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  • 1.
    Abakarova, Elmira
    et al.
    Gubkin University, Moscow.
    Blomgren, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell marknadsföring. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Affärsutveckling och Entreprenörskap.
    Will the future European energy market be a German battle with Russian and Swedish actors in the centre of it?: Analyzing major players with the pattern shown by mergers and acquisitions2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    ABBASSI, BEHRANG
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Organisation och ledning.
    HULTLING JACOBSEN, JOHANNES
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Organisation och ledning.
    A Managerial Perspective on Uncertainty and Commitment in Organizational Change2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational change has during the last decades become a common practice among corporations in every major market. Change has ironically become a constant, which has put an emphasis on organizations to master the practice of change management. In addition to becoming a more and more relevant practice, change initiatives are hard to carry through with little, or even any, financial success, according to prevalent research. The purpose of this master’s thesis, conducted at The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and in collaboration with a large company going through a major organizational change, was investigating the notion of uncertainty and commitment, as well as the relationship between the two, amongst managers within the context of organizational change.

    The thesis, which is a qualitative study, has been based on 14 interviews with mid-level managers at a company, referred to in the thesis as Case Company. Furthermore, the thesis has used prevalent research in order to segment, delimit and analyze the empirical data. The findings have shown that the drivers of commitment; namely understanding; belief and involvement, and the mitigating factors of uncertainty; information sharing and control, do in fact have interlinking causalities. In short, information sharing furthers understanding, which in turn affects the belief in the change initiatives. Moreover, involvement gives employees, managers included, a sense of control, which reduces feelings of uncertainty. The findings have also shown that there exist factors, which are not underlined by prevalent research, that heavily affect the communicating and information sharing processes of change initiatives. These factors are primarily the involvement and power possessed by unions and worker’s councils. The research has also shown that both current theory and practice do not consider the long-term adverse effect of organizational change to the extent we argue that it mandates. These adverse effects are referred to in the thesis, as well as prevalent theor, as survivor’s syndrome, which can be summarized as the residual effects of a change on the members of the organization that remain.

    The thesis has given fruit to possible areas of improvement for Case Company, which  ncludes, among others, the information sharing process and long-term adverse effects of organizational change. Moreover, the thesis has also highlighted potential segmentations and focus areas of future research, which include observing how commitment to the proposed change compared to the commitment to the organization changes as organizational change makes its presence felt.

  • 3.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Maskin- och processteknologi.
    Bianchi, C.
    Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    System dynamics models for decision making in product multiple lifecycles2015Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 101, s. 20-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main drivers for adopting product multiple lifecycles are to gain ecological and economic advantages. However, in most of the cases it is not straight forward to estimate the potential ecological and economic gain that may result from adopting product multiple lifecycles. Even though many researchers have concluded that product multiple lifecycles result in gain, there are examples which indicate that the gain is often marginal or even none in many cases. The purpose of this research is to develop system dynamics models that can assist decision makers in assessing and analysing the potential gain of product multiple lifecycles considering the dynamics of material scarcity. The foundation of the research presented in this paper is laid based on literature review. System dynamics principles have been used for modelling and simulations have been done on Stella iThink platform. The data used in the models have been extracted from different reports published by World Steel Association and U.S. Geological Survey. Some of the data have been assumed based on expert estimation. The data on iron ore reserves, iron and steel productions and consumptions have been used in the models. This research presents the first system dynamics model for decision making in product multiple lifecycles which takes into consideration the dynamics of material scarcity. Physical unavailability and price of material are the two main factors that would drive product multiple lifecycles approach and more sustainable decisions can be made if it is done by taking holistic system approach over longer time horizon. For an enterprise it is perhaps not attractive to conserve a particular type of material through product multiple lifecycles approach which is naturally abundant but extremely important if the material becomes critical. An enterprise could through engineering, proper business model and marketing may increase the share of multiple lifecycle products which eventually would help the enterprise to reduce its dependency on critical materials.

  • 4.
    Abdullah, Tazhan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Suppl-SideRiskMitigationinManufacturingCompany2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply chain risk is a challenge, because they can disrupt the supply of components and raw

    material to the company. The Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) is reality in today’s

    resource-optimized supply systems. Disruption can cause an increase of production cost. In more

    serious production breaks it can jeopardize the fulfillment of contracts.

    The complexity of supply network increases risk as the rate of dependency on both single and

    dual sourcing increases either jointly or separately. When suppliers are placed far away, the risk

    of interference in time increases, which is the case of today’s global companies is a common

    issue.

    A framework has been developed in this study based on previous literature to investigate the

    sources of the supply-side risk and its categories, to implement the mitigation strategies the

    company can reduce the probability of occurrence of any undesired event and negative impacts.

    The proposed framework was applied, in form of a case study, on the global truck manufacturer

    Scania. Two managers of the company were interviewed by the author with this purpose.

    The main findings indicate that when the framework was applied, mitigation strategies were

    effective in truck manufacturing industry such as Scania. In the case of Scania, two more risk

    sources that were not included in the framework are monitored by the company, namely safety

    and health and security. In summarizing, the establishment of the risk mitigation strategiesmapping

    up, follow up, and continuous improvement, leads to improvement of the OEM. Formal

    training programs to achieve continuous improvement and the participation of the crossfunctional

    groups in the mapping and follow up practices to create a successful supply chain risk

    management.

  • 5. Acs, Zoltan
    et al.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Centrum för studier inom vetenskap och innovation, CESIS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    The Entrepreneruship-Philanthropy Nexus: Implication for internationalization2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how Sweden and the United States have been impacted by philanthropicactivities, commercialization of university-based knowledge and internationalentrepreneurship. The analysis comprises a detailed case study of Swedish and U.S.universities, as well as a statistical analysis of the impact of philanthropy on economicgrowth. The results show that the United States has prompted a university system based oncompetition and variety, with an emphasis on philanthropy, promoting knowledge creation.International entrepreneurship has been an important mechanism by which this knowledge isglobalized leading to increased economic growth. Conversely, Swedish universities werecharacterized by less commercialized R&D and weak links to the commercial sector, rootedtraditionally in dependence on tax-financed and homogenous university structure. TheSwedish model has begun to change with important implications for development in smallerdomestic markets. The analysis has important implications for knowledge creation as asource of economic growth through international entrepreneurship taking advantage ofglobalization, especially for smaller countries.

  • 6. Acs, Zoltan J.
    et al.
    Audretsch, David B.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Samhällsekonomi.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Growth and entrepreneurship2012Ingår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 289-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we suggest that the spillover of knowledge may not occur automatically as typically assumed in models of endogenous growth. Rather, a mechanism is required to serve as a conduit for the spillover and commercialization of knowledge from the source creating it, to the firms actually commercializing the new ideas. In this paper, entrepreneurship is identified as one such mechanism facilitating the spillover of knowledge. Using a panel of entrepreneurship data from 18 countries, we provide empirical evidence that, in addition to measures of Research & Development and human capital, entrepreneurial activity also serves to promote economic growth.

  • 7. Adamson, G.
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Holm, M.
    The state of the art of cloud manufacturing and future trends2013Ingår i: ASME 2013 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference Collocated with the 41st North American Manufacturing Research Conference, MSEC 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud manufacturing has emerged as a new manufacturing paradigm, which combines technologies (such as Internet of Things, Cloud computing, semantic Web, virtualisation and service-oriented technologies) with advanced manufacturing models, information and communication technologies. It aims to be networked, intelligent, service-oriented, knowledge-based and energy efficient, and promises a variety of benefits and advantages by providing fast, reliable and secure on-demand services for users. It is envisioned that companies in all sectors of manufacturing will be able to package their resources and know-hows in the Cloud, making them conveniently available for others through pay-as-you-go, which is also timely and economically attractive. Resources, e.g. manufacturing software tools, applications, knowledge and fabrication capabilities, will then be made accessible to presumptive consumers on a worldwide basis. After surveying a vast array of available publications, this paper presents an up-to-date literature review together with future trends and research directions in Cloud manufacturing.

  • 8.
    Adelstrand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell marknadsföring.
    Brostedt, Emil
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell marknadsföring.
    Creating Competitive Advantage by Rethinking B2B Software Pricing2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of pricing model for software products is a complex procedure due to the different characteristics compared to physical products.

    This thesis investigates and compares software pricing models in a B2B setting, and describes how KAM plays a role in executing a pricing model. The research has been conducted as an opportunist case study on Adebro, a technology company in the B2B sector. The thesis have come to the following conclusions, with data from interviews and literature:

    • Perpetual license is, and will continue to be, an attractive pricing model for Adebro. However, a subscription-based usage independent pricing model is also attractive for the future.
    • Implications of switching pricing model would be largest when changing between a perpetual and subscription model, where revenue will have the most visual impact.
    • The most important task for KAM is to communicate the change to current and new customers. KAM and the pricing model must also be structured to support each other to be successful.

    The thesis contributes to science by providing research on pricing models for manufacturing related software. However, studies concerning the weighting of importance for different pricing parameters would be of interest for the future.

  • 9.
    Adenfelt, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Lagerström, K.
    Organizational rejuvenation for knowledge exploitation: Exploring corporate entrepreneurship in an MNE2006Ingår i: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 4, nr 2-3, s. 83-98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to study how organizational rejuvenation is used to increase and support knowledge exploitation in multinational enterprises. Using case-study data to explore the theoretical arguments, interesting findings emerge. The main finding is that entrepreneurial activities in IT industry enable organizational rejuvenation with repercussions beyond the focal function. Other findings relate to how corporate entrepreneurship activities provide possibilities for continuous knowledge exploitation within the MNE and how entrepreneurial groups inside MNEs form the foundation from which the organizational rejuvenation originates. Finally, the form of organizational rejuvenation studied embraced both structural and behavioral changes.

  • 10.
    Adnan, Al-Khalaf
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Oskar, Gustafsson
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Are hedge funds of benefit for institutional investors in a low interest-rate environment?2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 11.
    Adnot, Thibault
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Project Management within start-ups: Literary review and case studies in Stockholm, Sweden2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the way start-ups use Project Management, what their needs in this field are, and what tools they use to support it. In the first part of this paper, a comprehensive literature review is performed, divided into three main parts. First, Project Management in general is studied; second its benefits to SMEs are pinpointed; and finally its application to startups are reviewed. The second part of this paper is based on three case studies of start-ups in the Stockholm-region. Five representatives of these start-ups were interviewed, and the results of these face-to-face conversations are first exposed and then discussed by the author.

    In the end, this paper shows the traditional phase-based approach to Project Management does not suit start-ups. Instead, a more agile and iterative method is put forward, such as SCRUM. It is argued that such strategy should be kept by start-ups when growing and tapping other markets outside Sweden, although it is recognized that Project Management should become more formal than the general “on the go” approach witnessed in the three start-ups.

  • 12.
    ADUT, JONATHAN
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Organisation och ledning.
    Applying agile approaches in public construction and civil engineering projects: A study to identify opportunities for a more flexible projectmanagement process2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett ständigt utvecklande affärsklimat, med nya projekt som tillkommer som aldrig förr, är  behovet av en effektiv projektledning inom alla områden nödvändig. Kärnan i projektledning är att noggrant planera, organisera, motivera och kontrollera resurser för att uppnå ett önskat resultat och för att uppfylla projektets mål. Traditionell projektledning ger en tydlig projektram som är skapad för att gälla för nästan alla typer av projekt. Att arbeta med projektfaser i traditionella bygg- och anläggningsprojekt har en tendens att vara alltför stelbent och tidskrävande för dagens dynamiska affärsmiljö.

    Projektledning handlar inte längre om att hantera de olika stegen som krävs för att slutföra projektet i tid, det handlar om att systematiskt involvera kunden, skapa ett disciplinerat sätt  att prioritera insatser och lösa kompromisser. Samtidigt kunna arbeta inom alla aspekter av projektet i multifunktionella team. Genom att studera agil projektledning möjliggörs just detta.

    Genom agila tillvägagångssätt kan projektets process vara en mer levande och en kontinuerligt uppdaterad process. Agil projektledning ger projektledare metoder, verktyg och framförallt tillvägagångssätt för att underlätta både projektledaren och projektbeställarens möjlighet att engagera sig på ett mer effektivt sätt, vilket möjliggör mer öppen kommunikation, bättre återkoppling och viljan att fullfölja ett gemensamt mål mot framgångsrik projektledning.

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om projektledning inom bygg- och  nläggningsprojekt, som hittills mestadels har utförts på ett traditionellt sätt, skulle kunna dra nytta av att använda agila tillvägagångssätt. Genom att studera både traditionell projektledning och observera hur projekt genomförs på WSP Management, samt intervjua erfarna projektledare, identifierades att agila tillvägagångssätt kan utföras.

    Att kombinera den traditionella betydelsen av projektledning med agil projektledningsteori, dess värderingar och principer samt intervjuer med agila experter – blev det uppenbart att möjligheterna att använda och dra nytta av agila tillvägagångssätt inom bygg- och anläggningsprojekt är möjlig.

  • 13.
    Ageyev, Victor
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Heating Tariff System In Donetsk2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In different countries, such as Ukraine and Sweden, there have been differences in the way of administrating the systems which dictate the way of living and the way the societies function. Different approaches have been adopted over the time when it came to setting up the rules for how the state´s vital organizations, such as tax administration, health care, police, army, education system and many others should work and function. The idea in many modern countries is the same, but the ways and procedures can differ a great deal from country to country. This applies to the sphere of district heating services as well.

    The purpose of this thesis is to gain understand with the help of economic theory why heating tariffs are managed in a country that has had transition from plan economy to market economy the way they are, and how the management of heating tariffs could be improved when taking into account the experience of a country with long established market economy. During field studies performed in Sweden and Ukraine, particularly in the city of Donetsk, a comparative analysis of the two heating tariff systems have been performed in order to outline and highlight the differences between them and to answer the main questions of the study.

    The results include the status report of the situation concerning the district heating tariff systems in Sweden and Ukraine, comparative analysis of the two systems and suggestion on improvements of the district heating tariff system in the city of Donetsk. The outcomes and suggested improvements do not provide the full picture and all the aspects of the situation, due to the fact that more extensive studies, involving larger resources, would have to be conducted in the area. However, the report provides a good starting point for further studies within the field of district heating tariffs in Ukraine and Sweden.

  • 14.
    Aghasi, Keivan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Predicting who stays or leaves after the acquisition:: Target’s top manager turnover2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In acquisition of high-tech and knowledge intensive firms, scholars have paid special attention to top managers’ status after the deal. Literature suggests that these managers in particular CEOs if kept in post-acquisition provide coordination capacity for the acquirer to transfer the knowledge and technology from the target to the acquirer while minimizing the disruptive effect of post-acquisition integration process. In addition, the acquirer benefits from human capital embedded in target’s managerial resources; especially in high-tech and knowledge intensive firms where top managers are founders or patent holders. Although the above mentioned argument have been validated by empirical studies showing that top manager’s turnover reduces the post-acquisition performance for the acquirers, multiple empirical studies have reported abnormal managerial turnover shortly after the acquisition. This thesis made an attempt to explain this puzzling phenomenon by investigating on the determinants of the top manager’s turnover of the target in the post-acquisition period. The study finds that in case of CEOs, acquirers do not rely always on coordinating capacity provided by them in post-acquisition. Indeed, the acquirer’s choice of provision of coordination is beyond the target’s CEO retention. The choice of coordination depends on the existing level of coordination capacities and the acquisition’s motivation. In addition, founder-CEOs are more likely to stay after the acquisition because of their valuable firm-specific human capital for the acquirer. However, this value diminishes by the maturity of the target. In addition, similarity in demographic characteristics of the two CEOs (of the acquirer and target) causes social attraction, collaboration and cooperation which ultimately increases the chance that the target’s CEO retention. Finally, diversity within the target’s top management team (TMT) directly increases their chance of departure after the deal. The diversity engenders social frictions, conflicts and coordination inefficiencies.

  • 15.
    Aghasi, Keivan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Similarity as an antecedentfor target’s CEO turnover: Do birds of a feather flocktogether?Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates on behavioral aspects of managerial turnover in post-acquisition period. In particular, the paper aims to determine to what extent demographic similarity between CEOs improves their (intergroup) relations which ultimately causes target’s CEO retention in post-acquisition. The paper found that similarity in demographic characteristics of CEOs increases the probability of announcing the retention of target’s CEO after the deal is closed. Additionally, similarity increases the probability of misjudgment in determining target’s CEO status in post-acquisition period. Finally, the paper found that experience as the acquirer’s capability reduces the effect of similarity. This results is based on acquisition of small high-tech firms between 2001 and 2005.

  • 16.
    Aghasi, Keivan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Brown, Terrence
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Rossi-Lamastra, Cristina
    Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano.
    The role of top managers in M&A: Reviewing thirty years of literature and setting directions for future researchManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper reviews the literature on the role of top management teams (TMT) in mergers and acquisitions (M&A). Given variety of theoretical lenses applied in this field - such as agency theory or upper echelon – and the plethora of on-going empirical studies in the last three decades, we believe this literature review has a crucial value for the existing strand of studies and future studies to come. In particular, it systematizes the extant knowledge by documenting the contradictory results of prior empirical studies, making argument on the sources of these contradictions, and pointing out future directions of research.

  • 17.
    Aghasi, Keivan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Colombo, Massimo
    Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano.
    Rossi-Lamastra, Cristina
    Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano.
    Antecedents of target CEO departure in post-acquisitions: The leading role of founderManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates on firm specific human capital of target CEOs in small high-tech firms as the antecedent of their retention after the acquisition. The main finding of the paper is that acquirers are willing to keep the founder-CEOs because of their valuable embedded human capital. This value is to the extent that founder-CEOs compare to professional CEOs have a higher chance of retention when relatedness between acquirer and target is high or when the acquirer structurally integrates the target after the acquisition; the two conditions that general managerial skills and industry specific skills of the CEOs are not of interest for the acquirers. Also the value of firm specific human capital depends on the maturity of the target. The value diminishes as the target is more mature at the time of acquisition. This research is based on empirical analysis of acquisition of small high-tech firms between 2001 and 2005.

  • 18.
    Aghasi, Keivan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Colombo, Massimo
    Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano.
    Rossi-Lamastra, Cristina
    Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano.
    Post-acquisition implementation of small high-tech firms: Looking beyond the surfaceManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In post-acquisition, the main challenge for the acquirer is choosing the right coordination mechanism with respect to the required level of coordination and associated costs of implementation of the mechanism. In acquisition of small high-tech firms, the challenge is exacerbated as technology and knowledge transfer requires high level of coordination while the costs related such as loss of autonomy and organizational disruptions are also higher. In this paper, we showed that acquirer’s choice of coordination mechanisms is determined by the cost-benefit trade-off. In particular, we found that, component technology as a form of task interdependency necessitates higher level of coordination and justifies choosing mechanisms to provide high level of coordination at higher cost. On the contrary, technological relatedness and prior alliance between acquirer and target provide coordination capacity, which in turn reduce the benefits of choosing mechanisms to provide high level of coordination with respect to the associated costs. This study is based on empirical analysis of 403 acquisitions of small high-tech firms between 2001 and 2005. 

  • 19.
    Aghasi, Keivan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Lougui, Monia
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Colombo, Massimo
    Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano.
    Why diverse top managementteams break up in post-acquisition periodsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a complementary explanation behind the turnover of target’s top managers in post-acquisition periods. Although human capital and acquisition implementation literature describe managerial retention as desirable, empirical studies have reported significant managerial turnover in acquisition of high-tech and knowledge intensive firms. Borrowing some insights from the team diversity literature, the paper examines the ex-ante diversity among top managers of knowledge-intensive and high-tech firms as an antecedent of their turnover in post-acquisition. We argue that diversity reduces the coordination efficiency necessary to transfer knowledge and facilitate post-acquisition organizational integration, and managers belonging to such teams are more likely to be replaced. Empirical analysis drawing on 2164 top managers in 297 Swedish firms shows that managerial position diversity as a separation, pay disparity and industrial tenure diversity as a variety indeed are associated with managerial exit in three years after the acquisition.

  • 20.
    Aghasi, Keivan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Nationalekonomi. Politecnico di Milano.
    Lougui, Monia
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Nationalekonomi.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Nationalekonomi.
    Colombo, Massiomo
    Why Diverse Top Management Teams Break up in Post-acquisition Periods2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a complementary explanation behind the turnover of target’s top managers in post-acquisition periods. Although human capital and acquisition implementation literature describe managerial retention as desirable, empirical studies have reported significant managerial turnover in acquisition of high-tech and knowledge intensive firms. Borrowing some insights from the team diversity literature, the paper examines the ex-ante diversity among top managers of knowledge-intensive and high-tech firms as an antecedent of their turnover in post-acquisition. We argue that diversity reduces the coordination efficiency necessary to transfer knowledge and facilitate post-acquisition organizational integration, and managers belonging to such teams are more likely to be replaced. Empirical analysis drawing on 2164 top managers in 297 Swedish firms shows that managerial position diversity as a separation, pay disparity and industrial tenure diversity as a variety indeed are associated with managerial exit in three years after the acquisition.

  • 21.
    Aguilar-Sommar, Ruth S.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Poler, R.
    Integrated analysis of the production planning process using Trampolin and DGRAI as process modelling tools2006Ingår i: Production Planning and Control, ISSN 0953-7287, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 31-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides managers and other decision-makers with support on how to analyse business processes by presenting the use and features of Trampolin and DGRAI as complementary tools for the analysis of business processes to support enterprise integration. Two business process models were built for the production planning process in a large telecommunication company one using Trampolin and the other using DGRAI. The former offers a statistical analysis of the process showing the information required, responsible and other features of each activity along the process besides its links and sequence. The second gives a more dynamic analysis focusing on the process' decisional flow and its associated information and resources permitting to simulate and analyse the consequences of the decision-making process. A brief description of what may be analysed with each tool followed by analytical insights, and an analysis of how these tools support enterprise integration, are provided. Also the paper shows the advantages and disadvantages of each tool as well as some common and complementary characteristics found in the models.

  • 22.
    AGUZ, JOSEF
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    MARKIEWICZ, OSSIAN
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Exploring the Relationship Between HousingPrices and Stock Prices2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the long- and short-run relationship between stock- and housingprices in Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden between 1987-2017 and 1995-2017 with data from OECD statistics. By using interest rate as a control variable and Johansen's Test for Cointegration, the results show a significant relationship for Finland during the period 1995-2017. The short-run analysis implies a credit effect, which is inline with previous studies. However, in Denmark, Norway and Sweden the analysis show no sign of cointegration. A possible explanation for the insignificant results could be the high degree of policy implementations and changes to market structures in the early 1990s, which theoretically could be controlled for by including additional control variables in the analysis.

  • 23.
    Ahlin, Christian
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Att skapa interna varumärken: En studie kring varumärkesteoriernas roll i interna intiativ2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 300 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Organisationers komplexitet och vikten av effektiv intern kommunikation växer med storleken och därmed är det dags att undersöka ifall mer avancerad marknadsföring även är relevant för internt bruk. Därför har användningen av varumärkesteorier i intern marknadsföring av interna initiativ studeras i syfte att försöka förstå deras roll. För att öka förståelsen så har en fallstudie genomförts vilket resulterat i en perspektivsmatris med möjligheten att påvisa en dualitet gällande motivationen bakom skapandet av varumärken för interna initiativ inom en organisation. De förutsättningar för internt varumärkesskapande som framkommer är (digital och/eller skriven) kommunikation, (någon form av) konkurrens, (initiativets) kontinuitet, maktskillnad (med annan beslutsfattare än ägare av initiativet) och möjligheter (för extern användning). Detta framställs tillsammans med råd gällande användningen av varumärkesteorier, det vill säga varumärkesskapande via associationsbyggande, för interna initiativ. Kvalitativa data samlades in under 2008 hos företaget.

  • 24. Ahlin, Lina
    et al.
    Andersson, Martin
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation. Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Sweden.
    Market Thickness and the Early Labour Market Career of University Graduates: An Urban Advantage?2014Ingår i: Spatial Economic Analysis, ISSN 1742-1772, E-ISSN 1742-1780, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 396-419Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the influence of market thickness for skills on initial wages and the early job market career of university graduates. Using Swedish micro-level panel data on a cohort of graduates, we show that two out of three graduates move to large cities upon graduation. Large cities increase employment probabilities and yield higher rewards to human capital, even after controlling for employment selection. The premium on initial wages for graduates in urban regions is in the interval of 5-6%, and we estimate a wage-growth premium of about 2-4%. Thicker markets for skills appear as a key reason for the concentration of graduates to larger cities.

  • 25.
    AHLINDER, LUDVIG
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    LINDAHL, CARL
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    Areas of complexity in a reverse merger: An exploratory study regarding the complexity of theintegration process in a reverse merger2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Mergers and acquisitions are common business practices and a large amount of studies point to the complexity of these endeavors and the difficulty of executing them successfully. Different kinds of mergers and acquisitions exist and one of the most uncommon forms is referred to as the reverse merger.

    The reverse merger is unusual in the sense that the acquiring company conforms to the ways and culture of the target company. Being such a rare event, little previous research regarding the reverse merger, and specifically the integration process of such an acquisition, exist. As a result, further enquiry was deemed necessary, which is why the purpose of this study is to explore said integration and identify areas of complexity in this process.

    In order to identify areas of complexity, the authors conducted a case study at a company who recently had partaken in an acquisition intended to be a reverse merger. The majority of the data was collected through in depth interviews on site as well as participatory observations.

    The findings in this study indicate three different areas of complexity: lack of cultural awareness, lack of planning as well as lack of communication. These three areas are intertwined and it is suggested that they are accounted for when pursuing a reverse merger. In addition, the findings of this study can be used as a foundation for future research.

     

  • 26.
    Ahlklo, Yrr
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Lind, Carin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    E, S or G? A study of ESG score and financial performance2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbarhet är inget nytt koncept inom finans, men dess popularitet och användning har ökat kraftigt. Dock är det fortfarande oklart hur hållbara investeringar förhåller sig till lönsamhet och avkastning. En av de mest använda hållbarhetsmåtten är ESG, som står för environmental, social and governance. I denna studie undersöker vi relationen mellan ESG-mått och lönsamhet, både marknads- och resultatbaserad. Vi delar också upp ESG i sina tre komponenter E, S, och G för att undersöka vilken faktor som har den starkaste relationen till lönsamhet. Detta görs genom en regressionsanalys med paneldata från ett urval av nordiska aktier och Sustainalytics ESG-mått. Vårt resultat visar ingen signifikant relation mellan ESG-mått och lönsamhet. Komponenten E visar den starkaste relationen till lönsamhet, ett signifikant och något negativt samband, men endast till en av tre responsvariabler. Vårt resultat indikerar således att inget samband verkar finnas mellan lönsamhet och dessa ESG-mått. Eftersom vår studie inte visar på något signifikant samband, blir vår rekommendation att investera i den aktien med högst ESG-mått, om man skulle välja mellan två annars lika aktier.

  • 27.
    Ahlström, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Framtiden för Svensk TV: Hur hanteraran den förändring av marknaden för TVsom följer med internet2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Marknaden för TV håller på att förändras. Mer och mer tittande flyttar från den traditionella TV-rutan till mobila plattformar och online tittande. De svenska kanalhusen så som TV4-gruppen, SBS, SVT och MTG har följt med i denna trend och levererar TV direkt till tittarna genom sina respektive  Play  tjänster.  Denna  underökning  tittar  på  hur  denna  tekniska  förändring  påverka marknaden från både ett konsument och affärsperspektiv.

    Studien grundar sig på ett teoretiskt ramverk samt empiriska studier hos aktörer på marknaden. De huvudsakliga teorierna som har använts för denna studie är affärsmodellers roll i att plocka upp nedärvda värden i ny teknologi, hur man hanterar teknologisk förändring i organisationer samt dominant design.

    Denna undersökning visar på att de tidigare distributörerna redan idag hotas av att ersättas antingen direkt av kanalhusen eller nya distributörer då man inte längre har ett naturligt monopol på sina konsumenter. Vidare visar studien att hur man ska implementera framgångsrika affärsmodeller kring  rättigheter  då  tittare  potentiellt  konsumerar  innehåll  på  ett   annorlunda  vis   genom online-tjänster är en mycket komplex fråga.

  • 28.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Understanding Individuals' Learning and Decision Processes in a Changing Environment by Using Panel Data2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    When a new transport service is introduced, people have to learn and familiarize themselves with the new service before they decide to adopt it. These processes are developed over time, thus produce dynamics in individuals’ behavioural responses towards the service. This affects the demand of the new service, thus affect revenues. Available studies have examined the factors influencing these responses from microeconomic perspectives. The influence of the theory-based subjective factors has not been examined empirically. Understanding these would assist transport and urban planners to design a better marketing strategy to increase the market share of the new service. A change in seasons affect individuals’ activity-travel decisions, thus produce dynamics in activitytravel patterns in different seasons. Individuals’ constraints, in a form of mandatory activities (working/studying), are influencing individuals’ decisions to participate in day-to-day nonmandatory activities (leisure and routine activities). The interdependency between travel demand, time allocation and mode choice that considers interactions between mandatory and non-mandatory activities, in different seasons is less explored. Understanding these would assist transport planners and operators to manage travel demand strategies across different seasons of the year and provide better transportation systems for all individuals. This thesis includes five papers. Paper I explores individuals’ characteristics of the quick-response and the adopters of the new public transport (PT) service and examines the temporal effects. Paper II investigates the subjective factors influencing a quick-response to the new PT service by proposing a modified attitude-behaviour framework. Paper III and IV analyse the effects of seasonal variations and individuals’ constraints on their day-to-day activity-travel decisions and patterns. Paper V analyses the attrition and fatigue in the two-week travel diary panel survey instrument.

  • 29.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi. VTI.
    Understanding Seasonal Variation in Individual's Activity Participation and Trip Generation by Using Four Consecutive Two-Week Travel DiaryManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the interactions between travel demand, time allocation and mode choice in different seasons by jointly modeling the work and/or study, routine and leisure activity-travel engagements of 67 individuals in Stockholm, Sweden. A longitudinal panel two-week travel diary data collected in four consecutive waves over a span of seven months period that covers all four different seasons; autumn, winter, spring and summer, were analysed by using simultaneous Tobit models. The model was applied to explore the interactions among each activity-travel indicator, and individuals’ unique characteristics and endogeneity in activity-travel engagements between different seasons were also considered in the model system. The results of models reveal clear trade-offs between mandatory activities (work and/or study) and non-mandatory activities (routine and leisure), regardless of any seasons, although the magnitudes vary between seasons. There is also a positive mutual endogeneity relationship between number of trips and activity duration within the same activity type. The trade-offs between work and/or study trips towards routine and leisure trips are larger in winter and spring respectively, than in other seasons. It is also found that mode effects on travel time for conducting mandatory activity are much larger in spring than in other seasons. However, the effects of public transport and slow modes on travel time for leisure activities are much larger in summer than in other seasons.

  • 30.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Examining the effects of out-of-home and in-home constraints on leisure activity participation in different seasons of the year2016Ingår i: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, s. 1-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using multi-day, multi-period travel diaries data of 56 days (four waves of two-week diaries) for 67 individuals in Stockholm, this study aims to examine the effects of out-of-home and in-home constraints (e.g. teleworking, studying at home, doing the laundry, cleaning and taking care of other household member[s]) on individuals’ day-to-day leisure activity participation decisions in four different seasons. This study also aims to explore the effects of various types of working schedules (fixed, shift, partial- and full-flexible) on individuals’ decisions to participate in day-to-day leisure activities. A pooled model (56 days) and wave-specific models (14 days in each wave) are estimated by using dynamic ordered Probit models. The effects of various types of working schedules are estimated by using 28 days of two waves’ data. The results show that an individual’s leisure activity participation decision is significantly influenced by out-of-home work durations but not influenced by in-home constraints, regardless of any seasons. Individuals with shift working hours engage less in day-to-day leisure activities than other workers’ types in both spring and summer seasons. The thermal indicator significantly affects individuals’ leisure activity participation decisions during the autumn season. Individuals exhibit routine behaviour characterized by repeated decisions in participating in day-to-day leisure activities that can last up to 14 days, regardless of any seasons.

  • 31.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Moderating effects on market orientation and strategic performance: A study of public housing companies in Sweden2018Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle.
    The role of market orientation in public housing companies:: A study of MO’s effect on construction strategies2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of public housing companies in Sweden is strongly influenced by legal, economic, and demographic changes. The companies long tradition of taking responsibility for customer welfare in living have recently been criticized for excessive dominance over price setting, which is claimed to give them competitive advantages in the housing market. New legislation in 2011 requires financial return on investment, implying increased competition with radical changes for the companies. Because of the law, they find themselves transitioning from the role of being responsible for living conditions in Sweden to having to work in a businesslike manner with increased competition.The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze how the public housing companies’ deal with market orientation constructs and what their impact is on construction strategy choices. Theoretically, the market orientation concept is seen as a tool for companies to create superior value for the customers and influence strategic performance, which is a relationship tested and analyzed in this dissertation.The research was conducted through data collection stages using qualitative and quantitative methods. In the first stage, a qualitative pilot study was conducted with interviews of 15 managers in 11 public housing companies in central Sweden. In the second stage, two quantitative comparative studies of public and private housing companies in declining markets in central Sweden were conducted, collecting data from 23 (22 survey respondents) public and 37 private housing companies (16 respondents). In the third and final stage, two quantitative studies were conducted, collecting data from all 289 public housing companies (165 respondents) in Sweden.Results of the five studies show, firstly, that economic condition in the municipality have a major impact on the housing companies’ construction strategies, causing them to act innovatively in order to create superior customer value. Secondly, market orientation efforts contribute to competitive advantages in growing markets, while weak economic conditions limit the companies’ construction strategy choices in declining markets. After analyzing the link between market orientation constructs and construction strategy in declining markets, results showed that the public housing companies demonstrate higher responsiveness to customer demands compared to the private sector, but these have no effects on construction strategy. Thirdly, the analysis of moderating (external) and mediating (corporate social responsibility) effects on the market orientation and construction strategy relationship confirms that economic conditions in society influence construction strategy planning and decisions. The results of the mediating effects of CSR indicate that environmental and social issues have a positive influence on the market orientation and construction strategy relationship.

  • 33.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Strategies in decling housing markets: a comparison of public and private housing companiesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Gävle.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Sustainable strategies in a declining housing market: a comparative study2018Ingår i: International Journal of Management Practice, ISSN 1477-9064, E-ISSN 1741-8143, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 400-421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is first to examine and compare sustainable strategies within public and private housing companies in declining markets in central Sweden. Then, the study evaluates the impact of new legislation that requires public housing companies to act in a ‘businesslike’ way, in the same way as a long-term private company. A quantitative study was conducted based on a survey sent to 72 housing companies. The results show that public housing companies are more strategy oriented than private housing companies. The results can be viewed as an on-going interaction process, where a company’s strategies affect its profit. The study aims toincrease the understanding of activities within housing companies in adeclining market that engage the companies in sustainable strategies to improve their market knowledge and profit.

  • 35.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Sundström, Agneta
    The market intelligence impact on strategic performance in declining markets2017Ingår i: International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, Vol. 15, nr 15, s. 457-473Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how companies in declining markets operate in the context of market intelligence, responding to customer needs and applying them to strategic performance. A quantitative survey was sent to 214 public housing companies. The results indicate that market intelligence creates commitment and is significant. A positive relationship was found between data gathering, dissemination, and responsiveness, which indicates that the companies comprehend market needs but companies have difficult to manage construction strategies that improve strategic performance. There was a low value of strategic performance; a link between market intelligence and the chosen strategy was not confirmed. Companies know what the market wants but base their decision on previous strategic performance on economic conditions in the municipality instead.

  • 36.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Sundström, Agneta
    The Role of Market Intelligence in Declining Markets: Public Housing Companies in SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37. Ahtiainen, Heini
    et al.
    Artell, Janne
    Czajkowski, Mikolaj
    Hasler, Berit
    Hasselström, Linus
    Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy, Sweden.
    Huhtala, Anni
    Meyerhoff, Jürgen
    Smart, James C.R.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Alemu, Muhammed H.
    Angeli, Daija
    Dahlbo, Kim
    Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi
    Hyytiäinen, Kari
    Karloseva, Aljona
    Khaleeva, Julia
    Maar, Marie
    Martinsen, Louise
    Nommann, Tea
    Pakalniete, Kristine
    Oskolokaite, Ieva
    Semeniene, Daiva
    Benefits of meeting nutrient reduction targets for the Baltic Sea: a contingent valuation study in the nine coastal states2014Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 278-305Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Lysenkovac, Mariya
    Smedberg, Niklas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Looplocal: a Heuristic Visualization Tool for the Strategic Facilitation of Industrial Symbiosis2012Ingår i: Greening of Industry Netowrk Proceedings / [ed] Leo Baas, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) developments have been differentiated as ‘self organized’, ‘facilitated’, and ‘planned’. This article introduces a tool that has been built with objectives to support the strategic facilitation of IS. ‘Looplocal’ is a visualization tool built to assist in 1) the identification of regions prone to new industrial symbiosis activities 2) market potential exchanges to key actors and 3) assist aspiring facilitators to assess the various strategies and social methodologies available for the initial phases of a facilitated industrial symbiosis venture. This tool combines life cycle inventory (LCI) data, waste statistics, and national industrial data (including geographic, activity, economic, and contact information) to perform a heuristic analysis of raw material and energy inputs and outputs (wastes). Along with an extensive list of ‘waste to raw material’ substitutions (which may be direct, combined, or upgraded) gathered from IS uncovering studies, IS organizations, and waste and energy professionals; heuristic regional output to input ‘matching’ can be visualized. On a national or regional scale the tool gives a quick overview of what could be the most interesting regions to prioritize resources for IS facilitation. Focusing in on a regional level, the tool visualizes the potential structure of the network in that region (centralized, decentralized, or distributed), allowing a facilitator to adapt the networking approach correspondingly. The tool also visualizes potential IS transfer information, along with key stakeholder data. The authors have performed a proof of concept run of this tool in the ‘industrial disperse’ context of Sweden. In its early stages of application, the method has proven capable of identifying regions prone to the investment of facilitators’ resources. The material focus and custom possibilities for the tool show potential for a wide spectrum of potential facilitators: from waste management companies (using the tool as a strategic market analysis tool) to national or regional authorities looking to lower negative environmental impacts, to ‘sustainable’ industry sectors looking to strengthen market positioning. In conjunction with proper long term business models, such a tool could be reusable itself over the evolution of facilitation activities and aims.

  • 39.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Measuring the Socio-economic Benefits of Train Timetables: Application to Commuter Train Services in Stockholm2017Ingår i: 20th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2017, 4-6 September 2017, Budapest, Hungary, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 27, s. 849-856Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    On highly used railway lines with heterogeneous traffic, timetabling is challenging. In particular, the limited existing capacity means that to guarantee an acceptable level of quality, the infrastructure manager must cancel some train services on the expense of others. In this article, we study the conflict between commercial long-distance trains and subsidized commuter trains with a socio-economic perspective (i.e. travelers and train operators). The study attempts to answer the following question: What is the socio-economic effect of modifying the timetable of a commuter service?The case study treats the commuter train services in Stockholm. Trip data was collected from the local commuter train operator. An entropy maximization-based model was implemented to estimate the dynamic network Origin-Destination (OD) matrix. This dynamic matrix, of one full working day, was then used to estimate the number of travelers per train, and further converted for use in the microscopic simulation tool RailSys. Travel and waiting time are estimated for each OD pair and with that the generalized costs for the travelers and operators. The effect of crowding in the trains is included in the estimation. The article can be considered as an initiation to a novel method to calculate effects of changes in commuter train timetables. This novel approach enables to price commercial train slots in the capacity allocation process such as in an auction. It provides a new way to estimate the local train operator´s valuation of the different parameters (i.e. waiting, travel time and interchanges). Using RailSys for the estimation of times makes it possible to include capacity aspects that normally are difficult to reveal.

  • 40.
    ALAM, SHABNAM
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    Towards a Value Driven Transformation2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet behandlar fenomenet tillverkande företag som transformerar till att bli produkt och tjänsteföretag. Arbetet syftar till att diskutera vikten av kundsupport som konkurrensfördel under denna transformations process. Tidigare forskning har fokuserat på fördelarna och allmänna utmaningar med att lägga till tjänster till kärnprodukter, men vad som saknas är i vilken utsträckning dessa erbjudanden uppfyller kundens verkliga behov, eftersom kombinerade produkter och tjänster ökar komplexiteten i utveckling, produktion, leveransen och support processerna. Eftersom kundsupporten är den mest ignorerade faktorn bland transformerande företag, blir det högaktuellt at lyfta fram betydelsen av det som en viktig faktor för att vinna konkurrensfördelar. Syftet är alltså att besvara på frågan: Vilka komplikationer finns det i att lyckas med kundsupport för att transformera till att bli tjänsteföretag?

    För att förstå vilken roll kundsupporten har i förhållande till transformerande företag, har en fallstudie genomförts på Scania CV AB. Företaget erbjuder en rad tjänster, däribland Fleet Mangement   System,   som   säljs   tillsammans   med   fordon   som   ett   sätt   att   erbjuda helhetslösningar och på sätt bli tjänsteföretag. I Scanias fall är det återförsäljarna som agerar som direkt support mot kunderna. Därför är målet att undersöka och analysera komplikationer som servicemarknadssäljarna i dessa återförsäljare, står inför i att supporta sina kunder. Mer specifikt, är det kundens perspektiv som studeras från den interna organisationen för att bättre synliggöra den roll kundsupporten har i samband med transformeringen till tjänster. Studien visar på att det inte borde finnas någon tjänst utan support, eftersom kunderna baserar sitt upplevda värde på mervärdet i användandet av tjänsten. Allt eftersom tjänsteförsäljningen ökar, blir vikten av en fungerande kundsupport avgörande faktor för att upprätthålla nöjda kunder. Vidare visar studien att servicemarknadssäljare behöver bättre IT kompetens och stöd från ledningen i form av verktyg och tydliga strategier för att möjliggöra en professionell kundrelation.

  • 41.
    Albiz, Niccolas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet och industriell dynamik.
    Sustainability Education at Industrial Engineering Programs in Sweden: A study of the relevant and received sustainability education, and the associated challenges, at 5-year industrial engineering programs2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Allmänhetens intresse över hållbarhetsfrågor ökar samtidigt som tilliten för företag minskar. Företagsledare ser numera hållbarhet som en viktig komponent i att bibehålla deras konkurrenskraft och att återfå allmänhetens tillit. Det är således viktigt att finna nya sätt att förena samhällsnytta med företagande, vilket kräver nya sorters kompetens inom hållbarhetsområdet. Denna studie har undersökt vilka hållbarhetsämnen som är centrala för industriell ekonomistudenten, givet deras profil i näringslivet, samt vad av detta som berörs i programmen.

    Studien var indelad i två faser. Den första ämnade till att skapa en lista av de, för dessa ingenjörer, centrala ämnen genom intervjuer med experter inom området. Den andra fasen kartlagde de ämnen som berördes inom de fem största industriell ekonomiprogrammen (täckandes cirka 74% av studenterna) samt vilka utmaningar som associerades till detta arbete. Den första fasen var till stora delar kvalitativ. Den efterföljande fasen var en kvantitativ kartläggning där varje datapunkt representerade en kvalitativ intervju.

    Ur studien uppkom fem nyckelinsikter, som står sig oavsett normativ ståndpunkt. Dessa inkluderade: 1) De hållbarhetsämnen som ansågs relevanta för denna målgrupp spänner en vid area av discipliner och aspekter. 2) Fördelningen på ämnen som täcks inom programmen påvisar en preferens mot den miljömässiga aspekten. 3) Det finns en brist på integrerande instanser i utbildningarna, där kunskap från olika aspekter och källor sammankopplas. 4) Nyckelutmaningarna centreras runt definiering och kommunikation. 5) Normativitet, sammankoppling och pedagogik bidrar alla till osäkerhet och komplexitet i bedömning av hållbarhetsutbildningar.

    Studien avslutas med en syntes av de olika insikterna för att komma till slutsatsen att hållbart företagande som övergripande syfte för utbildningarna, en gemensam målbild för innehållet samt komplettering med ”active learning” metodiker skulle övervinna många av de uppfattade utmaningarna samtidigt som det skulle uppfylla näringslivets kompetensbehov för framtida konkurrenskraft.

    Denna studie bidrar till förståelsen över vilken hållbarhetsutbildning som bedrivs och vilken som anses behövd av industriell ekonomistudenter i Sverige. Studien har därmed praktiska implikationer för de program som studerades. Teoretiska bidrag inkluderas av den empiriska data som framtagits gällande relevanta hållbarhetsämnen vilka uppvisar hög konvergens med litteraturen inom ämnen, samt de upplevda utmaningar kring att inkludera detta ämne i befintliga program. Vidare bidrar studien med empirisk data kring det som faktiskt berörs idag på de olika industriell ekonomiprogrammen. 

  • 42.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Enabling socio-technical transitions – electric vehicles and high voltage electricity grids as focal points of low emission futures2017Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today humankind is facing numerous sustainability challenges that require us to question CO2 intensive practices like those present in the transport and energy sector. To meet those challenges, many countries have adopted ambitious climate targets. Achieving such targets requires an understanding of the wider socio-technical context of transitions. The aim of this licentiate thesis is therefore to analyse such socio-technical transitions towards low-emission futures enabled by the electrification of passenger cars and high voltage grid development.

    A combination of different transitions theories (for ex. Multi-level perspective and Technological innovation systems) and institutional theory has been used. To reach the aim paper I analyses the climate impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and policy measures to achieve a breakthrough scenario for EVs. The results show that a mixture of short and long term policies are needed that take into account the technology development stage and behavioural aspects of EV adopters. Paper II addresses the need to include the high voltage transmission grid and its planning procedures as a central part of debates on transitions. Therefore the opportunities, challenges and reasons for conflict in the established regime are studied. The results show that in order to achieve a sustainable grid development regime, it is necessary to spend time on achieving legitimacy and social sustainability. The third paper uses semi-structured expert interviews and focuses on innovation dynamics for EV adoption. By focusing on dynamics instead of single policy measures, it is possible to grasp interactions within a niche, but also in between a niche, regime and landscape. The results show that strong initial technology legitimacy was needed to start substantial innovation dynamics. This could be further strengthened with a strong and broad coalition of actors. Both those factors led, if present, to an improved variety and match of policy instruments.

    As such this thesis has shown that transitions are not just about technology or policy instruments as such but about the dynamics and processes needed to enable them. This can be relevant in other transitions that otherwise may underestimate the importance of these components.

  • 43.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    System innovation dynamics around electric vehicles. The cases of Norway, Denmark and Sweden.Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the comparison of electric car innovation patterns in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Doing so, it takes a closer look at what the most essential dynamics in the systems were over time and what enabled those dynamics. The main research aim is to contribute to a wider understanding of why Norway is so much ahead of Sweden and Denmark in electric car adoption. The purpose is also to adopt a perspective that goes beyond a mere focus on economic policy instruments. In order to do so different theory elements are combined in a framework. These elements stem from the transition theory literature field, especially the technological innovation system (TIS) and the multi-level perspective (MLP). This combination allows analysing the development behind a dynamic, not just when it comes to an innovation itself but also with regards to the established regime. The data is gathered through analysis of existing documents and data as well as a series of 27 expert interviews conducted in the three case countries. The findings suggest that there are important differences in transition patterns that can account for the electric vehicle (EV) diffusion situation we can find nowadays in the three Nordic countries. An important stepping stone was the need for a very strong legitimacy of the original EV vision that is also anchored in a coordinated, sector overarching coalition of actors that thinks strategically and long term. Moreover some general beneficial dynamics could be identified across the countries in question. In Norway these beneficial dynamics can be summarised as a systems motor, in Denmark as a failed entrepreneurial motor that shifted towards a constrained municipal motor and in Sweden as a loosely, coordinated and weaker version of a systems motor.

  • 44.
    Alemu, Belachew Yirsaw
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Expropriation, Valuation and Compensation in Ethiopia2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the expropriation, valuation and compensation process are carried out in Ethiopia when privately held land and attached real properties are taken for public and private investment purposes. The study  examines three case studies, inquiring whether the process of expropriation and valuation are transparent and  justified or not and the compensation paid is fair and reasonable from an international perspective. A valid with  theoretical background, the study examines practical problems that faced expropriatees and searches for possible theoretical explanations. The study also assesses whether there is a gap between the laws and the practice undertake on the ground.

    The study reveals that expropriation as a concept and a land policy tool has economic and political justification and acceptance in Ethiopia. Similar to other developing countries, Ethiopia has faced enormous economic and social problems. The question of housing and other real estate construction for high population pressure, the development and investment questions, poor public utility facilities and other public interests are some of the problems that need the intervention of both the Federal and Regional governments. In order to facilitate these needs of the society, the Federal government, the City Administrations and/or Regional governments have been using “expropriation” as a meaningful and useful management tool. However,  the field survey result  reveals that different compensation standards among government institutions, inadequate compensation standards for loss of land use rights, lack of professional and certified property valuers, lack of reliable and up to date data and nontransparent expropriation and valuation procedures are some of the main problems that impend the proper and equitable implementation of expropriation, valuation and compensation in the country in general and the study areas in particular.

    Another emerging issue is how the land laws especially the expropriation and payment of compensation laws are applied. It is evident that the application of and adherence to legal provisions with consistency, transparency and objectivity; by the acquiring authorities in ensuring that fairness is done, seems to be quite crucial. On the other hand, non-adherence to such laws brings numerous implementation problems in such programs. Whereas the affected expropriatees need “fair treatment and compensation” the government wants to pay a “manageable compensation” so, this thesis argues for a reasonable compensation to be established by striking a balance between these two view points.

    This study ends up by proposing that both the Federal and Regional governments should revise the land laws especially the expropriation and payment of compensation laws in such a way that it would define and protect property rights for the vulnerable groups both in urban and rural areas and where and when these rights are acquired “reasonable compensation” must be paid.

     

     

     

  • 45.
    Alfredsson, Eva C.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Malmaeus, J. Mikael
    Prospects for economic growth in the 21st century: A survey covering mainstream, heterodox and scientifically oriented perspectives2017Ingår i: Economic Issues, ISSN 1363-7029, Vol. 22, s. 65-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of economic growth for the current economy, business and societal planning there are few long-term growth projections undertaken. There is, however, a vivid debate on what is called the 'new normal' - secular stagnation - which is undertaken within academic disciplines. This overview covers mainstream, heterodox and scientifically oriented economic perspectives on the prospects for economic growth in the 21st century. The survey shows that existing long-term projections and scenarios indicate growth rates ranging from around half a percentage point less than during the last two decades (projected by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD), to dramatically lower growth rates). Differences stem from different perspectives on the determinants of economic growth and the potential for improvements in productivity. Headwinds are: an aging population, especially in OECD countries; resource constraints, including energy; increasing environmental costs in particular due to the consequences of climate change; overaccumulation; increasing income differences; and declining social capital. One conclusion is that policymaking based on the assumption that economic growth will continue at pre-crisis levels is unwise and risky.

  • 46. Alger, Ingela
    et al.
    Weibull, Jörgen
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.).
    Kinship, incentives, and evolution2010Ingår i: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 100, nr 4, s. 1725-1758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze how family ties affect incentives, with focus on the strategic interaction between two mutually altruistic siblings. The siblings exert effort to produce output under uncertainty, and they may transfer output to each other. With equally altruistic siblings, their equilibrium effort is nonmonotonic in the common degree of altruism, and it depends on the harshness of the environment. We define a notion of local evolutionary stability of degrees of sibling altruism and show that this degree is lower than the kinship-relatedness factor. Numerical simulations show how family ties vary with the environment, and how this affects economic outcomes.

  • 47. Alger, Ingela
    et al.
    Weibull, Jörgen W.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Matematisk statistik. Toulouse Sch Econ, France.
    Evolution and Kantian morality2016Ingår i: Games and Economic Behavior, ISSN 0899-8256, E-ISSN 1090-2473, Vol. 98, s. 56-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What kind of preferences should one expect evolution to favor? We propose a definition of evolutionary stability of preferences in interactions in groups of arbitrary finite size. Groups are formed under random matching that may be assortative. Individuals' preferences are their private information. The set of potential preferences are all those that can be represented by continuous functions. We show that a certain class of such preferences, that combine self-interest with morality of a Kantian flavor, are evolutionarily stable, and that preferences resulting in other behaviors are evolutionarily unstable. We also establish a connection between evolutionary stability of preferences and a generalized version of Maynard Smith's and Price's (1973) notion of evolutionary stability of strategies.

  • 48.
    Alija Fuertes, Miguel Jesús
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Entreprenörskap och Innovation.
    Internationalizing a young Spanish winery: Theoretical and empirical frameworks for a successful marketing analysis: Case Study, Winery “Bodegas Ribera de Pelazas”2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Few different goods or beverages are as particular as wine in History of humanity, even being the main symbol of luxury and status from days of Rome. Its particular intoxicating effects together its complex and long-term elaboration makes wine one of the biggest attractions for food and beverages lovers.Unfortunately, being one of the most famous beverages in History does not provide wine to be a competitive good without proper commercial strategies. Due the big local offer and costs reduction, markets are saturated and the competitiveness versus other wines and other kind of drinks make more difficult to survive in a diverse and constantly evolving sector. Therefore, internationalization and marketing strategies become the key of success for small and medium size wineries to survive in this business ecosystem.The following thesis explores different marketing strategies developed on different wine markets, taking a small Spanish winery as a case study. In order to give an insight of the current strategies carried out by the company, the author interviews the main direction of the winery and analyse the data collected versus the theoretical framework developed. In addition, two other interviews on different levels of the wine market will be added to reinforce the empirical framework: from a wine import company and form a public institution for the promotion of the Spanish companies.

  • 49.
    ALJARAIDAH, ADAM
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    FARAN, MOHAMMAD
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    Difficulties in information sharing within the supply chain and the effect on demand forecasting A qualitative case study from an OEM perspective: A qualitative case study from an OEM perspective2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökning  av  situationsmedvetenhet  i  försörjningskedjan  genom att  dela  information  och genomförakorrekta efterfrågeprognoser hjälper företag att vara konkurrenskraftiga, att övervinna olika osäkerheter och öka ekonomiska vinster. Dessutom är det viktigt för enheter i försörjningskedjan att få korrekt, aktuell och relevant information för att kunna skapa nytta inom nätverket av försörjningskedjan. Trots att det finns kunskap om hur viktiga dessa åtgärder är, företag inom olika branscher påverkas av dålig, försenad och inexakt information. Brist på informationsutbyte inom försörjningskedjan tvingar aktörer i försörjningskedjan att fatta beslut med begränsad information om efterfrågeprognos vilket påverkar prognostisering av framtida efterfrågan. Därför har denna studie undersökt svårigheterna med att dela information och hur dessa svårigheter påverkar aspekten av efterfrågeprognos. För att genomföra forskningen har en kvalitativ fallstudie metod valts. En förstudie tillsammans med att granska litteratur gjordes för att ge ett teoretiskt ramverk för studien. Det empiriska data ingår semistrukturerade intervjuer med elva Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) företag inom den svenska tillverkningsindustrin.

    Analysen visar att för att möjliggöra informationsdelning inom försörjningskedjan, måste två funktioner,d.v.s. anslutning och villighet beaktas. De identifierade svårigheterna i denna studie hämmar dessa två funktioner som leder tll utmaningar i informationsdelning inom försörjningskedjan. Tre svårigheter som hämmar anslutning identifierades: höga kostnader för IT-system, IT-inkompatibilitet och användarvänlighet av IT-system. Vidare, fyra svårigheter som hämmar villighet identifierades: komplexitet i samarbete, brist på tillit, okunskap om fördelarna med att dela information och kultur. Svårigheter i informationsdelning hindrar förmågan att dela information vilket leder till bristande informationsdelning, bristande tillgång till rätt typ av information och låg kvalité på den delade informationen. Litteraturen och empiriska datan visar att informationsdelning, tillgång till rätt typ av information och hög kvalité på den delade informationen är avgörande när det gäller efterfrågeprognoser. Därför, fsvårigheterna inom informationsutbyte hämmar förmågan att genomföra efterfrågeprognoser och leder till osäkerheter i efterfrågeprognoser d.v.s. fel och onoggrannheter i prognoserna. Resultaten av denna studie har konsekvenser från en chef, hållbarhet och teoretisk aspekt.

  • 50.
    ALLARD, FREDRIK
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    HÖGLUND WETTERWIK, MAX
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Industriell Management.
    Product-service systems for suppliers of intermediate goods: An Empirical study in the Paper Industry2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Global konkurrens har gjort det svårare för europiska företag inom tillverkningsindustrin att vara konkurrenskraftiga, samtidigt skapas värde för kunderna inte bara genom produkten utan också av faktorer som teknisk kunskap, utvecklingssamarbeten och tillgänglighet. Därför har tillverkande företag skiftat fokus från att sälja en produkt till att sälja integrerade lösningar av produkter och tjänster. Pappersföretag verksamma inom vissa segment som kräver hög teknisk kunskap har än så länge stått emot kommoditisering. Men konkurrenssituationen gör det svårare för denna typ av företag att bibehålla premiumpriser. Därför är syftet med denna studie för det första att, undersöka vilka ’produkt-tjänste-system’ som används av leverantörer av insatsvaror, och för det andra, bestämma hur fallstudieföretaget kan utveckla ’produkt-tjänste-system’ i framtiden. För att uppnå syftet har följande forskningsfrågor formulerats:

     Huvudfrågeställning:

    Hur kan pappersföretag verksamma inom mindre kommoditiserade segment utveckla sitt ’produkt-tjänste-system’ vidare?

    Underfrågor:

    Vilken typ av tjänster ska fallstudieföretaget erbjuda?

    På vilket sätt ska fallstudieföretaget paketera sitt tjänsteerbjudande?

    För att svara på forskningsfrågorna har en kvalitativ metod använts. Detta genom att göra en fallstudie på ett internationellt pappersföretag verksamt mindre kommoditiserade segment, där två affärsenheter valdes att fokusera på. Totalt intervjuades 19 personer från företaget. För att ytterligare underbygga resultaten och för att få inspiration om möjliga ’produkt-tjänste-system’ intervjuades anställda från åtta externa företag.

    Resultaten visar att fallstudieföretaget har ett relevant utbud av tjänster men det finns utrymme för förbättring när det kommer till utförande och konceptualisering av deras ’produkt-tjänste-system’. Resultaten visar också att ’produkt-tjänste-system’ ska vara produktorienterade och att de två affärsenheterna ska fokusera på olika tjänster även om de båda erbjuder papper inom mindre kommoditiserade segment.

    Vidare visar resultaten att fallstudieföretag måste ha vissa tjänster som är bundlade med produkten för att undvika att kundens inköpare bryter ner erbjudandet i olika kostnadsposter. Samtidigt bör fallstudieföretaget definiera värdet för så många tjänster som möjligt. Annars uppskattar inte kunden värdet av tjänsterna. Detta kan göras genom att dokumentera vilka tjänster kunden har fått och vilket värde de har renderat, för att sedan visa upp detta för kunden. Att sätta ett pris på en tjänst kan kunden förstår värdet av tjänsten och därför ska vissa tjänster tas betalt för separat från produkten.

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