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  • 1.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    High-quality InP on Si and concepts for monolithic photonic integration2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As the age of Moore’s law is drawing to a close, continuing increase in computing performance is becoming increasingly hard‐earned, while demand for bandwidth is insatiable. One way of dealing with this challenge is the integration of active photonic material with Si, allowing high‐speed optical inter‐ and intra‐chip connects on one hand, and the economies of scale of the CMOS industry in optical communications on the other. One of the most essential active photonic materials is InP, stemming from its capability in combination with its related materials to produce lasers, emitting at wavelengths of 1300 and 1550 nm, the two most important wavelengths in data‐ and telecom.

    However, integrating InP with Si remains a challenging subject. Defects arise due to differences in lattice constants, differences in thermal expansion coefficients, polarity and island‐like growth behavior. Approaches to counter these problems include epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG), which involves growing InP laterally from openings in a mask deposited on a defective InP/Si substrate. This approach solves some of these problems by filtering out the previously mentioned defects. However, filtering may not be complete and the ELOG and mask themselves may introduce new sources for formation of defects such as dislocations and stacking faults.

    In this work, the various kinds of defects present in InP ELOG layers grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on Si, and the reason for their presence, as well as strategies for counteracting them, are investigated. The findings reveal that whereas dislocations appear in coalesced ELOG layers both on InP and InP/Si, albeit to varying extents, uncoalesced ELOG layers on both substrate types are completely free of threading dislocations. Thus, coalescence is a critical aspect in the formation of dislocations. It is shown that a rough surface of the InP/Si substrate is detrimental to defect‐free coalescence. Chemical‐mechanical polishing of this surface improves the coalescence in subsequent ELOG leading to fewer defects.

    Furthermore, ELOG on InP substrate is consistently free of stacking faults. This is not the case for ELOG on InP/Si, where stacking faults are to some extent propagating from the defective substrate, and are possibly also forming during ELOG. A model describing the conditions for their propagation is devised; it shows that under certain conditions, a mask height to opening width aspect ratio of 3.9 should result in their complete blocking. As to the potential formation of new stacking faults, the formation mechanism is not entirely clear, but neither coalescence nor random deposition errors on low energy facets are the main reasons for their formation. It is hypothesized that the stacking faults can be removed by thermal annealing of the seed and ELOG layers.

    Furthermore, concepts for integrating an active photonic device with passive Si components are elucidated by combining Si/SiO2 waveguides used as the mask in ELOG and multi‐quantum well (MQW) lasers grown on ELOG InP. Such a device is found to have favorable thermal dissipation, which is an added advantage in an integrated photonic CMOS device.

  • 2.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Gau, Ming-Horn
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lo, Ikal
    Jimenez, Juan
    Aitor Postigo, Pablo
    Miguel Morales, Fransisco
    Hernandez, Jesus
    Molina, Sergio
    Abdessamad, Aouni
    Pozina, Galia
    Hultman, Lars
    Pirouz, Pirouz
    Defect reduction in heteroepitaxial InP on Si by epitaxial lateral overgrowth2014Ingår i: Materials Express, ISSN 2158-5849, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 41-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP has been grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on Si substrates with a thin seed layer of InP masked with SiO2. Openings in the form of multiple parallel lines as well as mesh patterns from which growth occurred were etched in the SiO2 mask and the effect of different growth conditions in terms of V/III ratio and growth temperature on defects such as threading dislocations and stacking faults in the grown layers was investigated. The samples were characterized by cathodoluminescence and by transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the cause for threading dislocations present in the overgrown layers is the formation of new dislocations, attributed to coalescence of merging growth fronts, possibly accompanied by the propagation of pre-existing dislocations through the mask openings. Stacking faults were also pre-existing in the seed layer and propagated to some extent, but the most important reason for stacking faults in the overgrown layers was concluded to be formation of new faults early during growth. The formation mechanism could not be unambiguously determined, but of several mechanisms considered, incorrect deposition due to distorted bonds along overgrowth island edges was found to be in best agreement with observations.

  • 3.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Hu, Chen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Wang, Zhechao
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Dagur, Pritesh
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Pozina, Galia
    Hultman, Lars
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Effect of the Surface Morphology of Seed and Mask Layers on InP Grown on Si by Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth2012Ingår i: Journal of Electronic Materials, ISSN 0361-5235, E-ISSN 1543-186X, Vol. 41, nr 9, s. 2345-2349Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Heteroepitaxy of InP on Si by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) using a thin seed layer of InP as starting material is investigated, with special attention given to the effect of the surface morphology of the seed and the mask layers on the quality of the ELOG layers. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been used to improve the morphological and optical quality of InP grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) using ELOG. Two approaches have been investigated: polishing the InP seed layer on Si before depositing the SiO2 mask and polishing the SiO2 mask after its deposition on the unprocessed seed layer. For polishing the InP (seed)/Si, a two-step process with an aluminum oxide- and sodium hypochlorite-containing slurry as well as a slurry based on sodium hypochlorite mixed with citric acid was used. For SiO2 mask polishing, a slurry with colloidal silica as an abrasive was employed. In both cases, the SiO2 mask was patterned with double line openings and ELOG carried out in an HVPE reactor. Morphology and crystal quality of the resulting ELOG layers were studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and room-temperature panchromatic cathodoluminescence (PC-CL) in situ in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The results show that, whereas both polishing approaches result in an ELOG InP layer with good morphology, its surface roughness is lower when the InP (seed)/Si is subjected to CMP prior to deposition of the SiO2 mask, than when only the SiO2 mask is polished. This approach also leads to a decrease in the number of defects generated during coalescence of the ELOG layers.

  • 4.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Hu, Chen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Wang, Zhechao
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Optimisation of seed and mask surfaces in epitaxial lateral overgrowth of indium phosphide on silicon for silicon photonics2011Ingår i: Conference Proceedings: International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, VDE VERLAG GMBH , 2011, s. 1-4Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) on epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of InP is investigated. To this end, silicon wafers with a seed layer of InP has been treated in two ways; by depositing SiO2 mask and polishing it prior to performing ELOG, and by growing additional InP directly on the InP/Si wafer and then polishing the InP layer prior to depositing and patterning SiO2 followed by subsequent ELOG. For InP seed, a two step process with Chemlox™ slurry and sodium hypochlorite mixed with citric acid-based slurry has been used whereas for SiO2 surface polishing, only one slurry was employed. Analysis of the ELOG layers has been carried out with atomic force microscope (AFM) and panchromatic cathodoluminescence (PC-CL) in-situ a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that polishing the InP/Si layer has not only a beneficial effect on surface morphology of the ELOG layer but also on reduction of its defect density as a consequence of improved conditions for near-ideal coalescence.

  • 5.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Julian, Nick
    Wang, Zhechao
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA. Ghent University, Dept. of Information Technology, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Ghent, Belgium .
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Bowers, John
    Pozina, Galia
    Hultman, Lars
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Study of planar defect filtering in InP grown on Si by epitaxial lateral overgrowth2013Ingår i: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 3, nr 11, s. 1960-1973Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    InP thin films have been grown on InP/Si substrate by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG). The nature, origin and filtering of extended defects in ELOG layers grown from single and double openings in SiO2 mask have been investigated. Whereas ELOG layers grown from double openings occasionally exhibit threading dislocations (TDs) at certain points of coalescence, TDs are completely absent in ELOG from single openings. Furthermore, stacking faults (SFs) observed in ELOG layers grown from both opening types originate not from coalescence, but possibly from formation during early stages of ELOG or simply propagate from the seed layer through the mask openings. A model describing their propagation is devised and applied to the existent conditions, showing that SFs can effectively be filtered under certain conditions. ELOG layers grown from identical patterns on InP substrate contained no defects, indicating that the defect-forming mechanism is in any case not inherent to ELOG itself.

  • 6.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Julian, Nick
    Wang, Zhechao
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Bowers, John
    Pozina, Galia
    Hultman, Lars
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Study of planar defect filtering in InP gwoun on Si by epitaxial lateral overgrowthManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    ACTIVE PHOTONIC DEVICE2010Patent (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 8.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Avella, M.
    Jimenez, J.
    Pozina, G.
    Hultman, L.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Heteroepitaxial Growth of Indium Phosphide from Nano-openings Made by Masking on a Si(001) Wafer2010Ingår i: 2010 22ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIUM PHOSPHIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS (IPRM), 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate nano-eptiaxial lateral overgrowth (NELOG) of InP from the nano-sized openings on a seed layer on the silicon wafer, by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE). The grown layers were analyzed by cathodoluminescence (CL) in situ a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results from InP: S growth shows that the boundary plane of the grown layer has a major impact on the luminescence, indicating preferential orientation-dependent doping. Moreover, although there is clear evidence that most of the threading dislocations originating in the InP seed layer/Si interface are blocked by the mask, it appears that new dislocations are generated. Some of these dislocations are bounding planar defects such as stacking faults, possibly generated by unevenness in the mask. Finally, patterns where coalescence takes place at higher thickness seem to result in a rougher surface.

  • 9.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Avella, M.
    Jimenez, J.
    Pozina, G.
    Hultman, L.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Heteroepitaxial Indium Phosphide on Silicon2010Ingår i: SILICON PHOTONICS AND PHOTONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS II, 2010, Vol. 7719Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an intense interest on integration of III-V materials on silicon and silicon-on-insulator for realisation of optical interconnects, optical networking, imaging and disposable photonics for medical applications. Advances in photonic materials, structures and technologies are the main ingredients of this pursuit. We investigate nano epitaxial lateral overgrowth (NELOG) of InP material from the nano openings on a seed layer on the silicon wafer, by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE). The grown layers were analysed by cathodoluminescence (CL) in situ a scanning electron microscope, time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL), and atomic force microscope (AFM). The quality of the layers depends on the growth parameters such as the V/III ratio, growth temperature, and layer thickness. CL measurements reveal that the dislocation density can be as low as 2 - 3.10(7) cm(-2) for a layer thickness of similar to 6 mu m. For comparison, the seed layer had a dislocation density of similar to 1.10(9) cm(-2). Since the dislocation density estimated on theoretical grounds from TRPL measurements is of the same order of magnitude both for NELOG InP on Si and on InP substrate, the dislocation generation appears to be process related or coalescence related. Pertinent issues for improving the quality of the grown InP on silicon are avoiding damage in the openings due to plasma etching, pattern design to facilitate coalescence with minimum defects and choice of mask material compatible with InP to reduce thermal mismatch.

  • 10.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Xiang, Yu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Gau, Ming-Horng
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Heterogeneous integration of indium phosphide on silicon by nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth2009Ingår i: 2009 IEEE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIUM PHOSPHIDE & RELATED MATERIALS (IPRM), 2009, s. 59-62Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    InP on Si is grown by nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth (nano-ELOG) on patterns consisting of net-type openings under different growth conditions. Analysis shows that net-type patterns yield large lateral growth rate and good optical quality. Different growth conditions have a substantial impact on growth rate and some effect on surface morphology, as well as on the optical quality. Optical quality is deemed to be affected partly by the amount of dislocations arising from the difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the mask and the InP layer, and partly by the layer thickness and surface morphology.

  • 11.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Xiang, Yu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Gau, Ming-Horng
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Surface morphology of indium phosphide grown on silicon by nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth2009Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 6, nr 12, s. 2785-2788Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    InP is grown on Si by nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth (NELOG or nano-ELOG) on patterns consisting of net-type openings under different growth conditions. Surface morphology is characterized with AFM and profilometer and optical quality assessed by Micro Photoluminescence measurements (mu-PL). Results show that growth conditions affect both morphology and optical quality, with thicker layers generally corresponding to better surface morphology. Lower growth temperature seems to improve surface morphology irrespective of thickness, and ELOG layers exhibit significantly better morphology than the planar layer.

  • 12.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och tillämpad fysik, MAP.
    Wang, Zhechao
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och tillämpad fysik, MAP.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och tillämpad fysik, MAP.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och tillämpad fysik, MAP.
    InP overgrowth on SiO2 for active photonic devices on silicon2010Ingår i: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2010, Vol. 7606Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ntegrationof III-V materials on silicon wafer for active photonic deviceshave previously been achieved by growing thick III-V layers ontop of silicon or by bonding the III-V stack layersonto a silicon wafer. Another way is the epitaxial lateralovergrowth (ELOG) of a thin III-V material from a seedlayer directly on the silicon wafer, which can be usedas a platform for the growth of active devices. Asa prestudy, we have investigated lateral overgrowth of InP byHydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) over SiO2 masks of differentthickness on InP substrates from openings in the mask. Openingswhich varied in direction, width and separation were made withE-beam lithography allowing a good dimension control even for nano-sizedopenings (down to 100 nm wide). This mimics overgrowth ofInP on top of SiO2/Si waveguides. By optimizing the growthconditions in terms of growth temperature and partial pressure ofthe source gases with respect to the opening direction, separationand width, we show that a thin (~200 nm) layerof InP with good morphology and crystalline quality can begrown laterally on top of SiO2. Due to the thingrown InP layer, amplification structures on top of it canbe well integrated with the underlying silicon waveguides. The proposedELOG technology provides a promising integration platform for hybrid InP/siliconactive devices.

  • 13.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Wang, Zhechao
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Bazin, Alexandre
    CNRS.
    Raineri, Fabrice
    CNRS.
    Mages, Phil
    UCSB.
    Julian, Nick
    UCSB.
    Bowers, John
    UCSB.
    Towards a monolithically integrated III-V laser on silicon: Optimization of multi-quantum well growth of InP on Si2013Ingår i: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 28, nr 9, s. 094008-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-quality InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum wells (MQWs) on the isolated areas of indium phosphide on silicon necessary for realizing a monolithically integrated silicon laser is achieved. Indium phosphide layer on silicon, the pre-requisite for the growth of quantum wells is achieved via nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth (NELOG) technique from a defective seed indium phosphide layer on silicon. This technique makes use of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) from closely spaced (1 m) e-beam lithography-patterned nano-sized openings (∼300 nm) by low-pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy. A silicon dioxide mask with carefully designed opening patterns and thickness with respect to the opening width is used to block the defects propagating from the indium phosphide seed layer by the so-called necking effect. Growth conditions are optimized to obtain smooth surface morphology even after coalescence of laterally grown indium phosphide from adjacent openings. Surface morphology and optical properties of the NELOG indium phosphide layer are studied using atomic force microscopy, cathodoluminescence and room temperature -photoluminescence (-PL) measurements. Metal organic vapor phase epitaxial growth of InGaAsP/InP MQWs on the NELOG indium phosphide is conducted. The mask patterns to avoid loading effect that can cause excessive well/barrier thickness and composition change with respect to the targeted values is optimized. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope studies show that the coalesced NELOG InP on Si is defect-free. PL measurement results indicate the good material quality of the grown MQWs. Microdisk (MD) cavities are fabricated from the MQWs on ELOG layer. PL spectra reveal the existence of resonant modes arising out of these MD cavities. A mode solver using finite difference method indicates the pertinent steps that should be adopted to realize lasing.

  • 14.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Junesand, Carl
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Loududoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Monolithic integration of InP based structures on silicon for optical interconnects2014Ingår i: 2014 ECS and SMEQ Joint International Meeting, 2014, nr 6, s. 523-531Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Monolithic integration of InP based structures on Si for optical interconnects is presented. Different strategies are demonstrated to achieve requisite InP platform on Si. In the first strategy, defect free isolated areas of epitaxially and laterally overgrown InP are obtained on Si and the InGaAsP based quantum wells directly grown on these templates have shown high material quality with uniform interfaces. In the second strategy, selective area growth is exploited to achieve InP nano pyramids on Si which can be used for the growth of quantum dot structures. In the third and the final strategy, a method is presented to achieve direct interface between InP and Si using corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth.

  • 15.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Zhang, Chong
    Julian, Nick
    Bowers, John E.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Simple Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth Process as a Strategy for Photonic Integration on Silicon2014Ingår i: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, ISSN 1077-260X, E-ISSN 1558-4542, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 8201407-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a strategy to achieve monolithic integration of III-Vs on Si for photonic integration through a simple process. By mimicking the SiO2/Si/SiO2 waveguide necessary to couple light from the gain medium on its top, we adopt a similar to 2 mu m thick silicon dioxide mask for epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of InP on Si. The ELOG InP layer as wells as the subsequently grown quantum wells (similar to 1. 55 mu m) have been analyzed by photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy and found to have high optical quality and very good interface. The studies are strategically important for a monolithic platform that holds great potential in addressing the future need to have an integrated platform consisting of both III-Vs and Si on same chip.

  • 16.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Nagarajan, Murali
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Carrier-transport, optical and structural properties of large area ELOG InP on Si using conventional optical lithography2013Ingår i: 2013 International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, s. 6562592-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the carrier-transport, optical and structural properties of InP deposited on Si by Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELOG) in a Low Pressure-Hydride Vapor phase epitaxy (LP-HVPE). Hall measurements, micro photoluminescence (μ-PL) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the above-mentioned respective properties at room temperature. It is the first time that electrical properties of ELOG InP on Si are studied by Hall measurements. Prior to ELOG, etching of patterned silicon dioxide (SiO2) mask leading to a high aspect ratio, i. e. mask thickness to opening width >2 was optimized to eliminate defect propagation even above the opening. Dense high aspect ratio structures were fabricated in SiO2 to obtain ELOG InP on Si, coalesced over large area, making it feasible to perform Hall measurements. We examine this method and study Hall mobility, strain and optical quality of large area ELOG InP on Si.

  • 17.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen T.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Zhang, Chong
    Bowers, John E.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    High quality large area ELOG InP on silicon for photonic integration using conventional optical lithography2014Ingår i: SMART PHOTONIC AND OPTOELECTRONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS XVI, 2014, s. 898904-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple method of growing large areas of InP on Si through Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELOG) is presented. Isolated areas of high quality InP suitable for photonic integration are grown in deeply etched SiO2 mask fabricated using conventional optical lithography and reactive ion etching. This method is particularly attractive for monolithically integrating laser sources grown on InP with Si/SiO2 waveguide structure as the mask. The high optical quality of multi quantum well (MQW) layers grown on the ELOG layer is promisingly supportive of the feasibility of this method for mass production.

  • 18.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA. Epiclarus AB, Sweden.
    Manavaimaran, Balaji
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Ferre, S.
    Simozrag, B.
    Carras, M.
    Peretti, R.
    Liverini, V.
    Beck, M.
    Faist, J.
    Hydride vapour phase epitaxy assisted buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers for sensing applications2015Ingår i: QUANTUM SENSING AND NANOPHOTONIC DEVICES XII, 2015, Vol. 9370, artikel-id 93700DKonferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Buried heterostructure (BH) lasers are routinely fabricated for telecom applications. Development of quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for sensing applications has largely benefited from the technological achievements established for telecom lasers. However, new demands are to be met with when fabricating BH-QCLs. For example, hetero-cascade and multi-stack QCLs, with several different active regions stacked on top of each other, are used to obtain a broad composite gain or increased peak output power. Such structures have thick etch ridges which puts severe demand in carrying out regrowth of semi-insulating layer around very deeply etched (>10 mu m) ridges in short time to realize BH-QCL. For comparison, telecom laser ridges are normally only <5 mu m deep. We demonstrate here that hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) is capable of meeting this new demand adequately through the fabrication of BH-QCLs in less than 45 minutes for burying ridges etched down to 10-15 mu m deep. This has to be compared with the normally used regrowth time of several hours, e.g., in a metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor. This includes also micro-stripe lasers resembling grating-like ridges for enhanced thermal dissipation in the lateral direction. In addition, we also demonstrate HVPE capability to realize buried heterostructure photonic crystal QCLs for the first time. These buried lasers offer flexibility in collecting light from the surface and relatively facile device characterization feasibility of QCLs in general; but the more important benefits of such lasers are enhanced light matter interaction leading to ultra-high cavity Q-factors, tight optical confinement, possibility to control the emitted mode pattern and beam shape and substantial reduction in laser threshold.

  • 19.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Dagur, Pritesh
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Hu, Chen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Polycrystalline indium phosphide on silicon using a simple chemical route2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, nr 9, s. 093504-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a simple, aqueous and low thermal budget process for deposition of polycrystalline indium phosphide on silicon substrate. Using stoichiometric indium oxide films prepared from its spin-coated precursor on silicon as an intermediate step, we achieve stoichiometric indium phosphide films through phosphidisation. Both indium oxide and indium phosphide have been characterized for surface morphology, chemical composition, and crystallinity. The morphology and crystalline structure of the films have been explained in terms of the process steps involved in our deposition method. Incomplete phosphidisation of indium oxide to indium phosphide results in the restructuring of the partly unconverted oxide at the phosphidisation temperature. The optical properties of the indium phosphide films have been analyzed using micro photoluminescence and the results compared with those of a homoepitaxial layer and a theoretical model. The results indicate that good optical quality polycrystalline indium phosphide has been achieved. The Hall measurements indicate that the carrier mobilities of our samples are among the best available in the literature. Although this paper presents the results of indium phosphide deposition on silicon substrate, the method that we present is generic and can be used for deposition on any suitable substrate that is flexible and cheap which makes it attractive as a batch process for photovoltaic applications.

  • 20.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Dev, Apurba
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Materialfysik, MF.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Tommila, Juha
    Pozina, Galia
    Hultman, Lars
    Guina, Mircea
    Niemi, Tapio
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    High quality InP nanopyramidal frusta on Si2014Ingår i: CrystEngComm, ISSN 1466-8033, E-ISSN 1466-8033, Vol. 16, nr 21, s. 4624-4632Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanosized octagonal pyramidal frusta of indium phosphide were selectively grown at circular hole openings on a silicon dioxide mask deposited on indium phosphide and indium phosphide pre-coated silicon substrates. The eight facets of the frusta were determined to be {111} and {110} truncated by a top (100) facet. The size of the top flat surface can be controlled by the diameter of the openings in the mask and the separation between them. The limited height of the frusta is attributed to kinetically controlled selective growth on the (100) top surface. Independent analyses with photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence and scanning spreading resistance measurements confirm certain doping enrichment in the frustum facets. This is understood to be due to crystallographic orientation dependent dopant incorporation. The blue shift from the respective spectra is the result of this enrichment exhibiting the Burstein-Moss effect. Very bright panchromatic cathodoluminescence images indicate that the top surfaces of the frusta are free from dislocations. The good optical and morphological quality of the nanopyramidal frusta indicates that the fabrication method is very attractive for the growth of site-, shape-, and number-controlled semiconductor quantum dot structures on silicon for nanophotonic applications.

  • 21.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Gau, Ming-Horng
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lo, Ikai
    Pozina, Galia
    Hultman, Lars
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Morphological evolution during epitaxial lateral overgrowth of indium phosphide on silicon2011Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 332, nr 1, s. 27-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP from mesh and line openings on masked InP seed layer on Si(0 0 1) wafer is investigated. Coalescence occurred more rapidly from the mesh openings than from the line openings. Lethargic coalescence in the line openings is attributed to the gradual formation of growth retarding boundary planes in the initial stages of growth. Extended growth leads to complete coalescence in both types of openings. The surface roughness of the coalesced layer is inversely proportional to its thickness. Cathodoluminescence studies on the uncoalesced islands show the emergence of facets with orientation-dependent dopant concentration, but reveal no defects, in contrast to the coalesced regions. The latter are relaxed and their dislocation density deduced from panchromatic cathodoluminescence mapping varies from 6 x 10(6) to 4 x 10(7) cm(-2) depending on the layer thickness; the reduced density at higher thickness indicates partial self annihilation of dislocations. TEM cross-section studies show that most of the threading dislocations originating in the InP seed layer/Si interface are blocked by the mask, but new dislocations are generated. Some of these dislocations are associated with bounding planar defects such as stacking faults, possibly generated during lateral growth across the mask due to unevenness of the mask surface.

  • 22.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Simozrag, B.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA. Epiclarus AB, Sweden .
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Carras, M.
    Blanchard, R.
    Capasso, F.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Demonstration of a Quick Process to Achieve Buried Heterostructure QCL Leading to High Power and Wall Plug Efficiency2014Ingår i: LASER TECHNOLOGY FOR DEFENSE AND SECURITY X, 2014, Vol. 9081, s. 90810O-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Together with the optimal basic design, buried heterostructure quantum cascade laser (BH-QCL) with semi-insulating regrowth offers unique possibility to achieve an effective thermal dissipation and lateral single mode. We demonstrate here for the first time realization of BH-QCLs with a single step regrowth of highly resistive (>1x10(8) ohm.cm) semi-insulating InP:Fe in less than 45 minutes in a flexible hydride vapour phase epitaxy process for burying ridges etched down to 10-15 mu m deep both with and without mask overhang. The fabricated BH-QCLs emitting at similar to 4.7 mu m and similar to 5.5 mu m were characterized. 2 mm long 5.5 mu m lasers with ridge width 17-22 mu m, regrown with mask overhang, exhibited no leakage current. Large width and high doping in the structure did not permit high current density for CW operation. 5 mm long 4.7 mu m BH-QCLs of ridge widths varying from 6-14 mu m regrown without mask overhang, besides being spatially monomode, TM00, exhibited WPE of similar to 8-9% with an output power of 1.5 - 2.5 W at room temperature and under CW operation. Thus, we demonstrate a simple, flexible, quick, stable and single-step regrowth process with extremely good planarization for realizing buried QCLs leading to monomode, high power and high WPE.

  • 23.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Simozrag, Bouzid
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA. Epiclarus AB, Sweden.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Carras, Mathieu
    Blanchard, Romain
    Capasso, Federico
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Demonstration of a quick process to achieve buried heterostructure quantum cascade laser leading to high power and wall plug efficiency2014Ingår i: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 53, nr 8, s. 087104-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Together with the optimal basic design, buried heterostructure quantum cascade laser (BH-QCL) with semi-insulating regrowth offers a unique possibility to achieve an effective thermal dissipation and lateral single mode. We demonstrate here the realization of BH-QCLs with a single-step regrowth of highly resistive (>1 x 10(8) ohm . cm) semi-insulating InP: Fe in <45 min for the first time in a flexible hydride vapor phase epitaxy process for burying ridges etched down to 10 to 15 mu m depth, both with and without mask overhang. The fabricated BH-QCLs emitting at similar to 4.7 and similar to 5.5 mu m were characterized. 2-mm-long 5.5-mu m lasers with a ridge width of 17 to 22 mu m, regrown with mask overhang, exhibited no leakage current. Large width and high doping in the structure did not permit high current density for continuous wave (CW) operation. 5-mm-long 4.7-mu m BH-QCLs of ridge widths varying from 6 to 14 mu m regrown without mu mask overhang, besides being spatially monomode, TM00, exhibited wall plug efficiency (WPE) of similar to 8 to 9% with an output power of 1.5 to 2.5 W at room temperature and under CW operation. Thus, we demonstrate a quick, flexible, and single-step regrowth process with good planarization for realizing buried QCLs leading to monomode, high power, and high WPE.

  • 24.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Dagur, Pritesh
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Alternative Approaches in Growth of Polycrystalline InP on Si2014Ingår i: 26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), IEEE , 2014, s. 6880571-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    III-V semiconductors are suitable for high efficiency and radiation resistant solar cells. However, the high cost of these materials limited the application of these solar cells only for specialty application. High quality polycrystalline III-V thin films on low cost substrate are the viable solutions for the problem. In this work we demonstrate two new approaches to grow polycrystalline InP on Si(001) substrate. (i) A simple chemical solution route which makes use of deposition of In2O3 on Si and its subsequent phosphidisation and (ii) In assisted growth that involves deposition of In metal on Si and subsequent growth of InP from its precursors in hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Both techniques are generic and can be applied to other semiconductors on low cost and flexible substrates.

  • 25.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Tommila, J.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Hu, Chen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Guina, M.
    Niemi, T.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Selective area heteroepitaxy through nanoimprint lithography for large area InP on Si2012Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 9, nr 7, s. 1610-1613Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of nanoimprint lithography, a low cost and time saving alternative to E-beam lithography, for growing heteroepitaxial indium phosphide layer on silicon is demonstrated. Two types of patterns on 500 nm and 200 nm thick silicon dioxide mask either on InP substrate or InP seed layer on silicon were generated by UV nanoimprint lithography: (i) circular openings of diameter 150 nm and 200 nm and (ii) line openings of width ranging from 200 nm to 500 nm. Selective area growth and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP were conducted on these patterns in a low pressure hydride vapour phase epitaxy reactor. The epitaxial layers obtained were characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and micro photoluminescence. The growth from the circular openings on InP substrate and InP (seed) on Si substrate is extremely selective with similar growth morphology. The final shape has an octahedral flat top pyramid type geometry. These can be used as templates for growing InP nanostructures on silicon. The grown InP layers from the line openings on InP substrates are ∌ 2.5 Όm thick with root mean square surface roughness as low as 2 nm. Completely coalesced layer of InP over an area of 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm was obtained.The room temperature photoluminescence intensity from InP layers on InP substrate is 55% of that of homoepitaxial InP layer. The decrease in PL intensity with respect to that of the homoepitaxial layer is probably due to defects associated with stacking faults caused by surface roughness of the mask surface. Thus in this study, we have demonstrated that growth of heteroepitaxial InP both homogeneously and selectively on the large area of silicon can be achieved. This opens up the feasibility of growing InP on large area silicon for several photonic applications.

  • 26.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Tommila, J.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Guina, M.
    Niemi, T.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Selective area heteroepitaxy of InP nanopyramidal frusta on Si for nanophotonics2013Ingår i: Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), 2012 International Conference on, IEEE , 2013, s. 81-84Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    InP nanopyramidal frusta on InP and InP precoated Si substrates were grown selectively from nano-imprinted circular openings in silicon dioxide mask using a low pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy reactor. The grown InP nanopyramidal frusta, octagonal in shape, were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Photoluminescence. The growth is extremely selective and uniform over the entire patterned area on both substrates. The measured diagonal of the top surface is 30 nm and 90 nm for the nanopyramidal frusta grown from 120 nm and 300 nm diameter openings, respectively. The size and morphology as well as the optical quality of these pyramidal frusta make them suitable templates for quantum dot structures for nano photonics and silicon photonics.

  • 27.
    Omanakuttan, Giriprasanth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektronik, Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Paillard, Valerie
    Almae Technologies.
    Lelarge, François
    Almae Technologies.
    Browne, Jack
    Tyndall National Institute.
    Justice, John
    Tyndall National Institute.
    Corbett, Brian
    Tyndall National Institute.
    Electrically pumped 1.5 μm gain material on InP/SiManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28. Parillaud, O.
    et al.
    De Naurois, G. -M
    Simozrag, B.
    Trinite, V.
    Maisons, G.
    Garcia, M.
    Gerard, B.
    Carras, M.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Multi-regrowth steps for the realization of buried single ridge and μ-stripes quantum cascade lasers2013Ingår i: 2013 International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), IEEE , 2013, s. 6562597-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the realization of buried single ridge and μ-stripes quantum cascade lasers using HVPE and MOVPE regrowth steps of semi-insulating InP:Fe and Si doped layers. We present here the preliminary results obtained on these devices. The reduction of the thermal resistance achieved using semi-insulating InP:Fe for regrowth planarization and μ-stripe arrays approaches are shown and performance perspectives are addressed.

  • 29. Soares, Francisco M.
    et al.
    Baek, J. H.
    Zhou, X.
    Wang, Y.
    Scott, Ryan P.
    Heritage, J. P.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Liou, K. Y.
    Hamm, R. A.
    Wang, W.
    Patel, B.
    Vatanapradit, S.
    Gruezke, L. A.
    Tsang, W. T.
    Yoo, S. J. B.
    Monolithically integrated InP wafer-scale 100-channel × 10-GHz AWG and Michelson interferometers for 1-THz-bandwidth optical arbitrary waveform generation2010Ingår i: 2010 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, s. 5465526-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss monolithic integration of a 100-channel AWG with a 10-GHz channel spacing with 100 Michelson-interferometer-based phase- and amplitude-modulators. The AWG showed approximately 10 dB crosstalk, and the twin-integrated devices comprise a 2" InP wafer.

  • 30. Soares, Francisco M.
    et al.
    Fontaine, Nicolas K.
    Scott, Ryan P.
    Baek, J. H.
    Zhou, X.
    Su, T.
    Cheung, S.
    Wang, Y.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Liou, K. Y.
    Hamm, R. A.
    Wang, W.
    Patel, B.
    Gruezke, L. A.
    Tsang, W. T.
    Heritage, Jonathan P.
    Yoo, S. J. B.
    Monolithic InP 100-Channel X 10-GHz Device for Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation2011Ingår i: IEEE Photonics Journal, ISSN 1097-5764, E-ISSN 1943-0655, Vol. 3, nr 6, s. 975-985Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate monolithic integration of a 100-channel arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) with 10-GHz channel spacing and 100 optically controlled Michelson-interferometer-based phase and amplitude modulators. The high-resolution AWG showed better than -15-dB crosstalk, and the modulator extinction ratio was better than 20 dB with either electrical or optical modulation control. The twin-integrated devices comprise a 50-mm diameter InP wafer with 1200 independent optoelectronic components.

  • 31.
    Sun, Yanting
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Julian, N.
    Bowers, J.
    Pozina, G.
    Hultman, L.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Optical and structural properties of sulfur-doped ELOG InP on Si2015Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 117, nr 21, artikel-id 215303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical and structural properties of sulfur-doped epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) InP grown from nano-sized openings on Si are studied by room-temperature cathodoluminescence and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The dependence of luminescence intensity on opening orientation and dimension is reported. Impurity enhanced luminescence can be affected by the facet planes bounding the ELOG layer. Dark line defects formed along the [011] direction are identified as the facet planes intersected by the stacking faults in the ELOG layer. XTEM imaging in different diffraction conditions reveals that stacking faults in the seed InP layer can circumvent the SiO<inf>2</inf> mask during ELOG and extend to the laterally grown layer over the mask. A model for Suzuki effect enhanced stacking fault propagation over the mask in sulfur-doped ELOG InP is constructed and in-situ thermal annealing process is proposed to eliminate the seeding stacking faults.

  • 32.
    Wang, Z.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Hu, C.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    InP lateral overgrowth technology for silicon photonics2010Ingår i: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, Optical Society of America (OSA) , 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth has been proposed as a key technology of a novel hybrid integration platform for active silicon photonic components. By fabricating silicon oxide mask on top of a thin InP seed layer, we can use the so called defect necking effect to filter out the threading dislocations propagating from the seed layer. By optimizing the process, thin dislocation free InP layers have been successfully obtained on top of silicon wafer. The obtained characterization results show that the grown InP layer has very high quality, which can be used as the base for further process of active photonic components on top of silicon.

  • 33.
    Wang, Zhechao
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Hu, Chen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och tillämpad fysik, MAP.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Fotonik och optik (Stängd 20120101), Fotonik (Stängd 20120101).
    A monolithic integration platform for silicon photonics2011Ingår i: 2011 ICO International Conference on Information Photonics, IP 20112011 ICO International Conference on Information Photonics, IP 2011, IEEE Communications Society, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) technology-based monolithic integration platform for silicon photonics is demonstrated. High quality, defect-free InP ELOG mesa has been experimentally obtained on silicon by using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The proposed platform provides unique advantages for the realization of active devices on silicon

  • 34.
    Wang, Zhechao
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Hu, Chen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Fotonik och optik (Stängd 20120101), Fotonik (Stängd 20120101).
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    III-Vs on Si for photonic applications-A monolithic approach2012Ingår i: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 177, nr 17, s. 1551-1557Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) technology is demonstrated as a viable technology to realize monolithic integration of III-Vs on silicon. As an alternative to wafer-to-wafer bonding and die-to-wafer bonding, ELOG provides an attractive platform for fabricating discrete and integrated components in high volume at low cost. A possible route for monolithic integration of III-Vs on silicon for silicon photonics is exemplified by the case of a monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) by combining InP on Si/SiO2 through ELOG. Passive waveguide in MECSL also acts as the defect filtering mask in ELOG. The structural design of a monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) and its thermal resistivity are established through simulations. Material studies to realize the above laser through ELOG are undertaken by studying appropriate ELOG pattern designs to achieve InP on narrow regions of silicon. We show that defect-free InP can be obtained on SiO2 as the first step which paves the way for realizing active photonic devices on Si/SiO2 waveguides, e.g. an MECSL.

1 - 34 av 34
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