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  • 1.
    Joyce, Peter James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn SEED, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Wood, Richard
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    A multi-impact analysis of changing ICT consumption patterns for Sweden and the EU: Indirect rebound effects and evidence of decoupling2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 211, p. 1154-1161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the major areas of growth in consumption seen over the last two decades. The falling prices of ICT and increasing energy efficiency of ICT may lead to reduced spending on ICT and electricity in the future. However, lower spending in one area can trigger higher spending elsewhere, leading to 'rebound effects' which can reduce or even cancel out the environmental benefits associated with lower consumption of a given product or service, and reducing the efficacy of environmental policy. In this study we use Multi-Regional Input Output analysis to investigate trends in the consumption of, and environmental and social impacts associated with la products in Sweden and the EU. We find that ICT spending is linked to prosperity, with a clear fall as a result of the 2008 financial crisis, but a recovery since. There is some evidence that the environmental impact associated with ICE has begun to decouple from consumption in Sweden, but not at an EU level. Environmental rebound effects associated with reduced ICT consumption are strong close to, and in most cases far above 100% (so called backfire effects). This backfire effect is strongest for energy use and total material footprint, which are both close to 200% in Sweden. This means that an increased spending on ICE products and services while keeping the overall consumption level constant, would decrease environmental impacts. Environmental rebound effects are much lower for reduced energy spending (as low as 2 percent), particularly at an EU level. Rebound effects in social indicators are assessed for the first time for 10' products. We find that value added in the EU is relatively insensitive to changes in spending patterns related to ICT and energy (rebound effects similar to 100%), however rebound effects in employment are seen, particularly resulting from decreased energy spending. At an EU level, reallocation of spending resulting from lower energy consumption results in a net increase in employment, while in Sweden the reverse is true. We conclude that policies focused on reducing energy spending are likely to have a greater overall environmental effect than measures which result in reduced consumer spending on ICT. However, in light of the conflicting social rebound effects at an EU and Swedish level, the importance of understanding the broader consequences of policy decision across a broad range of measures in advance of their implementation is once again highlighted.

  • 2.
    Vigouroux, Guillaume
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Destouni, G.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jonsson, A.
    COWI AB, Solna Strandvag 78, S-78 Solna, Sweden..
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Resources Energy & Infrastruct Sustainabil Assess, Teknikringen 10B, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    A scalable dynamic characterisation approach for water quality management in semi-enclosed seas and archipelagos2019In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 139, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In semi-enclosed seas, eutrophication may affect both the coastal waters and the whole sea. We develop and test a modelling approach that can account for nutrient loads from land as well as for influences and feedbacks on water quality across the scales of a whole semi-enclosed sea and its coastal zones. We test its applicability in the example cases of the Baltic Sea and one of its local archipelagos, the Archipelago Sea. For the Baltic Sea scale, model validation shows good representation of surface water quality dynamics and a generally moderate model performance for deeper waters. For the Archipelago Sea, management scenario simulations show that successful sea measures may have the most important effects on coastal water quality. This highlights the need to consistently account for whole-sea water-quality dynamics and management effects, in addition to effects of land drivers, in modelling for characterisation and management of local water quality.

  • 3.
    Ravan, Nazila
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    A Study on Life Cycle Assessment-based Tool for the Early Stage of Building Design2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The responsibility of the building sector to diminish the harmful environmental impacts, locally and globally, has been extensively considered. Thus, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in building and construction practices has been widely implemented. Among several available EIA methods, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the only standardized method which provides a holistic overview of environmental impacts to support the decision-making process. However, there are several barriers that hinder the process of implementing the LCA-based tools in the building sector. Specifically, the demand for a simplified LCA-based tool adapted to the early stage of the building design is rather high. Recently, the Construction Sector's Environmental Calculation Tool (Byggsektorns Miljöberäkningsverktyg BM v1.0) is developed to assist non-experts without knowledge of LCA. Architects, as one of the main target groups of the BM tool, have limited knowledge about the LCA approach due to its complexities; further, the architects have their own requirements for applying an LCA-based tool towards leveraging in the early design process. Hence, it leads to scepticism whether the BM tool has been so far successful to entice the architects' attention towards employing the BM tool in that process.

    This master thesis aimed to investigate if the newly-developed LCA-based tool, namely the BM tool, is a desirable choice for architects to evaluate the environmental impacts of their design at the early stage of building design. To be able to perceive more deeply the BM tool, as an environmental assessment and a decision support tool for architects, two main procedures, i.e., quantitatively and qualitatively, were employed to cover different technical and functional angles of the tool: (i) an LCA-based carbon footprint assessment for two reference buildings along with comparing the achieved results with the simplified Environmental Load Profile (ELP-s) tool, plus (ii) using a framework included various criteria for LCA- based tools in the early stage of building design.

    The findings from the quantitative analysis were consistent so that the concrete frame building produces a greater amount of carbon footprint during the stages A1 to A4 compared to the wooden frame building. The considerable deviation was related to the carbon footprint of aluminium profile in the material production stage. This could be due to the fact that in the BM database it is not specified whether aluminium profile was recycled or not. Regarding the carbon footprint in material transport stage, the inconsistent results were mostly linked to the default values in the BM database in which values for two of the main parameters (distance and mode of transport) differed. Particularly, the absence of boat as a transport mode and an error related to an unneeded distance value for concrete transport were identified in the BM database. The framework, used to evaluate the desirability of the BM tool for architects, suggests several criteria required for an LCA-based tool implementation in the early design. The outcome indicated that the majority of criteria, not satisfied by the BM tool, were related to the geometry parameter and associated 3D model. Thus, in order to make the decision-making process, desirable for architects in the early stage of building design, the two parameters, i.e., material and geometry, should be utilized in parallel.

    On the one hand, the LCA methodology in the BM tool is simplified in a way that makes the process comprehensible and easy to learn for non-LCA-experts. Since the tool is under the development, minor amendments would make the carbon footprint evaluation robust for the early stage of design. On the other hand, from the requirements of the architects' point of view, the fundamental modifications are needed in the structure of the tool. If architects intend to work with such an LCA-based tool, they have to make an extra effort to translate the resulted information from the environmental assessment tool to the inputs of the modelling tool and vice versa. This leads to an undesirable and inefficient design process for architects.

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