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  • 1.
    Palmberg, Robin C. O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Enriching Automated Travel Diaries Using Biometric Information2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The methods for collecting travel data about travellers today incorporate either fully manual or semi-automatic elements, which makes the methods susceptible to errors. The travellers might respond subjectively rather than objectively or even wholly incorrect, albeit with or without purpose. For certain types of studies, these are still valid methods for collecting data. However, for specific target groups, it might be hard to respond using these methods, either because of physical or psychological limitations.

    One of these target groups that is increasing rapidly is elderly in general, and dementia patients in particular, who suffer from fluctuating cognitive skills and memory. These conditions affect the recipient’s ability to answer truthfully and correctly. However, in the strive to form more accessible urban environments, the information regarding the need and behaviour of the said target group is crucial, meaning that new methods for collecting travel data need to be created.

    The three papers included in this licentiate thesis present the development and trial of a new method for fully automated data collection using biometric data as a dimension. The method attempts to determine how the recipient is affected by the elements presented to them while they travel, such as the built environment, based on the variations in the biometric data dimension.

    With the rapid advancements in information and communication technology, many new artefacts which open for new possible methods of data collection has been launched and are widely available. The methods and artefacts are not capable of meeting the requirements for the type of data collection method that would be needed to cater to the target group by themselves. However, by combing several types of currently available artefacts and methods, it is theoretically possible to cover the gaps of each artefact and method to create versatile methods for data collection (Paper I).

    Such methods require tools for physical operationalisation. An exploratory development process has led to the creation of a software tool which could be used with several types of consumer hardware, which means that it would theoretically be possible to conduct extensive surveys fast with low costs where participants utilise their own hardware (Paper II).

    In order to uncover the usefulness of the tool, an analysis was conducted on a limited dataset which had been collected as a result of a trial of the tool. In an attempt to prove the hypothesis “it is possible to understand how much the dimensions of data collected in specific locations affect the stress of travellers using heart rate as the dependent variable”, data-driven methods of data analysis were explored and utilised. Simple clustering methods, which disregarded any weighting on the dimensions, uncovered if there was any valuable information in the dataset at all. A model had to be created in order to understand better how the different dimensions of the collected data affected the participant (Paper III).

    This set of papers should indicate whether this type of method is feasible to pursue with the current means of widely available technology and what sort of significance the collected data might hold when analysed with appropriate analysis methods.

  • 2.
    Lorenzo Varela, Juan Manuel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Learning about the unobservable: The role of attitudes, measurement errors, norms and perceptions in user behaviour.2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unobservable factors are important to understand user behaviour. Moreover, they contain information to help design services that willsolve today’s challenges. Yet, we have barely scratched the surface ofthe underlying mechanisms ruling user behaviour. For decades, userbehaviour analysis has focused on the capabilities of observable variables,as well as assumptions of regular preferences and rational behaviourto explain user choices; and amalgamated unobservable factorsinto ”black-box” variables. As a response, the field of behaviouraleconomics has produced an array of so-called choice anomalies, wherepeople seem not to be fully rational. Furthermore, as a consequence of the ”digital revolution”, nowwe harvest data on an unprecedented scale -both in quantity andresolution- that is nurturing the golden age of analytics. This explosionof analytics contributes to reveal fascinating patterns of humanbehaviour and shows that when users face difficult choices, predictionsbased only on observable variables result in wider gaps between observedand predicted behaviour, than predictions including observableand unobservable factors. Impacts of the ”digital revolution” are not limited to data and analyticsbut they have filtered through the whole tissue of society. Forinstance, telecommunications allow users to telework, and telework allowsusers to change their travel patterns, which in turn contributes toincrease the overall system complexity. In addition to the new worlddynamics facilitated by Information and Communications Technology,megatrends such as hyper-urbanization or increase demand of personalisedtransport services are imposing pressures on transport networksat a furious pace, which also contributes to increase the complexity ofthe choices needed in order to navigate the networks efficiently. In an effort to alleviate these pressures, new mobility services suchas electric and autonomous vehicles; bicycle and car sharing schemes;mobility as a service; vacuum rail systems or even flying cars are evolving. Each of these services entails a different set of observable variableslike travel time and cost, but also a completely different set of unobservableones such as expectations, normative beliefs or perceptionsthat will impact user behaviour. Hence, a good understanding of theimpact of underlying, unobservable, factors -especially when servicesare radically different from what users know and have experienced inthe past- will help us to predict user behaviour in uncharted scenarios. Unobservable factors are elusive by nature, hence to incorporatethem into our models is an arduous task. Furthermore, there is evidence showing that the importance of these factors might differ across time and space, as user preferences, perceptions, normative beliefs, etc.are influenced by local conditions and cultures. As a consequence, we have witnessed a surge of interest in behavioural economics over the past two decades, due to its ability to increase the explanatory and predictive power of models based on economic theory by adding a more psychologically plausible foundation. This thesis contributes to the existing body of literature in TransportScience in the areas of user perceptions, measurement errors, and the influence of attitudes and social norms in the adoption of new mobility solutions. The work builds on the behavioural economics theoretical framework, underpinned by economic theory, discrete choice analysis -rational behaviour and random utility maximization-, as well as social and cognitive psychology. Methodological contributions include a framework to systematically test differences in user preferences for a set of public transport modes, relating to observed and unobserved attributes; and a framework to assess the magnitude of unobservable measurement errors in the input variables of large-scale travel demand models. On an empirical dimension, findings support the existence of a ”rail factor”, the impact of modelling assumptions on parameter estimates of hybrid choice models, the presence of larger measurement errors in the cost variables than in the time variables, -which in turn translates into diluted parameters that under-estimate the response to pricing interventions-, and that the model with the best fit does not guarantee better parameter estimates. Therefore, I expect this thesis to be of interest not only to modellers, but also to decision makers; and that its findings will contribute to the design of the mobility solutions that users need and desire, but also that will benefit society as a whole.

  • 3.
    Rubensson, Isak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics. Trafikförvaltningen, Region Stockholm.
    Making Equity in Public Transport Count2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Political and public focus on equity and justice outcomes of public policies is on the rise all over the world. Equity is both philosophically motivated and often decreed by law and in planning directives to be monitored when policies are changed, however oftentimes these equity assessments are vague, qualitative and carries low weight in policy decision processes. For the public transport administrator, all decisions on operations, fare management and subsidies have distributional consequences forming the equity outcomes of public transport provision. In this thesis distributional outcomes of public transport subsidies, fare schemes, transport quality provision and public transport accessibility are studied quantitatively. New methodology is developed with regard to assignment of subsidy level per individual trip, graphics on geographical fare distribution and a measure of vertical distribution. Some findings are that public transport subsidies have low horizontal but high vertical equity, that flat fares – contrary to much of the literature- have high vertical equity when cities have high income residents living centrally. Women place higher weight on crowding as a quality issue, older passengers put both higher weight and higher satisfaction on low time variability while young passengers are less satisfied with and places lower weight on personnel attitude. And that accessibility, controlled for how densely populated and central the residence-area is, has a vertically equitable distribution.

  • 4.
    Fernandez Abenoza, Roberto
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Satisfaction with Public Transport Trips2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous urban growth, environmental issues, competition for limited space, longer commuting distances as well as the need to promote equity and equality in society are the primary reasons that make the improvement of public transport (PT) services a key policy area in many countries across the globe. Travel satisfaction measures the perceived quality of the PT service and it is an important aspect that operators and PT authorities need to consider when improving the service offered.Desk research identified a number of important issues that previous studies had neglected. These knowledge gaps include the investigation of: (a) the evolution over time of the determinants (service attributes) of travel satisfaction, (b) the main determinants of travel satisfaction for different traveler segments and travel modes; (c) the most relevant part of door-to-door trips for different types of trip configurations; (d) the impact on the travel experience of weather, accessibility and proximity measures and built-environment characteristics of the first mile of the trip; (e) the [non]linear and [a]symmetric nature of the relationship between PT service attributes and overall travel satisfaction for different travelers and travel modes.The five papers included in this doctoral thesis present an array of approaches and methodologies aiming at increasing overall travel satisfaction with PT services while covering the knowledge gaps that previous research failed to address.Paper I, investigates the determinants of PT satisfaction and their evolution over time (2001-2013). The results show that: a) customer interface and operation, and at a lesser extent trip duration are the quality of service attributes that need to be prioritized; b) while satisfaction, in general, remains rather constant, relative importance fluctuates year after year. However, the QoSAs remain in the same quadrant of the priority map and thus the determinants of travel satisfaction stay invariable.Paper II, reduces the diversity of needs and priorities of Swedish travelers to 5 distinctive multi-modal travelers’ segments. Considering the importance attached to service attributes, these travelers’ segments exhibit geographical disparities and in between-groups overall similarity. Nevertheless, some noticeable differences can be observed. Service attributes’ importance levels reveal overall changes in appreciations and consumption goals over time. The more frequent PT user segments are more satisfied across the board and are characterized by a more balanced distribution of attribute importance while one of the groups - rural motorist commuters - is markedly dissatisfied with the service operation attributes.Paper III, first aims to understand how travelers combine trip legs’ satisfactions into an overall evaluation of their trip, and then to investigate the relative importance of satisfaction with access, main and egress segments for the entire door-to-door travel experience. A number of both normative and heuristic satisfaction aggregation rules are tested for different types of trip configurations. The results show that normative rules can better reproduce overall travel satisfaction than heuristic rules, indicating that all trip legs need to be considered when evaluating the overall travel experience. In particular, weighting satisfaction with individual trip legs with perceived trip leg durations yield the best predictor of overall travel satisfaction, especially when applying a penalty for each waiting time of 3 or 4 times in- vehicle or walking time.Paper IV, investigates the impact that built-environment, accessibility and weather characteristics from the access stage of the trip have on the overall travel experience. This is done in two geographical contexts (urban and peri-urban and rural) and with models regarding the last and the overall trips. The results indicate that perceptual and non-perceptual built-environment variables have a rather weak effect in the overall satisfaction. Safety feelings around PT stations/stops have an effect on the overall travel experience while safety feelings related to travelers’ neighborhood of residence have none. Accessibility results indicate that living in an area that is well-connected to all other areas, and in particular to the attractive ones, has a positive impact on the overall travel experience. Most of the tested weather conditions at the time of the start of the trip exert an impact on travel satisfaction.Based on the three-factor theory, Paper V classifies quality of service attributes regarding their influence (positive, negative or both) on overall travel satisfaction. The analysis is done for different traveler segments and travel modes and presented in the form of a series of three-level cubes. For a general travel, attributes that can mainly bring dissatisfaction when they are not well-provided are, staff and assistance and ticket accessibility (basic factor). These are followed by attributes that can provide both satisfaction and dissatisfaction in a similar way and depending on their performance level (performance factor). Performance attributes are related to operational aspects (trip duration and operation) and safety perceptions while traveling. Quality of service attributes that can mainly bring satisfaction when they are well provided are network and on-board conditions (exciting factor). Important differences are found in the attribute factor classification between travel modes and segments which indicates that a “one size fits all” approach is not recommendable to adopt.This set of papers can help authorities to better evaluate and cater for travelers’ needs by supporting the allocation of resources and prioritizing policy measures in the most impactful part of the door-to-door trip and to the most important factors.

  • 5.
    Prelipcean, Adrian Corneliu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    MEILI: Multiple Day Travel Behaviour Data Collection, Automation and Analysis2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers' pursuit for the better understanding of the dynamics of travel and travel behaviour led to a constant advance in data collection methods. One such data collection method, the travel diary, is a common proxy for travel behaviour and its use has a long history in the transportation research community. These diaries summarize information about when, where, why and how people travel by collecting information about trips, and their destination and purpose, and triplegs, and their travel mode. Whereas collecting travel diaries for short periods of time of one day was commonplace due to the high cost of conducting travel surveys, visionary researchers have tried to better understand whether travel and travel behaviour is stable or if, and how, it changes over time by collecting multiple day travel diaries from the same users. While the initial results of these researchers were promising, the high cost of travel surveys and the fill in burden of the survey participants limited the research contribution to the scientific community. Before identifying travel diary collection methods that can be used for long periods of time, an interesting phenomenon started to occur: a steady decrease in the response rate to travel diaries. This meant that the pursuit of understanding the evolution of travel behaviour over time stayed in the scientific community and did not evolve to be used by policy makers and industrial partners.

    However, with the development of technologies that can collect trajectory data that describe how people travel, researchers have investigated ways to complement and replace the traditional travel diary collection methods. While the initial efforts were only partially successful because scientists had to convince people to carry devices that they were not used to, the wide adoption of smartphones opened up the possibility of wide-scale trajectory-based travel diary collection and, potentially, for long periods of time. This thesis contributes among the same direction by proposing MEILI, a travel diary collection system, and describes the trajectory collection outlet (Paper I) and the system architecture (Paper II). Furthermore, the process of transforming a trajectory into travel diaries by using machine learning is thoroughly documented (Papers III and IV), together with a robust and objective methodology for comparing different travel diary collection system (Papers V and VI). MEILI is presented in the context of current state of the art (Paper VIII) and the researchers' common interest (Paper IX), and has been used in various case studies for collecting travel diaries (Papers I, V, VI, VII). Finally, since MEILI has been successfully used for collecting travel diaries for a period of one week, a new method for understanding the stability and variability of travel patterns over time has been proposed (Paper X).

  • 6.
    Langbroek, Joram H.M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Understanding processes and travel behaviour changes connected to electric vehicle adoption2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electric vehicles (EVs) has the potential to increase the sustainability of the transport system, especially in case of unchanged or decreased car use, eco-driving and charging during hours of low electricity demand in case of an electricity generation mix with a large share of renewable energy sources. However, EVs still use much energy and EV-use does not solve problems regarding accessibility, social equity, traffic safety and has only a limited beneficial effect on liveability (e.g. through decreased noise). The focus of this study is on the process of the transition from conventional vehicle use to electric vehicle use. Economic and socio-psychological theories have been used in order to get more insight into the motivations for people to start using EVs, the process of EV-adoption and travel behaviour, as well as the interaction between car users, the electric vehicle and policy measures. The aim is to better understand the ongoing transition process to EV-use and the potential behavioural implications of this transition. This study is largely based on a two-wave survey that has been deployed among active car drivers in the metropolitan area of Stockholm, Sweden. In total, 294 respondents have participated in the first wave of the study, while 269 respondents have completed all waves. Besides this survey, one paper of this study is based on another two-wave survey that has been deployed among people renting a car on the island of Gotland, Sweden. In total, 158 respondents have participated in the first wave of this study, while 69 respondents have completed all waves. Electric vehicle adoption implies a considerable initial investment and a behavioural change because of range limitations. Therefore, the change towards electric vehicle use could be considered as a process rather than an event. Using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (Paper 1), it has been iv found that certain socio-economical, behavioural and socio-psychological determinants are correlated with being in a more advanced stage-of-change. Knowledge levels and self-efficacy for electric vehicle use are increasing from stage to stage. The level of response efficacy increases from stage to stage for the non-EV users, but is slightly lower for the group of EV-users that might have a more realistic view of the range and energy use of EVs. There is no direct effect between environmental awareness and stage-of-change, but there is an indirect effect through goal intention to decrease one’s CO2-emissions. In this study (Paper 2), it has also been found that the respondents using EVs make more trips on average and that they also use the car for a larger share of their total distance travelled. The differences in the number of trips and modal share of the car are statistically significant even after controlling for socio-economic variables, which might imply a rebound effect. The risk for a rebound effect is also explainable because of the fact that the marginal cost of EV-use is considerably lower than the marginal cost of conventional car use. Another potential reason for increased car use is the extremely good image that the EV has. It has been found that the EV is perceived to be more environmentally friendly than conventional cars, which was expected, but also more environmentally friendly than public transport modes. Policy makers in many countries provide incentives to make EVs more attractive. Using a stated choice experiment (Paper 3), the effects of several potential policy incentives on EV-adoption has been investigated in this study. Both purchase-based benefits and use-based benefits have a significant positive effect on EV-adoption. Purchase-based benefits intervene with the high investment costs of EVs, while use-based benefits intervene with the already low marginal costs of EV-use. Use-benefits, incentives that are given to EV-users in some countries, such as free parking or access to bus lanes, further decreases the marginal cost of EV-use, increasing the risk for rebound effects. On the other hand, the study shows v that use-based benefits do have a large effect on EV-adoption. Including the stage-of-change of the respondents, EV-adoption rates increase in the stated choice experiment for people in more advanced stages-of-change. However, the price-sensitivity decreases for people in more advanced stages-of-change. Also people with a high self-efficacy and response efficacy are more likely to adopt EVs. Seen from a policy perspective, it might be more efficient to provide use-benefits rather than purchase based benefits. However, there is a risk for a rebound effect because of the decrease of the already low marginal costs of EV-use. Because current electric vehicle users are a small part of the population, future EV-use has also been investigated using stated adaptation methods. Two stated adaptation experiments have been carried out: one concentrating on travel patterns and one on charging patterns. The first stated adaptation experiment (Paper 4/5) was carried out among all respondents, taking the initial travel patterns registered in a one-day travel diary as a starting point. The respondents got scenarios with a kilometre budget that was based on the travel distances during the one-day travel diary day. In case of shortage of range or perceived range limitations, different behavioural alterations have been selected, among trip cancellation, destination change and change of travel mode towards alternative travel modes were most frequently selected. Non-mandatory activities were more likely to be cancelled, as well as trips for which the public transport alternative is rather unattractive in terms of travel time and number of transfers. In case of abundant range and an electricity cost that is five times lower than the fuel cost per kilometre, a non-negligible number of additional trips has been reported, predominantly leisure trips and shopping trips. Besides, for a number of trips, a modal shift “towards the car” has been registered for a non-negligible number of trips, the majority of them being trips to work or school which are often carried out during rush vi hour. So, the existence of a rebound effect under the condition of abundant range has been confirmed. Charging behaviour has a significant effect on the sustainability of EV-use. The timing of charging events can increase peaks in electricity demand or fill the valleys of electricity demand. In this study (Paper 6), it has been investigated when people prefer to start a four-hour charging event and how temporal price differentiation influences these preferences. Based on this study, it has been found that the afternoon rush hour is by far the most preferred charging time if the price for charging events is fixed throughout the day. However, temporal price differentiation significantly affects preferred charging time. Both the existence and degree of temporal price differentiation matters: different behavioural responses were observed using two different price differentiation schemes: a high level of price differentiation causes the majority of charging events to move to night time. In the final paper of this thesis (Paper 7), it has been investigated whether electric vehicle rental affects the process of electric vehicle adoption as described in Paper 1. Using a before-after study, the long-term effects of renting an EV on the Swedish island of Gotland has been investigated. The results of this study show that EV-rental does not seem to significantly affect the stage-of-change towards EV-adoption. However, there seems to be a selection effect: the EV is more likely to be selected as a rental car if the rental guest is in a more advanced stage-of-change. Besides, the driving patterns of EV rental cars do not differ much from those of ICEV rental cars, which is an indicator of EVs being adequate for EV-rental in Gotland.

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