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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    A comparison between particle characteristics between two railway brake pads2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    A study of nanostructured particles in railway tunnels2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Nanostructured particles in/outside compartment of running train, an on board measurement2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Non-exhaust Nano particle emission in Rail traffic2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Installationsteknik.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    A pin-on-disc study of the rate of airborne wear particle emissions from railway braking materials2012Ingår i: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 284, s. 18-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates the characteristics of particles generated from the wear of braking materials, and provides an applicable index for measuring and comparing wear particle emissions. A pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with particle measurement instruments was used. The number concentration, size, morphology, and mass concentration of generated particles were investigated and reported for particles 10 nm-32 mu m in diameter. The particles were also collected on filters and investigated using EDS and SEM. The effects of wear mechanisms on particle morphology and changes in particle concentration are discussed. A new index, the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER), is suggested that could be used in legislation to control non-exhaust emissions from transport modes, particularly rail transport.

  • 6.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Jansson, Anders
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Particle emissions from rail traffic: a literature review2013Ingår i: Critical reviews in environmental science and technology, ISSN 1064-3389, E-ISSN 1547-6537, Vol. 43, nr 23, s. 2211-2244Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle emissions are a drawback of rail transport. This work is a comprehensive presentation of recent research into particle emissions from rail vehicles. Both exhaust and non-exhaust particle emissions are considered when examining particle characteristics such as  PM10, and PM2.5 concentration levels, size, morphology, composition, as well as adverse health effects, current legislation, and available and proposed solutions for reducing such emissions. High concentration levels in enclosed rail traffic environments are reported and some toxic effects of the particles. We find that only a few limited studies have examined the adverse health effects of non-exhaust particle emissions and that no relevant legislation exists. Thus further research in this area is warranted.

  • 7.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Installationsteknik.
    Larsson, Christina
    Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Tribologi.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    A field test study of airborne wear particles from a running regional train2012Ingår i: IMechE, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, ISSN 0954-4097, Vol. 226, nr 1, s. 95-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhalable airborne particles have inverse health affect. In railways, mechanical brakes, the wheel–rail contact, current collectors, ballast, sleepers, and masonry structures yield particulate matter. Field tests examined a Swedish track using a train instrumented with particle measurement devices, brake pad temperature sensors, and speed and brake sensors. The main objective of this field test was to study the characteristics of particles generated from disc brakes on a running train with an on-board measuring set-up.

    Two airborne particle sampling points were designated, one near a pad–rotor disc brake contact and a second under the frame, not near a mechanical brake or the wheel–rail contact; the numbers and size distributions of the particles detected were registered and evaluated under various conditions (e.g. activating/deactivating electrical brakes or negotiating curves). During braking, three speed/temperature-dependent particle peaks were identified in the fine region, representing particles 280 nm, 350 nm, and 600 nm in diameter. In the coarse region, a peak was discerned for particles 3–6 μm in diameter. Effects of brake pad temperature on particle size distribution were also investigated. Results indicate that the 280 nm peak increased with increasing temperature, and that electrical braking significantly reduced airborne particle numbers. FESEM images captured particles sizing down to 50 nm. The ICP-MS results indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Ca, and Mg were the main elements constituting the particles.

     

  • 8.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    A study of friction modifiers on airborne wear particles from wheel-rail contact2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheel-rail contact and its wear process are crucial issues in maintenance and operating of rolling stocks. During wheel-rail contact, materials in mating faces are worn off and some of them transferred to airborne particles. Eventhough the wear process in wheel-rail contact are well-known, few studies have been conducted on the airborne particles from wheel-rail contact.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using different friction modifier on the amount of airbotne particles from wheel-rail contact in a laboratory simulation. In this regard, a series laboratory tests were used by using round head pin (R=25mm) and dead weight 40 N in a pin-on-disc machine. This set-up simulates a contact pressure around 750 MPa on the pin head.

    The amount of airborne particles and their characteristics were investigated in dry-contact, and non-dry contacts whereas a lubricant, Binol rail 510 and a friction modifier, tramsilence were used. According to the results, the effects of using Binol rail to reduce the amount of airborne particles were considerable.

  • 9.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Airborne wear particles from train traffic2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Experiences of measuring airborne wear particles from braking materials and wheel-rail contact2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During braking both of the discs and pads of disc brakes are worn. Since disc brakes are not sealed, some of the generated wear particles can become airborne.  Wheel-rail is also subjected to wear process during braking as well as normal running. They also contribute to generate airborne particles. Several studies have found an association between adverse health effects and the concentration of particles in the atmosphere, so it is of interest to improve our knowledge of the airborne wear particles generated by disc brakes.

    The present work includes results from full scale testing of rail vehicles. Particle size distribution, morphology and elemental contents are presented and discussed for different combinations of disc and pad materials. Due to high back ground concentration levels in field tests, dedicated laboratory test set ups on a reduced scale were designed and utilized for airborne particle studies with zero background level.

    Promising correlation between field test and the lab set up is identified. Different ways of using this test set up for evaluating how the composition of the airborne particles is classified with respect to their health effects are discussed. Furthermore, different ways of using the proposed method to rank and to quantify airborne particle emission factors are presented.

  • 11.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Lack of applicable criteria in non-exhaust emission legislation: AWPER index a practical solution2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olander, Lars
    A field investigation of the size and morphology and chemical composition of airborne particles in rail transport2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olander, Lars
    Larsson, christina
    A field investigation of the size, morphology and chemical composition of airborne particles in rail transport2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The health effects of inhalable airborne particles are well documented. In the European Union the European Council mandates that the level of airborne particles with a diameter smaller than 10 µm (PM10) must not exceed an annual average of 40 µg/m3. Examples of possible sources from rail transport are mechanical brakes, wheel rail contact, current collectors, ballast, sleepers and masonry structures. In this regard, a series of field tests have been conducted on a regular Swedish track using a regional train instrumented with: particle measurement devices, temperature sensors in brake pads and sensors to measure the magnitude of train speed and a GPS.

    Two sampling points for airborne particles were designated in the train under frame. One of the sampling points was near a pad to rotor disc brake contact and a second global sampling point was chosen under the frame, but not near a mechanical brake or the wheel-rail contact. The first one was highly influenced by brake pad wear debris and the other one was influenced by all of the brake pads, wheel and rail wear debris as well as re-suspension. In each sampling points, three tubes were linked to three particle measurement devices. Two sets of Ptrak, Dustrak and Grimm devices were used. The Ptrak 8525 was an optical particle measurement device which could measure particle diameter in the size interval of 20 nm up to 1 micrometer. The Dustrak was used to measure particle mass concentration. The Grimm 1.109 was an aerosol spectrometer which counted number of particles from 0.25 micrometer to 32 micrometer in 31 intervals. These two Grimm devices were equipped with Millipore filters in the devices outlets to capture particles for further studies on morphology and matter of particles.

    The total number and size distribution of the particles for these two sampling points were registered and evaluated in different situations such as activating and deactivating electrical brake or train curve negotiating.

    During braking, three peaks of 250 nm, 350 nm and 600 nm in diameter, with the 350 nm peak dominating were identified in the fine particle region. In the coarse particle region, a peak of around 3-6 µm in diameter was discovered. The brake pad temperature effects on particle size distribution were also investigated and the results showed that the peak around 250 nm increased. Furthermore, the activation of electrical braking significantly reduced the number of airborne particles.

    A SEM was used to capture the images from collected particles on filters. Furthermore, an ICP-Ms method was used to investigate the elemental contents of the particulates on the filter.  In this case the main contribution belonged to Fe, Si, Al, Ca, Cu, Zn. The higher amount of some elements weights such as calcium, silicon, sodium and aluminum in the global sampling point filters revealed that ballast and concrete sleepers were the main sources for these particles although some of them originated from rail, wheel, brake disc and brake pad as well.

  • 14.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Tritscher, Trosten
    TSI.
    Krinke, Thomas
    TSI.
    On-board study of nano- and micrometer-particle characteristics of a running electric train2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Zhu, Yi
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Pin-on-disc study of the effects of railway friction modifiers on airborne wear particles from wheel-rail contact2013Ingår i: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 60, s. 136-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of wheel–rail interaction is crucial to wheel and rail maintenance. In this interaction, some of theworn-off material is transformed into airborne particles. Although such wear is well understood, few studiestreat the particles generated. We investigated friction modifiers' effects on airborne particles characteristicsgenerated in wheel-rail contacts in laboratory conditions. Pin-on-disc machine testing with a round-head pinloaded by a dead weight load 40 N simulated maximum contact pressure over 550 MPa. Airborne particlecharacteristics were investigated in dry contacts and in ones lubricated with biodegradable rail grease andwater- and oil-based friction modifiers. The number of particles declined with the grease; the number ofultrafine particles increased with the water-based friction modifier, mainly due to water vaporization.

  • 16.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Particle emission from rail vehicles: A literature review2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, Sage Publications, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emission of airborne particles is a side effect from rail transport. This work reviews recent research on particle emissions from rail vehicles. Both exhaust and non-exhaust particle emissions are characterized by size, morphology, composition, and size distribution. Current legislation, knowledge of adverse health effects, and available and proposed solutions for emission reductions are also treated. There has been much focus on exhaust emissions, but only a few limited studies have investigated non-exhaust particle emissions, which contain a significant amount of metallic materials. A new method for measuring the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER) is proposed as a first step to guide new legislations and to focus further research on non-exhaust airborne emission, i.e., research on the generation mechanisms for particle emissions and their adverse health effects.

  • 17.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Installationsteknik.
    Larsson, Christina
    Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Tribologi.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    A study of airborne wear particles generated from organic railway brake pads and brake discs2011Ingår i: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 273, nr 1, s. 93-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Brake pads on wheel-mounted disc brakes are often used in rail transport due to their good thermal properties and robustness. During braking, both the disc and the pads are worn. This wear process generates particles that may become airborne and thus affect human health. The long term purpose of ‘Airborne particles in Rail transport’ project is to gain knowledge on the wear mechanisms in order to find means of controlling the number and size distribution of airborne particles. In this regard, a series of full-scale field tests and laboratory tests with a pin-on-disc machine have been conducted. The morphology and the matter of particles, along with their size distribution and concentration, have been studied. The validity of results from the pin-on-disc simulation has been verified by the field test results. Results show an ultra-fine peak for particles with a diameter size around 100 nm in diameter, a dominant fine peak for particles with a size of around 350 nm in diameter, and a coarse peak with a size of 3-7 μm in diameter. Materials such as iron, copper, aluminium, chromium, cobalt, antimony, and zinc have been detected in the nano-sized particles.

  • 18.
    Ackermann, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektriska energisystem.
    Historical Development and Current Status of Wind Power2005Ingår i: Wind Power in Power Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 2005, 1, s. 5-24Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Ackermann, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektriska energisystem.
    Transmission Systems for Offshore Wind Farms2005Ingår i: Wind Power in Power Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 2005, s. 479-503Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Acuña, José
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Tillämpad termodynamik och kylteknik.
    Improvements of U-pipe Borehole Heat Exchangers2010Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The sales of Ground Source Heat Pumps in Sweden and many other countries are having a rapid growth in the last decade. Today, there are approximately 360 000 systems installed in Sweden, with a growing rate of about 30 000 installations per year. The most common way to exchange heat with the bedrock in ground source heat pump applications is circulating a secondary fluid through a Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE), a closed loop in a vertical borehole. The fluid transports the heat from the ground to a certain heating and/or cooling application. A fluid with one degree higher or lower temperature coming out from the borehole may represent a 2-3% change in the COP of a heat pump system. It is therefore of great relevance to design cost effective and easy to install borehole heat exchangers. U-pipe BHEs consisting of two equal cylindrical pipes connected together at the borehole bottom have dominated the market for several years in spite of their relatively poor thermal performance and, still, there exist many uncertainties about how to optimize them. Although more efficient BHEs have been discussed for many years, the introduction of new designs has been practically lacking. However, the interest for innovation within this field is increasing nowadays and more effective methods for injecting or extracting heat into/from the ground (better BHEs) with smaller temperature differences between the heat secondary fluid and the surrounding bedrock must be suggested for introduction into the market.

    This report presents the analysis of several groundwater filled borehole heat exchangers, including standard and alternative U-pipe configurations (e.g. with spacers, grooves), as well as two coaxial designs. The study embraces measurements of borehole deviation, ground water flow, undisturbed ground temperature profile, secondary fluid and groundwater temperature variations in time, theoretical analyses with a FEM software, Distributed Thermal Response Test (DTRT), and pressure drop. Significant attention is devoted to distributed temperature measurements using optic fiber cables along the BHEs during heat extraction and heat injection from and to the ground.

  • 21.
    Admass, Muluneh
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    3-D numerical modeling of flow and sediment transport in rivers2005Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The fully integrated 3-D, time dependant, hydrodynamic and sediment transport numerical model ECOMSED was used to simulate flow and sediment transport in rivers. ECOMSED was originally developed for large water bodies such as lakes and oceans and solves the primitive equations of RANS along with a second order turbulence model in an orthogonal curvilinear σ- coordinate system. The availability of the model as an open FORTRAN source code made modifications and addition of new models possible. A new bed load transport model was implemented in the code as well as improvements in treatment of river roughness parameterization, bed form effects, and automatic update of flow depth due to bed evolution. The model was applied to 1- km long reach of the River Klarälven, Sweden, where it bifurcates into two west and east channels. The water surface and the flow division in the channels were made in agreement with field data by spatially varying the roughness. However, the spatial distribution of the bed shear stress was not realistic. Improvements were made in the bottom boundary condition to represent the variable effects of bed forms on roughness depending on the flow regime and the flow depth. The improved model realistically reproduced the flow field as well as the sediment transport processes in the river Klarälven.

  • 22.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Weighting and valuation in selected environmental systems analysis tools - suggestions for further developments2011Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, nr 2-3, s. 145-156Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis tools like Life Cycle Assessment, strategic environmental assessment, cost benefit analysis and environmental management systems, results need to be presented in a comprehensible way to make alternatives easily comparable. One way of doing this is to aggregate results to a manageable set by using weighting methods.. In this paper, we explore how weighting methods are used in some selected Environmental Systems Analysis Tools (ESATs), and suggest possible developments of their use. We examine the differences in current use patterns, discuss the reasons for and implications of such differences, and investigate whether observed differences in use are necessary. The result of our survey shows that weighting and valuation is broadly used in the examined ESATs. The use of weighting/valuation methods is different in different tools, but these differences are not always related to the application; rather, they are related to traditions and views on valuation and weighting. Also, although the requirements on the weights/values may differ between tools, there are intersections where they coincide. Monetary weights, using either endpoint or midpoint methods, are found to be useful in all the selected tools. Furthermore, the inventory shows that that there is a common need for generic sets of weights. There is a need for further research focusing on the development of consistent value sets derived with a wide range of methods. In parallel to the development of weighting methods it is important with critical evaluations of the weighting sets with regard to scientific quality, consistency and data gaps.

  • 23.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Environmental Impacts of Electronic Media: A Comparison of a Magazine’s Tablet and Print Editions2013Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to assess potential environmental impacts of electronic media distribution and consumption—from a life cycle perspective—as compared to those of print media.

    The thesis consists of a cover essay and two papers appended at the end of the thesis. The cover essay summarizes the papers and puts them in context. The main objectives of the thesis are twofold: to assess potential environmental impacts of production and consumption of tablet editions of magazines from a life cycle perspective (Paper I), and to compare potential environmental impacts of a magazine’s print edition with that of its tablet edition (Paper II).

    The thesis examines the following specific research questions: (1) What are the main environmental impacts of print and tablet editions? (2) Which activities are giving rise to the main environmental impacts of the print and tablet editions? (3) What are the key factors influencing these impacts? (4) What are major data gaps and uncertainties?

    Based on the present assessment, it is clear that for the print magazine, pulp and paper production is the principal cause of most of the potential environmental impacts. For this reason, the use of recycled paper, rather than virgin fiber, in newsprint production may considerably offset environmental impacts.

    For the tablet edition, the content production dominates the potential environmental impacts when readers are few. This appears to be the case in an emerging state of the magazine, but with distribution of more media products to smaller groups of people, this may persist for “mature” products as well. As the number of tablet readers grows, more of the environmental impact of the is due to manufacturing of the device and electronic distribution. However, content production may still be a major factor, depending on the specific environmental impacts studied.

  • 24.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Exploring the Effects of ICT on Environmental Sustainability: From Life Cycle Assessment to Complex Systems Modeling2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ökande produktionen och konsumtionen av produkter och tjänster inom informations- och kommunikationsteknik (IKT) leder till en ökning av den globala elanvändningen samt direkta miljökonsekvenser kopplade till IKT. Men IKT har även indirekta miljömässiga effekter. Dessa kan vara positiva till exempel genom substitutions- och optimeringseffekter eller negativa genom att till exempel ge upphov till ytterligare efterfrågan på grund av effektivisering (så kallade reboundeffekter).

    Olika metoder kan användas för att modellera och bedöma både direkta och indirekta effekter av IKT. Syftet med denna avhandling är att undersöka metoder för modellering samt att studera miljöeffekter av IKT och elektronisk media med hjälp av livscykelanalys (LCA) och även modellering av komplexa och dynamiska system, samt simuleringsteknik, så som System Dynamics (SD) och agentbaserad (AB) modellering. Avhandlingen omfattar fem artiklar (artikel I-V).

    Artikel I & II beskriver resultaten från en fallstudie där miljöeffekter kopplade till en svensk tidskrift studeras med LCA. Tidskriftens version för surfplatta samt motsvarande tryckta version studeras och jämförs.

    Artikel III går ett steg vidare från produktnivåns LCA. Artikeln återkopplar till en SD simuleringsstudie som ursprungligen genomfördes under 2002. Simuleringsstudien gällde framtida miljöeffekter av IKT i 15 europeiska länder med tidspespektivet 2000-2020. I artikeln valideras tre scenarier från simuleringsstudien med hjälp av nya empiriska data från 2000-2012 och ett nytt scenario modelleras. Kvantitativa och kvalitativa resultat från den ursprungliga studien diskuteras. Till exempel visar artikel III att IKT har en stimulerande effekt på den totala persontrafiken genom att göra den mer kostnads- och tidseffektiv (reboundeffekt).

    Modelleringsmekanismen som används för att representera denna reboundeffekt diskuteras vidare i artikel IV. Artikeln belyser och diskuterar den återkopplingsslinga (feedback-loop) som används för att modellera två typer av reboundeffekter kopplade till persontrafik (direkt ekonomisk rebound och tidsrelaterad rebound) samt jämför med en tidigare studie. Artikel IV behandlar också den roll systemtänkande och modellering kan spela i konceptualisering och kommunikation av reboundeffekters dynamik.

    För att ytterligare undersöka systemmodelleringens och simuleringens möjligheter att representera icke-linjära komplexa och dynamiska system (exempel på sådana diskuteras i artikel III och IV), sammanställer artikel V tidigare studier som jämför SD och AB-metoder och -modeller.  Studiernas mål och metod summeras och resultaten med avseende på vilka kriterier som presenteras för att välja mellan SD och AB sammanställs. Även processen för att omvandla en befintlig SD-modell till en AB-modell beskrivs.

    Avhandlingens slutsats är att LCA och systemmodelleringsmetoder kan vara användbara för att studera IKTs direkta effekter så väl som indirekta effekter på miljön.

  • 25.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Modeling the Effects of ICT on Environmental Sustainability: Revisiting a System Dynamics Model Developed for the European Commission2015Ingår i: ICT Innovations for Sustainability / [ed] Hilty, L.M.; Aebischer, B., Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2015, s. 449-474Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter revisits a System Dynamics model developed in 2002 with the aim of exploring the future impacts of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on environmental sustainability in the EU, which then consisted of 15 countries. The time horizon of the study was 20 years (2000–2020). We analyze the results in light of empirical data that is now available for 2000–2012. None of the three scenarios that were developed by experts to specify the external factors needed to run the model were realistic from today’s point of view. If the model is re-run with more realistic input data for the first half of the simulation period, however, the main results regarding the impact of ICT remain qualitatively the same; they seem to be relatively robust implications of the causal system structure, as it is represented in the model. Overall, the impacts of ICT for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental burdens for 2020 tend to be slightly stronger if the simulation is based on the empirical data now available.

  • 26.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology. Department of Informatics, University of Zurich.
    Modelling Rebound Effects in System Dynamics2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 28th Conference on Environmental Informatics - EnviroInfo 2014 - ICT for Energy Efficiency / [ed] Marx Gómez, J., Sonnenschein, M., Vogel, U., Winter, A., Rapp, B., Giesen, N., Germany: BIS Oldenburg, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The induction of demand by increasing the efficiency of a production or consumption process is known as the rebound effect. Feedback loops in System Dynamics can be used to conceptualize the structure of this complex phenomenon and also for communicating model-based insights. In passenger transport, the rebound effect can be induced through increased cost efficiency (direct economic rebound) and/or increase in speed (time rebound). In this paper we review and compare two models on environmental effects of passenger transport—including a model on the role of information and communication technology. We highlight the feedback mechanisms used to deal with the rebound effect (price, efficiency, and time rebound).

  • 27.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hilty, Lorenz M
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Simulating the future impact of ICT on environmental sustainability: validating and recalibrating a system dynamics model - Background Data2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report serves as supplementary material to the book chapter “Modeling the Effects of ICT on Environmental Sustainability: Revisiting a System Dynamics Model Developed for the European Commission” (Achachlouei and Hilty 2015) published in the book “ICT Innovations for Sustainability” (Hilty and Aebischer 2015). The current report was referred to in the book chapter whenever the data to be presented exceeded the space provided for the book chapter.

  • 28.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa) and University of Zurich, Department of Informatics.
    System Dynamics vs. agent-based modeling—comparing models and approaches: A literature review and a transformation procedureManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems modeling and simulation methods such as System Dynamics (SD) and agent-based (AB) modeling have been used to foster a better understanding of the dynamics and complexity of natural, technical, and social systems. System Dynamics provides an aggregate-level perspective, highlighting thinking in feedback loops and employing differential equations to model the causal relations in a system, exploring the system's dynamics by numerically solving the equations. Agent-based modeling, in a bottom-up method, focuses on constituent units (agents) and their interactions to explore the emerging behavior at a system level by means of simulation. Comparing these modeling methods can help us understand their strengths and weaknesses in order to choose the right approach for a given modeling problem. It may also support the analysis of a given system to build multiple models using the different approaches and comparing them, in particular to treat fundamental uncertainties in systems modeling and simulation. In this paper, we review the existing studies comparing the SD and AB approaches and models, investigating the aims, methodology, and results of such comparative studies. We also highlight lessons learned for future model comparisons by examining how the corresponding SD and AB models are built for the purpose of comparison. A procedure for transforming System Dynamics models into agent-based models is presented and discussed using examples from the literature.

  • 29.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab , 9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland .
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. University of Zürich, , Department of Informatics, CH-8050 Zürich, Switzerland; Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab , 9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland .
    Using Systems Thinking and System Dynamics Modeling to Understand Rebound Effects2016Ingår i: Advances And New Trends In Environmental And Energy Informatics / [ed] Jorge Marx Gómez, Michael Sonnenschein, Andreas Winter, Ute Vogel, Barbara Rapp Nils Giesen, Cham, Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2016, s. 237-255Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Processes leading to an increase of demand for a resource as a consequence of increasing the efficiency of using this resource in production or consumption are known as (direct) rebound effects. Rebound effects at micro and macro levels tend to offset the reduction in resource consumption enabled by progress in efficiency. Systems thinking and modeling instruments such as causal loop diagrams and System Dynamics can be used to conceptualize the structure of this complex phenomenon and also to communicate model-based insights. In passenger transport, the rebound effect can be invoked by increased cost efficiency (direct economic rebound) and/or increase in speed (time rebound). In this paper we review and compare two existing models on passenger transport—including a model on the role of information and communication technology—with regard to the feedback loops used to conceptualize rebound effects.

  • 30.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Life cycle assessment of a magazine: part 2: A comparison of print and tablet editions2015Ingår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of information and communications technology (ICT) is providing new ways to access media content. Electronic media are sometimes more advantageous from an environmental perspective than paper-based media solutions, but ICT-based media can also bring environmental burdens. This study compared the potential environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective of a print edition of a magazine and that of its electronic edition read on a tablet device. Important objectives were to identify activities giving rise to the main environmental impacts for both the print and tablet editions, determine the key factors influencing these impacts, and address data gaps and uncertainties. A detailed assessment of the tablet edition is provided in a previous article (part 1), whereas this article compares it with the print edition. The methodology used was life cycle assessment and the environmental impacts assessed included climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Use of different functional units to compare the print and tablet editions of the magazine resulted in different relative environmental impacts. In addition, emerging (low number of readers and low reading time per copy) and mature (higher number of readers and higher reading time per copy) tablet editions yielded varying results. The emerging tablet edition resulted in higher potential environmental impacts per reader than the print edition, but the mature tablet edition yielded lower impacts per reader in half the impact categories assessed. This illustrates the importance of spreading the environmental impacts over a large number of readers. The electricity mix used in product system processes did not greatly affect the results of tablet/print comparisons, but overall number of readers for the tablet edition, number of readers per copy for the print edition, file size, and degree of use of the tablet device proved crucial for the comparison results.

  • 31.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Climate Change Impact of Electronic Media Solutions: Case Study of the Tablet Edition of a Magazine2013Ingår i: ICT4S 2013: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Sustainability, ETH Zurich, February 14-16, 2013, ETH, Zurich, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifts from print media to electronic media may be regarded as apossibility for promoting sustainability. However, the benefits ofelectronic media are not unquestioned. Previous studies on theenvironmental impacts of print and electronic media have shownthat there is no easy answer. Contributing to this field of research,the present study sought to assess the climate change impact ofthe tablet edition of a magazine using a life cycle perspective.Results showed that with few readers the emerging tablet versionhad a higher potential climate change impact per reader than themature tablet version, although the latter had a substantiallylonger reading time per copy. The contribution of contentproduction, electronic distribution, reading on tablet and wastetreatment of tablet to the impact was analysed. The sensitivityanalysis of electricity mix indicated that this was an importantfactor that clearly influenced the overall results.

  • 32.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Life Cycle Assessment of a Magazine: Part I: Tablet Edition in Emerging and Mature States2015Ingår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is providing new ways to access media content. ICT has environmental benefits and burdens. The overall goal of the present study was to assess the environmental impacts of production and consumption of magazines read on tablets from a life cycle perspective. Important goals were to identify the activities giving rise to the main impacts and the key factors influencing the overall environmental impacts. Data gaps and uncertainties were also addressed. The results are compared against those for the print edition of the magazine in a separate article (part 2). The methodology used in the study was life cycle assessment. The environmental impacts assessed included climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater/marine eutrophication, fossil depletion, human toxicity, and ecotoxicity. The results indicate that content production can be the major contributor to environmental impacts if readers are few (as for the emerging version of the magazine studied). Assuming more readers (more mature version) or a larger file size for the tablet magazine, electronic storage and distribution may be the major contributor. Thus, in contrast to previous studies on electronic media, which reported a dominant impact of the use phase, this study found a higher impact for content production (emerging version) and electronic storage and distribution (mature version). However, with inefficient, low overall use of the tablet with a mature version of the tablet magazine, the greatest impact was shown to come from the reading activity (i.e., the use phase). In conclusion, the relative impacts of the tablet magazine would decrease considerably with high numbers of readers, their efficient use of the tablet (i.e., for many purposes over a long life of the device), and a smaller magazine file.

  • 33.
    Ahmadi, Leila
    et al.
    Energy, Mining and Environment, National Research Council Canada.
    Young, Steven B.
    School of Environment, Enterprise and Development|, University of Waterloo.
    Fowler, Michael
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo.
    Fraser, Roydon A.
    Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    A cascaded life cycle: reuse of electric vehicle lithium-ion battery packs in energy storage systems2015Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery packs recovered from end-of-life electric vehicles (EV) present potential technological, economic and environmental opportunities for improving energy systems and material efficiency. Battery packs can be reused in stationary applications as part of a “smart grid”, for example to provide energy storage systems (ESS) for load leveling, residential or commercial power. Previous work on EV battery reuse has demonstrated technical viability and shown energy efficiency benefits in energy storage systems modeled under commercial scenarios. The current analysis performs a life cycle assessment (LCA) study on a Li-ion battery pack used in an EV and then reused in a stationary ESS.

    Methods

    A complex functional unit is used to combine energy delivered by the battery pack from the mobility function and the stationary ESS. Various scenarios of cascaded “EV mobility plus reuse in stationary clean electric power scenarios” are contrasted with “conventional system mobility with internal combustion engine vehicles plus natural gas peaking power.” Eight years are assumed for first use; with 10 years for reuse in the stationary application. Operational scenarios and environmental data are based on real time-of-day and time-of-year power use. Additional data from LCA databases are utilized. Ontario, Canada, is used as the geographic baseline; analysis includes sensitivity to the electricity mix and battery degradation. Seven environmental categories are assessed using ReCiPe.

    Results and discussion

    Results indicate that the manufacturing phase of the Li-ion battery will still dominate environmental impacts across the extended life cycle of the pack (first use in vehicle plus reuse in stationary application). For most impact categories, the cascaded use system appears significantly beneficial compared to the conventional system. By consuming clean energy sources for both use and reuse, global and local environmental stress reductions can be supported. Greenhouse gas advantages of vehicle electrification can be doubled by extending the life of the EV batteries, and enabling better use of off-peak low-cost clean electricity or intermittent renewable capacity. However, questions remain concerning implications of long-duration use of raw material resources employed before potential recycling.

    Conclusions

    Li-ion battery packs present opportunities for powering both mobility and stationary applications in the necessary transition to cleaner energy. Battery state-of-health is a considerable determinant in the life cycle performance of a Li-ion battery pack. The use of a complex functional unit was demonstrated in studying a component system with multiple uses in a cascaded application.

  • 34.
    Aigner, Joachim Felix
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Environmental Implications of Media Consumption embedded in Digital Ecosystems: A bottom-up systems approach to the perennial case of paperless reading in Germany2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste åren har digitalisering omformat medielandskapet, med ett implicit löfte om att minska beroendet av fysiska resurser. Dessutom finns det tydliga trender som pekar mot en ökad användning av små, mobila enheter för att konsumera alla sorters media. En uppdaterad bottom-up analys bedöms komplettera mer generella observationer och bedömningar. Om man antar årliga genomsnittliga konsumtionsmönster i Tyskland, så är tillverkningen av elektroniska slutanvändarenheter – oavsett om de är till för enskilda ändamål (e-läsare) eller om de är multifunktionella (smartphone, surfplatta) – onekligen en miljömässigt kritisk punkt för digitalt läsande. Elförbrukningen, som sker i samband med dataöverföringen, kan också vara en avgörande faktor för den övergripande miljöpåverkan av digital läsning. Dock beror den faktiska påverkan av dataöverförningsinfrastrukturer dels på metodologiska val men även på ett antal andra parametrar och trender. Genom att undersöka indikatorn för global uppvärmning kan denna studie konstatera att resultaten stödjer tidigare forskning, som redan pekar på de miljömässiga vinsterna av digitalt läsande. Målgruppen för denna studie innefattar både distributörer av digitala läs-tjänster och/eller andra media tjänster såväl som slutanvändare som ett integrerat element i ”digitala ekosystem”.

  • 35.
    Albarède, Manon
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    How to facilitate the implementation of Industrial Ecology?: Development of a grid analysis framework to assess a territory's potential based on case studies in South Korea, Japan, China, Great-Britain and Sweden2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 36. Amofah, Lea Rastas
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Extraction of Arsenic from Soils Contaminated with Wood Preservation Chemicals2010Ingår i: Soil & sediment contamination, ISSN 1532-0383, E-ISSN 1549-7887, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 142-159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three soil samples contaminated by chromated zinc arsenate (CZA) or chromated copper arsenate (CCA) were investigated in a laboratory scale to study As mobilization and to identify a chemical agent that could be used in soil washing to extract arsenic. Besides high As extraction, the cost, occupational health issues and technical aspects were considered when selecting the chemical. Arsenic is strongly bound to CZA/CCA soils; only similar to 50% of the tot-As was removed from water-washed soils. High Fe or Al mobilization is not necessarily indicative of high As removal from CZA/CCA soils. A high Cu/As-ratio and a large amount of soluble Ca in the soil hampered As extraction. The high ratio can be an indication of stable Cu-arsenates in soil. Calcium can react with the extraction agent or with As during extraction. Sodium hydroxide, dithionite with citrate (and oxalate) (dithionite solutions), and oxalate with citrate were the most efficient chemicals for removing As from the soils. The disadvantages of using these strong chemicals are: a high cost (oxalate with citrate); damage to equipment (dithionite solutions); an adverse impact on occupational health (dithionite solutions); or a deterioration in soil quality after extraction (NaOH and dithionite solutons). Phosphate, solutions based on NH2OH center dot HCl, or citrate were not efficient in mobilizing As from the soils.

  • 37.
    Annaduzzaman, Md
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Chitosan biopolymer as an adsorbent for drinking water treatment: Investigation on Arsenic and Uranium2015Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I många länder världen runt (även i Sverige) orsakar metallers toxicitet besvärliga vattenkvalitetsproblem och utgör ett hot mot människors hälsa. Bland de toxiska metaller som finns i svenska vatten utgör arsenik och uran i dricksvatten allvarliga hälsorisker vid långvarig exposition då de kan orsaka cancer och neurologiska problem. Flertalet brunnar är installerade i kristallint berg och sedimentära bergarter och vattnet kommer vanligen från sprickor i berggrunden. Hanteringen av sådant vatten kan kräva reduktion av expositionen för arsenik- och uraninnehåll genom förbättrade processer och teknologier. Detta är ett angeläget problem som kräver en säker, pålitlig och ekovänlig teknologi att tillämpas innan vattnet distribueras. En rad olika behandlingssystem är tillgängliga men många av dem är inte lämpliga beroende på deras höga kostnad, den komplicerade tillämpningen och problem med hanteringen av restprodukter. I denna studie has biopolymeren chitosan, den näst vanligaste polymeren efter cellulosa, konstaterats vara en möjlig adsorbent för att avlägsna arsenik(V) och uran(VI) från vatten. Karakterisering av adsorbenten har också genomförts genom XRD, FTIR, SEM, UV och strålning i synligt ljus samt TGA/DTA undersökningar. Batch-tester i bänkskala har genomförts med användning av chitosan (DDA-85%) som adsorbent för att bestämma dess förmåga att avlägsna arsenik(V) och uran(VI)genom att variera fyra parametrar, nämligen kontakttid, pH, dos av chitosan och halt av föroreningen. Adsorptionsdata vid optimala förhållanden bestämdes genom tillämpning av Langmuir, Freundlich och Dubinin-Radushkhevic (D-R) isotermerna. Vidare tillämpades Lagergrens pseudo-first-order och pseudo-second-order kinetiska modell för att undersöka adsorptionsprocessen. Karakteriseringen av materialet visade förefintligheten av effektiva amino- (N-H), hydroxyl- (O-H) samt karboxylgrupper (C=O) i chitosan-polysackariden och att det är lätt nedbrytbart. Preliminära resultat visar att reduktionen av arsenik(V) och uran(VI) var 100 respektive 97,45 % efter 300 minuters kontakttid med optimalt pH på 6,0 respektive 7,0. De optimala doserna av adsorbent och den initiala koncentrationen var 60 och 80 g/L och 100 och 250 µg/L. Adsorptions process beskrevs bäst av Freundlich-isotermen för arsenik(V) (R2 = 0.9933) och med Langmuir-isotermen för uran(VI) (R2 = 0,9858) jämfört med andra isotermer vilket var en viktig indikation på en homogen monolager-adsorption. För både arsenik(V) och uran(VI) beskrev pseudo-second order adsorptionen bättre än pseudo-first-order. Second-order kinetiska regressionskoefficienten (R2) var 0.9959 och 0.9872 respektive. De ovanstående resultaten visar sammanfattningsvis att chitosan (DDA-85%) kan användas som en billig, pålitlig och miljövänlig behandlingsmetod av vatten för arsenik(V) och uran(VI).

  • 38.
    Apul, Defne S.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toledo.
    Diaz, Maria E.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Toledo.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Hundal, Lakhwinder S.
    Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, Research and Development Department, Section 123.
    Geochemical Modeling of Trace Element Release from Biosolids2010Ingår i: Environmental Engineering Science, ISSN 1092-8758, E-ISSN 1557-9018, Vol. 27, nr 9, s. 743-755Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosolids-borne trace elements may be released to the environment when biosolids are used as fertilizers in farm land. Trace element leachate concentrations from biosolids are known to be limited by both organic and inorganic sorbent surfaces; this experimental evidence has not been previously verified with geochemical modeling of sorption reactions. In this study, pH-dependent leaching experiments and sorption isotherm experiments were coupled with a multisurface geochemical modeling approach. Biosolids samples were obtained from Toledo and Chicago wastewater treatment plants; their sorbent surfaces were defined and modeled as a combination of organic matter (OM) and Fe-, Al-, and Mn-oxides. The multisurface geochemical modeling approach was partially successful in predicting the pH-dependent leachate concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, and Zn. Both modeled and experimental data indicated that As and Mo in biosolids were bound to Fe- oxides; Cd, Cr, and Cu were bound mainly to OM; and as pH increased the fractions of Cd and Cu bound to Fe- oxides in the biosolids matrix increased. Ni and Zn were distributed between OM and Fe- oxides, and the percentage of each fraction depended on the pH. This study showed that the multisurface geochemical model could be used to generate As (and to a lesser extent Cd) Freundlich isotherm parameters for biosolids. However, the composition and reactivity of solid and dissolved OM was identified as a source of uncertainty in the modeling results. Therefore, more detailed studies focusing on the reactivity of isolated biosolids OM fractions with regard to proton and metal binding are needed to improve the capability of geochemical models to predict the fate of biosolids-borne trace metals in the environment.

  • 39.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    LCA of ICT solutions: environmental impacts and challenges of assessment2013Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Informations-och kommunikationsteknik (IKT) spelar en viktig roll i dagens samhälle genom att bidra till ekonomisk tillväxt, påverka samhällstrukturer och människors livsstil. Det finns höga förväntningar på att IKT skulle kunna bidra till hållbar utveckling, bland annat genom minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser. Miljöpåverkan från IKT-lösningar (produkter och tjänster) anses ofta vara obefintlig eller mycket lägre än konventionella alternativ. Men för att uppskatta vilken potential IKT har för att minska miljöpåverkan, behöver miljöbedömningar göras. Ett flertal studier har också genomförts för att bedöma miljöpåverkan av specifika IKT-lösningar och av branschen i sin helhet. Fortfarande behövs mer forskning som ger ökad kunskap om olika typer av påverkan (direkt, indirekt, rebound, etc.) och om olika slags miljöeffekter (t.ex. övergödning, toxiska effekter, markanvändning och biodiversitet. De resultat som redan finns kan också sammanställas för att identifiera de betydande aspekterna och för att dra generella slutsatser. Eftersom miljöbedömning av IKT-lösningar är relativt nytt och eftersom sektorn och dess produkter och tjänster utvecklas snabbt behöver metodiken analyseras, diskuteras och vidareutvecklas.

    Avhandlingens syfte är att bidra med ökad kunskap om IKT-lösningars direkta miljöpåverkan sett ur ett livscykelperspektiv, samt att identifiera och diskutera olika utmaningar med att använda livscykelanalys (LCA) som verktyg för miljöbedömning av IKT-lösningar. Två forskningsfrågor besvaras: ”Vilken miljöpåverkan har IKT-lösningar, sett ur ett livscykelperspektiv, och vad orsakar denna påverkan?” samt ”Vilka är de metodmässiga utmaningarna vid bedömningar av IKT -lösningar med hjälp av LCA?”. Genom en litteraturstudie över livscykelanalyser av IKT-lösningar identifieras betydande aspekter och generella slutsatser gällande miljöpåverkan och dess orsaker dras. Dessutom identifieras och diskuteras metodik-utmaningar. En fallstudie av online- och tryckta tidningar exemplifierar miljöpåverkan från traditionella och nya medielösningar med IKT, och ger dessutom underlag för diskussion om metodmässiga utmaningar.

    Avhandlingen visar att annan miljöpåverkan än klimatpåverkan och energianvändning inte är särskilt väl studerade inom IKT-sektorn. Detta kan leda till suboptimering och att problem överförs från en typ av miljöpåverkan till en annan. Generellt gäller att det är i tillverknings- och användningsfaserna som den största miljöpåverkan uppkommer. Transporter och avfallshantering visar inte särskilt hög miljöpåverkan i de studier som utförts och sammanställts. Transporter och avfallshantering bör ändå fortsatt inkluderas vid miljöbedömning av IKT-lösningar, eftersom osäkerhet och brist på data kan vara en orsak till resultaten.

    Eftersom IKT är under ständig och snabb utveckling kommer det fortsatt att vara en utmaning att göra miljöbedömningar av IKT-lösningar. Datakvalitet och -tillgänglighet, typ av data, olika metodval såsom val av funktionell enhet, systemgränser och allokering samt antaganden om användarnas beteende påverkar de slutliga resultaten och måste övervägas noga under en livscykelanalys.

    Resultaten från avhandlingen kan vara till nytta både för praktiker och för beslutsfattare. De kan bidra till ökad kunskap om miljöpåverkan från IKT-lösningar och utmaningar när det gäller att använda LCA på detta område och ger därmed en bättre grund för mer välunderbyggda beslut kopplade till IKT lösningar. Avhandlingen identifierar även områden för vidare forskning om metodutveckling.

  • 40.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ekener-Petersen, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lessons learned: Review of LCAs for ICT products and services2014Ingår i: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 65, nr 2, s. 211-234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of information and communication technology (ICT) is often expected to result in decreased environmental impacts. Several studies have, however, also addressed the possibilities of negative impacts. It is therefore important to assess environmental impacts of ICT products and services. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for assessing the potential impacts of a product or service over the whole life-cycle, i.e. from raw material acquisition to waste management via production and use phases. The aim of this paper is to review LCA studies of ICT products and services, including a few Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) studies. Many of the studies have considered consumer products, such as computers and TVs. Other consumer products, such as game consoles and TV peripherals, as well as business products, e.g. related to networks, are however more rarely assessed. Manufacturing and use phase have the highest impact in the life cycle. Use phase seems to be the predominant in energy consumption and global warming for some ICT products but for others, especially energy efficient, low weight products, manufacturing may dominate. Rapid technological development is stressed by several authors as a source of variability of results, impacting the production processes and suppliers as well as the content and energy performance of the actual devices. In the future, conducting LCA on ICT, the research community needs to consider the limitations found in the studies conducted so far. It encompasses, among others, the need to address a broad spectrum of environmental impacts, including human and ecotoxicological impacts; modeling actual e-waste management, covering informal management when relevant; and considering user behavior in a realistic way, accounting for rebound and other indirect effects.

  • 41.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    What makes a difference for environmental performance of online newspapers?2012Ingår i: Electronics Goes Green 2012+, ECG 2012 - Joint International Conference and Exhibition, Proceedings / [ed] Klaus-Dieter Lang, Nils F. Nissen, Andreas Middendorf, Perrine Chancerel, IEEE , 2012, s. 6360454-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The media sector is becoming increasingly digital and newspapers are most commonly published online as well as on paper. For printed newspaper, paper production is the main reason for environmental impacts according to several studies performed, but for online newspapers the environmental impacts are not as well studied. The current study looked into key factors influencing the potential climate change impact of online newspapers using life cycle assessment. The main contributors to the climate change potential of the Finnish online newspaper studied were: in the case of using a computer, manufacturing of the device followed by electronic distribution, and in the case of using a tablet device, electronic distribution followed by manufacturing of the device. Geographical location, lifetime and total active use of the electronic devices are important factors when assessing the environmental impacts and so is the type of device used for accessing and reading the online newspaper.

  • 42.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Ovaskainen, Mari
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Nors, Minna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Challenges in environmental assessment of new media solutions - case studies of Alma Media newspapers2012Ingår i: SETAC 18th LCACase Study Symposium: Sustainability Assessment in the 21st centuryTools, Trends & Applications, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the media sector, recently new means of distribution, new platforms for accessing media and consequently new media products have been introduced. With new products potential environmental impacts related to activities of media companies are changing. Finnish media publisher Alma Media commissioned an LCA study in order to learn more about environmental impacts related to their mature and emerging products. Based on this, the current paper aims to present potential environmental impacts related to printed and online newspapers, focusing on their differences and challenges in assessing, comparing, communicating and acting on the results. Three newspapers are studied as cases, covering upstream printing house supply chain, printing house activities, delivery to readers and final disposal for print versions; electronic storage and distribution, the relevant share of electronic devices manufacturing and disposal and electricity needed for downloading and reading for online versions; content production for both.

    Mainly generic data was used for online products assessment, since specific data were not available. The specific data for the more mature print products were detailed but less comprehensive than generic. The implication is increased uncertainty and difficulties in communication of results. Environmental performance of both printed and online newspapers is dependent on various characteristics of the newspaper and its readers, including e.g. format and number of pages for print versions, and type of device used and its total use, size of content download and reading time for online versions. User practices may be changing as emerging products get more mature, which will influence environmental performance.

    Print and online versions give rise to different types of environmental impacts and the distribution of impacts in the life cycles differ. Printed newspaper impacts largely occur in the printing house supply chain and in delivery to readers, whereas online newspapers impacts are mainly connected to the electronic devices supply chain, and to some extent electricity used for reading and distribution. Impacts of printed newspapers studied occur more locally with paper manufacturing and printing located in Finland. Impacts related to online versions largely occur in other countries. Also, new value chain actors are involved, which are not directly related to the media company. Different actions for improvement may be necessary for emerging media products, as well as new types of collaborations.

    Comparison of online and print versions is not straightforward as different benefits are provided and reader practices differ. Although emerging media products may be considered substitutes for print counterparts, this is not necessarily the case. The choice of functional unit of assessment proved crucial for the comparison. Different functional units were used (one year, one reader and week, one reading hour). Comparing print and online versions Alma Media online newspapers showed lower environmental impacts than their print versions per year and also per reader and week. However, impacts per reading hour were lower for printed newspapers in some cases. Using different kinds of perspectives, e.g. through different functional units, gives more information and increased knowledge. Complexity in assessing, comparing, communicating and acting on emerging media products was experienced in this study. Further studies and action need to be taken.

  • 43.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Moberg, Åsa
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Nors, Minna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Media content provided on different platforms –Environmental performance of online and printed versions of Alma Medianewspapers.2014Ingår i: Journal of Print and Media Technology Research, ISSN 2223-8905, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 7-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 44.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Nors, Minna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Pihkola, Hanna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Environmental assessment of new media solutions: challenges experienced in case studies of Alma Media newspapers.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 45. Aslund, M.
    et al.
    Fredenberg, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Telman, M.
    Danielsson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik.
    Detectors for the future of X-ray imaging2010Ingår i: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 139, nr 1-3, s. 327-333Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, developments in detectors for X-ray imaging have improved dose efficiency. This has been accomplished with for example, structured scintillators such as columnar CsI, or with direct detectors where the X rays are converted to electric charge carriers in a semiconductor. Scattered radiation remains a major noise source, and fairly inefficient anti-scatter grids are still a gold standard. Hence, any future development should include improved scatter rejection. In recent years, photon-counting detectors have generated significant interest by several companies as well as academic research groups. This method eliminates electronic noise, which is an advantage in low-dose applications. Moreover, energy-sensitive photon-counting detectors allow for further improvements by optimising the signal-to-quantum-noise ratio, anatomical background subtraction or quantitative analysis of object constituents. This paper reviews state-of-the-art photon-counting detectors, scatter control and their application in diagnostic X-ray medical imaging. In particular, spectral imaging with photon-counting detectors, pitfalls such as charge sharing and high rates and various proposals for mitigation are discussed.

  • 46.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    On sustainability assessment of technical systems: experience from systems analysis with the ORWARE and ecoeffect tools2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering research and development work is undergoing a reorientation from focusing on specific parts of different systems to a broader perspective of systems level, albeit at a slower pace. This reorientation should be further developed and enhanced with the aim of organizing and structuring our technical systems in meeting sustainability requirements in face of global ecological threats that have far-reaching social and economic implications, which can no longer be captured using conventional approach of research. Until a list of universally acceptable, clear, and measurable indicators of sustainable development is developed, the work with sustainability metrics should continue to evolve as a relative measure of ecological, economic, and social performance of human activities in general, and technical systems in particular. This work can be done by comparing the relative performance of alternative technologies of providing the same well-defined function or service; or by characterizing technologies that enjoy different levels of societal priorities using relevant performance indicators. In both cases, concepts and methods of industrial ecology play a vital role.

    This thesis is about the development and application of a systematic approach for the assessment of the performance of technical systems from the perspective of systems analysis, sustainability, sustainability assessment, and industrial ecology.

    The systematic approach developed and characterized in this thesis advocates for a simultaneous assessment of the ecological, economic, and social dimensions of performance of technologies in avoiding sub-optimization and problem shifting between dimensions. It gives a holistic picture by taking a life cycle perspective of all important aspects. The systematic assessment of technical systems provides an even-handed assessment resulting in a cumulative knowledge. A modular structure of the approach makes it flexible enough in terms of comparing a number of alternatives at the same time, and carrying out the assessment of the three dimensions independently. It should give way to transparent system where the level of quality of input data can be comprehended. The assessment approach should focus on a selected number of key input data, tested calculation procedures, and comprehensible result presentation.

    The challenge in developing and applying this approach is the complexity of method integration and information processing. The different parts to be included in the same platform come in with additional uncertainties hampering result interpretations. The hitherto tendency of promoting disciplinary lines will continue to challenge further developments of such interdisciplinary approaches.

    The thesis draws on the experience from ORWARE, a Swedish technology assessment tool applied in the assessment of waste management systems and energy systems; and from the EcoEffect tool used in the assessment of building properties; all assessed as components of a larger system. The thesis underlines the importance of sustainability considerations beginning from the research and development phase of technical systems. The core message of this thesis is that technical systems should be researched as indivisible parts of a complex whole that includes society and the natural environment. Results from such researches can then be transformed into design codes and specifications for use in the research and development, planning and structuring, and implementation and management of technical systems.

  • 47.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Systems analysis of technology chains for energy recovery from waste2006Ingår i: WMSCI 2006: 10TH WORLD MULTI-CONFERENCE ON SYSTEMICS, CYBERNETICS AND INFORMATICS, VOL VII, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Callaos N; Lesso W; Tremante A; Baralt J; Rebielak J, ORLANDO: INT INST INFORMATICS & SYSTEMICS , 2006, s. 183-188Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution is based on the result of a project entitled "Systems Analysis: Energy Recovery from waste, catalytic combustion in comparison with fuel cells and incineration" is financed by The Swedish National Energy Administration. The aim of the project was to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts of biomass/waste-to-energy technologies. Four technology scenarios are be studied: (1) Gasification followed by low temperature fuel cells (i.e. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells) (2) Gasification followed by high temperature fuel cells (i.e. Solid Oxide fuel cells (SOFC)) (3) Gasification followed by catalytic combustion (CC) and (4) Incineration with energy recovery. Looking at the result of the four technology chains in terms of the impact categories considered with impact per GWh electricity produced as a unit of comparison and from the perspective of the rank each scenario has in all the four impact categories, SOFC appears to be the winner technology followed by PEM and CC as second and third best respectively with incinerations as the least of all. On other hand, looking at the three important emissions (CO,. NOx and SOx) from the total systems (include both the core system and the external system), SOFC is the best technology equally followed PEM and CC as the second best. A comparison of the same emissions from the core systems places CC on equal level with SOFC as the best technologies with PEM as the second best.

  • 48.
    Azzi, Elias Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Karltun, Erik
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Prospective Life Cycle Assessment of Large-Scale Biochar Production and Use for Negative Emissions in Stockholm2019Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 14, s. 8466-8476Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several cities in Sweden are aiming for climate neutrality within a few decades and for negative emissions thereafter. Combined biochar, heat, and power production is an option to achieve carbon sequestration for cities relying on biomass-fuelled district heating, while biochar use could mitigate environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector. By using prospective life cycle assessment, the climate impact of the pyrolysis of woodchips in Stockholm is compared with two reference scenarios based on woodchip combustion. The pyrolysis of woodchips produces heat and power for the city of Stockholm, and biochar whose potential use as a feed and manure additive on Swedish dairy farms is explored. The climate change mitigation trade-off between bioenergy production and biochar carbon sequestration in Stockholm's context is dominated by the fate of marginal power. If decarbonisation of power is achieved, building a new pyrolysis plant becomes a better climate option than conventional combustion. Effects of cascading biochar use in animal husbandry are uncertain but could provide 10-20% more mitigation than direct biochar soil incorporation. These results help design regional biochar systems that combine negative carbon dioxide emissions with increased methane and nitrous oxide mitigation efforts and can also guide the development of minimum performance criteria for biochar products.

  • 49.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Gontier, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), Miljöbedömning och -förvaltning.
    Brokking, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Impacts of region-wide urban development on biodiversity in strategic environmental assessment2005Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, E-ISSN 1757-5605, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 229-246Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In urbanising regions, urban sprawl and infrastructure cause profound alterations of natural habitats. Initial decisions on urban expansion and major infrastructure investments are often made on a strategic level where the long-term development of a region is determined. For these types of decisions a strategic environmental assessment can be prepared. However, the lack of an adequate conceptual and methodological framework can pose a major problem for the prediction of impacts, not least concerning biodiversity. This paper will highlight the need for effective methods for biodiversity analysis at landscape and regional levels, with reference to the long-term urban development of the Stockholm and Mälaren regions. Problems of habitat loss, fragmentation and other impacts related to large-scale urbanisation and infrastructure developments will be addressed. GIS-based methods focusing on predictive ecological modelling will be discussed in a scenario context. The implementation of such methodologies in the strategic environmental assessment process would allow a better integration of biodiversity in planning and decision-making, further promoting a sustainable planning system.

  • 50. Baruah, Sunandan
    et al.
    Khan, Muhammad Najam
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    Nanotechnology in Water Treatment2015Ingår i: Pollutants in Buildings, Water and Living Organisms, Springer International Publishing , 2015, s. 51-84Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialization and excessive use of pesticides for boosting agricultural production has adversely affected the ecosystem, thus polluting natural water reserves. Remediation of contaminated water has been an area of concern with numerous techniques being applied to improve the quality of naturally available water to the level suitable for human consumption. Most of these methods however generate byproducts that are sometimes toxic. Heterogenous photocatalysis using metal oxide nanostructures for water purification is an attractive option because no harmful byproducts are created. A discussion on possible methods to engineer metal oxides for visible light photocatalysis is included to highlight the use of solar energy for water purification. Multifunctional photocatalytic membranes are considered advantageous over freely suspended nanoparticles due to the ease of its removal from the purified water. An overview of water remediation techniques is presented highlighting innovations through nanotechnology for possible addressing of problems associated with current techniques.

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