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  • 1.
    Friedrich, Thilo
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Conceptual reasoning in the development of particle accelerator control systems: A case study on controls for a novel accelerator design2016Ingår i: 2016 11th Systems of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the relevance of certain semiformal communication (we call 'Conceptual Reasoning') in the controls and computing systems development at particle accelerator research facilities, and promotes its facilitation in the domain. The chosen research methodology approach is based on participatory research and intervention in a real engineering environment. An introduction to the concept of viewpoints in Systems Engineering literature is given. The idea of Conceptual Reasoning, which constitutes a practical mean of integrating different viewpoints, is explained. The relevance of Conceptual Reasoning in the development of particle accelerator based research facilities is outlined based on the characteristic properties of this type of engineering environment. A case study on Conceptual Reasoning in the domain is described, exemplified in more detail for the controls of a novel, advanced neutron spallation system. Initial case study results are presented, indicating benefits of introducing certain diagram types and their tailoring to domain-Typical concerns. A discussion and evaluation of the case study results and the applied research methodology conclude the paper.

  • 2.
    Friedrich, Thilo
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Engineering Aspects of Computing Systems for Accelerator based Light Sources2013Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Different characterization methods that rely on electron accelerator technology, in particular synchrotron light sources, have become major research tools for expanding fields in various natural sciences. While traditionally physics research has been the motivation for new accelerator facilities and system designs, newly emerging areas in life sciences, molecular sciences and material science are additionally driving forces today.

    Light sources and similar research facilities rely heavily on computing systems to fulfill their tasks. The application areas of computing systems include system control and monitoring tasks, data acquisition and processing, networks and a variety of information technology related services, both for in-house users and visiting research groups.

    Previous research on computing systems for light sources has usually been focused on technical designs and solutions for particular systems, mostly motivated from natural science point of views. This thesis describes the field of computing systems for light sources as a research field of its own, with its special properties, challenges, and relations to other engineering fields in the accelerator world. Further, this thesis evaluates relevant technologies for computing systems with a focus on accelerator facility control system frameworks. Best practices in the development of computing systems are introduced, and related to Systems Engineering (SE) and system lifecycle management.

    The thesis elaborates a work process framework encompassing organizational and technical processes concerning computing systems at light sources, which is based on the ISO/IEC 15288 standard. The framework enhances work process analysis and improvements, and consequently the effective and efficient achievement of facility goals. An improved approach for Requirements Engineering concerning computing systems at light sources is introduced. Further, a compilation and evaluation of modern design principles and guidelines for controls and IT groups is presented.

    As a research field, engineering of computing systems for light sources represents a part of the development of a complex socio-technical system. As such, this research field faces particular challenges and properties, such as the uniqueness and often prototypical character of the systems and complex relations of stakeholder interests. The thesis presents and discusses a research approach customized to this research field, both to allow for a holistic approach (using SE) and to accommodate for the practical research constraints. This concerns the study of technical and non-technical research subjects, the basis for scientific study and reasoning, and the role of the researcher as active participant in the field. Finally, an outlook is given on further research opportunities in the field.

    The thesis work has been accompanying, and been part of, the design and construction of the MAX IV facility, a new state-of-the-art synchrotron based light source in Lund, Sweden.

  • 3.
    Friedrich, Thilo
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Systems Engineering for Computing Systems at Accelerator based Research Facilities2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Large research facilities are major research enablers for expanding fields in various natural sciences. Traditionally built for physics and astronomy, nowadays fields like life sciences, medicine, molecular sciences and material sciences have become the driving forces, especially for particle accelerator based research facilities. Driven by the ever-increasing expectations of the scientific user community, new research facilities usually introduce novel technical concepts and architectures customised for the addressed research communities. Thus they represent the state-of-the-art in the domain, usually in a unique configuration. Continuous upgrades and adjustments to research trends entail that research facilities maintain a prototypical character throughout their lifetime, leading to a significant degree of openness as a system.

    This persistent trend among research facilities has resulted in high degrees of technical and operational complexity. Today’s research facilities are complex socio-technical systems posing challenges to their development, construction, operation and maintenance. The need for multi-disciplinary engineering and the coordination between the diverse internal and external stakeholders make the application of Systems Engineering (SE) highly desirable. Therefore, this thesis assesses the socio-technical factors and proposes methods for applying SE in the particle accelerator domain for effective operational management. 

    A common theme in the technical design of large research facilities is the heavy reliance on control and computing systems in virtually all operational and maintenance processes. The application areas of control and computing systems include system control and monitoring tasks, data acquisition and processing, the provision of networks and a variety of software-based services. Both in-house users and temporarily visiting research groups depend on these control and computing systems. The controls and computing systems domain is especially affected by the mentioned engineering challenges due to its broad range of application cases and its highly integrative role in the research facilities; the facilities are thus complex socio-technical cyber-physical systems.

    The thesis addresses the application of Systems Engineering and Systems Thinking at large research facilities, in particular for the development of control and computing systems. The research has been performed as Action Research activities at the European Spallation Source, a world leading spallation neutron source currently in construction and at the synchrotron light source MAX IV, both located in Lund, Sweden. The research contributions of this thesis are in the areas of System Integration, Requirements Engineering, Communication pragmatics in engineering, Systems of Systems Engineering, reliability and Systems Engineering Management. More specifically, the following contributions are presented:

    An Integration Strategy that establishes SE for control systems at the ESS has been elaborated. It is based on the informational needs for successful integration. The approach guides the generation of integration-relevant information, and supports its accessibility and management by utilising System Integration Management Plans.

    A novel approach to the process implementation for Requirements Engineering (RE) has been developed. It is based on tailoring views, activity patterns, informational structures, tools and services, and has been applied to the ESS control system development. Benefits of treating the RE process implementation itself as an Agile project are presented.

    Systems of Systems (SoS) Engineering has been tailored for application at the ESS regarding mission critical systems.  This case study investigates the SoS concepts for research facilities and indicates their suitability. Further, the Systems of Systems Engineering tailoring has been inspired by and drawing upon key concepts from functional safety standards in order to meet the high reliability expectations towards the ESS.  This approach presents a way to achieve high reliability goals for complex systems that surpass more traditional system complexity levels.

    A support concept for Systems Engineering Management (SEM) in environments with low degrees of stable, consistent development processes and documentation quality is also presented. The concept, named Conceptual Reasoning, describes the utilisation of viewpoints and the interrelation of elements between them on a conceptual level. Conscious improvement of Conceptual Reasoning practices in system developments is a way to enhance the success of crucial stakeholder communication.

    All solutions were derived from and tested in the Action Research setting. The practical utilization of Systems Engineering in multiple, domain-typical system developments has been continuously analysed for barriers to SE application, and resulted in recommendations for Systems Engineering Management (SEM) in the domain. An SEM reference model is presented as a support tool for Systems Engineering managers in the domain, which aids in the identification of SE problems.

    Future research goals are motivated and research methodology aspects in this field are discussed in order to encourage further progress.

  • 4.
    Friedrich, Thilo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.). European Spallation Source ERIC, Sweden.
    Fernandez, Daniel Piso
    An Integration Strategy for Controls and Computing Systems at a large Particle Accelerator based Research Facility2016Ingår i: 2016 11TH SYSTEMS OF SYSTEM ENGINEERING CONFERENCE (SOSE), IEEE, IEEE, 2016, artikel-id 7542922Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach for the elaboration of an integration strategy for controls and computing systems at large particle accelerator based research facilities. The approach is applied in a specific case study conducted at the world-leading neutron science facility European Spallation Source (ESS). First, an introduction to the term 'integration' in the Systems Engineering literature is presented. Also, the common integration practices and challenges in the domain of controls and computing systems for particle accelerators are described. An approach for the elaboration of an integration strategy is proposed. It is based on the information needs for successful integration in this domain. The approach has been applied to a case study and the first preliminary results are shown. Systems-of-systems (SoS) characteristics of the case study are outlined. A discussion and evaluation of the result from the case study and the applied research methodology conclude the paper.

  • 5.
    Friedrich, Thilo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Reščič, Miha
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Requirements Engineering for Control and Computing Systems at large research facilities: Process implementation and a case study2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the comprehensive implementation of requirements engineering processes in the controls and computing domain at large research facilities, made concrete in a case study on the world-leading, accelerator-based research facility for neutron science, the European Spallation Source (ESS). The implementation of requirements engineering establishes views (e.g. functional, data, hardware, etc.), informational structures, activity patterns, tools and services suitable for this domain. Adequate views and patterns for information related to requirements engineering need to be derived from the characteristics of the organizational environment, domain-specific best practices, and target systems’ characteristics. All this forms the foundation for the design and application of requirements engineering activity patterns, tools and support services. Our key message is: For the successful deployment and operation of control and computing systems, a research facility needs to implement requirements engineering to provide views, informational structures, activity patterns, tools and services suitable to the domain. The RE implementation effort benefits from being managed as a multi-faceted project itself, and has properties which render an Agile management approach beneficial.

  • 6.
    Friedrich, Thilo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Surveying software technology for accelerator control systems2008Ingår i: PCaPAC 2008 - International Workshop on Personal Computers and Particle Accelerator Controls, Joint Accelerator Conferences Website (JACoW) , 2008, s. 16-18Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtually all accelerator based research facilities nowadays use a mixture of software libraries, tools, protocols and development techniques to address the facilities' various control system* requirements efficiently. Many of these technologies are open-source and shared between laboratories to various extents. Motivated by the planning of MAX-lab's new light source project, the MAX IV facility, we have conducted a state-of-the-art survey of these technologies, which will serve as a knowledge base for upcoming design decisions. This paper provides a summary of the topics and conclusions of our survey. In this scope the survey compares software technologies with respect to user features (scientific analysis and operation requirements), quality requirements (integration, performance, services, reliability, security, safety), and other issues. Control system design goals are beneficial long-term effects on future improvements, development costs and maintenance costs.

  • 7.
    Thilo, Friedrich
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.). European Spallation Source ERIC, Sweden.
    Hilbes, Christian
    Nordt, Annika
    Systems of Systems Engineering for Particle Accelerator based Research Facilities A case study on engineering Machine Protection2017Ingår i: 2017 11TH ANNUAL IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (SYSCON), IEEE , 2017, s. 696-703Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the applicability of Systems of Systems (SoS) Engineering in the development of large-scale particle accelerator research facilities. Modern particle accelerator facilities, realised by complex constellations of interacting systems, serve a variety of users as research enablers. While the constituent systems exhibit a significant degree of technical and operational independence and distinct life cycles, the performance required to conduct research still needs to emerge from their integration into one overall system, the research facility. This renders a Systems of Systems oriented approach to engineering useful. Furthermore, accelerator based research facilities face increasing availability expectations. Achieving those expectations can be supported through a tailored application of functional safety standards as engineering methodology guideline on an SoS level, as explained in this paper. An SoS-Engineering approach utilising functional safety standards (IEC 61511, IEC 61508) in this way is concretised in a case study on the development of a Machine Protection Systems of Systems in the world-leading neutron science laboratory European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS).

1 - 7 av 7
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