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  • 1.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media.
    Climate Information Crowdsourcing – A Bottom-up Practice for Sustainability and Growth2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on e-Society / [ed] Piet Kommers and Pedro Isaías, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a manifestation of globalization of environmental problems. Future challenges include global perspectives and policies addressing growth, sustainability, and equality at the same time. Recent developments within communication technologies, raising mass communication to a global level, may be regarded as an opportunity for new practices. This paper presents a bottom-up activity for sustainability, growth and equality, based on organized performances of citizens on very local level, while contributing to collection of climatic data requested by the global community. By conducting a comparative study between groups of children and adults from Sweden, and a second case of farmers in Sudan, all providing local weather information, this paper argues that crowdsourcing of climate data can make contributions to important climate data, environmental policy-making, sustainability, and public participation, while creating economic value and benefits to traditionally unequal groups, empowered while offering services – collection of environmental data - of value to those who are in power.

  • 2.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media.
    Collaborative Observations of Weather: A Weather Information Sharers’ Community of Practice2010Ingår i: 6th International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies, WEBIST 2010, 2010, s. 392-399Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Beside occasional disastrous impacts of weather, weather also affects daily life. Societal and environmental challenges of the future include both providing customized weather information in-time due to users’ needs, and detecting climate change and its impacts on land and ecosystems. The accuracy of weather and climatic information is, however, limited by spatial and temporal borders that need to be overriden. Also, weather information services cannot be fully customized, a problem arising from the spatial inaccuracy of weather forecasts and observations. Here, the role of social media, collective and civic intelligence and crowd sourcing should be investigated. This paper envisions a community of weather-interested users that provide usable observations of weather and environmental change, and presents a web-based interface for this community as a new method to collect weather and climatic information. User-generated weather observations can be processed based on principles of collective intelligence and co-creation, in order to improve, customize and personolize weather information.

  • 3.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    COLLABORATIVE OBSERVATIONS OF WEATHER A Weather Information Sharers' Community of Practice2010Ingår i: WEBIST 2010: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WEB INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL 2 / [ed] Filipe, J Cordeiro, J, INSTICC-INST SYST TECHNOLOGIES INFORMATION CONTROL & COMMUNICATION , 2010, s. 392-399Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Beside occasional disastrous impacts of weather, weather also affects daily life. Societal and environmental challenges of the future include both providing customized weather information in-time due to users' needs, and detecting climate change and its impacts on land and ecosystems. The accuracy of weather and climatic information is, however, limited by spatial and temporal borders that need to be overriden. Also, weather information services cannot be fully customized, a problem arising from the spatial inaccuracy of weather forecasts and observations. Here, the role of social media, collective and civic intelligence and crowd sourcing should be investigated. This paper envisions a community of weather-interested users that provide usable observations of weather and environmental change, and presents a web-based interface for this community as a new method to collect weather and climatic information. User-generated weather observations can be processed based on principles of collective intelligence and co-creation, in order to improve, customize and personalize weather information.

  • 4.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media.
    Customization by Sharing Weather Observations: A Study on Winter Road Weather Warnings2009Ingår i: 5th World Conference on Mass Customization and Personalization, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Weather information is crucial to weather-dependent businesses. Consequences of weather also affect daily life. Societal and environmental savings can be made, if providing weather information in-time due to users’ exact needs. Studies on on-road behaviour show that people usually do not adjust their behaviour to adverse weather, even when acquired information about coming weather events. A new customization model is here suggested to be of major importance for raising the awareness about weather. Along with recent developments on communication technologies, a number of areas of interest for humankind are challenged to move on from traditional ways of collecting, processing and distributing information, realising the opportunities offered by participatory culture. The new customization model provides more reliable and accurate weather information, combining collective intelligence with a new approach within weather service development based on not only the weather information itself but the user’s recent weather experiences. The model was tested as road weather warning messages were provided during winter season 2008/09 to 71 users in Stockholm through SMS, e-mail and the web. The experiment created a community of people with interest in traffic and weather information - a starting point for a future collaborative, user-generated weather observation network.

  • 5.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media.
    Customized Weather Warnings - a User-Centred Approach2009Ingår i: 16th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on on-road behaviour show that drivers don’t follow recommendations and weather forecasts. Customization is here suggested to be of major importance for raising the awareness about weather. Along with developments on communication technologies, we are challenged to move on from traditional ways of collecting and distributing information. The paper suggests a weather information customization model for more reliable weather information. Customization was studied as weather warning messages - based on a user-centered perspective and taking the user’s recent observations into account - were provided to 70 drivers in Stockholm through SMS, e-mail and Internet, during winter season 2008/09.

  • 6.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media.
    Governmental Services and Social Media: When Weather Becomes Global2010Ingår i: IADIS International Conference e-Society / [ed] Piet Kommers and Pedro Isaías, 2010, s. 103-114Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The first weather services commenced 150 years ago as small networks of telegraphic stations exchanged weather information in order to provide storm warnings. For larger scale operations, development of weather services and meteorology as a science, larger investments were necessary. The weather industry was shaped by the industrial information economy and for a long period of time dominated by governmental services, with the governmental sector as the sole investor. Eventually a new role – that of service providers – developed. However, different data access policies developed in the U.S. and Europe, resulting in widely different roles of the same agents, impacting local weather markets. Social media technology and changed communication practices of the 21st century, with millions of potential weather observation points, is here hypothesized to impact governmental services while re-shaping the market for weather and alert services. Additionally, the weather information market is transforming from a high entry barrier market to offering more sophisticated tools and data at low cost. The rise of new, and in particular social, media will inevitably impact the roles of different agents of the present weather market. The paper performs an analysis of the weather market and its societal benefits under different conditions and role distributions, and finally develops several future scenarios following from the inclusion of social media as an agent in the weather market.

  • 7.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    "Share weather": Design and evaluation of a new concept for sharing weather information2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan urminnes tider har människan observerat vädret i sin vardag, i ständig strävan efter förklaringar, förståelse och dess förutsägelse. Fram till dagens komplexa samhälle har vädret genomsyrat våra liv. Det kan ibland sätta djupa avtryck i vardagen, och med växande miljöhot finns en risk att vädret även kan lämna betydande avtryck på vår civilisation och utveckling. Med hjälp av meditekniken, framför allt nya medier, har väderinformationen en given plats var individs vardag i det moderna samhället där en mängd vädertjänster för konsumenter och företag florerar.

    Web 2.0 breder ut sig i en närmast oändlig virtuell värld där individer under helt nya förutsättningar nu obehindrat kan interagera med varandra. I den nya medieteknikens värld kan de interaktioner som sker mellan privatpersoner för första gången övervinna avstånd större än de fysiska avstånd som vädersystemen rör sig inom och vilka definierar dess processer. Här uppstår nya möjligheter att dela, och potentiellt även förbättra, väderinformationen. Denna avhandling utvecklar konceptet ”share weather”, baserat på individer som, med hjälp av modern interaktiv medieteknik, utväxlar väderinformation. Avhandlingen testar detta koncept empiriskt i åtta vetenskapliga artiklar i syfte att utvärdera konceptet ”share weather” i denna sammanfattning. Utforskning av ett nytt område kräver viss ny teori, som, inspirerat av flera existerande teorier om nätverk, härmed utvecklas och presenteras i form av ett ramverk för studie av ”share weather” konceptet och motivation att bidra användargenererad information. Nyckelfrågorna rör: kvalitet och noggrannhet, metoder och design för praktisk realisering, samt uppskattning av potentiella volymer av användargenererade väderobservationer. Avhandlingen designar en ”share weather” artefakt och utvecklar ny teori rörande motivation inom denna kontext. 

    Baserat på tidigare vetenskapliga studier och teorier om nätverk tar avhandlingen fram en lämplig modell för utforskning av ”share weather”, med krav på både ett användarcentrerat perspektiv och ett större strukturellt perspektiv som fångar effekterna av olika interaktioner, inbördes länkar och relationer. En viktig målsättning är att förstå kontexten av ”share weather” i syfte att bidra till forskningsområdet Medieteknik och vår kunskap om nätverk. Under det lyfts viktiga hållbarhetsaspekter fram genom att betrakta hållbarhet som en egen dimension av forskningen och granska vädret som informationsdomän. De empiriska studierna bygger på tester som utfördes under 2008-2011, kombination av kvalitativ och kvantitativ analys samt designvetenskap och -metodik. Testerna omfattade 17 intervjuer och cirka sex enkäter som involverade fyra olika användargrupper: över 440 trafikanter som fick vädervarningar via SMS, 60 skolbarn, 20 patienter vid en dentalklinik och 50 studenter. Ytterligare en studie var baserad på data från tester med afrikanska jordbrukare. De empiriska studierna behandlade motivation och drivkrafter, kvalitetsaspekter samt design och utvärdering av en “share weather” artefakt.

    Detta arbete bekräftar tidigare forskning som understryker betydelsen av inre drivkrafter, medan avhandlingen även finner andra uttalade drivkrafter kopplade till interaktioner och belöningar i form av användbar information (väderprognoser). I syfte att fånga flera olika källor av potentiella drivkrafter som kan uppstå i nätverk som genererar ”kunskap”, konstruerar avhandlingen ett ramverk bestående av en bred skala av motivationer av olika ursprung för studier av nätverk för utbyte av nyttig information och kunskapsgenerering.

    Avhandlingen kunde också dra slutsatser rörande noggrannheten av användargenererade väderobservationer; där den slående förmågan hos människan att med hög noggrannhet observera sin närmaste miljö lyftes fram. Datainsamling kan ske genom fördefinierade textbeskrivningar och bilder, med inspiration hämtad från klassiska metoder med lång tradition av väderdatainsamling. Dessa kan integreras med interaktiva medieteknologier: webben, smarta telefoner och SMS.

    Utifrån dessa resultat drar denna avhandling slutsatsen att ”share weather” kan bidra till förbättrad väderinformation. Utöver detta kan viktiga hållbarhetsaspekter, karakteristiska för väderinformation, belysas. I en tid av svåra miljöutmaningar finns ett uttalat behov av bred uppslutning och engagemang i miljöfrågor inklusive informationsutbyte. Medan detta kan vara svårt att realisera i praktiken, teoretiserar denna avhandling kring möjligheterna att använda ”share weather” i arbetet med vissa av dessa mål. De sociala och lärandeprocesser som kan aktiveras i virtuella nätverk kan här komma att spela en viktig roll. Avhandlingen föreslår att ”share weather” potentiellt kan bidra till ökat deltagande hos allmänheten och därmed bidra till ökad miljömedvetenhet och -engagemang.

  • 8.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media.
    Social Media and Weather Surface Observing Technologies and Systems: Expanding the Synoptic Network through Web 2.02010Ingår i: World Meteorological Organization Technical Conference on Meteorological and Environmental Instruments and Methods of Observation, 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 9.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media.
    Trust-Networks for Changing Driver Behavior During Severe Weather2011Ingår i: 18th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The vulnerability of modern cities to severe weather, decreased traffic safety and efficiency, challenge conventional weather service providers while raising new demands on robustness of the society and weather information services. In this paper, some results from studies of a network for sharing weather information, are presented. The network, based on one meteorology expert and 440 volunteers interested in weather due to their daily dependence on traffic conditions, was used as a channel for providing early warnings on severe weather events predicted to occur in Stockholm. In several experiments performed in 2010, the participants’ behavior and evaluation of the service were measured through answers provided in several questionnaires on habits and behavior, additionally including users’ own weather reports provided on request of the expert. Based upon the acquired results, this paper suggests that social networks are a convenient channel and the best available method for efficient distribution and dissemination of weather alerts to the broad public.

  • 10.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Trust-networks for changing driver behaviour during severe weather2013Ingår i: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 415-424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on on-road behaviour imply that designing user-centred services is important for raising awareness about severe weather and adverse road conditions. Along with the developments of new communication technologies and practices, the research area of ITS is challenged to move on from traditional ways of collecting and distributing traffic weather information. This study presents two methods for potential improvements and personalisation of traffic weather information. The methods were demonstrated and evaluated by 440 respondents in Stockholm. Weather alerts were sent by SMS 12-48 h, up to a week, prior to the occurrence of severe weather events during 2008-2010. The service was personalised because of assumptions regarding perception and memory of weather, including user's recent observations. The second aspect of potential improvement was the introduction of a social network component, including user-generated local weather observations. The impact of the service was evaluated in a longitudinal study through a series of questionnaires on user behaviour and evaluation of the service. The combination of the two methods proved efficient as the amount of changed decisions was of considerable amplitude. A correlation between time of exposure and changed decisions implies that social components and interactivity may be a powerful tool in traffic weather services and ITS.

  • 11.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Who wants to "share weather"?: The impacts of off-line interactions on online behavior2014Ingår i: 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, s. 1884-1893Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous experience on how individuals share user-generated content through online communities suggests that a larger fraction of the content is created by a strikingly small minority of the users. Findings on communities of widely different character within the wide spectrum of different content types being created online point at the importance of intrinsic motivation for active online participation. On the other hand, the impact of previous interactions, weak ties, and trust, is also acknowledged. This paper investigates how previous interactions off-line might impact individual behavior online. The paper studies a "share weather" network and contributions of different individuals who received benefits in terms of forecasts with the option of voluntarily improving the content of a weather service used by others. The relationship between the amount of previous interactions and the content they contributed is discussed, while borrowing ideas from both social network theory and individual-centered approaches based on uses and gratifications.

  • 12.
    Elevant, Katarina
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Why share weather?: Motivational model for “share weather” online communities and three empirical studies2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of “weatherwikis”- web 2.0 platforms for sharing weather information between individuals – is faced with several challenges. While some studies confirm satisfactory reliability of user-generated weather information, sources of motivations to contribute are yet unexplored. This paper provides a theoretical framework for weatherwikis, based on social capital theory, and three empirical studies that explore different contextual sources of motivation, of which compensation and ideology may be considered most interesting with the background of current motivational theories on networks of practice. The paper provides some results that, in contrast to established theories and findings on motivations driving networks of practice, suggest that extrinsic motivations may be essential, beside the recognized importance of social acceptance (e.g. enjoyment).

  • 13.
    Elevant, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Web Weather 2.0: Improving Weather Information with User-generated Observations2013Ingår i: AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1944-3900, E-ISSN 1944-3900, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 28-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing web weather 2.0, this paper suggests that active participation by civil society may arise through sharing of environmental data through observations of weather and other measurable variables in the environment performed by individuals. Collecting data from individuals is here suggested for improving weather data currently used by weather research centers and practitioners. Extending these current sets of weather data by using web 2.0 may address some issues stated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) regarding spatial and temporal resolutions of meteorological data including knowledge on different processes between the air and other environmental systems. To test the concept of web weather 2.0, the usability of weather data collected from individuals and the expected quantities of such data need to be determined. In addition, collection methods should be developed. Aiming at the design of an artifact that can meet these needs, this paper presents some important steps of the design process of a “share weather” system, including several demonstrations and experiments performed on different user groups, i.e. school children performing weather observations as a part of their daily tasks and education, and adults interested in weather due to their daily dependence on traffic conditions. This paper provides new knowledge about user-generated observations of weather, including quality and motivation to contribute, and guidance on how future systems for collection of environmental data from individuals may be created. After testing the feasibility of the designed “share weather” artifact, we conclude that the potential role of individuals in producing valuable information beneficial to society should be considered within several branches of environmental sciences as well as policy-making.

  • 14.
    Elevant, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media.
    Turpeinen, Marko
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media.
    Improving Weather and Climatic Information Quality with User-generated Observations2011Ingår i: 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS-44 2010, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we suggest that active participation by civil society may arise through sharing of environmental data – observations of weather and other measurable variables in the environment, performed by individuals. A general model illustrating individual time resources is introduced, in order to map the two studied groups, i.e. school children and adults interested in weather due to their daily dependence on traffic conditions, and to further generalize the results to other groups in the society, regarding the potential role of the individual to produce valuable information beneficial to the society.

1 - 14 av 14
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