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  • 1.
    Araoz, Joseph Adhemar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi. Universidad Mayor de San Simon (UMSS), Bolivia.
    Salomon, Marianne
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Alejo, Lucio
    Universidad Mayor de San Simon (UMSS), Bolivia.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Non-ideal Stirling engine thermodynamic model suitable for the integration into overall energy systems2014Ingår i: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, ISSN 1359-4311, Vol. 73, nr 1, s. 203-219Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The reliability of modelling and simulation of energy systems strongly depends on the prediction accuracy of each system component. This is the case of Stirling engine-based systems, where an accurate modelling of the engine performance is very important to understand the overall system behaviour. In this sense, many Stirling engine analyses with different approaches have been already developed. However, there is a lack of Stirling engine models suitable for the integration into overall system simulations. In this context, this paper aims to develop a rigorous Stirling engine model that could be easily integrated into combined heat and power schemes for the overall techno-economic analysis of these systems. The model developed considers a Stirling engine with adiabatic working spaces, isothermal heat exchangers, dead volumes, and imperfect regeneration. Additionally, it considers mechanical pumping losses due to friction, limited heat transfer and thermal losses on the heat exchangers. The predicted efficiency and power output were compared with the numerical model and the experimental work reported by the NASA Lewis Research Centre for the GPU-3 Stirling engine. This showed average absolute errors around ±4% for the brake power, and ±5% for the brake efficiency at different frequencies. However, the model also showed large errors (±15%) for these calculations at higher frequencies and low pressures. Additional results include the calculation of the cyclic expansion and compression work; the pressure drop and heat flow through the heat exchangers; the conductive, shuttle effect and regenerator thermal losses; the temperature and mass flow distribution along the system; and the power output and efficiency of the engine.

  • 2.
    Araoz Ramos, Joseph Adhemar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi. Universidad Mayor de San Simon (UMSS), Bolivia.
    Cardozo, Evelyn
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi. Universidad Mayor de San Simon (UMSS), Bolivia.
    Salomon, Marianne
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Alejo, Lucio
    Universidad Mayor de San Simon (UMSS), Bolivia.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Development and validation of a thermodynamic model for the performance analysis of a gamma Stirling engine prototype2015Ingår i: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 83, s. 16-30, artikel-id 6439Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents the development and validation of a numerical model that represents the performance of a gamma Stirling engine prototype. The model follows a modular approach considering ideal adiabatic working spaces; limited internal and external heat transfer through the heat exchangers; and mechanical and thermal losses during the cycle. In addition, it includes the calculation of the mechanical efficiency taking into account the crank mechanism effectiveness and the forced work during the cycle. Consequently, the model aims to predict the work that can be effectively taken from the shaft. The model was compared with experimental data obtained in an experimental rig built for the engine prototype. The results showed an acceptable degree of accuracy when comparing with the experimental data, with errors ranging from +/- 1% to +/- 8% for the temperature in the heater side, less than +/- 1% error for the cooler temperatures, and +/- 1 to +/- 8% for the brake power calculations. Therefore, the model was probed adequate for study of the prototype performance. In addition, the results of the simulation reflected the limited performance obtained during the prototype experiments, and a first analysis of the results attributed this to the forced work during the cycle. The implemented model is the basis for a subsequent parametric analysis that will complement the results presented.

  • 3.
    Araoz Ramos, Joseph Adhemar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Salomon, Marianne
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Alejo, Lucio
    Universidad Mayor de San Simon.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Numerical simulation for the performance analysis of a gamma Stirling engine prototypeManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer assisted modelling and simulation of energy systems asses the performance and suggest improvements to achieve energy efficient solutions. This is the case of the Stirling engine technology, where computer simulations combined with experimental work have helped to the development of different prototypes. Following this trend, the current work aims to study possible improvements towards the design of a gamma Stirling engine prototype through numerical simulations. The prototype was first experimentally studied and presented low performances. For this reason and considering a lack of reports for this prototype, the numerical simulation was the approach to identify the possible problems that limited the performance. In this regard, this paper presents the development and validation of a numerical model that represent the performance of the Stirling prototype. The model follows a modular approach considering ideal adiabatic working spaces; limited internal and external heat transfer through the heat exchangers; and mechanical and thermal losses during the cycle. In addition, it includes the calculation of the mechanical efficiency taking into account the crank mechanism effectiveness and the forced work during the cycle. Consequently, the model aims to predict the work that can be effectively taken from the shaft. The model was compared with experimental data obtained in an experimental rig built for the engine prototype. The results showed an acceptable degree of accuracy when comparing with the experimental data, with errors ranging from 1%-8% for the temperature in the heater side, less than 1% error for the cooler temperatures, and 1-8% for the brake power calculations. Therefore, the model was probed adequate for study the prototype performance. In addition, the results of the simulation reflected the limited performance obtained during the prototype experiments, and a first analysis of the results attributed this to the forced work during the cycle. The implemented model is the basis for a subsequent parametric analysis that will complement the results presented.

  • 4.
    Erlich, Catharina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    An Extensive Technical, Economical and Environmental Assessment of Energy Recovery from Palm-Oil Residues: SWE-2005-3862009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dept. of Energy Technology at KTH, together with Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga, Colombia, studied the different possibilities for increasing the usage of palm oil residues for energy production in an optimized way. The main purpose was to maximize the use of the solid residues coming from palm oil extraction, substitute fossil fuels in cooking, reduce emissions and environmental impacts and improve the social/economic conditions of the region. The emphasis was in introducing the discarded solid residues – EFB - as a fuel and the effective use of fibres and shells. The study was based on several innovative and unique approaches that include the pelletization of EFB for gasification purposes, densification of fibres and shells for their use in different energy applications, anaerobic digestion of EFB for biogas production and a complete optimization of the energy system considering efficiency, technology availability, environmental issues and economic factors.

  • 5.
    Fransson, Torsten
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Kazachkov, I.V.
    Popa, Marianne Salomon
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Konoval, O.V
    Collaboration of the Swedish-ukrainian universities in the development and implementation of the interactive multimedia teaching-learning system2011Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Fridh, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Petrov, Miroslav
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Hunyadi, L
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Småskalig kraftvärme i framtiden2002Ingår i: Svenska Mekanisters Riksförening 2002:2, sid 14-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7. Kazachkov, I.V
    et al.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Popa, Marianne Salomon
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Development of the mobile computer and special notebook tools and technologies for the electronic educational international network2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8. Kazachkov, I.V
    et al.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Virtual university environment: swedish-ukrainian network for design of internet-based education software2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9. Kazachkov, I.V
    et al.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Abbes, Y
    Kalion, B
    Interactive Teaching-Learning in Turbo machinery2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 10. Kazachkov, I.V
    et al.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Kalion, V
    Vitaly, A
    An interactive teaching and learning platform for numerical methods in gas turbine2003Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Kirjavainen, Miika
    et al.
    VTT.
    Sipilä, Kari
    VTT.
    Savola, Tuula
    Helsinki University of Technology.
    Salomón Popa, Marianne
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Alakangas, Eija
    VTT.
    Small-scale Biomass CHP Technologies: Situation in Finland, Denmark and Sweden2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Petrov, Miroslav
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Salomón, Marianne
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Master Program in Distant Sustainable Energy Engineering: Self-assessment of the intake autumn 20062008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report summarizes the experiences obtained in running the DSEE MasterProgram at the Department of Energy Technology, KTH, and in particular the performanceand results of distance students who started in autumn 2006 along the 1.5 year program.This is a review from the DSEE Program Coordinators’ side.

  • 13.
    Salomon, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Fogelholm, C.J
    Cogeneration and trigenaration i small-scale biomass plants: State-of-the-art and advanced concepts2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Salomon, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Erlich, Catharina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Pelletization: an alternative for polygeneration in the palm oil industry2013Ingår i: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 213-229Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural residues continue to attract interest for energy recovery purposes as a renewable, CO2 neutral and increasingly cost-competitive alternative to traditional fossil fuels. Furthermore, some of these residues, like palm oil residues, represent a disposal problem for the processing industries, or they are not used efficiently. Several palm oil mills (POM) lack efficient energy systems and thus there is a considerable potential for improvement. These factors represent a strong driving force for the development of innovative polygeneration plants with combined electricity, heat and refined fuel production based on conversion of solid residues. This paper aims at analyzing the use of agro-industrial residues as fuel. For that, we propose different technology configurations based on the case of a small-scale palm oil mill in Colombia processing 30 tons of fresh fruit bunch per hour. The technology configurations include steam cycles using backpressure turbines, condensing-extraction turbines and also gasification-gas engine cycles in hybrid configurations. The possibilities to produce pellets from the residues from palm oil were also analyzed. The steam cycle base operational parameters were 20 bar and 350 °C. However, more advanced steam conditions (40 bar) were also considered and evaluated. All the analyses performed included a maximum of 60 % of the empty fruit bunch (EFB) produced in the POM for energy purposes due to its value as natural fertilizer in the palm oil plantations. The results show that the POM under study and other POMs that use electricity from the national grid have the capacity of being self-sufficient to cover of all their energy needs using the solid residues available. This means that POMs that currently only generate the required heat for the process can generate the electricity required and in some cases even an excess of energy that could be sold to other users with an adequate use of the residues available. Furthermore, based on the modeling done in Aspen Utilities Planner® it is shown that it is possible to cover the demand of the POM, the required energy demand for EFB preparation included possible pelletization of these residues and even generate an excess of electricity. In several of the configurations, excess electricity generation could be achieved in the range of 0.5–8 MW.

  • 15.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Distant Master Program in Sustainable Energy Engineering: Self-assessment of the intake autumn 20042007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1997 the Department of Energy Technology (EGI) has offered the Sustainable Energy Engineering (SEE) MSc Program to over 200 students from around 50 different countries. In June 2004, it was decided by the KTH President to offer the International Master Program on Sustainable Energy Engineering (SEE) as a distance program. Based on this, EGI offered a distance version of the Sustainable Energy Engineering Program (identified as DSEE) for the academic years (2004/2005 and 2005/2006) on a trial basis to a selected group of qualified students. This is a complete e-learning program that is held in conjunction with the regular SEE-program, offering an alternative for those students who could be accepted for the regular SEE-program but who can not afford to participate in the on-campus courses. All mandatory courses are offered on-line and lectures can be followed either synchronously or asynchronously via internet.This report contains the status of the first students that started the program in autumn 2004 and highlights the experience gained during the first year of the distance program as well as the challenges and opportunities associated with offereing a distance program in energy technology.

  • 16.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Fedulov, Vitali
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Interactive teaching and learning platform in Energy Technology2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Fridh, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Kessar, A
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Gas Turbine Simulations in the Computerized Educational Program CompEduHPT: Educational Aspects2003Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Fridh, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Kessar, A
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Gas Turbine Simulations in the Computerized Educational Program CompEduHPT: Three Case Studies2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Fridh, Jens
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Kessar, Alexandros
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Gas turbine simulations in the computerized educational program CompEduHPT: Educational aspects2003Ingår i: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, International Gas Turbine Institute, Turbo Expo (Publication) IGTI, 2003, Vol. 1, s. 733-739Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview of computerized educational program (CompEduHPT) which includes several simulations was presented. These simulations provide an alternative way to learn, based on discovery and experience. All the simulations were preceded with theory chapters, quizzes and preparatory tasks to enable fruitful exercises to be designed. Evaluations show that a computerized program including multiple ways of learning provides considerable support to the conventional student-teacher way of learning.

  • 20.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Fridh, Jens
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Kessar, Alexandros
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Gas turbine simulations in the computerized educational program CompEduHPT: Three case studies2003Ingår i: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, International Gas Turbine Institute, Turbo Expo (Publication) IGTI, 2003, Vol. 1, s. 741-748Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview of the Computerized Educational Program (CompEduHPT) which includes different simulations was presented. These simulations give the students an outlook of the different parameters that affect the performance based on the ideal and real approach of gas turbine calculations. The simulations show the students the different aspects, effects and results when a calculation is made considering a mixture of two ideal gases. They also show the improvements in the performance of the gas turbine depending on the various options available.

  • 21.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Fridh, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Kessar, Alexandros
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Gas Turbine Simulations in the Computerized Educational Program CompEduHPT: Three Case Studies2005Ingår i: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    González, Miguel
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Energy Potential of Coconut and Palm Oil Residues: Selected Case Studies from Latin America and Small Island Developing StatesIngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural residues continue to attract interest for energy recovery purposes as a renewable, CO2 neutral and increasingly cost competitive alternative to traditional fossil fuels. The possibility of trigeneration in already established industries such as palm oil mills and coconut processing plants is very attractive especially when residues that otherwise represent a disposal problem can be utilized efficiently. Different technological scenarios for the production of electricity, process heat and biodiesel are analyzed using coconut and palm oil residues. Environmental aspects are also included in the analysis. Studies were conducted considering various scenarios to evaluate the feasibility of using these residues for energy purposes. The residues were considered to be combusted directly in steam boilers while steam turbines were used to generate electricity. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of palm oil/coconut oil. The required process heat for palm oil or coconut oil processing as well as the steam required for biodiesel production is supplied by the combustion of the residues.  The results show that palm oil mills/coconut processing industries can be independent of fossil fuels.  Furthermore, they can contribute positively to the energy balance of the communities by helping reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and reducing simultaneously greenhouse gas emissions. 

  • 23.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Gómez Galindo, María Fernanda
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Optimal Upgrade of a District Heating Plant into a Polygeneration Plant Using Biomass as Feedstock2013Ingår i: Power Division (Publication) POWER American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at evaluating the possible upgrading of an existing district heating plant for production of electricity and pellets. The evaluation is carried out by optimizing the alternatives from the economic, thermodynamic and environmental point of view. In order to examine how the design can be optimized, a detailed model of the process has been elaborated using ASPEN Utilities and Matlab optimization toolbox. The parameters of the polygeneration plant have then been varied in order to examine how optimal economic benefit can be extracted from the biomass streams whilst still meeting the fundamental process demands of the industries and heat demand of the community. A multi-objective optimization has been used to investigate the Pareto-optimal trade-offs that exist between low electricity costs and investment cost. The resulting polygeneration plant designs conclude that it is feasible toproduce 18 and 25 MW of power while at the same time supplying the process steam required by the nearby industries and district heating for the community. The results also shown that it is feasible to operate the plant more hours per year by producing pellets and it could be possible to generate additional district heating (up to 25 ton/h of hot water) to cover the demands of a growing community.

  • 24.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Gómez Galindo, María Fernanda
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Technical polygeneration potential in palm oil mills in Colombia: A case study2013Ingår i: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, Vol. 3, s. 40-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural residues offer the possibility of reducing fossil fuel consumption, increasing energy security, and lowering  greenhouse gas emissions. However, certain residues, like palm oil residues, either represent a disposal problem for the processing industries or they are not used and thus, there is a considerable potential for improvement. These factors represent a strong driving force for the development of innovative polygeneration plants based on solid residues. This paper considers an energy analysis of a Palm Oil Mill (POM) in Colombia processing 30 ton of Fresh Fruit Bunch per hour (FFB/h).  Different heat and power generation options were considered with solid residues as feedstock. These configurations included steam cycles using backpressure or condensing-extraction turbines.  The possibilities to produce pellets from the residues and biodiesel from palm oil were also analyzed.  The steam cycle base operational parameters were 20 bar and 350 °C. More advanced steam conditions (40 bar) were also considered. The results show that it is possible to cover the demand of the POM and the required energy demand for residues preparation including possible pelletization and also biodiesel production. It is possible to obtain an excess of electricity between 0.4 and 3 MW if only residues are used.

  • 25.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Gómez Galindo, María Fernanda
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Spelling, James
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Optimization of a Sawmill-Based Polygeneration Plant2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2013, ASME Press, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass-based fuels have attracted worldwide interest due to their plentiful supply and their environmentally friendly characteristics. In many cases they are still considered waste but for most industries in Sweden, biomass has changed from being simply a disposal problem to become an important part of the energy supply, thanks to the long-term efforts made by the government, researchers and industry, where energy policies have played an important role. However, the amount of power that could be generated from biomass resources is much greater than that which is currently used. To effectively capture this resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants and their effective integration into already existing industrial processes.The implementation of an integrated polygeneration scheme requires the simultaneous consideration of technical, economic and environmental factors to find optimum solutions. With this in mind, a unified modeling approach that takes into account thermodynamic as well as economic and environmental aspects was used. The analysis was done using ASPEN Utilitiesand the MATLAB optimization toolbox. A specific case of a sawmill in Sweden, with an annual capacity of 130’000 m3 of sawn wood, has been analyzed and different options for generating electricity and process heat (for the sawmill and fora district heating network) as well as densified biofuels was analyzed. Optimization was then applied for different configurations and operational parameters. The results show that the sawmill has the capability to not only supply its own energy needs, but also to export from 0.4 to 1MW of electricity to the grid, contribute 5 to 6 MWth of district heating and 20 000 ton/y of biomass pellets. The production of pellets helps to maintain the electricity production throughout the year when the district heating demand is lower. However, the levelized electricity cost is higher than the usual electricity price in the Nordic electricity market and may have difficulty to competing with low-cost electricity sources, such as nuclear energy and hydropower. Inspite of this, polygeneration remains attractive for covering the energy demands of the sawmill and pelletization plant.

  • 26.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Master Program in Distant Sustainable Energy Engineering: Self-assessment of the intake autumn 20052008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report summarizes some experiences obtained in running the DSEE masterProgram at KTH.It gives the main experience, from the DSEE Program Coordinators side, of the student intakeduring the autumn 2005. It also illustrates some of the progress the students have made tilldate

  • 27.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Petrov, Miroslav P.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Krothapalli, Anjane
    Florida State University.
    Thermoeconomic evaluation of integration concepts for solar & biomass hybrid power plants2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME Power Conference 2013: presented at ASME 2013 power conference, July 29-August 1, 2013, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, ASME Press, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar thermal energy and biomass fuels are often available at locations where they can benefit from combined hybrid energy utilization methods for the generation of electricity, representing suitable and advantageous integration alternatives. The feasibility of concentrating solar power (CSP) systems depends on cost limitations, desired installed power capacity and direct solar insolation, where smaller scales and low-cost solutions can often be preferred to large-scale investmentintensive installations. Biomass residues of various types, on the other hand, can be considered as proven fuels for small-to-midscale utility or industry based power or cogen arrangements and utilized through various technologies. The thermodynamic integration between a biomass fired power plant and a CSP unit can help to significantly increase the availability of the plant, improve its partial load characteristics, compensate for the intermittency of the solar energy resource while preserving the purely renewable profile of the generated electricity, and at the same time showing better overall performance when compared to two separate plants while avoiding the need for costly energy storage solutions. Biomass fuels can help reach better steam conditions in a steam plant based on CSP-generated steam, and thus improve the efficiency of energy conversion for the integrated hybrid system if compared with two individual single-fuel power units. In this study, an overview of feasible solar-biomass integration concepts is presented. A deeper thermoeconomic analysis of a selected integrated utility-scale biomass and CSP electricity generation plant is attempted, with certain simplifications. Furthermore, a multiobjective optimization strategy is regarded as very necessary and thus included in the analysis, where several major environmental aspects plus the cost of electricity are involved and defined in terms of desired parameters and conditions representative to Central Europe and Southeastern United States. The results are compared with conventional power generation alternatives. On that basis, a low-parameter CSP solution integrated with conventional biomass-fired combustion unit, where solar-generated steam is being superheated by the biomass fuel, has been chosen as the focus of the analysis in this study.

  • 28.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Savola, Tuula
    Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Fogelholm, Carl-Johan
    Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Distributed Combined Heat and Power Generation with Small-Scale Biomass Plants - State of the Art Review2002Ingår i: Distributed Combined Heat and Power Generation with Small-Scale Biomass Plants - State of the Art Review., Stockholm, 2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Salomon Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Savola, Tuula
    Helsinki University of Technology.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Fogelholm, Carl-Johan
    Helsinki University of Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Small-scale biomass CHP plants in Sweden and Finland2011Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 15, nr 9, s. 4451-4465Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass continues to attract much interest as a renewable, low-CO2, and increasingly cost competitive alternative to traditional fossil fuels for heat and/or electric power generation. At the same time, deregulation of electricity markets offer new opportunities for small-scale decentralized power plants (<20 MWe) in an area where traditional centralized technologies mostly dominate. These factors represent a strong driving force for the development of innovative small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. This paper provides an overview of small-scale CHP with biomass as a fuel. A survey of existing plants in Sweden and Finland is presented, along with an overview of major energy conversion technologies under development. Information is provided related to energy taxation along with an outlook on future prospects.

  • 30.
    Salomón, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Gómez Galindo, María Fernanda
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Upgrading a biomass-based district heating plant in sweden: a technoeconomic optimization and sensitivity analysisIngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating systems have contributed with the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by also producing industrial steam, using waste heat from industrial process in the networks and integration of other industrial processes. This paper aims at evaluating the possible upgrading of an existing district heating plant for production of electricity and pellets. The evaluation is carried out by optimizing the alternatives from the economic, thermodynamic and environmental point of view. In order to examine how the design can be optimized, a detailed model of the process has been elaborated using ASPEN Utilities and Matlab optimization toolbox. The parameters of the polygeneration plant have then been varied in order to examine how optimal economic benefit can be extracted from the biomass streams whilst still meeting the fundamental process demands of the industries and heat demand of the community. A multi-objective optimization has been used to investigate the Pareto-optimal trade-offs that exist between low electricity costs and investment cost. The resulting polygeneration plant designs conclude that it is feasible to produce 18 and 25 MW of power while at the same time supplying the process steam required by the nearby industries and district heating for the community. The results also shown that it is feasible to operate the plant more hours per year by producing pellets and  it could be possible to generate additional district heating (up to 25 ton/h of hot water) to cover the demands of a growing community.

  • 31.
    Salomón Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    González, Miguel
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Leal, Ernesto
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Energy Potential of Coconut and Palm Oil Residues2009Ingår i: 5th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems / [ed] Prof. Zvonimir Guzović, Prof. Neven Duić, Marko Ban (FMENA, University of Zagreb), Dubrovnik: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural residues continue to attract interest for energy recovery purposes as a renewable, CO2 neutral and increasingly cost competitive alternative to traditional fossil fuels. The possibility of trigeneration in already established industries such palm oil mills and coconut processing plants is very attractive especially when residues that otherwise represent a disposal problem can be utilized efficiently.

     

    The use of these residues in rural areas or in small islands could certainly represent an advantage as the use of expensive fossil fuels represents an additional burden to foster development. Different technical scenarios for the production of electricity, process heat and biodiesel are analyzed using these residues Environmental aspects are also included in this analysis.

     

    Studies were done considering certain scenarios to evaluate the feasibility of using these residues for energy purposes. Residues were considered to be combusted directly in boilers and steam turbines were used as prime movers to generate electricity. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of palm oil/coconut oil. The required process heat for palm oil or coconut oil processing is supplied by the residues as well as the steam required for biodiesel production.  The advantage is that biodiesel is a more flexible and easy-to-distribute fuel that can be used for power generation or for transportation. The results shown that palm oil mills/coconut processing industries can be independent of fossil fuels.  Furthermore, they can contribute positively to the energy balance of the communities by helping reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and reducing at the same time greenhouse gas emissions.

  • 32.
    Salomón Popa, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Petrov, Miroslav
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Krothapalli, Anjane
    Florida State University.
    Greska, Brent
    Florida State University.
    Technoeconomic Assessment of a Solar/Biomass Hybrid Plant2012Ingår i: Proceedings of SEEP2012 conference, At DCU, Dublin, Ireland., Volume: 1, Dublin, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar and biomass are indigenous renewable resources that can be used for electricity production and that together represent an interesting and suitable combination. Solar energy can be converted to electricity using photovoltaic (PV) panels or concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. The feasibility of PV and CSP for a particular location depends on the cost, desired installed power capacity and direct solar insolation. Biomass on the other hand, can be first gasified and thereafter converted to electricity. The use of biomass together with a solar plant can help to improve significantly the availability of the plant as it can compensate for the intermittency of the solar energy resource while keeping its renewable profile and at the same time avoid the need to install costly energy storage solutions. Furthermore, biomass can help to reach better steam conditions in a CSP plant and thus improve the efficiency of the system. This paper analyzes from the technoeconomic viewpoint an innovative 5MWe hybrid power plant that provides cost effective electricity using medium temperature Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) and biomass gasification technologies. The plant consists of parabolic troughs that provide saturated steam at 250oC; biomass gasification technology using a downdraft gasifier design with variable feedstock utilization capability; an innovative two stage boiler to produce superheated steam at 440oC at 40 bar; an Organic Rankine Cycle system to extract energy from the waste heat of the steam cycle and a membrane distillation unit to produce purified water. The result of this study shows that feedwater preheating and heating of the water up to saturated liquid conditions could represent an interesting option for a wider utilization of solar energy worldwide. In terms of cost, although higher than other alternatives, the installation of hybrid solar/biomass plants could still be attractive and could represent an important alternative in certain locations.

  • 33.
    Savola, Tuula
    et al.
    Helsinki University of Technology.
    Salomón, Marianne
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Energiteknik.
    Fogelholm, Carl-Johan
    Helsinki University of Technology.
    Cogeneration and Trigeneration in Small-Scale Biomass Plants: State-of-Art and Advanced Concepts2003Ingår i: 16th International Conference on Efficiency, Costs, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems / [ed] Houbak, Niels; Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn; Moran, Michael J., Denmark: DTU, Technical University of Denmark , 2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale biomass plants (< 20 MWe) represent a future possibility for an expansion of distributed generation using indigenous resources in Scandinavia. Today’s plants are typically operated in cogeneration mode but are characterized by low power-to-heat ratios and higher generation costs as compared to large-scale plants. However, the efficient use of biomass in a sustainable scheme requires the development of more efficient energy conversion systems. This paper explores possibilities to reach higher power-to-heat ratios and higher total efficiency levels with small-scale biomass plants producing electricity, district heat and/or district cooling (trigeneration). The analysis is based on flowsheet simulations of two modern cogeneration plants. Biomass pyrolysis and biomass gasification are combined with these base processes and the effect of the pyrolysed and gasified biomass amount to the power-to-heat ratios, electrical efficiencies and total efficiencies are simulated. Also district cooling production in trigeneration mode is studied as one promising option to increase the energy utilization of these processes. Advanced configurations for trigeneration are also discussed.

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