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  • 1.
    Ahlberg, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Frid, Julia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Automation and Autonomy: Developing and Evaluating Open Learning Material on IR Cameras in Automation Applications2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis project was based on the development and evaluation of an open learning material in thermal imaging for automation applications. The outsourcer – FLIR Systems – wanted a three-day course covering all necessary topics for infrared cameras in automation applications. These topics include thermography, optics, detectors, networks, protocols, and more. The open learning material was designed to function as a three-day, self-paced, distance course, and it was based on theories of andragogy, self-directed learning and transformative learning. The master thesis process was essentially divided into two phases: the development phase and the evaluation phase. The method for the development phase was based on a literature study. The literature on creating open learning material included ways of compensating for the lack of social interaction in distance courses, such as a friendly, warm narrator using the pronoun “I”, encouraging phrases, and self-assessment questions (SAQs). An SAQ is a framing of question intended to guide the learner towards self-assessment of his or her learning and knowledge. The vital part of the SAQ is the response, where not only the correct answer is given, but feedback on the wrong choices too. The development of the open learning material was an iterative process where discussion with supervisors at FLIR Systems and KTH Royal Institute of Technology led to improvements of the material.

    The evaluation phase consisted of two tests with test subjects. The first test was conducted by sending a sample unit of the material to test subjects around the world along with a questionnaire. The main objective was to test the tone and style of the material. There were variations in the result, but the majority found the material friendly and readable. The second test was an in-house test with three participants. Three sample units of the material was used, and the main objective was to test the usability of the material and the test subjects’ perceived learning process. The usability of the material varied with the three test subjects and depended on their technological prerequisites and reading comprehension in English. All test subjects responded positively to their perceived learning outcome.

    The following conclusions were drawn: the open learning material has the potential to promote autonomous and self-directed learners and can be used as a basis for further development – such as web-based courses and teacher-led classes.

    The open learning material as a whole and the results and analysis from the tests are included as appendices.

  • 2.
    Altayy, Fares
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Schmied, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Stimulering av kritiskt tänkande och kollaboration i en programmeringsorienterad fysik- och matematiklaboration: En fallstudie med studenter från programmet Teknisktbasår (KTH)2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims to develop a proposal for educational material in the form of a programming-oriented Physics and Mathematics lab. The target group is mainly students from the second semester in the Technical Preparatory Year program (KTH), but also students of equivalent knowledge level (for example, students in the upper secondary school- natural science program). The lab was designed to create opportunity for students to:1) apply critical thinking, 2) demonstrate collaboration, 3) increase subject understanding. The proposed educational material comprises computational physics, where a non linear differential equation derived from a mathematical pendulum is solved using numerical methods. The exercises in the lab were formulated with critical thinking in mind and pair programming was used as the context for collaboration. In this paper 1) and 2) were investigated in an educational setting with students from the second semester of the Technical Preporatory Year (KTH). The conversations of four student groups were recorded and a content analysis was performed on the transcriptions of the audio recordings. A pattern matching method was used to strengthen the conclusions. Based on the results of the research project, we found that the theoretical proposition that the construction of the laboratory work has contributed to the collaboration and application of critical thinking by the students,has been strengthened.

  • 3.
    Artjomenkov, Nikolai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Laborativt arbete inom fourieranalys och motivation till matematikinlärning: Utvärdering och vidareutveckling av en laboration inom fourieranalys och ljudbehandling vid Vetenskapens Hus2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the ability of a lab exercise in House of Science (Vetenskapens Hus),Stockholm, to create bridges between upper-secondary school students’ knowledge, university mathematics and practical application of that knowledge, thus increasing their motivation and interest to learn more mathematics and physics. The topic of the lab exercise is Fourier analysis and its practical application in Digital Sound Processing (DSP). The lab exercise deals with mathematics, physics and IT-technology thus making the activity interdisciplinary.

    An important part of the work is also to improve this lab exercise based on the results of this study. The result is based on qualitative data from interviews, questionnaires filled by students and their teachers and also on literature studies. Some data is also collected through an iterative process of improving the lab exercise.

    This report starts with justification for conducting this work, setting the goals and objectives and formulating main questions. Then the methods, which were used in order to answer these questions, are described. The middle part of the report summarizes literature and research studies in education, interest and motivation of students and also summarizes a scientific basis for the content of the school program in Fourier analysis. Next, the development process of the school program is described. This is followed by a presentationof the results of testing the school program with upper secondary school students with regard to how their interest and motivation are affected by it. The report ends with a discussion of these results and its credibility.

    The result shows that the final version of the lab exercise, that is modified within the framework of this study, wakes students’ interest and motivation towards the topic of the exercise. The result also shows that some complex concepts (both new and those which are learned in school) become clearer for the students after the exercise which could potentiallylead to an increase in their motivation for learning the mathematics and physics in general. The problem is that the lab exercise was tested on too few classes for being able to generalize the result over the whole target group of the upper-secondary school students.

  • 4.
    Attorps, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Eng, Johanna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Att undervisa om och för hållbar utveckling: Utveckling av ett ämnesövergripande övningsmaterial till gymnasiet om plast och intressekonflikter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the development has gone from a fact-based environmental education to teachingon sustainable development that will not only deal with facts, but also values, feelings and the challenges facing the world. The complexity of teaching about sustainable development combined with what teachers are expected to include in their subjects puts great pressure on them, because many lack or believe they lack knowledge about sustainable development and how to teach about it. This contributes to teachers teaching about sustainable development to a lesser extent than expected from the global goals and curriculum.

    With that as a basis, this study aims to reduce that gap by developing an education material that can be used across subjects in high school. Important didactic aspects and knowledge aspects derived from interviews with active high school teachers and researchers in polymer technology. From the interviews with the teachers, it emerged that the students should be given the opportunity to discuss, see different perspectives, and that the teachers should include areas that the students care about and can relate to. The most central that emerged in the interviews with the researchers were the conflicts that revolves around plastic, such as how waste management is to be handled, distribution of land use and how responsibility for littering should be distributed. This, together with didactic research and current science onplastic, resulted in three exercises with conflicts of interest as a pervasive theme where students are given the opportunity to develop several important skills needed to achieve theglobal goals.

  • 5.
    Bern, Caroline
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Bedömning av kompetens i tekniska karriärspår: En fallstudie om hur föreställningar om kompetens, kompetensbedömning och karriär påverkar organisationers möjlighet att skapa inkludering och mångfald2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Having a diverse workforce has become an important issue in today’s organizations in order to capture a wide range of competence, skills and abilities. Today many companies encourage work with diversity and inclusion since they argue that it increases creativity and, in extent, company profit. However, many companies struggle to manage such work in a successful way. A method of creating the prerequisites for diversity and inclusion is to study the perception of competence and assessment processes. Assessment of competence is, for example, the basis for decision making in career advancement. The assessment requires one to decide on what competence is and in turn who is competent. The complexity of the concept of competence and norms being a part of the assessment process complicates such decisions. As an attempt to ensure that competence is assessed objectively, many companies apply different formalized procedures for inclusion and diversity work. This study aims to provide a deeper understanding of how career, assessment of competence and formalized procedures interact.

    A case study has been carried out in an engineering industry, which is referred to in the report as Organization A. The purpose of the study was to examine how formalized technical careers affect organizations' ability to create inclusion and diversity, based on perceptions of competence, competence assessment and career. To fulfil the purpose, the following two questions were stated.

    1. How are technical careers structured?
    2. What conditions do technical careers create for equal assessment of competence?

    In the study, a technical career path has been investigated within Organization A. The thesis is part of a MSc in Engineering and Education at KTH. The engineering part of the work is reflected in the technical point of view of the work where an organization with technology-intensive activities has been placed in focus. The educational part of my degree is applied by relating the organization's technical career paths to similar organizations in education, discussing similarities and differences in assessment processes. In order to answer the research questions, interviews with employees and focus groups with managers within Organization A have been conducted. The study shows how technical careers are organized based on formal and informal structures related to assessment of competence and norms affecting assessment processes. The observed technical career path within Organization A is based on an informal pyramid structure that allows for subjective perceptions of the purpose and goals of the career. This enables a view of employees' different capabilities to reach higher levels and is therefore problematized from a diversity and inclusion perspective.

    The assessment criteria of the career path provide room for interpretation and there is no education or support for managers how the criteria should be interpreted and applied. It is a result of a lack of management required to ensure that the career process is used the intended way. The shortcoming contributes to the fact that norms and prejudices can continue to influence the assessment process. The organization's implemented diversity and inclusion work provide some management but is done without caution. Processes of change requires follow-up and evaluation which is lacking. The organization can learn from what in learning research is addressed as formative assessment. The study shows a shortcoming in all three key parts included in formative assessment. Based on stated conclusions, recommendations are given to Organization A to question the purpose of the pyramid structure and to apply clearer management in terms of education and forums for collaboration. Additionally, recommendations are given for how the organization can apply formative assessment in career assessment processes.

  • 6.
    Berntsen, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Bäckström, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Viktiga komponenter i e-lektioner: Implementation och evaluering av redigeringsverktyg för att skapa e-lektioner2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the ages, major technical breakthroughs have on several occasions been integrated into education, but each new technology has its strengths and weaknesses. With the development of the computer and its increased accessibility to the public, the amount of available teaching material (Clark & Mayer, 2016) and the number of students who are studying courses in e-learning has increased (Statista, 2015). E-learning is then, according to Clark & Mayer’s (2016) definition, learning that takes place through a digital medium. One possibility that arises with e-learning is that there are many ways of presenting material. One problem that arises then is to know which components should be used to create good e-lessons that promote student learning. The aim of the study is to identify which components are important for content creators to use in e-lessons and then, based on these components, develop an editing tool designed to create new e-lessons. To identify the appropriate components, a thematic analysis was first carried out on e-lessons from a learning platform in order to examine which components the instructional designers use to present material. Qualitative interviews were conducted to capture the instructional designers’ ideas and opinions regarding the components. These ideas and opinions were used together with the results of the thematic analysis to make didactic choices about which components are suitable for use in e-lessons. The development of the editing tool was done by creating multiple prototypes and discussing them with the instructional designers to determine the appearance of the components in the tool. From the thematic analysis, 7 themes emerged with a total of 22 sub-themes. The results of the didactic choices were 12 main components, for instance: text, image, video, quiz and examples. The editing tool that was built contains all 12 main components, but some components still lack some parts described in the didactic choices. The tool was evaluated by instructional designers who thought it worked but had some shortcomings that needs to be addressed.For the instructional designer to be able to use the editing tool to create and publish new e-lessons on the platform, the tool needs to be integrated into the platform, all components need to be completed and user experience improved.

  • 7.
    Berzell, Love
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Hamlin, Magdalena
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Undervisning om hållbar utveckling: Utveckling, implementering och utvärdering av ett lärarstöd2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development has a prominent role in the curriculum for Swedish primary school and the ambition is that sustainable development will permeate the school’s work. Though it has been showed that teachers think that implementation of sustainable development is difficult to execute in practice. Perceived obstacles are, for instance, lack of time, knowledge within the area and inspiring examples and that sustainable development is fragmentedly presented in the curriculum. This leads to the fact that sustainable development is in practice either dealt with as small, separate units which in turns leads to the fact that students do not see the context, or with transdisciplinary teaching in specific themes that demands much time that teachers have difficulties to find time to teach all other matter in the curriculum.

    In this study a set-up of two teaching tutorials have been developed and evaluated in order to give a basis for a new teaching support, “Rädda vattnet – Rädda världen” (Swedish, “Save the water – Save the world”). The support can contribute to give the students a more holistic understanding of sustainable development, that is to say a more interdisciplinary understanding, if the teaching support is further developed. The two teaching tutorials were developed within the water-, chemistry- and technology related areas “plastics in the oceans” and “acidification”. They were then evaluated with help of a focus group interview consisting of teachers for grade 4-6 who had tested the teaching tutorials with their students.

    Four aspects that the teachers thought were significant for the applicability were identified, namely that the teaching support:

    • Make the students think it is fun

    • Is teaching content that are authentic and/or exists in the curriculum

    • Is simple for the teacher to use

    • Take time consumed and other frame factors into consideration (for example size of the student group).

  • 8.
    Björkman, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Joelsson, Yuri
    The Technical Innovation System of Self-Driving Vehicles in Road Freight Transport: Towards an understanding of Actor Dynamics, Sustainability Outcomes & New Competencies2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, advancements in connectivity, driving automation technology and electrification in combination with changing customer demands have started to rapidly transform the way in which goods are being transported. Following this fast rate of development, self-driving vehicles (SDVs) in road freight transport are anticipated to operate on public streets within the next couple of decades.

     

    The road freight transport sector is particularly feasible and attractive for driving automation technology. In this sector, there are strong economic incentives and rationales to implement SDVs in road freight transport as it presents possibilities to eliminate or drastically reduce driver costs, optimize vehicle usage rates and improve energy efficiency. Widespread adoption of SDVs is especially feasible for so called node-to-node freight transport flows, carried out between important logistics hubs. Node-to-node road freight transport is characterised by repetitive and predictive flows of goods, conducted in less complex driving environments such as highways and industrial areas.

     

    Although SDVs are predicted to bring significant impacts to the transport system and society, research on the potential influence of commercial use cases of SDVs in road freight transport is scarce. Research aiming to provide an overview of how different type of actors are involved in shaping the development, deployment and future operations of SDVs in road freight transport is also limited.

     

    This paper provides an understanding of system-level impacts of SDVs in node-to-node road freight transportation. It also provides a synthesized view of opportunities and barriers that actors are facing in relation to a large scale use of SDVs in road freight transport.  This understanding makes it possible for stakeholders to identify expectations, needs, policies and strategies to govern a sustainable transitions of the transport system. In addition, the paper provides an investigation of requirements for new knowledge and competencies along with development.

     

    By using technical innovation systems (TIS) as a theoretical approach for the study, different components and aspects of the Swedish freight transport system are described and analysed in relation to SDV development and innovations. The TIS framework consists of a set of system components involved in the generation, diffusion and utilisation of a technology, and the relationships between the components. TIS components include actors, institutions, and networks, where networks describe the relationships between actors and institutions.  In the paper, Sweden is used as case study. The results are based on 19 qualitative interviews with representatives from a broad spectrum of actors all being part of, or expected to be part of, a road freight transport system where SDVs is a central component.

     

    By analysing the interview results using the TIS framework, one of the main findings is that the public sector together with truck manufacturers are key actors in governing and enabling a commercialization of SDVs in road freight transport. Truck manufacturers have a great power in shaping the system by driving the technical development of SDVs, while government agencies are responsible for regulations and guidelines influencing the direction of development.

     

    The results further indicate that the introduction of SDVs in road freight transport would imply changing dynamics between the actors and other components of the TIS. One example is the role of road carriers and freight forwarders who are currently two of the most central actors in the freight transport system. In a transport system with SDVs, those actors may become less influential. Likewise, actors that are currently not having a central role in the freight transport system may become more influential. For instance, SDVs can catalyse a development towards electrification. This is a way of expanding the system boundaries and implies that new actors, such as energy companies and fuel retailing companies, begin to investigate how they could develop their business models to become a part of an evolving market. This is important in order to be able to compete and engage in a system with SDVs.

     

    Another finding is that there is a consensus among interviewed actors that SDVs must be adapted to the existing road infrastructure system rather than the other way around. At the same time, a completely new digital infrastructure system is being created around SDVs, which is necessary to handle the large amounts of data required for SDVs to operate. Furthermore, the connection between electrification and automation is somewhat ambiguous - some claim that there is clear symbiosis between the two technologies while others argue that they just happen coincided in time.

     

    Finally, the results indicate a lack of holistic and systematic perspectives among the actors on how the development and deployment of SDVs could contribute to sustainability in the freight transport system. It is critical to at this early state of implementation govern and shape technological development and business models in a direction that ensures a sustainable path for a future transport system with SDVs.

  • 9.
    Bouvin, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Mattsson, Patrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Språkdidaktiska metoder i programmeringsundervisning: En undersökning av möjligheten att anpassa språkdidaktik till programmeringsundervisningen i den svenska gymnasieskolan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From 2018, programming courses will be made available for all students in upper secondary school (Sweden). This highlights the need for working and well-defined teaching methods that are adapted for students with different background and experiences in technology. Programming is a formal language unlike Swedish or English that are natural languages. Research shows that when we interpret programming code, the language center of our brain is more active in comparison with regions of the brain that are more connected with logical and mathematical thinking. In this report we investigate the relationship between formal and natural languages in order to evaluate the extent to which language leaching methods can be applied to programming education. To get an overview of how programming education is currently structured, we conducted interviews which were then analyzed from a qualitative perspective. These interviews make it possible to understand the conditions of learning situations in computer education, and what the main difficulties in today's programming classroom are. The scope of this study is limited to introductory programming, more specifically in the Swedish upper secondary school. The result shows that the biggest difficulty for students in introductory programming, is to program without syntax becoming too much of a time-consuming struggle. In addition, the interviews show that teachers in programming courses have little research-based methods to use in their teaching in order to address these difficulties. In our study we find that only a subset of the syllabus of introductory programming can be dealt with using language teaching methods. To increase students' understanding of programming language syntax, the student should be exposed to many examples of programming code. Through these code examples the students are enabled to process the programming language in order to extract the syntax rules of the current language. An obvious step in this process consists of the students' memorizing these lines of code. This way the students' syntax error rate can be reduced.

    An additional challenge when teaching in introductory programming is the confusion of concepts that can occur in a conflict between the Swedish and English languages. It is therefore important to allow the students to reflect upon the semantic meaning of keywords, concepts and commands in a programming language. Through reading of code examples, the students can also get a feeling of how programming code is best structured and commented in order to aid readability. With our proposed approach to teaching programming, we want to inspire to new ways of thinking about programming education, but we also want to leave a bit of space for practice and further research for those interested in the world of programming and computer education.

  • 10.
    Brunday, Helene
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Imitera mera: nyttan av färdiga exempellösningar i matematikundervisning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been conducted due to the need of a boost of the Swedish school's mathematics education. The aim has been to be able to show an idea of how high school mathematics education can be customized as a result of an extended and more targeted use of sample solutions. This has been done by introducing an alternative teaching method into two classes at a secondary school in Stockholm. The students has then performed mathematical tests with and/or without the alternative teaching method. In addition to mathematical tests, interviews and surveys have been conducted. The results of the study indicate that students' performance increase when teaching with sample solutions. Furthermore, the study points out that those who are most successful in raising their mathematical results often are the students who usually perform the weakest in regular education. The study also shows that students with different academic background appreciate to work with sample solutions, and can find their own way in how to use them. To summarize, this work indicates that sample solutions can be used as an element in mathematics education, for example, when introducing new procedures or theories in order to easier and less time-consuming provide students with the support they need and require.

  • 11.
    Bång, Olivia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Teknik på Youtube: En diskursanalys av teknik i Youtubevideor2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technology as a subject in Swedish high schools faces many problems. The subjects purpose and content has gone through significant changes over the years, and today (2018) less than half of all active teachers possess the right qualifications. There is therefore a need to aid these teachers in planning and executing their classes, to ensure a quality education for our pupils.

    With the assumption that a big part of learning is to be able to connect knowledge gathered outside of school to the academic knowledge acquired in school, the purpose of this paper was to analyse which technological discourses high school pupils could acquire outside of school. These discourses were then compared to the technological discourses that can be found in schools, to help aid the technology teachers’ planning of their classes.

    To find out where pupils are exposed to technology discourses on their free time, this paper looked to the social video-sharing platform, Youtube. Practically all Swedish kids between the ages of 12 to 15 use Youtube, and 86 % of them use it every day. At Swedish award shows the Swedish Youtuber and Influencer Therese Lindgren won titles such as Youtuber of the year and the Kids favourite vlogger. Therese Lindgrens Youtube series, “Therese testar teknik”, won the title of Series of the year. This seems to tell us that Therese Lindgren and her show “Therese testar teknik” are popular among kids and could potentially influence their view of technology.

    A selection of episodes from the series were picked to be analysed, to find out which technological discourse was represented in these videos, and how it compared to the discourses in schools. The results showed that the videos presented technology comparable to schools, but with some differences in focus. In the videos, technology was presented as the artefacts and systems of artefacts used in an activity to solve a problem or a task, that were affected by natural sciences and affected society.

    Aside from the parts of the technology discourse that was comparable to the ones in schools, the videos also presented emotions connected to technology, through non-verbal communication. The videos presented technology as something fun and exciting, something that can influence the viewers’ own attitude towards technology.

  • 12.
    Bårman, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Den didaktiska formeln för(Matematik)Idrottselev: En diskursanalys på ett idrottsgymnasium2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish model of elite sports secondary schools consist of Riksidrottsgymnasium, RIG,and National Sports Education Programs, NIU, which offer a training program with specialized sports to student-athletes in order for them to combine sport and study. The underlying philosophy for the model is seen as creating “winners in the long run” in preparingstudent-athletes for a post-athletic career, as well as coping with current demands to optimise development in an elite sporting career. For young student-athletes to successfully combine elite sport and study, it is important tohave a holistic perspective. Previous research in “dual careers” is based on the holistic perspective that describes the importance of a balance between sport, school and private life. The studies point out that the student-athlete has a challenging life situation to manage andit is important for the young student-athlete to feel good to be able to perform both in sportand study. The various research studies are based on and emphasize the sport, the sportenvironments and coaches. They put focus on the importance of the education and theimportance of the holistic perspective of sport, school and private life but do not go into depthhow the teacher's teaching or the student's way of learning should be designed for best results.

    This discourse analysis is defined as “mathematics at an elite sport secondary school”. The research question which shapes the given discourse reads: “What are the didactic perspectives in the student-athlete's educational environment, especially in mathematics teaching, seen as discourse?” The math teachers and the student-athletes are put into focus and the study investigates how they describe the math education at the RIG-school. The study is based onthe didactic perspective/teaching perspective in the student-athlete's educational environment. Data for the study was collected through interviews with math teachers and a questionnairefor student-athletes, at a RIG-school with approximately 60 student-athletes, during thespring of 2019.In the results of the analysis, the norms of the discourse, highly valued positions and dilemmaappear as five themes: “the important math-subject”, “the good student-athlete”, “thedilemma of the student-athlete's absence”, “strategies for support” and “the ambiguity of theform of the mathematics education”.

    These findings point to the fact that an ideal image of a successful student-athlete is clearly presented, that the math-subject is valued important and difficult based on its tradition and that the specific study form for mathematics education for student-athletes lacks a clear form. The model that is applied for the mathematics education at the RIG-school can be describedas teacher-led classroom education supplemented with various adaptations to facilitate the student-athletes' self-studies. In this study the discursive analysis also point out the success factors, which are summarized as the student-athletes' high responsibility, motivation and ability to plan and carry out self studies as well as the math teachers' various adaptations and support to facilitate the student athletes' self-studies.

  • 13.
    Bölin, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Tingsborg, Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Matematiklärares användning av lärplattformar vid bedömning: En undersökning av gymnasielärares arbete2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish school is being digitized and many schools use digital learning platforms to manage everything from administrative tasks to communication of specific tasks between teachers and students. However, these platforms do not follow any government directives or requirement specifications. Instead the platforms’ design is governed by the school management's expressed needs. This can lead to less fair and equivalent grades on a national scale since the platform dictates how grading is performed and structured to some extent. The goal of this study is twofold. First, it aims to create a deeper understanding of i) how mathematics teachers at the upper secondary school work with assessment in their current teaching practices and ii) teachers experiences of how digital platforms fit into their work with assessment. This study also aims to investigate whether the teachers’ work with assessment follows Skolverket’s (the National Agency for Education in Sweden) directives for assessment. This study limits itself to only examining the work and experiences of teachers in mathematics.

    To investigate teacher’s opinions and experiences of grading, six upper secondary teachers in mathematics were interviewed. Based on the interviews, a questionnaire survey was developed to quantify collected qualitative data. The questionnaire was created digitally and distributed online via social media to practicing teachers. 50 teachers answered the questionnaires. A comparison between the teachers' assessment process and Skolverket's directives and guidelines was performed to problematize structures within the assessment process.

    The study's results show that teachers to a greater extent let students assess their own work if the teachers have access to the tool Kunskapsmatrisen. Most teachers use private spreadsheets for documenting summative assessment. The guidelines set by Skolverket are followed to a wide extent but this can be because the guidelines are designed to cover a broad range of teaching practices. Internal discussions is one of the guidelines that isn’t followed by 18% of teachers while increased discussions and training for teachers could be beneficial for their ability to implement platforms in their work with assessment.

    The study concludes that teachers for the most part are satisfied with their work regarding grading on learning platforms. They appreciate the ability to document results online but express that several improvements still have to be made. The results indicate that the responsibility for the platforms’ shortcomings is partially caused by the schools’ board whom is responsible for purchasing and implementation of platforms. This study offers new viewpoints worth investigating in order to further better the understanding of learning platforms and their role in assessment.

  • 14.
    Fall, Emmeli
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Kirsch, David
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Koden först: Utformning av ett induktivt introduktionsmoment iprogrammering på Tekniskt basår med bakgrund iidentifierade svårigheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018, programming became an integral part of mathematics education in Sweden. However, the choice of how to integrate it with the curriculum remains a decision of the teacher. Consequently, teachers at KTH’s Technical Preparatory Year announced a master’s degree project aiming to design programming labs in mathematics for students attending the program during 2018/2019. The degree project was reformulated to focus on introducing programming without the mathematical context. The aim of this master thesis was to pinpoint earlier students’ difficulties during theintroductory course in programming of their engineering program at KTH. These difficulties would later be the basis of the programming introduction for the current Technical Preparatory Year students. A review of the research literature on the learning of programming identified a number of common areas of concern. In order to collect data to identify our prior students’ difficulties a survey was designed. The data collected in the survey was then categorized through a thematic analysis.The results indicated seven themes of difficulties: abstract, complex, theory, work procedure, programming courses, new and miscellaneous. The results are similar to those found in prior categorizations of programming difficulties. Taking these themes into consideration, a suggestion of the content for the introduction was presented based on ideas from inductive learning and problem based learning. Future research should focus on determining whether the introduction dealt with the difficulties and what the effects were. Furthermore, future research could develop the material for the introduction, in particular how students are assessed.

  • 15.
    Friefeldt, William
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Gullberg, Philip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Nätcoaching som ett komplement till lösningsförslag: En undersökning av en ny digital lärmiljö genomundersökande relation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digital and technical development of the world have been large-scale and people’s day-to day life has changed immensely the last century. In contrast, the Swedish school system has not been seeing the same rapid technical development. As students’ results in mathematic sare declining an approach to battle this trend can be to apply this technological development on students’ studies in mathematics. Therefore, this thesis sought to ease students’ mathematics studies by creating a digital learning environment. By combining worked examples with online coaching the environment was created through the platforms Mathleaks and TalkMath. Then examine how online one-to-one coaching works in this environment. It also sought to analyse how students perceive this teaching environment and if it can be usedas a complement to worked-examples. The environment was created based on pedagogical theories such as Vygotsky's sociocultural perspective, coach theories, synchronous communication as well as theory around one-to-one online coaching. Two methods were used to gather data. First, the conversations were automatically stored in a database. Secondly, a survey was used to gather the students’ opinion of the teaching environment. The framework Relationship of Inquiry was used to analyse all conversations between students and coaches. Students were chosen from an upper secondary school in the ages of 15-18 where one of the authors worked. Results indicated that the teaching environment that was created was a good complement to worked-examples. The environment was shown to help student’s knowledge progression. This shows that digital teaching environments can be a valuable addition for students when studying mathematics.

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Dan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lärares syn på problemformuleringar inom matematik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find and describe teachers’ perceptions of the wording of problems in mathematics tests and specifically how it affects pupil’s ability to present their knowledge at high school level.Interviews were conducted to obtain data for a thematic analysis in order to describe the perceptions of the teachers in these interviews. The empirical data consists of five interviews with high school teachers. Despite the small data set a clear picture is revealed of views and descriptions as such and their implications on students’ ability to show knowledge.

    The teachers perceive that that the wording has an important impact on the students’ ability to interpret or solve problems, i.e. has clear influence on results. They describe that it influences students. They will vary wordings in tests on purpose and perceive that it is a part of the subject’s culture to do so. None of the interviewees try conscientiously to specifically explain for the students how wording should be understood, thus not teached. None of the teachers can recall wording of problems being a part of their educations to become teacher (not included in education of teachers). It emerged as well a perception of ambivalence, e.g. it impacts more weaker students, one is supposed to vary but does not teach how to interpret.

  • 17.
    Hedvall, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lindberg, Helena
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Future perspectives on Challenge Driven Education: Challenging how we perceive and engage external stakeholders in Tanzania and Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The engineering education has changed and evolved over decades in harmonywith societies challenges. Today, sustainable development is of great importanceand one way of equipping future engineers with the competencies to tackle these challenges is through Challenge Driven Education (CDE). CDE is a relatively new educational concept which brings together universities andexternal stakeholders to jointly foster the engineers of tomorrow. The research focuses on the challenge owner’s perspective, which is a sub-category of external stakeholder. The challenge owner could be a company or organisation providing the students with challenges and also takes an active role in the students path to solve them. Through qualitative interviews in Sweden and Tanzania this study investigates some aspects of the CDE concept and develops a product in the form of a guide.First, it was investigated which competencies for sustainability that could be considered important in future engineers, according to interviewees. It was also investigated which competencies were developed during CDE projects. Results show that UNESCO’s key competencies correlates well with interviewees views, justifying the legitimacy of the framework. However, some skills and attributes mentioned in interviews lie outside of UNESCO’s framework but where still considered important. This implies the need to supplement orevolve the framework in order to be a more comprehensive tool for improving CDE and the engineering education.

    Secondly, several differences on how CDE is portrayed and executed where found in the interviews. From the Tanzanian context a somewhat limited view of the challenge owner was identified and findings show possibilities of broadening the perspective of the challenge owner role. Also, findings shows a need to emphasise the importance of sustainable development and societal contributions in the future development of CDE. Lastly, in order to facilitate communication with potential challenge owners in future CDE collaborations in Tanzania, the need for a guide was identified. Using an iterative design method, a guide based on interviewees feedback and the findings from this study was created. The main purpose is to present a widened view of CDE and to inspire potential challenge owners to join.

  • 18.
    Hektor, Matilda
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Livsberättelser åskådliggör minnen om erfarenheter av och uppfattningar om matematik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out how students´ memories about their experiences of mathematics teaching influence their perception of mathematics as subject and mathematics teaching, and if these perceptions can be connected to the chosen learning theories: a socio-cultural, a cognitive and a behavioral learning theory. Another aim of this report is to describe positive and negative positions in relation to the mathematics as subject and mathematics teaching based on students' stories about mathematics teaching.

    The research issues for this study are:

    - How have students´ memories of their experiences contributed to their current perceptions of mathematics as subject?

    - How can students´ memories of their experiences in mathematics be explained according to selected learning theories?

    To obtain empirical data within the study, five individual interviews were conducted with students in 8th grade in a school outside Stockholm. The result is presented in different profiles for the students projected as life stories. The result shows that negative perceptions about the subject were often based on the fact that they did not understand how a task would be solved, and they therefore got stuck. Those who experienced the subject of mathematics negatively experienced that it was That it is easier to compare results and knowledge within mathematics than other subjects, as there often are only one correct answer. The result also shows that the main reason why the students developed a positive opinion in relation to the subject is that they have lived with the feeling that they are able to solve tasks without problems.

    The result also shows that the themes that could be distinguished life stories told by the students were relatable and able to interpret through more than one learning theory. Which may indicate that different theories can explain a good learning and how positive emotions develop to a topic and explain when there is not enough learning which can create knowledge gaps and the development of negative emotions on the subject.

  • 19.
    Höglund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Den svårfångade matematiken: En kritisk analys av den svenska skolmatematiken under åren 1990–20062019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats observeras hur politiker, forskare och experter kraftfullt och enstämmigt ger uttryck för hur viktigt kunskaper i matematik är för såväl den enskilde som för samhället. Samtidigt konstateras hur det i artiklar och rapporter går att läsa hur resultaten sjunker och om hur matematikundervisningen inte bibringar eleverna det kunnande som samhällslivet tycks kräva. Slutsatsen som ofta visar sig dras är att någonting behöver förändras och att felet ligger i själva undervisningsmetoden. Vad som i studien hävdas är att dessa två observationer – å ena sidan den essentiella matematiken och å andra sidan det problemkantade ämnet – står i motsättning till varandra och att kritiken rimligen borde medföra ett ifrågasättande av matematikens starka ställning. Detta verkar dock inte ske, utan studien visar tvärtom på hur kritiken snarare bidrar till att förstärka matematikens redan starka ställning och ge ämnet än mer positiv uppmärksamhet. Forskningsfrågan som ställs är hur denna motsättning upprätthålls. Studien behandlar i huvudsak perioden 1990–2006, men dess resultat kastar förhoppningsvis ljus över även de efterföljande årens skoldebatt. Ett centralt perspektiv i studien är att bilden av matematik – så som den vardagligen uppfattas – är en bild som skolan står bakom och genom sin undervisning får oss alla att ta för given och tro på. Med detta perspektivval möjliggörs en analys där denna bild av matematiken görs till en del av själva studieobjektet utan att, så att säga, stå i vägen och fördunkla.

  • 20.
    Joelsson, Yuri
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Björkman, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    The Technical Innovation System of Self-Driving Vehicles in Road Freight Transport: Towards an understanding of Actor Dynamics, Sustainability Outcomes and New Competencies2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, advancements in connectivity, driving automation technology and electrificationin combination with changing customer demands have started to rapidly transform the way in whichgoods are being transported. Following this fast rate of development, self-driving vehicles (SDVs) inroad freight transport are anticipated to operate on public streets within the next couple of decades.

    The road freight transport sector is particularly feasible and attractive for driving automationtechnology. In this sector, there are strong economic incentives and rationales to implement SDVs inroad freight transport as it presents possibilities to eliminate or drastically reduce driver costs,optimize vehicle usage rates and improve energy efficiency. Widespread adoption of SDVs isespecially feasible for so called node-to-node freight transport flows, carried out between importantlogistics hubs. Node-to-node road freight transport is characterised by repetitive and predictive flowsof goods, conducted in less complex driving environments such as highways and industrial areas.

    Although SDVs are predicted to bring significant impacts to the transport system and society,research on the potential influence of commercial use cases of SDVs in road freight transport is scarce.Research aiming to provide an overview of how different type of actors are involved in shaping thedevelopment, deployment and future operations of SDVs in road freight transport is also limited.

    This paper provides an understanding of system-level impacts of SDVs in node-to-node road freighttransportation. It also provides a synthesized view of opportunities and barriers that actors are facingin relation to a large scale use of SDVs in road freight transport. This understanding makes it possiblefor stakeholders to identify expectations, needs, policies and strategies to govern a sustainabletransitions of the transport system. In addition, the paper provides an investigation of requirementsfor new knowledge and competencies along with development.

    By using technical innovation systems (TIS) as a theoretical approach for the study, differentcomponents and aspects of the Swedish freight transport system are described and analysed inrelation to SDV development and innovations. The TIS framework consists of a set of systemcomponents involved in the generation, diffusion and utilisation of a technology, and therelationships between the components. TIS components include actors, institutions, and networks,where networks describe the relationships between actors and institutions. In the paper, Sweden isused as case study. The results are based on 19 qualitative interviews with representatives from abroad spectrum of actors all being part of, or expected to be part of, a road freight transport systemwhere SDVs is a central component.

    By analysing the interview results using the TIS framework, one of the main findings is that the publicsector together with truck manufacturers are key actors in governing and enabling acommercialization of SDVs in road freight transport. Truck manufacturers have a great power inshaping the system by driving the technical development of SDVs, while government agencies areresponsible for regulations and guidelines influencing the direction of development.

    The results further indicate that the introduction of SDVs in road freight transport would implychanging dynamics between the actors and other components of the TIS. One example is the role ofroad carriers and freight forwarders who are currently two of the most central actors in the freighttransport system. In a transport system with SDVs, those actors may become less influential. Likewise,actors that are currently not having a central role in the freight transport system may become moreinfluential. For instance, SDVs can catalyse a development towards electrification. This is a way ofexpanding the system boundaries and implies that new actors, such as energy companies and fuelretailing companies, begin to investigate how they could develop their business models to become a part of an evolving market. This is important in order to be able to compete and engage in a systemwith SDVs.

    Another finding is that there is a consensus among interviewed actors that SDVs must be adapted tothe existing road infrastructure system rather than the other way around. At the same time, acompletely new digital infrastructure system is being created around SDVs, which is necessary tohandle the large amounts of data required for SDVs to operate. Furthermore, the connection betweenelectrification and automation is somewhat ambiguous - some claim that there is clear symbiosisbetween the two technologies while others argue that they just happen coincided in time.

    Finally, the results indicate a lack of holistic and systematic perspectives among the actors on howthe development and deployment of SDVs could contribute to sustainability in the freight transportsystem. It is critical to at this early state of implementation govern and shape technologicaldevelopment and business models in a direction that ensures a sustainable path for a future transportsystem with SDVs.

  • 21.
    Johannison, Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Uppfattningar hos behörigamatematiklärare om införandet av programmering i högstadietskursplan för matematik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines teachers’ perception of the phenomenon - introduction ofprogramming in the subject of secondary school mathematics. A phenomenographicalapproach has been used as a theoretical framework for this study. Empirical data collectionfor the study has been done from one secondary school.The collected data has been analyzed and there after partitioned into high level themes forwhich description categories have been defined. The teachers’ perceptions are in generallocated in the space that ranges from neutral to negative. The lack of clearly positiveperceptions is significant.

    The results of the thesis essentially point out three description categories: (1) that teachingsomething I do not master myself, neither in terms of content nor didactical, makes meuncertain and can make me feel abandoned, (2) that the mathematics subject feels perfectas is and the programming falls in addition to regular mathematics teaching and (3) thatthe investment is not well thought out but one commits until further notice as managementinvests with commitment and resources.

  • 22.
    Jägbrandt, Sanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lindqvist, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Höja kompetens och medvetenhet inom miljöfrågor: En utveckling av ett utbildningsmaterial för Sandvik AB2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sandvik AB conducts a business which can cause harm on the environment as well onthe human health. In order to decrease these disturbances, the company is controlled by legal requirements and regulations. The company strives against the vision “we set the industry standard” which can be interpreted as if they aim to exceed the legal requirements, also in the sustainability area. These intentions seek to make the company a leading actor in the field. At Sandvik in Sandviken attention was paid to the need of an  environmental education, in order to ensure the continuous environmental work of the company. But also, to be able to meet the requirements and increase the knowledge and competences of the employees. This would be done to support the company’s continued work towards becoming competitive, both against customers and the labor market.

    The project was aiming to create an image and understanding of the employees’ knowledge and competencies in the external environment. At first, a study was conducted to form the basis of the product which has been developed in the form of an educational material. To complete the study, interviews have been held with employees whose duties include responsibility for environmental work at their unit. A thematical analysis has been done based on the interview material, using the didactic questions what, why, for whom and how. In the analysis of the interviews, themes emerge for what an environmental education for the company should contain, why this content is relevant and why an environmental training is needed. The analysis also showed who is working at the company, their prerequisites and how an environmental training could be carried out.

    According to the product development process the result of the study, together with documents and literature studies and focus group interviews with employees has been the basis for the educational material. The proposal presented is divided into six different blocks (introduction, waste, energy, water and sewage, emissions to air together with noise and emissions to land) which all deal with environmental aspects that have emerged as important in the study. The blocks are recommended to be carried out one at a time, continuously for a long time. In addition, it is proposed to focus on the participants’ interaction with each other to promote learning.

  • 23.
    Karlsson, Lisa
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    De kemiska processerna i fotosyntesen: Utveckling av pedagogiskt material för Naturens Hus2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study concerning photosynthesis as a school subject. A part of the study has been to develop an addition to a school program that regards the chemical processes in the photosynthesis. The school program’s name is Regnskogsträd eller Ökenväxter i Edvard Andersons växthus which translates to Rainforest trees or Desert plants in Edvard Andersons greenhouse. A school program is a pedagogic activity and this program in particular is offered by the House of Nature to students of all ages, from Primary School to Upper Secondary School. The House of Nature is a part of The House of Science that offers natural science teaching with the aim of inspiring students to continue their studies within the natural science field. The goal of the development process has been to create additional material that can complement the teaching of photosynthesis in the courses Biologi 2 and Kemi 2, translated to Biology 2 and Chemistry 2, studied by upper secondary school students. To be able to create a complementing addition a study regarding different didactical theories has been made. Partly a research regarding the theories from Bernstein, classification and framing, and their visibility in the teaching of photosynthesis has been investigated. Where classification stands for the degree of boundaries between the two school subjects and framing stands for who has the control in the classroom. Partly a research regarding the teaching material of the same courses has been made and the results have been discussed in connection with theories of how the teaching material can control what is taught in school. The result from the research shows that there is a strong classification between chemistry and biology as school subject but that concerning the subjects of biochemistry the demarcation is weaker. Regarding the teaching material, several concepts are only mentioned in the biology literature and the sections that concerns photosynthesis in the chemistry literature has been placed in the advanced knowledge chapters.

  • 24.
    Kidwell, Ann-Sofie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Gymnasieelevers uppfattningar om negativa tal och vilka strategier som synliggörs i deras beräkningar: En fenomenografisk studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From an early age we learn to use positive numbers. We can put two numbers together and get a bigger number or subtract a number from another to get a smaller number. For example,young children learn that two plus two apples will be four apples and that if you have three pears and remove two you have one pear left. It is easy to visualize the numbers in front of you. Something that is not as obvious is calculations such four minus five. How can one have four pears and subtract five? Negative numbers rarely appear in everyday problems, but it is still something we are required to learn in school.

    The purpose of the work described in this report is to examine the upper secondary school pupils' perceptions of negative numbers and as the theoretical framework a phenomenographic approach is used. To find out what different perceptions pupils may have about negative numbers, eight pupils were interviewed. They were all in their second year in upper secondary school and study mathematics at the (Swedish) level 2b. The survey intended to answer the following question: How do upper secondary school students perceive negative numbers and what strategies are made visible in their calculations? What different categories of descriptions about negative numbers can be distinguished? A qualitative study was preformed of the collected material using a phenomenographic analysis.

    After the analysis, five distinctly different description categories could be distinguished, where all categories, except the last one, results in the student using some form of strategy as help when performing calculations containing negative numbers: (1) Minus minus becomes plus, (2) Negative numbers are explained by metaphors, (3) Calculations become easier if the terms in an expression are moved around, (4) Negative numbers are on the other side zero, and (5) Experience of uncertainty about negative numbers.

    The results can help math teachers understand the challenges students face when calculating with negative numbers. For example, the pupils do not think it is natural or enough to describe a number as negative, which may be because they are used to mathematics which can beexplained by concrete examples. This is something that math teacher should be aware of.

  • 25.
    Klein, Bizzy
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Den som inte sett gruvan, har inte sett Sverige: En studie om förutsättningarna för efterbehandling, kulturarvsprocesser och återanvändning i Aitikgruvan med utgångspunkt i Falu gruva.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about two Swedish copper mines, Aitik in Gällivare which is still in use and theFalun mine, which closed in 1992. The aim of this study is to explore the prerequisites for using the Falun mine as a model for the future closure of the Aitik mine, with regards specifically to mine reclamation, heritagisation and reuse. In particular, the aspect of learning within the heritagisation and reuse framework is discussed. A qualitative research method has been used and the theoretical starting point is that a mine can be seen as a large technological system consisting of artifacts and social components. Data has been collected through interviews with representatives from the Falun mine owners, the Aitik mine owners and from the local government of Gällivare. This data, along with data from a limited document study, made up the results of this study. The results were then analyzed thematically and discussed against the theoretical frameworks used in this study.

    The results show that Aitik can be developed post-closure and that the Falun mine can, ins ome regards, be used as a model for this development process. Among other aspects, theFalun mine can be used as a model for Aitik for education as a part of reusing the mine, where Aitik can learn from the Falun mine by not making the same mistakes that were made there. However, the results show that the Gällivare and Falun societies are different in terms of identity and in their relations towards the mines. The conclusion of this study is that aspects such as regarding artifacts as resources; the mine’s role in society; and who determines what a cultural heritage is, are all important in order to use the Falun mine as a model for Aitik from an educational perspective.

  • 26.
    Kuniholm, Johanna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Kunimodellen: En utbildningsmodell för signaltekniker på Roslagsbanan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to find and solve signal failures in Roslagsbanan in Stockholm, it is important that the maintenance technicians working with the signalling system has the right knowledge and feel confident with how the system works. One part of the safety system at Roslagsbanan is called ATC (automatic train control) which sends information to the train driver about where adjacent trains are located and how upcoming signals, switches and road crossing barriers are set. The ATC also interferes by applying brakes if the driver does not stop at a stop signal. To make troubleshooting of the ATC system more efficient, the company maintaining the signalling system, tracks and power supply at Roslagsbanan, Strukton Rail AB, would like to further educate their maintenance technicians. They want a model for training sessions in troubleshooting that can be used with training equipment and can be applied to other technical systems. To create this model my research questions were ”What could a pedagogical model for troubleshooting education on the safety system ATC at Roslagsbanan look like? How does the model affect the participants’ activity compared to other education sessions in the railway business?”. It was important to Strukton that participants should be active and cooperate with each other during the session. After reading about the sociocultural perspective on learning, accelerated learning and workplace learning and also conducting interviews with two technicians at Strukton and two teachers in other parts of the railway business to hear what they value as good education, I created an educational model for in-service training of the signalling system ATC, named the Kuni model.

    The model is based on participants solving troubleshooting cases together. An education session starts with an overview of the system that can vary in detail depending on the participants’ previous knowledge. Then the participants solve cases by discussing in groups and agreeing on a plan on how they should troubleshoot, and then try their plan on the test equipment where the error is planted. Depending on their need for education and the available time, they can get a different number of cases on different levels, but the cases should try to cover as many of the system’s components as possible. At the end of the session there is time for reflection where the participants tell each other what they have learnt. To get a measurable indication of if the participants have learned anything, they fill out a questionnaire just before and just after the education with questions on how confident they feel troubleshooting the different components. Two such sessions were held with the Kuni model, each with two cases to solve, for a total of seven participants. To measure participant activity, I filled out an observation form for 20 minutes per hour where I registered whether each participant had spoken or not for 40 intervals of 30 seconds each, which I also did at two other training sessions that signalling technicians attend to get a control group. Additionally, I conducted group interviews with the participants after the sessions to see what they thought of the model and what could be improved.

    The results from the interviews show that the participants were content and thought it was a good model to work with, but that some technical information about the test equipment that exists in the real world was missing. They also wanted more detailed information in the initial overview with focus on, among other things, why the ATC system exists. The participants’ self-estimated confidence in troubleshooting increased after the session, but they were not significantly more active during training with the Kuni model than the control groups. The Kuni model itself did not change very much between sessions. The results should however only be seen as indications due to the small number of participants, the participants not necessarily being representative for the whole group and since all people interviewed knew me when I interviewed them.

  • 27.
    Källén, Amanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Olsson, Ellinor
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Näringslivet och studerande – yrkeshögskolan ur två intressenters perspektiv: En studie om ledningsgrupper och studerandes förutsättningar för lärande på en teknisk yrkeshögskoleutbildning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis explores the structure of the Swedish higher vocational education, by a study of interviews. The focus of this essay is the impact potential of the stakeholders in the higher vocational education, and the connection between the higher vocational education and the enterprise. This study intends to answer questions about the steering committees’ possibilities to affect the content of technical educations. It also intends to investigate the prerequisites for learning.To answer these questions respondents from a technical program of the higher vocational education have been interviewed. These interviews have then been analysed by a thematic analysis. The discussion starting from theories about stakeholder theory, organizational identity, knowledge and competence, vocational pedagogy and vocational teachers’ identity and school development and principals.It has appeared that the industry representatives in the steering committees have opportunities to affect the educations, due to that they are a strong stakeholder. This opportunity is affected by the presence during the meetings with the steering committee. Concerning the prerequisites for learning, it has been found that the ‘LIA-practice’ is an important part of the education and that the pedagogical competences of the teachers sometimes is insufficient.

  • 28.
    Lind, Linus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Den ideella räknestugans matematik: Volontärers föreställningar om och undervisning i matematik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish educational landscape, supplementary tutoring, from both private and public organizations, has in the last decade gained a more and more significant and natural place. Where both non-profit and for-profit organizations have received government subsidies or grants in recent decades. It is therefore of important to gather an understanding of the type of mathematics education provided by these organizations. Of particular interest for this study are the non-profit organizations, and its volunteers, offering free tutoring in mathematics for student in the upper secondary school.Previous research on the non-profit supplementary tutoring in Sweden, and its volunteers, is lacking. The purpose of this work is to create an understanding of the activities in the non-profit supplementary tutoring, its volunteers and the mathematics teaching that is there provided. In order to investigate the volunteer’s educational practice, both interviews with the volunteers regarding their beliefs about mathematics as a school subject and their beliefs about mathematical education where conducted, and also on observations of the volunteer’s educational practice where done. Analysis and interpretation of observations and interviews are based on previous research about teachers’ beliefs of mathematics, learning and its teaching.

    The volunteers gave a coherent picture, where the beliefs of mathematics expressed in interviews was in agreement with what was observed in teaching practice. Of the previous research’s three beliefs of mathematics, the interviewed and observed volunteers, expressed two of the three beliefs. The Instrumentalists beliefs, mathematics as a tool, was expressed by all volunteers in both interview and teaching. The perspective of mathematics as problem solving was not expressed by any of the volunteers in their tutoring practice, and was almost invisible in the beliefs of mathematics expressed in interviews. The conclusion is that, from the beliefs of mathematics expressed in tutoring practice, the supplementary tutoring can be seen to have certain limitations as a form of education, since the observed practice primarily expressed the belief of mathematics as a tool. The platonic perspective appeared to some extent and the notion of mathematics as problem solving was not expressed in teaching.

  • 29.
    Lundell, Bertil
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Ämnesövergripande arbetssätt –ur ett lärarperspektiv igymnasieskolan: En empiristyrd tematisk analysstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Interdisciplinary working methods has both a long history and generate good results and yet it has a relatively hidden position within the educational system. How come, is it too difficult? Or are there other reasons? This is the objective for this study.This study will describe the experiences teachers, in the upper secondary school, express while working within interdisciplinary working methods. The study has been performed by a number of interviews and analyzed with applied thematic analysis framework. The result of the study shows that the themes the interviewees describe are; the subjects and combinations of those, ways of working, the students, the colleagues, the results and the prerequisites. The collaboration between the teachers is not a walk in the park, however the lack of time to perform planning and coordination are the major obstacles preventing successful interdisciplinary working methods.The importance of the enthusiasts is another result of the study. One conclusion is that the informants do not naturally thought about their own teaching of several subjects as a cross-disciplinary approach. The most common form of interdisciplinary working method is the project form. Another conclusion is that: when the follow-up is done, it is the work method that is evaluated and not the students' knowledge.

  • 30.
    Malkki, Pertti
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Kreativitet och fysik: En kvalitativ studie om gymnasieelevers uppfattningar om kreativitet i fysikoch förslag på förbättringar2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Mikaelsson, Tobias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Gymnasiematematik under sommaren: Elevers uppfattningar om sommarskola2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summer schools in Sweden are used to achieve a pass grade for those students who have not achieved a pass grade during the regular school. There are statistics on how many people go to summer school, and how many people achieve pass grades, but there is very little research on what kind of teaching and learning takes place at summer schools. The purpose of this thesis is to gain better knowledge of mathematics teaching at summer schools, what learning is made possible there and students' perceptions of their learning. A qualitative study of mathematics teaching at a summer school in Sweden has been performed, where the data consists of interviews, observations and a written evaluation. Thematic analysis has been used to find patterns within the study data. The analysis results indicate that the students' work effort is much better at summer school compared to the regular school and is also perceived by the students themselves as much better because of higher motivation and a better study environment. This higher motivation can be related to the students having a short and clear objective.

  • 32.
    Norrman, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Energi som fysikbegrepp och samhällsfråga: En jämförande innehållsanalys av gymnasieläroböcker2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish curriculum for the senior secondary school from 2011, it is part of the physics subject that students should be able to participate in debates about social issues and to discuss ethical issues from a scientific perspective. Sustainable development can contribute to an understanding of the importance of physics in the society, with the energy concept, energy resources and energy usage for a sustainable society included in the course Physics 1. How this is manifested can be analyzed in terms of scientific literacy, emphases, socio-scientific issues, etc. The study compares four textbooks for Physics 1 using a quantitative, but interpreting, text analysis based on a method and coding scheme developed by Engström for investigating how sustainable energy systems is dealt with in education and textbooks for Physics A according to the Swedish curriculum for the upper secondary school from 1994. A comparison is also made between textbooks for Physics 1 and Science studies 1b concerning the energy area in order to compare differences in emphasis between different visions of scientific literacy for the two subjects. Furthermore a qualitative text analysis is made between different editions of the same textbook series about to what extent the divergence can be explained by the difference in curricula. Finally a qualitative text analysis is included about how concepts related to the second law of thermodynamics is dealt with in the textbooks and to what extent this corresponds with other differences. The content analysis indicates that the difference between the textbooks in physics concerning visions of scientific literacy is comparatively small, but larger when it comes to contents related to technical applications. On the other hand, the difference is obvious between the subjects, with the textbooks in physics being dominated by vision I, which is dominated by science as such and its methods, while the textbooks in science studies have a decidedly larger element of vision II, thus including more attempts to set science in its social and political context. The difference in how the textbooks in Physics describe the second law of thermodynamics is in accordance with the quantitative text analysis. To what extent the debate between different views of scientific literacy in Sweden is handled by having separate subjects with partly overlapping contents is discussed. Likewise whether there is a tendency that the formulation in the curriculum conserves the choice of which socio-scientific issue is brought up in the teaching. This would, however, be in conflict with the principle that these should be current and of interest to the students.

  • 33.
    olofgörs, Siri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Att utveckla en teknisk organisation för inkludering: En kartläggning av en organisationskultur samt lärandets förutsättningar för mångfald och inkludering i en teknisk organisation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For organizations to harvest different knowledge, perspectives and ideas, it is essential for organizations to welcome people from different backgrounds and with different experiences to the organization and into organizational processes. Therefore, many organizations have implemented a change management for diversity and inclusion. The purpose of this study is to develop support for how change management for diversity and inclusion can benefit from an examination of both an organizational culture and a learning praxis that aim to develop knowledge and awareness of diversity and inclusion.

    The study provides two examinations in an organization of technical development. One investigate how an organizational culture can be inclusive or exclusive for different employees within the organization. Both a theoretical and an empirical thematic analysis of free text answers from an employee survey are used. The result shows aspects and patterns of organizational culture and distinguish processes that are inclusive or exclusive for different employees. The other examination evaluates a learning situation that aims to develop knowledge and awareness of diversity and inclusion among employees. Through an analysis, the content of the learning situation is shown. The content will affect the potential to change the organizational culture. How knowledge content can be designed for more appropriate change management is analysed.

    A discussion of how learning can change organizational culture, highlights the importance of collective awareness and of mutual understanding of structural inequality in organizations.

  • 34.
    Saleem, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Ye, Julia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Gymnasielärares syn på matematisk problemlösning och läroböckers presentationer av problemlösning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During our VFU periods in upper secondary school, we have observed that different mathematics teachers work in different ways when it comes to problem solving. This may be due to the teacher's approach to the mathematical problem solving and which textbook the teacher chooses to use in his or her teaching.The purpose of this study is to address the various factors that make the teacher work with problem solving in a certain way, examine what teaching aids the teacher is using and why the teacher chooses to use a particular teaching material.We did a qualitative study where we sent out a digital questionnaire to three high school teachers where they had to answer questions regarding their thoughts and approaches to problem solving in mathematics in high school. Furthermore, literature (mathematical textbooks) were examined to see how these handle the issues we asked teachers: we studied the textbooks’ view of mathematical problem solving and compared it to the mathematical teachers’ perspective on problem solving.After a thorough analysis with discussion and investigation, we have in this study been able to draw the following conclusions: the majority of teachers choose to teach through a mathematical textbook, following a solution procedure.

  • 35.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lärares uppfattningar om införandet av programmering i gymnasieskolans matematikämne2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Computers and other digital technology are becoming increasingly important in our society. Due to that, the Swedish Government has instructed their National Agency for Education to strengthen the students' digital competence. One outcome of this was that programming become a part of teaching mathematics both in primary and upper secondary school. Programming is not a part of the mandatory studies needed to become a certified mathematics teacher.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the ideas, attitudes and ideas of mathematics teachers that have arisen because of the National Agency for Education's revision of the curricula in mathematics. According to this revision of the curricula, students should use programming as a problem-solving tool.

    The basis for this study is a transcription of qualitative interviews with ten mathematics teachers and an examination of previous research. This study found that there was some concern among the teachers. Most of the concern was about lack of knowledge in programming. The majority of teachers preferred to use Excel and Geogebra as a digital tool to teach programming. Many teachers expressed spontaneously a general dissatisfaction with the impact that calculators already have in mathematics education. There was some dissatisfaction with the introduction of this new requirement at very short notice. Many teachers expected and trusted that the textbook authors would come up with an update of the textbooks in mathematics. An update that would thus solve their new educational challenge.

  • 36.
    Smajlagic, Sadrudina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Miljöundervisningstraditioner i teknikläroboken: tillbaka till miljöundervisningens begynnelse…?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate changes and environmental problems have become more visible on the continents and across the oceans as well as in the social debates and media. Hence, the media have had an evident part for creating the current environment depiction and approach. Concurrently the young people of today have a dismal view about the future considering the environmental changes and regard themselves as accountable for the continuance of environmental problems.

    Despite the school's clear role of being the outset for sustainable development and that the environmental perspective should permeate all school education, still few schools allocates resources for that. The students are therefore not being offered an education that should educate active and competent people and citizens who should have the competence that constitutes the common reference that all citizens need.

    The subject technology includes due to its extent and content essential parts that will develop the students' knowledge and abilities for enabling participation in the society and one of those parts is the environmental issue. Based on the aforementioned, the aim of this study is to examine the technology textbook's approach and depiction of descriptions related to the environment issues. Hence, the purpose is also to observe the contribution a textbook in technology may have in generating views of environmental issues in today's teaching. The study is based on a framework that categorizes environmental aspects based on existing traditions within environmental education from which following question is answered:

    Which teaching tradition(s) within environmental education has or have a more prominent role in the technology textbook regarding the four aspects: perspective on environmental problems, the cause of environmental problems, assessment of specialists and the goal of environmental measures?

    To enable the study and answer the question, a content analysis was performed of a technology textbook for the upper secondary school. The content analysis was based on Sandell's, Öhman's and Östman's descriptions of four environmental aspects regarding three traditions in environmental education: the fact-based, the normative and education for sustainable development.

    Although the result shows that all three environmental education traditions can be found in the textbook, there exist a predominant fact-based environmental perspective in the textbook. Education for sustainable development as a tradition in environmental education is mainly found within the aspects assessment of specialists and the goal of environmental measures, although that number is relatively small compared to the other two environmental aspects. In addition, the result shows a high presence of technology optimism in the book as well as a coherence between the syllabus in technology and the analyzed textbook regarding environmental and sustainable development perspectives.

  • 37.
    Stolpe, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Atterström, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Kunskapsöverföring som verktygför implementering avhållbarhetsarbete: En fallstudie inom järnvägsprojekt2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is a concept that is used frequently in various contexts and isbecoming increasingly popular. In the UN global Agenda 2030, 17 sustainable development goals are described as an attempt to concretise what should be worked towards in order to create sustainable development. There is a shared responsibility for achieving the goals and thus requires commitment from most actors, including the business community. However, implementation of sustainability has been proved challenging for project based organizations too because of the difficulties in transferring knowledge between projects. Strategies for implementing sustainability often relies on the assumption that sufficient level of knowledge is present within the workforce. Hence an important factor is to establish functional processes for knowledge management regarding sustainability. There is great potential in utilizing and transferring employees' knowledge to become successful in the market.

    The purpose of the study is to analyze and evaluate knowledge management regarding sustainability in a project based organization in order to find strengths and weaknesses and thereby highlight how knowledge management can affect sustainability work within railway projects.

    In order to achieve the purpose of the study, a case study has been done within a project organization, which in the report is referred to as the Company. A document study, a survey and various forms of interviews have been carried out with employees from different parts of the Company. The result has been analyzed using a theoretical framework based on theories of knowledge, levels of knowledge, knowledge management, implementation of sustainability work and project based organizations.

    The result shows that organized efforts of knowledge management to some extent enables co-workers to implement sustainable development aspects in their individual work. According to the study, concretization of sustainability in the specific context of railway projects is one of the most important factors in order to achieve successful implementation. There is also a connection between efforts of knowledge management and individual level of knowledge concerning sustainability, since the result shows that co-workers whose been participating in activities related to knowledge transfer also have higher level of knowledge about sustainability. According to this, the result indicates that organized efforts of knowledge management seem to increase individual’s level of knowledge and their ability to implement sustainable development aspects into their work.

  • 38.
    Svedenkrans, Christian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    En analys av elevernas attityder och strategier vid problemlösning i matematik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the attitudes and strategies that emergewhen students solve mathematical problems and to test whether it is possible todemonstrate any connection between students' attitudes to mathematical problem solvingand their problem solving ability.The survey was conducted with the help of a qualitative study of four students at the end ofyear 8. The data collection consisted of two parts, one observation part and one interviewpart. The empiri was analyzed by thematic analysis and a theoretical framework. Theframework consists of three attitude components which in total have seven subcategories,these are followed by the problem-solving strategy and the method and procedurecategories. The attitude components are: Cognitive beliefs, Affective states and Perceivedcontrol. The subcategories are: Perceived relevance, Perceived difficulty, Gender beliefs,Pleasure and delight, Worry, dissatisfaction and unease, Self-efficacy and Contextdependency. The analysis result consists of four attitude profiles, one of each participant.

    The study contributes with a better understanding of attitudes and strategies inmathematical problem solving. The result indicates that a more positive attitude can mean amore developed problem-solving ability. Further outcome of the study is that students’metacognition (thinking about your own thinking) benefit their problem solving ability.Implications and further research are discussed.

  • 39.
    Svärdh, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Attityder till matematikämnet hos elever på teknikprogrammet: En studie av förväntningar och attityder till ämnet matematik på en gymnasieskolas teknikprogram2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many adults and teenagers believe that math is a challenging subject that only a lucky few can fully grasp. When students step towards more math intensive programs like the Swedish upper secondary technology or science program they are faced with higher expectations of mathematical comprehension and a noteworthy increase in study pace. The understanding of students expectations of the mathematics and their attitude towards the subject can be of interest to mathematics teachers as well as a pivotal factor to consider when constructing a subject plan.The purpose of the study was to analyse the expectations students had of mathematics when they were faced with the choice of the technology program, and to analyse the attitude towards mathematics of the programs first, second and third year students. The results of the study show that when students make their choice of the technology program they expect the mathematics to be challenging and fast paced. The study shows that only few students chose the technology program due to their interest in mathematics, many students expressed the complete opposite, that mathematics was unnecessarily difficult and something that you just have to power through. The result of the study also show that the programs first year students have a more positive attitude towards the study of mathematics than third year students and that second year students are the most negative. A possible interpretation of the results is that the mathematics in the first year aligns with student expectations as the year repeats elementary school mathematics, which makes it manageable. First year students also expressed that the subject felt relevant and useful in technology and science courses. In second year, the mathematics subject contains a lot of new knowledge and the majority of students in the group expressed that they experienced a lack of self-esteem, they said that the subject was more difficult than expected and that the pace was too fast. Additionally, the study found that second year students doubted weather it was relevant to study as much mathematics as they did. The analysis of discussions with third year students gave a similar result as second year students, however, with the difference that third year students expressed joy for the subject and an understanding of its relevance.

    The study was conducted on a total of 39 students from the technology programs first, second and third year who attended a small upper secondary school in one of Sweden’s conurbations. The selected upper secondary schools technology program consisted of students with low or very low academic credits from secondary school, median 150–180 points for all three years of intake.My ambition with this analysis is to contribute to a deeper understanding of expectations of and attitudes towards mathematics among students at the upper secondary school program.

  • 40.
    Ödborn Jönsson, Linnéa
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Mapping re-growth following chemotherapy in high-risk neuroblastoma: The research process in laboratory work2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study is to study characteristics of high-risk cancer cells within the childhood disease neuroblastoma (NB) by mapping regrowth after treatment with the chemotherapy doxorubicin (doxo). The cell-line SK-N-BE(2)-C (BE(2)-C) was used as a model. Results from a previous study by Hultman et al., (2018) have indicated that while a majority of BE(2)-C cells could be shown resilient to a 1 μM dose of doxorubicin (doxo), only a very small fractions had the capacity for immediate replication following a single or double treatment of doxo (“remaining replicating cells”; RRC). The current study aims to investigate if RRC are responsible for regrowth. Cultured BE(2)-C cells were exposed to doxo and labelled with the nucleoside analogues EdU (5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine) and BrdU (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine). The results from the current study indicated that the RRC subpopulation might not be responsible for regrowth since the nucleoside labelling was not shown to be present in the cells of the regrowing colonies. However, technical challenges, e.g. the settings of thresholds for EdU and BrdU detection, in combination with the dilution of DNA markers in replication, call for further studies using additional methods, e.g. isotope markers, in order to firmly conclude that other subpopulation(s) than the RRC population are responsible for regrowth.

    Apart from studying cell populations responsible for regrowth, a pilot study was performed including another combination of treatment using an ATM-inhibitor (KU-60019) together with the chemotherapy doxo. There were some measurement points missing, but the current results indicate that regrowth is postponed when the ATM-inhibitor is added in combination with single or double treatment of doxo.

    The research procedures and processes involved in this thesis, are similar to those included in the syllabi for the natural science subjects for the upper secondary school. This underlines the importance of studying inquiry and laboratory work. A literature review was performed, analysing current research on open-and closed ended laboratory work. Ten research articles were collected and characterized by natural science subject, type of laboratory style (open or closed) and student learning competences. Findings from the current study indicate that open-ended laboratory work promotes student interest in the subject. The learning competences problem-solving ability and procedure ability are most commonly studied in laboratory work based on the results from the current study.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Erika
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Kundutbildning från tre infallsvinklar: En fokusgruppstudie om hur utmaningar skulle kunna reduceras2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is conducted as an assignment from Saab in Järfälla, Sweden. Saab wanted help to reduce the challenges in the customer training since the instructors had expressed they needed help to improve it. The purpose of this study is to map the challenging situations that an instructor at Saab can experience during the customer training, and analyse how the challenges could be reduced. The main focus is put on organisational culture, pedagogic competence, and specialist knowledge.

    The theoretical background describes the following theories: adult teaching, competence, and organisational culture. The development of the competence is discussed and the importance of how to use the right competence is stated. The organisational culture is discussed and what an organisation can do in order to strengthen the culture is presented. Theories for adult teaching are also presented.

    A qualitative approach, in the form of focus group interviews, are used to collect data. Four focus group interviews are analysed using thematic analysis where the different themes and codes are found using the theory.

    The results indicate that the different challenges that the instructors are facing in the customer training are linked and that they influence the organisation as a whole. An example of what Saab could do in order to reduce the challenges in the customer training is presented and discussed based on relevant theories. The things that Saab may do to reduce the challenges, according to this study, are: improve the communication, work as a team and try to create a strong organisational culture.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Lina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Medborgarforskning: En miljöutbildning för allmänheten?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to study the behavioral changes in participants in the citizen science project

    "Växtkalendern". The purpose is also to study how the citizen science project "Växtkalendern" can influence the gap between awareness and action in terms of climate change issues, so-called action gap, among the participants. The study is conducted based on an abductive approach, where the empiric material influences the literature study and vice-versa. The relevant empirical was collected through a survey sent out to all the participants in the project "Växtkalendern". In addition, interviews and discussions with specialists in the field of citizen science research have been conducted.

    The results shows that the citizen science project

    "Växtkalendern" has potential to influence participants. The survey revealed that the participants felt that the opportunity to assist research was clearly the most important reason for participation. Using the theoretical standing points and the empirical material, the citizen science project ability to create behavioral changes in the participants in terms of climate change issues was analyzed. The study shows that the gap between awareness and action can be reduced with the help of citizen science as participants experienced increased awareness and a changing behavior through participation in the project "Växtkalendern".

  • 43.
    Aue Andersson, Gabriela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Hjortsberg, Tobias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Genusperspektiv på två av grundskolans teknikböcker: Två textanalyser2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gender equality is a central topic and it is regulated through the Swedish parliament regulations, laws against discrimination and equality laws. Swedish parliament adopted goals for Swedish language policy, which says that language usage that conserves gender roles and obscuring women in, for example, the authorities' texts and in the language used in media, workplaces and schools should be counteracted. Gender equality is also found in the in the curriculum of the elementary school and it should permeate all of the school’s activities. According to Skolverket curriculum the school also has a responsibility to prevent traditional gender patterns. The purpose of this study is to determine whether two textbooks written for the course Technology in elementary school lives up to the requirements of gender equality as stipulated in the curriculum and by the Swedish law regulations. Based on gender and sociology theory, two textbooks have been analysed. The method used in the analysis of the two selected textbooks is text analysis, in the form of a quantitative content analysis and a qualitative discourse analysis, to distinguish and look at different parts of the text and examine different phenomena such as interpretation of messages, intentions or meaning structures. The textbooks are analysed both by means of comparing how often women and men are mentioned in the texts, as well as by evaluating the adjectives and participles by which women and men are described.

    The analysis shows that men are more frequently mentioned in the texts than women are. Moreover, positive adjectives and participles are more commonly associated with the male gender. The analysis also shows that men are usually linked to the public sector by association to their professional titles, where the personal names were mostly associated with well-known scientists and inventors, who historically were mostly men. Since the men were represented more in the texts more active participles were also found associated with men. In some cases, the women in the books are much more associated to their home and family roles than their professional titles. This study concludes that the reviewed textbooks cannot be said to meet the gender equality requirements in the curriculum for the elementary school. Men are in focus and the books confirm prejudice that exists in the society against women and men. However, these books do not need to be dismissed. Teachers can use these to show and discuss the relationship between women and men in today’s society with their students. This way norms can become more developed and contribute to a more permissive climate in the future.

  • 44.
    Björlin Svozil, Louise
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Beslutsgrund: en studie av utbildningsval bland kvinnliga elever på gymnasieskolans Naturvetenskaps- och Teknikprogram2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Education in engineering sciences in Sweden have for the past hundred years gone from solely recruiting men to a 36 percentage of female students. Even though the number of women is progressing in some fields, other fields still have as low proportion as 16 percent. The largest base for recruiting engineering students is the Swedish gymnasium programs in Sciences (NV) and in Technology (TE). The research method grounded theory (GT) was used when female students in NV and TE were interviewed to investigate the main concern of these students making choices about present and future studies. A broad spectrum of reasons, summarized in the core category Reasons for Decision (Beslutsgrund), showed that the students took into consideration the labour market, eligibility to university, the ranking of an education, expectations for social belonging, self-efficacy, grades, avoidance of a school subject, if the education led to the desired career, work load and work load in relation to eligibility. The execution of GT showed that this method could be used within the frame of a master thesis and that there are challenges and advantages in the combination.

  • 45.
    Blomqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Dahlberg, Victor
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Undersökning av direktuppspelning som pedagogiskt verktyg inom MOOC2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Self-paced massive open online courses, MOOCs, provide individual learners with

    the opportunity to take control of their learning. However, MOOCs require learners

    to be able to fulfil the course with limited help from teachers and peers - something

    that is highlighted as an essential factor to enhance the learning experience in distance

    education. Therefore this study aims to explore the use of live streaming as

    a pedagogic tool in self-paced MOOCs to enhance communication between learners

    and between learners and the teacher.

    Based on a systematic literature study, a live streaming event was designed and

    conducted via Twitch in a self-paced MOOC given by KTH Royal Institute of Technology.

    To evaluate the event surveys were handed out to the learners and the teacher

    was interviewd. An interview was also conducted with another teacher at KTH who

    had experience with planning and executing live streaming events.

    Since MOOCs are characterized as being accessible to everyone a user-friendly and

    free platform plus software were selected. Due to the fact that a live streaming

    event in MOOCs must be able to support a large number of learners, we chose to

    allow learners to communicate only via chat while the teacher was able to communicate

    via chat, audio and video. The study showed that both the learners and the

    teacher perceived this moment as a rewarding complement to the opportunities for

    communication already provided in self-paced MOOCs but that the teacher has a

    major responsibility in enabling the interactions that live streaming allows. The

    teacher also felt that live streaming provided a personal contact and could therefore

    be a means to minimize the sense of isolation that is often associated with self-paced

    MOOCs. The study further designed a manual to facilitate implementation in future

    courses.

  • 46.
    Borck Janeheim, Sofie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    How to Improve Learning at Work?: A Case Study of an Interactive Learning Activity with Virtual Knowledge Sharing2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is a case study conducted at Ericsson where a new type of learning activity has been tested. The reason for conducting this study is that Ericsson together with other companies within the technology field faces a significant challenge to acquire knowledge fast enough to keep up with new trends and technological developments.

    The main research questions in this study are how the participants experience these learning activities and what the most important factors are for successful learning within this context. Further, it is investigated how these learning activities are affected when they are scaled from one to many locations with interactive video conferencing rooms.

    Data were collected in a four-month period, and the data consisted of qualitative interviews, observations, questionnaires and impressions perceived during the time spent in Ericsson’s office. Given this collected data, the direction of the study changed during the study’s duration, since new questions arose that needed to be answered.

    The results indicate that the interaction changes when video conferencing tools are used, the number of interaction decreases; however, there are indications that the quality of content increases. The participants believe that interaction is an essential part of learning, and to create a safe environment for having discussions and for asking questions. Further, motivation and expectations seem to be crucial factors for successful learning activities.

    The analysis of these results implies that clear information, planning and a high level of structure in the implementation is required for a truly interactive learning environment to exist, in particular, if more than one location is participating. To make it possible for the participants to prior their personal development, it seems to help them to set the right expectations in prior is important. Furthermore, the social aspect regarding relations and the possibility to build personal networks seems to become the ground for motivation and attitude when it comes to participating.

    In conclusion, the studied activity of interactive learning seems to be a way forward for Ericsson to face technical development and new trends in the market since this is a way of creating awareness and giving a broader perspective. This activity can, with support from the theoretical perspectives, be seen as a starting point for learning, where the process for each continues afterwards.

    For Ericsson to continue to develop this interactive learning activity, recommendations are given at the end of this report for further improvements.

  • 47.
    Borgemo, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Roth, Richard
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Gymnasiefysikens meteorologiinnehåll: En metodkombinationsstudie om hur klimat och väder implementerats i fysikundervisningen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the implementation and teaching of climate and weather which was added in the year 2011 under Physics 1 in the Swedish upper secondary school. The study performed a mixed-methods approach consisting of teacher interviews supplemented with an interview with an official at the Swedish National Agency for Education and with text analysis of course books. The teacher’s experienced some problems related to what the new subject area would contain. The uncertainty about what the area would contain was also seen in the course books. The interviewees’ opinion that the important issues in the subject area were the greenhouse effect and global warming were shared among the teachers. The greenhouse effect and global warming also had prominent roles in the course books. From the interviews it was found that teachers were positive to include Socio-Scientific Issues (SSI) into their teaching, but when assessing students learning the concepts of physics were emphasized. Cross-disciplinary cooperation was described by the teachers as desirable and often occurring.

  • 48.
    Dalarsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    IT-inslag i matematikundervisningen i grundskolan och på gymnasiet: Kritisk analys av statsmaktens och lärarnas diskurser2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of Information Technology (IT) in mathematics teaching in primary and secondary schools, as well as in high schools, is an important area of concern, where some major efforts by the legislators and the responsible Swedish government bodies (Skolverket, Skolinspektionen etc.) are made. Legislators and government bodies have produced and implemented a number of governing documents and other supporting documents that define the guidelines for deployment, practical use and follow-up of the effects of introducing IT in mathematics teaching.

    The purpose of the present thesis work is to use critical discourse analysis (CDA) to investigate how the introduction of IT in mathematics teaching is described in the governing documents. Furthermore, the present thesis work aims to investigate how the governing documents' discourse relates to the professional teachers' discourse and social practices when using IT in mathematics teaching. The practicing teachers discourse on using IT in mathematics teaching is described based on a number of texts published by the two major unions that organize practicing teachers in Sweden. The work consisted of a systematic literature study and a critical discourse analysis of the relevant parts of a number of selected texts.

    The analysis results show that, regarding the use of IT in mathematics teaching, the discourse in the governing documents consists to a large extent of vague terms that in the framework of discourse analysis are also called the floating signifiers. When it comes to the practicing teachers discourse and thereby also their social practices in the schools, the analysis shows that the practicing teachers are not always positive towards the use of IT in mathematics teaching. Thereby the analysis identifies the important differences between the governing documents' discourse and the teachers' discourse and social practices in the schools.

  • 49.
    Engquist, Malin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Kommunikation i storskaliga internetbaserade kurser: En kvalitativ studie om karaktären av den sociala interaktionen i diskussionsforum i xMOOCar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) were introduced in 2008 by George Siemens and Stephen Downes and their popularity has increased ever since. Advocates of MOOCs claim that they have the potential to enable lifelong learning for people all over the world. Since the first MOOC, two kinds of MOOCs have developed, cMOOCs that developed from the theory of learning, connectivism, and xMOOCs, which are relatively similar to usual online courses, with the difference that the number of participants is more or less unlimited. In 2016, the MOOC initiative from the Royal Institute of Technology (KTHx) joined edX, a teaching platform for xMOOCs. Opportunity for social interaction with other course participants and teachers is offered on edX in the form of asynchronous discussion forums. Research on the characterof the social interaction in the discussion forums and its potential for promoting learning in xMOOCs is currently limited. The purpose of this master thesis is to investigate the nature of social interaction in two different xMOOCs, one self-paced and one instructor-paced. An increased understanding of the current social interaction that is taking place in the discussion forums can be helpful to teachers in the design of teaching in xMOOCs. In this master thesis two discussion forums from courses of the respective categories of xMOOCs have been studied. Both a conventional content analysis and a directed contentanalysis based on the learning theory Community of Inquiry (CoI) have been conducted to highlight different aspects of the nature of the social interaction and how one may promote learning in the discussion forums. The result of the analysis shows that the social interaction in the discussion forums is impersonal and that the participants initiate the interaction by asking questions that are mainly answered by the teachers, by either instructing or informing. No community is formed and the discussion forums show lower levels of cognitive presence. In order to promote learning, discussion forums may be used to engage the active participants in discussions and it might be benificial if the teachers focused on establishing a safe environment for interaction, as opposed to focusing on instruction and informing.

  • 50.
    Erkstam, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lindgren, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Teknikämnets bortglömda formuleringar: En fenomenografisk analys av lärares och elevers uppfattningar om genusrelaterad undervisning på grundskole- och gymnasienivå2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines teachers’ and students’ perception of the phenomenon ”gender related wordings in the Swedish National Association for Education curriculum for the technology subject”. A phenomenographical approach has been used as a theoretical framework for this study. Empirical data for the study has been collected in one high school and one uppersecondary school. Methods used are interviews with teachers, group interviews with students and student surveys. The analysis of the research material has resulted in description categories based on themes that arose from the different perceptions. The perceptions from both the students and the teachers concern gender roles and gender related education. In addition, the students expressed perceptions regarding gender roles changing over time, whereas perceptions regarding the need of attracting more female students to the field of technology were evident among the teachers. The thesis concludes that teachers perceive the gender related wording in the technology subject curriculum to be difficult to implement, and that this content is seen as less important than the other parts. The students in the study perceive gender related education to be important, and they express the desire that their chosen education covers all parts of the curriculum, including the parts regarding gender. The high school students describe the perception of not having received any gender related education in the technology subject, and the secondary upper school students perceive that they have received this kind ofeducation only to a very limited extent.

  • 51.
    Götling, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Löfwenhamn, Oscar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Programmering i matematikundervisningen: En fallstudie om utmaningar och styrkor med att programmering ska integreras i matematikundervisningen på gymnasiet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to highlight some of the challenges and advantages associated with the introduction of programming in mathematics in upper secondary school. In addition, the thesis aims to identify some of the challenges that arise when planning and implementing a lesson sequence that connects programming and mathematics to RSA cryptography. Furthermore, this thesis will suggest how these challenges can be dealt with.

    The study was conducted with students from a year 3 Engineering Sciences class and mathematics teachers in a Swedish upper secondary school. The students participated in a lesson sequence in level 5 mathematics (matematik 5) concerning RSA cryptography which was planned and executed by the authors of this thesis. The teachers were introduced to a reduced version of the sequence. Data were collected from interviews with groups of students and groups of teachers.

    As a supplement to the interviews, the authors give their own views on challenges that emerged when planning and implementing the lesson sequence and how some of these challenges were handled. Thematic content analysis was used for studying the interviews. The content of the interviews was divided into challenges and advantages and further categorized according to different key topics.

    The conclusion of this study was that some of the identified advantages could motivate students to cope with some of the challenges. According to several students, it is important that mathematics education cover applications in mathematics and prepare students for higher education and employment. The students expressed that programming could be used for achieving this. Additionally, variety is important for keeping the motivation to learn mathematics. These advantages could be useful when identifying contexts that connect programming and mathematics and is relevant for the students. Covering a concept in different contexts could also support students to decontextualize their knowledge.

    Some students were skeptical about using computers in math class since it was unfamiliar in that context and added a level of distraction. Nevertheless, the importance of programming for higher education and future employment was one of the advantages expressed by several students. Emphasizing the role of computers in employment within the fields of engineering and mathematics could raise the purpose of introducing the computer in math class.

    This thesis has given an insight of some challenges that arise when introducing programming in mathematics education in upper secondary school in Sweden. Furthermore, the thesis suggests how some of these challenges could be dealt with. These challenges correlate to previous research and there seems to be an urgent need to find solutions for these. Further research should aim to find efficient and effective approaches to these challenges.

  • 52.
    Hassani, Aydin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Implementering av nytt IT-system i en större organisation: Möjligheter och problem ur ett användarperspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on an organizational change within the Länsförsäkringar group. Länsförsäkringar consists of 23 local and independent insurance companies operating under the same brand. By introducing a joint work method for settlement of building damages which is related to the support system Meps 2.0 to all insurance companies inside the group, it was intended to increase customer satisfaction. The overall aim of the study is to investigate what can be learned and understood from the users' perspectives, in this case the claims adjusters, about opportunities and obstacles for learning new ways of working in connection with the implementation of a new IT system. Understanding the ways in which staff experiences can be used to develop a common way of working in an organization is a further purpose of the study.

    In this study, a survey is conducted which forms the basis for case studies on two selected companies inside Länsförsäkringar group. Case studies consist of individual interviews with a group manager and three employees at each company as well as observations of the informants. Empirical data is processed and analyzed regarding literature and through thematic analysis as a method.

    The results show that structures together with relational and social aspects play an important role in implementing successful change in an organization. The importance of people's active involvement in a change is emphasized and it is found necessary that the people involved understand what a certain change means and why it is needed. Furthermore, the results achieved show that Communities of Practice can be used in an organization to benefit from the strengths of the community in different areas and to develop new cultural resources like new ways of working in an organization.

  • 53.
    Jacobsson, Anton
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lundqvist, Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Matematiklärares syn på muntlig matematikför elever med matematiksvårigheter: En innehållsanalytisk studie om stödjande faktorer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mathematics has a unique subject language that students need to master in writing as well as verbally. Shortcomings in the oral mathematical communication capacity contribute to the fact that students with mathematical difficulties do not receive an approved grade in mathematics for grade 9. These students need help and support from their environment in order not to risk being disapproved. This study has been conducted with the purpose of portraying and analyzing mathematics teachers' views on supportive factors for students with mathematical difficulties focusing on oral mathematical communication skills. As a method, a content analytical research approach with inductive thematic methodology has been used and the study is based on five semi structured interviews. Mathematics teachers' views have been judged to be possible to be depicted and analyzed by the following six themes:

    1. The balance between oral and written communication

    2. The oral mathematical communications skills components

    3. Activities based on the students' needs

    4. Supporting learning environment for the student

    5. The student's participation in mathematical discussions

    6. Cooperation with the parents

    Teachers agree that students with mathematical difficulties need adaptations of content and knowledge objectives for oral mathematical ability. However, there is no unanimity in the teacher's view of adequate goals and content, but this is considered being the result of a variety of factors such as the student's knowledge, teacher's interpretation of the curriculum, the written focus in mathematics, the lack of adequate situations to assess oral capacity, stress and time shortages and the less good availability of special educators. Students with mathematical difficulties also need support in the context they are in. This believes teachers can be managed by either blending the context of differences in student knowledge or ensuring that students with mathematical difficulties interact with friends who they feel safe interacting with. Teachers also try to support the students with control, control and order, which can be explained by the fact that these students experience through their teens. The teacher makes a subjective assessment of the students' need for governance, and this then paves the way for the students to participate and influence in different ways. Teachers also have different expectations of student performance in a participation, where some teachers believe that the students are performing, with which some people are content with a participation. Teachers thus have different focus on these students ‐ either knowledge or value goals. The last theme concerns teachers' views on cooperation with the parents. Some teachers are interpreted believing that this contact contributes positively whereas others have not been interpreted having the same beliefs.

  • 54.
    Johansson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Johansson, Filip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Clojure som första programspråk: En studie om funktionell programmering med grundskollärare2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish primary school curricula have been revised to include

    programming as of July 1, 2018. This entails several choices of how

    programming education should be designed, among other things, the

    choice of programming languages and programming paradigms. In

    this study, the functional programming language Clojure is examined

    as an introductory language for primary school teachers without previous

    programming experience. The purpose has been to find out

    what challenges they encountered in programming. For this a combination

    of methods has been used. The study has been conducted

    with 13 primary school teachers who participated in an introductory

    course in Clojure. Using the tool Codepad, the participants’ every key

    press has been recorded when programming. These recordings were

    then used to conduct interviews with the method

    stimulated recall, where the interviewees saw their own Codepad recordings and then

    explained their reasoning about the code. The method of combining

    code recordings with stimulated recall has generated large amounts of

    both quantitative and qualitative data, thus giving a clear picture of

    how the course participants have programmed in Clojure. The study

    results show that the participants’ greatest challenge is the syntax of

    the programming language. This is consistent with previous studies

    that show that syntax is the most common challenge for novice programmers,

    even in other programming languages. We therefore see

    no specific characteristics of Clojure that would hinder it, or the functional

    paradigm, in introductory courses in programming.

  • 55.
    Klinteberg, Jakob
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    En studie kring utformningen av en rutin för ett ökat hållbarhetsfokus i en decentraliserad organisation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of the Annual Reports Act which was introduced in 2017, require large and medium-sized companies to report on their sustainability work. The new law creates great challenges for companies who will now report their sustainability work for the first time. The problem with reporting their environmental impact is the uncertainty with the calculations, especially with calculations from carbon dioxide emission from mobile sources. To calculate the carbon dioxide emission correct data must be collected uniformly in the organization. Zengun, which is a building entrepreneur and a decentralized organization will be doing their first sustainability reporting for 2017. It means that Zengun must collect data uniformly in the organization, where subcontractor is included.

    The aim of this study is to configure a routine to collect carbon dioxide data and investigate how the routine can contribute to the company’s sustainability work. Another aim is to map the internal communication regarding sustainability work in a decentralized organization.

    This result is based on material collected from a document study and interviews with key people within Zengun and Zengun’s subcontractors. The result shows that Zengun’s complex organization structure is a challenge when a routine will be implemented. The reason is that the view of a routine and sustainability work is different within the company. Subjectivity and extra work is some of the aspects which is mentioned as problematic.

    With support from the theories and previous research a routine has been configurated and the study shows that a routine will not in itself contribute to the company’s sustainability work, but it´s the start of a long progress towards a learning loop. Contradictions within the system can occur during the implementation of the routine. To handle the contradictions the communication through internal communication channels and contracts are crucial.

  • 56.
    Lindberg, Joakim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Hur introduceras integralkalkyl i gymnasieskolan?: En innehållsanalys av representationsformerna i fyra läroböcker2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish upper secondary school, textbooks are usually the main material used when teaching mathematics. Thus, the teaching is directly affected by how theory sections, solved example exercises and practice exercises are designed. Particularly important for the students’ understanding of mathematics is the usage of representation forms and the conversions between them. However, in the context of integral calculus in textbooks for upper secondary school, there is a lack of research on this matter. The purpose of this thesis is therefore to increase the knowledge of how representation forms are used in the introduction of integral calculus in upper secondary school, by performing a content analysis of four textbooks. This is enabled by using research on representation forms and semiotics as a starting point for building a theoretical framework which is then used to analyze the textbooks. The results show that most representation forms and conversions between different representation forms are noticeably more common in theory sections than in solved example exercises and in practice exercises. Furthermore, there is an evident correlation in that most representation forms and conversions between different representation forms become more common as the practice exercises get harder. Teachers may thus need to consider this when teaching to ensure a more comprehensive treatment of the representation forms, especially to ensure that students with learning difficulties in mathematics get the practice they need to master conversions between different representation forms.

  • 57.
    Lundkvist, Fredrica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Ett digitalt läromedel för implementering avprogrammering i matematikundervisningen på högstadiet: En studie utifrån lärares perspektiv på lärarmaterialet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On March 9, 2017, the Swedish government decided that the school's governing documents

    should be clarified in order to strengthen students' digital skills. This means, among other

    things, that programming from 1 July 2018 will be included in the mathematics in lower and

    upper secondary school. A challenge with this is that teachers neither possess the skills or

    tools to properly implement programming in mathematics education. Zifro is a digital

    teaching aid that tries to solve this problem by giving teachers a user-friendly material

    regardless of programming experience and also an educational code environment for

    students. A qualitative study has been conducted with observations and interviews as a

    method. Three teachers and a VFU student at different schools in Stockholm, Sweden,

    participated in the study using two of ZIFRO's activities in their teaching. The purpose of the

    study is to investigate teachers’ opinions about the material and how it relates to the

    curriculum in order to develop improvement suggestions. A conclusion from the study is that,

    according to teachers, Zifro is a good teaching aid and no major changes are needed to the

    already existing material. It is one of few existing teaching materials in programming with a

    clear connection to the curriculum and mathematics. However, Zifro must provide more

    activities so that schools will want to buy it. Apart from more activities like the already existing

    ones, but within other mathematical fields, these activities can be web-based tests and more

    open tasks where the student can be more creative. Further concrete suggestions for minor

    improvements, as well as how Zifro could develop a course for teachers, are presented below

    the headings discussion and conclusions.

  • 58.
    Myrsmeden, Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Automation of Formative Assessment: Implementation and Evaluation of an Artificial Teaching Assistant2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government has decided to add programming to the Swedish

    curriculum to strengthen students’ digital skills. The teachers

    who will teach programming do not always know programming themselves.

    Because of that, KTH Royal Institute of Technology researchers

    are planning to start an initiative of creating a Massive Open Online

    Course (MOOC) in fundamental programming in Swedish for those

    teachers.

    Interpreting error messages given by the compiler is one problem

    with learning programming. An aim of this study is to lower that

    threshold. The study seeks to identify common misconceptions about

    programming among novice programmers in order to design a static

    analyser that investigates code written by students and provides formative

    feedback to help students in their own learning process.

    The study combines the constructivist theory of learning with views

    about formative assessment in order to automate the process that is

    usually done by a teacher or teaching assistant when assessing code. A

    phenomenographic study is done in order to identify teachers’ perceptions

    of common misconceptions about programming by interviewing

    five active teachers at KTH. The results of that study are used to construct

    code examples that correspond to these misconceptions. Those

    results lead to the design and implementation of a software that detects

    these problems in code. That software is evaluated using a larger

    set of test data, consisting of 77 errors divided into five larger programs,

    inserted by independent individuals.

    From the initial study, five categories of misconceptions are given.

    Of the 77 errors, the majority are correctly positioned and almost all are

    given a good hint about the position. About a quarter of the errors are

    parse errors, which never reach the analysing part of the software that

    demands the program to be parsable. The study shows that we have

    succeeded both in designing and implementing a software that detects

    the identified misconceptions with good results. In the context of a

    MOOC, the software might require an extension with a more advanced

    parser and also dynamic analysis to be able to test the correctness of

    the students’ programs. The software is limited to handle the language

    Javascriptish, which is a subset of JavaScript.

  • 59.
    Nilsson, Tomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Kommer du att välja natur ellerteknik?: om vad som styr elevers val av gymnasieprogram2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was motivated by both observations in upper secondary school classes in the

    Swedish programs natural science programme (NA) and technology programme (TE), where

    unexpected and unexplained differences between the groups of students were seen, and by

    differences found in statistics covering these two programs. The gender distribution is the

    most pronounced difference, where this is about equal in NA but with a significant male overrepresentation

    in TE, but there are differences also in cultural and educational backgrounds

    among the two groups of students. It is obvious that these differences do not occur during

    education in upper secondary school but is established at the point when the students choose

    their program. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate the causes and rationale

    for why students choose as they do, among these two programs. The scientific questions

    formed are 'On what are the students choice of NA/TE based?', 'What attitude do students

    have toward the programs when they choose?' and 'Are there any differences in how students

    at the two programs make and motivate their decisions?'.

    These questions are investigated through an interview study where some students who had

    just started at their upper secondary studies were asked to recount their experience from

    choosing program. The interviews were conducted during the first two weeks after the start of

    the semester and included five students from NA and six students from TE. The students were

    interviewed individually, each for about half an hour, according to a semi-structured scheme.

    The interviews were split into two parts, where the first focused on their choice and their

    selected program and the second brought up the program which was not selected. The

    interviews were analyzed according to several scientific theories, in the areas of processes and

    motifs, comfort zones and choice theory.

    The results of the interviews indicate that the students primarily choose programs based on

    the subjects they are most interested in, where the students at NA prefer biology and the

    students at TE prefer technology. However, the study also shows that there are differences

    between the personalities of the students who choose the two programs. The study shows that,

    in general, NA students are determined in their choice, they only make a limited consideration

    of other options and are considered to be socially stronger. The students at TE are more

    analytical in their selection and have thought their choices through thoroughly but were

    considered to be less socially competent.

  • 60.
    Nilsson Westberg, Julia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Människor är mjukamaskiner är hårda: Om lärares syn på hållbar utveckling i teknikämnetutifrån egen syn på ämnet och skolansdemokratiuppdrag2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective description of elementary school's technical subject holds a lot of the school's

    Swedish basic values and democracy mission. Based on the human-technology nature of the

    subject, this becomes visible and in the interdisciplinary parts regarding human-technologysociety-

    environment, which can be seen as us people creating societies and environments

    out of nature with technology, sustainable development is central. Sustainable development

    can be seen from economic, social and ecological aspects and how they belong and interact.

    The curriculum now gives adequate scope for students’ user-competence and democratic

    rights in technical literacy and general knowledge. This study investigates how technology

    teachers, based on their own knowledge tradition, interpret this part of the syllabus in Lgr11

    that can be linked to the school's basic values and democracy mission. The literature study

    includes previous research in knowledge emphases, views on technical education based on

    education, literacy and knowledge, as well as previous research on technology teachers view

    on sustainable development within the technology subject. Interviews have been conducted

    with active technology teachers and data has been analyzed with a theoretical framework

    based on knowledge emphases and perspectives from the Swedish basic values.

    Results indicate that the interviewed teachers have similar perceptions as to what

    technology is and driving forces, and that the human-technology relationship is

    fundamental and that technology is not an isolated phenomenon. As far as

    interdisciplinarity is concerned, the perception is that technology is a subject that has with

    many other subjects to do and captures them. The ecological aspects of sustainable

    development are the ones that most of the teachers’ statements can be tied to.

  • 61.
    Peterson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Kromatografi som laboration för högstadieelever: och dess påverkan på attityder gentemot kemi2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, a chromatography lab is constructed and the attitudes towards chemistry of students in lower secondary school are compared before and after the lab is carried out at Vetenskapens Hus in Stockholm. The attendant teachers’ experiences of the lab and potential effects on the students are also taken into consideration. Questionnaires are used to survey the students’ attitudes towards chemistry, and interviews with the attendant teachers are used as a complement to the students’ answers. For one group of students, a significant positive change in their attitudes towards chemistry is measured, which is consistent with their teacher’s experience. For the other group of students, there is no significant change in their attitudes towards chemistry, which is consistent with their teacher’s experience as well. The lab itself is seen as appropriate by the attendant teachers, regardless of whether it influences the students affectively or not. Based on the answers of the students and the interviews with the teachers, it is possible to conclude that the lab has the potential to influence the students affectively, but also that this influence isn’t a necessary effect of the lab.

  • 62.
    Raes, Sandy
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Samverkan i projektet Grön Bostad Stockholm: En kvalitativ studie om samverkan och lärandet mellan aktörerna i projektet Grön Bostad Stockholm2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the current and growing problem of housing shortage in the Stockholm region, the project Green Livelihood Stockholm was created, which aims to promote sustainable urban development. The project consists of many goals, individuals and actors who act and work together for particular purposes. In order for the project to proceed efficiently and to contribute to sustainable urban development, it is important to investigate the collaboration in the project. The main purpose is to investigate the collaboration and mutual learning between the actors and the individuals in the project, which aims to identify strengths and weaknesses in order to propose improvements in collaboration and mutual learning.

    The qualitative method used consisted of interviews, forms and observations. The results and analysis show how collaboration and mutual learning works in the project, which is mainly through project group meetings. Furthermore, the result also showed that there were both strengths and weaknesses regarding collaboration and mutual learning. Lastly, there were arguments about improvement proposals regarding collaboration and mutual learning based on group processes.

    The conclusion in this study is that collaboration and mutual learning occurs in the project where it leads to the project being able to proceed more efficiently. Strength as well as weaknesses have been identified, for the project to proceed, it is therefore important to improve the collaboration and mutual learning in the project. This can be done using different methods and techniques that allow individuals to promote democracy, commitment, exchange of experiences and knowledge exchanges in the project.

  • 63.
    Rasmusson, Niclas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Motivation och lärande inaturvetenskaplig undervisning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This limited study is based on 119 respondents answers on a poll. The purpose of the thesis

    is delimited to examine how respondents perceive their work regarding creation of

    possibilities for student motivation. The quantative part focus on lesson planning and the

    qualitative part focus on the lesson as such.

    The quantative part of the study clearly shows that teachers perceive motivation as crucial

    for students learning, supported by Hattie (2014) metaanalysis. The result also shows that

    less than half of the respondents work actively with thinking and planning for motivation of

    the students while preparing the lesson.

    The qualitative part of the study examines how teachers worked with creating possibilities

    for studentmotivation during their last lesson. The respondants describe their work with

    student motivation pragmatically. Most frequent wordings are variation, discussion and

    pratical experiments, as something that generated motivation during the last lesson.

    The answers are examined following an analysis modell, based on Skaalvik and Skaalvik

    (2016) and their categorization of motivational theories in school. The thesis result shows

    that the respondants answers correlate with four of the eight motivational theories in the

    modell.

  • 64.
    Samba, Dayana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Farrah, Zainab
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Förutsättningar för lärande genom följeforskning i projekt: En studie om hur förutsättningar för lärande skapas genom löpande utvärdering i projektet Grön BoStad Stockholm2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, hundreds of millions of Euro´s and billions of SEK are spent annually in Sweden on various programs and related projects. These projects and programs are tools for creating sustainability in development work by leaving a trace, knowledge, on activities through improved structures and processes. In order to create this systematic feedback, learning in a project is highly dependent on a tool. This tool is on- going evaluation. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the on - going evaluation of the project Grön BoStad Stockholm, regarding the guidelines presented by the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth (Tillväxtverket). Furthermore, the study aims to emphasise the requirements for learning created through on - going evaluation, with the help of selected theories. To investigate the chosen area, participants in the project Grön BoStad Stockholm have been interviewed and relevant documents have been gathered.

    In addition, two external persons have been interviewed for the project, with the intention of creating a broader picture of how others outside the project perceive on-going evaluation and to provide the study with an external view. The result shows that most of the guidelines presented by the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth (Tillväxtverket) can be identified in the on-going evaluation carried out in the project. However, one of the main purposes of on-going evaluation is neglected when the results of the project are not followed up by the evaluation. Furthermore, the results show that the on - going evaluation of the project is carried out with a certain development - supportive approach, where the main prerequisite for learning is based on the expertise and reflection that the on-going evaluation contributes to the project management. The study showed that the majority of the project participants do not consider that the on - going evaluation has contributed to any learning prerequisite, which may be due to the fact that these conditions are hidden from most participants. Therefore, a greater focus should be on the other target groups: subprojects and steering group.

  • 65.
    Semarp, Dawan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Integrering av nyanlända elever: Hur och på vilket sätt kan man hjälpa de nyanländaeleverna att integreras i skolan, speciellt i ämnetmatematik?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of newly arrived pupils increases in the Swedish school every year, which makes the school a meeting place for all cultures, nations, religions, lifestyles, languages and different knowledge especially since July 1, 2013 when it was decided that even new arrivals without a residence permit were given legal right to go to school.

    This report aims at contributing knowledge about teachers views on the integration of newly arrived students in Swedish schools, and especially in the subject of mathematics, the newly arrived students' experiences of mathematics teaching and difficulties experienced by teachers in mathematics education for newcomers.

    The result shows that a lot of cooperation is needed about the development and integration of newly arrived students. Teachers argue that integration does not only happen when the students are in the classroom, but they must have the same opportunities and possibilities as the others for integration to be possible.

    According to the teachers, the students must be mapped before they start school to find out what level they are in order to get the right help.

    The result of the study further shows that the newly arrived students placed in a preparatory class are more satisfied with their studies than those who were placed in an ordinary class.

    The result also shows that shortcomings in Swedish and student backgrounds constitute the biggest problem for teachers' jobs with new arrivals. Therefore, it is important that the students begin in a class of preparation to get a smooth start and to get acquainted with some mathematical terms before starting in a regular class.

    This study is a qualitative study based on interviews with a few teachers and students, two teachers and eight students and therefore you cannot draw any general conclusions from the study. In order to draw some unambiguous or general conclusions, more extensive research is required in the field, involving more teachers, students and other staff in several schools in different municipalities.

  • 66.
    Sollenberg, Gustav
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Numerical model of the myosin V molecular motor2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A variation on a numerical model of the motor protein myosin V presentedin a paper by Craig and Linke (2009) is developed. An alternative potential is proposed. All aspects of the model development arederived in detail and tested. Two model tests are created and used toconfirm the correctness of the developed model. A simulation demonstratesthat the developed model is able to produce a myosin V step. Adidactical transposition is presented in the form of a compendium, in which a numerical model of myosin V by Craig and Linke (2009) isdescribed. The didactical transposition is developed using a methodologyof didactical engineering. The didactical study indicated thatthe content was well recieved by the target group of eight individualsin respect to the scientific complexity and that it evokes motivation forlearning. The study also indicated that unsuccessful areas of the didacticaltransposition existed.

  • 67.
    Ståhl, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Elevers förväntningar på teknikprogrammet: Hur eleverna hanterar övergången från grundskolan till teknikprogrammet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s upper secondary school, students often meet an education they haven’t really expected. This imposes demands on the educational institution to help the students forward when they face an educational situation that creates a conflict between their expectations and the actual education they participate in. This requires a dialogue with the student to explain and give an accurate description of the subjects they study and what they need to fulfil when they participate in the program. This thesis, based on interviews with students participating in a technical program at an upper secondary school, shows that this is a problem that needs to be handled. Despite the fact that the students sense that their educational situation is hard to handle, they still also feel a sense of belonging. This sense of belonging becomes an obstacle for the student to change from the educational system and program they are participating in. The students’ sense of belonging to the school and its identity makes it hard for them to leave the environment and the program they have started. Through dialogue, the teacher can provide strategies for the students to handle their studies and the transfer from elementary school to the upper secondary school. With the dialogue the students receive an increased understanding of why they take some courses and to find the most suitable strategy to handle the program. In this thesis students did confirm that there is a problem with the transfer from elementary school to upper secondary school. Even though most of the time students evolve their own strategies to handle the transfer, either by trial and error or with a family that can provide support. This thesis is mainly focused on the students that are having hard to handle their studies. difficulties to handle their studies and how to use motivation.

  • 68.
    Sund, Kasper
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Johansson, Emil
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Schemalagt eget arbetes inverkan på studiemotivation i skolan: Hur elevers motivation påverkas av att de själva får bestämma vad de ska arbeta med på skoltid2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to examine how pupils are affected by working under free forms, with respect to student motivation. The study took place in a high school in Stockholm with free study time scheduled, where the pupils are able to choose to work with whatever they find suitable. A qualitative study was carried out with focus groups to explore the opinions of students, teachers and principals regarding the student motivation during these classes. The theoretical framework of this study draws on Ryan & Decis’ Self Determination theory (SDT) and other theories concerning responsibility and control. The results show that a large amount of freedom makes some of the pupils regard these classes as an advantage for their motivation. Some other pupils perceived that freedom of choice affects them negatively as they cannot take responsibility for their schooling. Common for all pupils is that despite their own choice, the intrinsic motivation is not generated. Furthermore, the results indicate that the majority of the pupils are not prepared to act within a normative governance philosophy despite the school's vision regarding this.

  • 69.
    Wejdenstolpe, Mollie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Hur lärare kan välja programmeringsverktyg för kursen Tillämpad Programmering: Rekommendationer framtagna för tillämpningsområdena spel, matematik, musik och konst2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to help teachers, who are to teach the course Applied Programming,

    with the choice of programming tools for the course. The course

    is a high school course introduced 1:st of August 2017 to make it possible

    for students to take programming which is useful for the high school program

    they are studying. Therefore an area of application, which is relevant

    for the high school program, is chosen for the students to learn programming

    in. In this work, the areas of application are games, mathematics, music and

    art. For each area of application recommendations regarding choice of programming

    language and programming environment have been constructed,

    as well as a recommendation regarding whether you should use pair programming

    or not. A suggestion of how to interpret the curriculum has also

    been constructed. These recommendations have been constructed from a case

    study done in a school offering the course with games as the area of application

    for students taking the technical program. The case study consisted of

    an observation and two interviews with teachers. Apart from this a literature

    study focused on the different areas of application, programming languages,

    programming environments and pair programming has been done. The programming

    languages which have mainly been focused on are Python, Alice

    and Javascript. The final recommendations vary between the areas of application

    considering the choice of programming language, but pair programming

    is, regardless of the area of application, recommended to use to create a

    conversation about programming.

  • 70.
    Flodin, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Khatibi, Shadi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Betyg och kön: likvärdighet eller diskriminering?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    National and international assessments in mathematics show similar results for

    girls and boys. Despite this, statistics show that girls receive systematically higher

    final grades. This study examines whether grades serve as an equivalent measure

    of knowledge of girls and boys in high school mathematics. This is done partly on

    the basis of a quantitative approach and partly on the basis of a survey. Based on

    national register data (Statistics Sweden) for final grades and results of national

    tests, using four different methods of analysis, gender differences with respect to

    course, school form and county, are examined. The study shows that girls generally

    get a higher final grade than boys in relation to their results on the national

    test, confirming previous research. Furthermore, the analysis shows particularly

    large discrepancies at grade C and higher; in mathematics courses on vocational

    programs; in later courses within all programs; in V¨asternorrland, V¨astmanland,

    Gotland and Kalmar County; as well as in independent schools. Correlation analysis

    clarifies how the national test constitutes a smaller part of the assessment

    basis for girls compared to boys. The analysis also reveals an inverse relationship

    between gender dependent relative performance on the national test and the final

    grade deviation. The survey examines the assessment practice among mathematics

    teachers. Filtering on the teacher’s gender, age, program and school form has

    been applied. The result suggests systematic differences in assessment practice

    between different teacher categories, implying that grades can break in equality.

    Differences have been shown between, primarily, teachers in vocational programs

    and science programs, as well as between teachers in municipal and independent

    schools. Also the teacher’s gender and age seems to be of some importance. The

    study concludes with a discussion about possible solutions.

  • 71.
    Radenkovic, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Leder tvålärarskapet till en mer inkluderande undervisning: Vad anser lärarna2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inclusion is often mentioned and has become something of a key concept. It is often looked at from a placement definition, that is, to place students who previously would have been separated, in the regular class. Inclusion is also about the student feeling involved. Collaborative teaching system is a form of teaching where there are two teachers who plan the classes, co-teach and evaluate together. This study aims to find out what the teachers think about the co-teaching system. Do they think co-teaching leads to a more inclusive teaching? The study also aims to identify how the support to students with difficulties in mathematics is given. Are the students with difficulties given the support in the ordinary class or is the support given separated from the rest of the class. Is there a difference between where the support is given in the collaborative teaching, versus where the special teacher gives its support?

    The outcome of this study shows that the support to students with difficulties in mathematics differs between where the collaborative teaching system gives the support and where the special teacher gives its support. It seems as if the teachers in the collaborative teaching system more frequently give the support in the ordinary class while the special teacher more frequently seems to give the support outside of the ordinary class. The outcome of this study also shows that most teachers have a positive attitude toward the collaborative teaching system and believe that it leads to more inclusive teaching. But the opinions differ regarding weather or not the co-teaching system is of gain for students with difficulties in mathematics, instead of the use of special teachers.

  • 72.
    Turesson, Jesper
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Kunskapssynen i teknikämnetskursplan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The technology subject in Swedish elementary school has been criticised for not taking into

    account the pupils interests and experiences. Furthermore, the teaching is often not based

    on the curriculum and there is a lack of consensus among the teacher on what should be

    taught and what the subject stands for. Regarding the latter, studies have shown that

    philosophical discussions on the definition of technology are not common within technology

    teaching and learning, which can have consequences when a common set of criteria are set

    up to be used for assessment and grade setting. This study examines how technology and

    technological knowledge can be defined and how these concepts are reflected in the

    curriculum. Based on a systematic literature review of former studies in this area, an

    analysis of the curriculum is performed. The result show that even if there is a lack of

    philosophical discussions in the curriculum on what technological knowledge means, traces

    of this type of knowledge can be found. As an example the technology subject is

    characterised by the technical development projects that the pupils are supposed to carry

    out, and in these projects they get the opportunity to develop the so called technological

    science knowledge by systematically testing and re-testing their ideas.

  • 73.
    Lidén, Mattias
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    SL-Access idag och imorgon: En användarinriktad studie om mänsklig interaktion med ett vitalt samhällssystem2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The public transport of Stockholm, managed by SL, must work properly due to many people relying on

    its service to survive. One important condition for the public transport to work properly is a ticketing

    system that supplies the company with income and the travellers with the correct ticket for their

    journeys. Recently SL launched a new digital smartcard ticketing system that was design to be a copy

    to its previous analogue system. However the lookalike, the new system seem to have brought some

    confusion amongst its travelling users, whilst the previous did not. The purpose of this report is to

    examine the origin of this confusion by looking at the information flow sent from the system to the

    travelling users in a ticket buying situation to see if there is anything in particular that SL can do to help

    clarifying the system for its customers.

    The study will show that even though the system is designed as a replica, there are some important

    differences between the systems. While the previous system fulfils the demands of usability in EN-ISO

    9241-110 and the widely used Nielsen heuristics, the new systems Reskassa does not. The cause can

    be traced to the shift of where the selection of tickets is performed, the removal of the tickets

    themselves as an information channel and weakened error preventions. Previously the user told the

    system where to go and the system provided the user with a correct ticket. In the new system the user

    must tell the system which ticket is the correct one for the intended journeys. This shift of responsibility

    has been made without changing the information given from the system through its basic channels;

    the staff and the machinery. By making the tickets digitally stored without adapting the information

    flow to the new needs has created a system that doesn’t provide the user with its needed information

    when buying tickets and thus making the system difficult and prone to errors. There are however

    several strategies available to improve the systems information flow and to transform the system to a

    user-aiding design.

1 - 73 of 73
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