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  • 1. Qi, W.
    et al.
    Gao, Y.
    Zhang, Qian
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö. Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Spatiotemporal dynamics of Beijing's urbanization efficiency from 2005 to 20142017Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikel-id 2190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of Beijing's accelerated economic growth, a high urbanization rate and associated urban problems pose challenges. We collected panel data for the period 2005-2014 to examine the relationship between Beijing's urbanization efficiency and economic growth rate as well as its spatial patterns of dynamic and static urbanization efficiency. Specifically, we developed a comprehensive index system for assessing Beijing's economic growth rate and urbanization efficiency at the district (county) level. Economic level was selected as an indicator of the economic growth rate. Economic urbanization and consumption levels were selected as indicators of urbanization efficiency. We applied a sequential Malmquist total factor productivity index to estimate the dynamic urbanization efficiency and economic growth rate at the district/country level from 2005 to 2014. We measured Beijing's static urbanization efficiency in 2014 using a data envelopment analysis model and assessed its spatiotemporal dynamics and urbanization efficiency pattern using a Getis-Ord General Gi index. The results indicated an overall average increase of 1.07% in the total factor urbanization efficiency (TFUE), with an average value of 0.91, while the total factor economic growth rate (TFEE) remained stable at an average value of 0.979. The low TFUE level evidently continues to significantly constrain TFEE. Both TFUE and TFEE levels in the Capital Function Core (CFC) area were significant, exhibiting high inputs and outputs, while these levels in the Urban Function Development (UFD), City Development Zone (CDZ), and Ecological Conservation Development (ECD) areas were below 1 for most periods, strongly indicating inefficient factor allocation. In view of this spatial pattern, TFUE's regional spatial distribution appears remarkable, showing a decreasing trend from north to south in Beijing, excluding CFC areas. During the period 2005-2014, the CFC area and northeastern Beijing gradually developed into high urbanization efficiency cluster regions. The dominant factors accounting for the difference in total factor productivity indices between TFUE and TFEE were technical change (TC) and scale efficiency change (SEC), and the main factors driving the regional spatial distribution pattern for urbanization efficiency were TC and technical efficiency change (TEC). Accordingly, local governments should promote TC, SEC, and TEC to improve urbanization levels, with optimal strategies entailing strengthening policy support and encouraging investments in technology in UFD, CDZ, and ECD areas. Within Beijing, Dongcheng, Xicheng, Shijingshan,Mentougou, and Yanqing demonstrated effectively balanced static urbanization efficiency levels in 2014, whereas these levels in the city's remaining 11 districts were not optimal, with extensive development. County governments should therefore promote efforts to reduce input redundancy and improve pure technical efficiency to maintain sustainable and steady development.

  • 2. Wu, Feng
    et al.
    Sun, Zhongxiao
    Wang, Fengting
    Zhang, Qian
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik. University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Identification of the critical transmission sectors and typology of industrial water use for supply-chain water pressure mitigation2018Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 131, s. 305-312Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial system produces pressure on water resources by directly consuming the water needed for industrial production and by indirectly consuming water through intermediate inputs. To date, identifying the critical transmission sectors for supply-chain water resources pressure mitigation has been under-examined. To fill this gap in knowledge, we use a betweenness-based method in combination with the standard input output table extended with water-resource sector accounts to identify the key transmission sectors using Zhangye City in the Heihe River Basin, China as an example. The results show that the sectors with low rankings of the production-based indicator do not consume large amounts of water resources to directly generate products, which demonstrates that these sectors have limited scope for reducing water-resource consumption. The results also indicate that those sectors having higher betweenness-based water use but lower consumption-based and production-based water use merit close attention because these sectors transmit relatively large amounts of water resources embodied in their intermediate inputs from water-intensive upstream industrial sectors. Consequently, improving production efficiency in these sectors has an indirect effect by lowering the consumption of upstream water resources. This study also shows that the betweenness-based indicator is able to provide additional information beyond that given by the usual metrics derived from the production and demand sides. Moreover, the typology of water use that we innovatively generate is able to inform corresponding and targeted sector-specific policies and strategies for mitigating water resources pressure.

  • 3.
    Zhang, Qian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geog Sci & Nat Resources Res, CCAP, 11A,Datun Rd, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.;Hebei Univ, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Baiyangdian Basin Ecol Pro, Baoding 071002, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Zhongxiao
    Leiden Univ, CML, Inst Environm Sci, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Huang, Wei
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Box 7013, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Does land perform well for corn planting?: An empirical study on land use efficiency in China2018Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 74, s. 273-280Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess land quality for cropping, this study developed a land performance indicator (LPI), namely efficiency of total land productivity potential (TLPP), by incorporating the heterogeneity of land quality for individual agricultural production units when evaluating the performance of land for corn planting, using stochastic frontier analysis. Without taking into account land quality, the technical efficiency (TE) of corn production cannot be reasonably compared across regions because the variation in land quality is significant. The estimated mean TE was 0.77, which illustrates that there is still potential to increase output by 23%, without increasing inputs, if all agricultural production units emulate the best performing production units. The results demonstrated that the mean LPI was 0.273, with a maximum value of 1.0, implying that a large gap exists between the minimum optimum use of TLPP and observed TLPP. This finding indicates that corn planting units can achieve the same outputs with less land inputs through improving the land productivity per unit. The results also revealed that operational units with greater farm area are likely to be more efficient than with those with a smaller area, which suggests that enlarging farm area and promoting household cooperation and joint management practices are imperative to achieve agricultural modernization, enhance the competitiveness of China's agricultural production in the global market, and effectively disengage labor from agricultural production and transfer the resulting surplus labor to cities.

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