Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Potting, Josepha
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Liljenström, Carolina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    LICCER Final report2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Potting, Josepha
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Liljenström, Carolina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Report from second workshop2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Potting, Josepha
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    LICCER Model Guidelines Report: Report Nr 4.12013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31.
    Potting, Josepha
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Liljenström, Carolina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    LICCER Model Case Study Report: Application of the LICCER-model to a Norwegian road section crossing the Oslo fjord Report Nr 5.22013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Potting, Josepha
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Liljenström, Carolina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    LICCER Model Case Study Report: Application of the LICCER-model to a Swedish road section between Yxtatorpet and Malmköping. Report Nr 5.12013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33.
    Potting, Josepha
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    van der Harz, E.
    Facility arrangements, food safety, and the environmental performance of disposable and reusable cups2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment in the Agri-Food Sector (LCA Food 2014),, 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Potting, José
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    van der Harst, Eugenie
    Facility arrangements and the environmental performance of disposable and reusable cups2015Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 20, nr 8, s. 1143-1154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper integrates two complementary life cycle assessment (LCA) studies with the aim to advice facility managers on the sustainable use of cups, either disposable or reusable. Study 1 compares three disposable cups, i.e., made from fossil-based polystyrene (PS), biobased and compostable plastic (polylactic acid; PLA) and paper lined with PLA (biopaper). Study 2 compares the disposable PS cup with reusable cups that are handwashed or dishwashed. Existing LCA studies show inconsistent and sometimes conflicting results, due to differences in used data and modeling choices. The comparison of disposable cups, study 1, deliberately applied multiple inventory data sets for relevant life cycle processes and multiple crediting principles for recycling. Included waste treatment options in study 1 were incineration, recycling, composting, and anaerobic digestion (last two not for the disposable PS cup). The PS cup is next compared with handwashed and dishwashed reusable cups (study 2). LCAs for the reusable cups use single data sets, and explore the influence of an increasing number of reuses. Cup LCA results were only compared within, and not across impact categories. All data relate to cups used with hot beverage vending machines in Dutch office settings. Impact results for each disposable cup show large and overlapping spreads. This prevents identifying a preferable disposable cup material, though still allows cautious preferences about waste treatment processes. Composting biocups is less good than other waste treatment processes. Average impact results for anaerobic digestion perform in almost all impact categories better than incineration for the PLA cup. Average impact results for recycling perform slightly better than incinerating for both biocups, but not for the PS cup. This comparison is affected, however, by the relatively large credits for avoided Dutch electricity production. Impact results for reusable cups do not perform better than disposable cups if both are used once. Impact results for the reusable cups contain large uncertainty due to widely varying user behavior. Overall results do not allow any preference for one of the disposable cups or for disposable versus reusable cups. All cups can be used for more than one consumption. This gives a considerable environmental gain for the second and third hot beverage consumption with all cups. Facility managers can encourage a second or third serving with the same cup by financial incentives, only putting on dishwashers around noon and after working time, and/or consumer awareness activities.

  • 35. Sahle, A.
    et al.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation2013Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 443, s. 163-172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-to-gate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to, and about the product outputs from 21 farms in 4 geographical regions (i.e. Holleta, Sebeta, Debre Ziet, and Ziway). The primary data were imported in, and analyzed with the SimaPro7.3 software. Data for the production of used inputs were taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database. Emissions from input use on the farms were quantified based on estimates and emission factors from various studies and guidelines. The resulting life cycle inventory (LCI) table was next evaluated with the CML 2 baseline 2000. V2/world, 1990/characterization method to quantify the contribution of the rose cultivation chain to 10 environmental impact categories. The set of collected primary data was comprehensive and of high quality. The data point to an intensive use of fertilizers, pesticides, and greenhouse plastic. Production and use of these inputs also represent the major contributors in all environmental impact categories. The largest contribution comes from the production of the used fertilizers, specifically nitrogen-based fertilizers. The use of calcium nitrate dominates Abiotic Depletion (AD), Global Warming (GW), Human Toxicity (HT) and Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity (MAET). It also makes a large contribution to Ozone Depletion (OD), Acidification (AD) and Fresh water Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET). Acidification (AC) and Eutrophication (EU) are dominated by the emission of fertilizers. The emissions from the use of pesticides, especially insecticides dominate Terrestrial Ecotoxicity (TE) and make a considerable contribution to Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET) and Photochemical Oxidation (PhO). There is no visible contribution from the use of pesticides to the other toxicity categories. Production and use of greenhouse plastic are another important contributors, and just a bit less than the contribution of calcium nitrate to Abiotic Depletion (AD). The results of this study clearly indicate nutrient management and emissions from pesticide use, especially insecticides, as a focus point for environmental optimization of the rose cultivation sector in Ethiopia.

  • 36.
    Umair, Shakila
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Anderberg, S.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Informal electronic waste recycling in PakistaManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 37. Van der Harst, E.
    et al.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    A critical comparison of ten disposable cup LCAs2013Inngår i: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 43, s. 86-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Disposable cups can be made from conventional petro-plastics, bioplastics, or paperboard (coated with petro-plastics or bioplastics). This study compared ten life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of disposable cups with the aim to evaluate the robustness of their results. The selected studies have only one impact category in common, namely climate change with global warming potential (GWP) as its category indicator. Quantitative GWP results of the studies were closer examined. GWPs within and across each study show none of the cup materials to be consistently better than the others. Comparison of the absolute GWPs (after correction for the cup volume) also shows no consistent better or worse cup material. An evaluation of the methodological choices and the data sets used in the studies revealed their influence on the GWP. The differences in GWP can be attributed to a multitude of factors, i.e., cup material and weight, production processes, waste processes, allocation options, and data used. These factors basically represent different types of uncertainty. Sensitivity and scenario analyses provided only the influence of one factor at once. A systematic and simultaneous use of sensitivity and scenario analyses could, in a next research, result in more robust outcomes.

  • 38. van der Harst, E.
    et al.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, Bilthoven, Netherlands.
    Kroeze, C.
    Comparison of different methods to include recycling in LCAs of aluminium cans and disposable polystyrene cups2016Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 48, s. 565-583Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of recycling loops, the recycled-content method, and the equal-share method. These six methods were first compared, with an assumed hypothetical 100% recycling rate, for an aluminium can and a disposable polystyrene (PS) cup. The substitution and recycled-content method were next applied with actual rates for recycling, incineration and landfilling for both product systems in selected countries. The six methods differ in their approaches to credit recycling. The three substitution methods stimulate the recyclability of the product and assign credits for the obtained recycled material. The choice to either apply a correction factor, or to account for alternative substituted material has a considerable influence on the LCA results, and is debatable. Nevertheless, we prefer incorporating quality reduction of the recycled material by either a correction factor or an alternative substituted material over simply ignoring quality loss. The allocation-on-number-of-recycling-loops method focusses on the life expectancy of material itself, rather than on a specific separate product. The recycled-content method stimulates the use of recycled material, i.e. credits the use of recycled material in products and ignores the recyclability of the products. The equal-share method is a compromise between the substitution methods and the recycled-content method. The results for the aluminium can follow the underlying philosophies of the methods. The results for the PS cup are additionally influenced by the correction factor or credits for the alternative material accounting for the drop in PS quality, the waste treatment management (recycling rate, incineration rate, landfilling rate), and the source of avoided electricity in case of waste incineration. The results for the PS cup, which are less dominated by production of virgin material than aluminium can, furthermore depend on the environmental impact categories. This stresses the importance to consider other impact categories besides the most commonly used global warming impact. The multitude of available methods complicates the choice of an appropriate method for the LCA practitioner. New guidelines keep appearing and industries also suggest their own preferred method. Unambiguous ISO guidelines, particularly related to sensitivity analysis, would be a great step forward in making more robust LCAs.

  • 39. Van der Harst, Eugenie
    et al.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Lessons learned from a critical review of ten LCAs comparing disposable cups2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, 2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40. van der Harst, Eugenie
    et al.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Spread in LCA results from using multiple data sets and modelling choices: A case study of PS disposable cups2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, Chalmers , 2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a standardized methodology, but LCAs of the same product often still lead to divers outcomes. This study purposely used multiple data sets and methodological choices in an LCA of a disposable PS cup to quantify how these variations propagate and lead to a spread in LCA-results. The results for the PS cup consistently show major contributions from PS production, cup manufacturing, incineration and recycling (and minor contributions from other processes). Notably differences in amounts and types of energy used and reported emissions caused variation in results. Energy related impact categories contain smaller spread than the toxicity categories. The spread in results might give less clear, but more certain results to decision makers.

  • 41. van der Harst, Eugenie
    et al.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Variation in LCA results for disposable polystyrene beverage cups due to multiple data sets and modelling choices2014Inngår i: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 51, s. 123-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of the same products often result in different, sometimes even contradictory outcomes. Reasons for these differences include using different data sets and deviating modelling choices. This paper purposely used different data sets and modelling choices to identify how these differences propagated in LCA results. Vehicle for this methodological exploration was an LCA case study of a typical polystyrene (PS) disposable cup. An initial LCA of PS cups was made using only one data set per process. Contribution and sensitivity analysis identified those processes with influential contribution to the overall environmental impact. Next additional data sets were acquired for all influential processes. The spread in impact results for each life cycle process was calculated after impact assessment for each individual inventory data set as to preserve the correlation between inventory data within each individual data set. The spread in impact results reflects uncertainty existing between different data sets for the same process and due to modelling choices. The influence on overall LCA results was quantified by systematically applying all combinations of data sets and modelling choices. Results from the different data sets and modelling choices systematically point to the same processes as main contributors to all impact categories (PS production, cup manufacturing, PS incineration and PS recycling). The spread in toxicity indicators exceeds the energy-related impact categories. Causes of spread are resources and energy used (type, amount, date and origin), reported emissions, and applied allocation procedures. Average LCA results show slight preference for recycling PS compared to incineration in most impact categories. Overlapping spread in results of the two waste treatments, however, does not support the preference for recycling. The approach in this paper showed how variation in data sets and modelling choices propagates in LCA outcomes. This is especially useful for generic LCAs as systematic use of multiple data sets and multiple modelling choices increases the insight in relative contributions of processes to, and uncertainty in the overall LCA. These results might be less easy to perceive, but they provide decision makers with more robust information.

  • 42. van der Harst, Eugenie
    et al.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, Netherlands .
    Kroeze, Carolien
    Multiple data sets and modelling choices in a comparative LCA of disposable beverage cups2014Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 494, s. 129-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study used multiple data sets and modelling choices in an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare typical disposable beverage cups made from polystyrene (PS), polylactic acid (PLA; bioplastic) and paper lined with bioplastic (biopaper). Incineration and recycling were considered as waste processing options, and for the PLA and biopaper cup also composting and anaerobic digestion. Multiple data sets and modelling choices were systematically used to calculate average results and the spread in results for each disposable cup in eleven impact categories. The LCA results of all combinations of data sets and modelling choices consistently identify three processes that dominate the environmental impact: (1) production of the cup's basic material (PS, PLA, biopaper), (2) cup manufacturing, and (3) waste processing. The large spread in results for impact categories strongly overlaps among the cups, however, and therefore does not allow a preference for one type of cup material. Comparison of the individual waste treatment options suggests some cautious preferences. The average waste treatment results indicate that recycling is the preferred option for PLA cups, followed by anaerobic digestion and incineration. Recycling is slightly preferred over incineration for the biopaper cups. There is no preferred waste treatment option for the PS cups. Taking into account the spread in waste treatment results for all cups, however, none of these preferences for waste processing options can be justified. The only exception is composting, which is least preferred for both PIA and biopaper cups. Our study illustrates that using multiple data sets and modelling choices can lead to considerable spread in LCA results. This makes comparing products more complex, but the outcomes more robust

  • 43. van Oirschot, R.
    et al.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Fortuin, K. P. J.
    Brandenburg, W.
    Potting, José
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Explorative environmental life cycle assessment for system design of seaweed cultivation and drying2017Inngår i: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 27, s. 43-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seaweeds are presently explored as an alternative source to meet the future protein demand from a growing world population with an increasing welfare level. Present seaweed research largely focuses on agri-technical and economic aspects. This paper explores directions for optimizing the cultivation, harvesting, transport and drying of seaweed from an environmental point of view. An environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) and detailed sensitivity analysis was made for two different system designs. One system design is featuring one layer of cultivation strips (four longlines side by side) interspaced with access corridors. The other system design is featuring a doubling of cultivation strips by dual layers in the water column. Impact profiles and sensitivity analysis showed that the most important impacts came from drying the harvested seaweed, and from the production of the chromium steel chains and polypropylene rope in the infrastructure. This indicates that caution should be used when designing cultivation systems featuring such materials and processes. Furthermore, the high-density productivity of the dual layer system decreases absolute environmental impacts and so found to be a little more environmentally friendly from a life cycle perspective.

  • 44. Woldegebriel, Daniel
    et al.
    Udo, Henk
    Viets, Theo
    van der Harst, Eugenie
    Potting, Jose
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Wageningen university, The Netherlands.
    Environmental impact of milk production across an intensification gradient in Ethiopia2017Inngår i: Livestock Science, ISSN 1871-1413, E-ISSN 1878-0490, Vol. 206, s. 28-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper quantifies environmental performances of milk production systems differing in degree of intensification in the Mekelle milkshed area, Ethiopia. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to estimate Land,Use (LU), Fossil Energy Use (FEU) and Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the cattle sub-system in 8 large-scale, 8 (peri-)urban and 8 rural farms. The large-scale farms owned considerably more and other types of cattle (35.0 cattle units (cu); mainly Friesians) than the (peri-)urban (6.3 cu; mainly crossbreds) and rural farms (4.1 cu; mainly local breeds). The milk production per average cow per year was much lower in rural farms (730 kg) than in large-scale (2377 kg) and (peri-)urban farms (1829 kg). Milk was the main contributor to the economic benefits of the large-scale (90%) and (peri-)urban (80%) farms, whereas milk (sold and consumed at home) contributed only about 40% to the economic benefits in the multifunctional rural farms. The environmental impacts per cu, reflecting the absolute impacts of cattle keeping, were considerably higher in the large-scale and (peri-)urban farms than in the rural farms. LU and FEU were for the great majority caused by the land use for hay, straws and grasses, and harvesting, transport and processing of feeds, in particular wheat bran. On farm emissions from enteric fermentation and manure storage were the main contributors to GWP. The impacts per kg milk did not differ significantly between the three systems. The LU per kg milk estimates (9.4, 11.2 and 8.8 m(2) in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were relatively high compared to LCA studies of milk production in developed countries due to large amounts of low-quality forages and wheat bran fed, whereas the FEU values per kg milk (7.5, 11.1 and 6.6 MJ in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were relatively low compared to studies of milk production systems in developed countries. The GWP estimates per kg milk (1.75, 2.25 and 2.22 kg CO2-equivalents per kg milk in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were slightly higher than GWP values for the same types of farms in other developing countries, due to the relatively large amounts of low quality feeds fed. The quality of cattle management practices seems more important than the choice for a specific cattle keeping system in reducing environmental impacts of milk production.

  • 45.
    Potting, Josepha ()
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    LICCER Model Technical Report: Account of technical backgrounds of the LICCER model Report No. 4.2 (final report)2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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