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  • 1.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Tornberg, Patrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies. WSP, Sweden.
    Fernström, Astrid
    A function-oriented approach to transport planning in Sweden: Limits and possibilities from a policy perspective2018In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 63, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on sustainability and transport has paid increasing attention to how the purpose of the transport system is framed, often arguing that there is a need to shift the focus of transport planning and policy from the physical infrastructure to mobility and accessibility. Sweden's national transport policy also has elements of this shift, most noticeable in the so-called four step principle, where the possibility to affect the need for transport and choice of transport mode (step 1) and the possibility to use existing infrastructure more efficiently (step 2) should be considered before large reconstructions (step 3) or new infrastructure (step 4) is chosen as the solution to transport related problems. The aim of this article is to study whether the practical implications of Swedish national transport policy are consistent with the ambitions expressed in the four step principle, with particular focus on the Swedish Transport Administration's (STA) mandate to finance different measures. Based on an analysis of policy documents and semi-structured interviews the main finding of the analysis is that many step 1 and 2 measures do not fall within the financial mandate of the STA. The implementation of the four step principle therefore depends on the commitment among other actors than the STA to implement step 1 and 2 measures. Furthermore, it is concluded that the limits to the STA mandate has consequences for the ability of the STA to engage in collaboration with the actors on which it depends, and that strengthening the STA's mandate to finance a desired function rather than physical infrastructure is likely to increase commitment among other stakeholders to work with these measures. Such a step would imply a different regulatory framework than the current, more in line with ”the sustainable mobility paradigm” (Banister 2008) and could contribute to a good accessibility to different amenities at the same time as negative environmental impacts are reduced.

  • 2.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Hansson, J.
    Gustavsson, M.
    Addressing positive impacts in social LCA—discussing current and new approaches exemplified by the case of vehicle fuels2018In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 556-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper seeks ways to address positive social impacts in social life cycle assessment (SLCA) and attempts to answer two questions: How can the SLCA methodology be improved in order to systematically identify all potential positive impacts in the supply chain? How can positive impacts be taken into consideration along with negative impacts in SLCA? In order for SLCA to be an attractive tool, it needs to provide users with the possibility to include positive impacts, not as variables stipulating lack of negative impacts but rather as fulfilment of positive potentials. Methods: By scrutinising the social impacts addressed in the SLCA UNEP/SETAC Guidelines today and reviewing approaches for positive impacts in other research fields, a developed approach to capture and aggregate positive social impacts in SLCA is proposed. To exemplify the application, the case of vehicle fuels is used to investigate the possibilities of addressing positive impacts in SLCA. This includes a literature review on potential positive social impacts linked to vehicle fuels. Results and discussion: The subcategories in the SLCA Guidelines are proposed to be divided into positive and negative impacts and complemented with some additional positive impacts. Related indicators are proposed. A draft approach for assessing positive impacts is developed where the proposed indicators are categorised in four different levels, from low to very high potential positive impact. The possibility to aggregate positive social impacts is discussed. Besides multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), few useful ideas for aggregating positive impacts in SLCA were found in the literature that mostly focused on surveys and monetarisation. Positive social impacts linked to vehicle fuels (fossil fuels and biofuels) are identified, and the proposed approach is schematically applied to vehicle fuels. Conclusions: The SLCA methodology may be refined in order to better identify and assess positive impacts, and approaches developed for capturing and aggregating such impacts are proposed. Challenges of aggregating positive and negative social impacts still remain. The knowledge on social impacts from vehicle fuels could be improved by applying the proposed approach. However, the approach needs more development to be practically applicable

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