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  • 1.
    Rickardsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Olofsson, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Att utforma en gång- och cykelbana: En analys av utrymmesbehovet på ytbegränsade gång- och cykelbanor i Stockholm2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Region Stockholm recently set a goal to highly increase the bicycle traffic share the comingdecade. Bicycles as a means of transport has grown in popularity and current trends showa steady yearly increase. The ambitiously set goal puts high demands on the currentpedestrian and bicycle paths in the city. More often than not, pedestrians and cyclists sharethe same space, and thus creating a source for conflicts. Accident statistics show these twogroups are particularily vulnerable, and as a result there is a considerable need for gooddesign of pedestrian and bicycle paths.The aims of this study are to examine the current guiding manuals for design; to developand use a method of analysing the interactions between pedestrians and cyclists; andfinally to explore how the design recommendations from the guiding manuals are followedthroughout routes in the city. The study’s purpose could be summarised as investigatingwhich widths of the pedestrian and bicycle paths result in the smallest amount of conflictsbetween the two groups. The project is split into one part literature study, one part fieldstudy.The literature study scrutinises the guiding manuals for design published by RegionStockholm, The Swedish Transport Administration ( Trafikverket ), The City of Stockholm,and The Swedish Authority of Local Authorities and Regions ( SKL ). Other works, such asreports and papers, or guiding design manuals from Denmark, a country in the frontier ofbicycle planning, are included in the analysis. In the field study, nine suitable locations inStockholm are chosen for data collection. The number of interactions and conflictsbetween pedestrians and cyclists are analysed for each location with intention of findingconnections between the conflicts and the design of the pedestrian and bicycle paths.Ultimately the study concludes that pedestrian paths should have a minimum width of 210centimetres. A satisfying interval of 220 - 230 centimetres is shown to be sufficient as thewidth of the bicycle path, which in total adds up to about 4.3 metres.

  • 2.
    Cavallius, Matilda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Östman, Albin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    BIM Model for Facility Management: What facility management wants and needs2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the majority of the work with BIM is performed in the design stage. Despite this, the biggest economic benefits can be made in the facility management stage. This report is written in a collaboration with Veidekke, which is Sweden's fourth biggest building developer. Veidekke is in the lead of digitalization and is constantly evolving. After the building stage Veidekke has a BIM model left which is full of information. What Veidekke want to accomplish is to be able to use it in facility management and increase the value of the model. This report aims to examine what information commercial facility management wants in a BIM model for FM&O purposes. The result is achieved by interviewing property managers and design stage consultants. The interviews aims to provide knowledge about what information property managers wants and what experiences the consultants have. In addition to the interviews, a survey is made which is only directed to property managers, regardless of the business area. The literature study will provide results from earlier research and show what possibilities and challenges there is with BIM in facility management. The proven challenges that has been shown is lack of communication, lack of knowledge about how BIM can contribute and information exchange between the building stage and facility management stage. There are different tools that can facilitate these challenges, such as the neutral file format IFC, a language for exchanging facility information - fi2xml, and COBie which is a standard for information exchange. Another tool is CoClass which is a mutual classification system that enhances communication between different participants. There are guidelines for how an implementation could be performed in “BIM i staten” and in other reports such as Linda Strind’s, about business values connected to BIM, where the result showed a manual for digitalization. Some of the benefits are lower operating costs, more accessible operating and maintenance information, time savings and better communication. What facility management needs is information about operation and maintenance, surface areas and general information about the building such as placement of bearing walls or different installations. New working methods are required to enable BIM in facility management, and all BIM-models should be prepared for future maintenance even if the customer is unknown. It’s also possible to add information to the BIM-model at a later stage, which is an important function for FM&O.

  • 3.
    Abdihakim Ali, Mohamed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Henriksson, André
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Comparison between high strength steel and conventional steel regarding the overall material usage for a composite bridge2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Structural steels are among the most widely used materials in the constructionsector, of which S355 is the steel that is considered being the norm in Europetoday. As the demands on civil engineering structures are increasing today parallelwith the construction sector intending to become a more environmentalfriendly industry, high strength steel (HSS) has become increasingly relevanttoday with the aim of reducing the material usage and facilitate a more sustainableconstruction. HSS is structural steel with a very high yield strength andultimate strength. In this dissertation, structural steels with a yield strengthof 500MPa or above were classified as HSS.In this thesis, the main steel girders of the E4 bridge over the Vapelbäcken,which is a continuous steel-concrete composite highway bridge, were optimizedwith HSS S690 and conventional structural steel S355 in order to investigatehow HSS affects the material usage for the bridge compared to the conventionalsteel. In addition to the above, a cost analysis, modal analysis and a fatigueassessment of bridge were carried out in order to analyse how the mass changedue to HSS affects the material cost of the bridge as well as the bridge’s dynamicproperties and fatigue resistance.The main girders of the bridge were optimized with respect to the ultimatelimit state (ULS). The optimization initiated with a structural analysis of thebridge using the finite element software Abaqus. Design calculations were thenperformed for the girders in accordance with the Eurocodes. Afterwards, thecross-sections of the main girders were optimized. When the optimization wascompleted, a cost analysis, modal analysis and the fatigue assessment wereperformed for the bridge.The optimization showed that HSS significantly reduces the material usagecompared to conventional steel if the optimization takes place with respect tothe ULS. The cost analysis showed that the bridge with optimized main girdersof HSS was the cheapest option, indicating that HSS can be a more economicalalternative than conventional structural steel if the material reduction is largeenough.The large material reduction that HSS entails led to deterioration of the bridge’sother properties. The modal analysis showed that the bridge with optimizedgirders of HSS was had the lowest natural frequency, indicating that the largemass reduction of the bridge due to HSS results in a impairing of the bridge’sdynamic properties since a large mass reduction impairs the stiffness of thestructure which in turn decreases the natural frequency. The fatigue assessmentshowed that the bridge with optimized girders of HSS had the lowestfatigue capacity, which means that the yield strength of the material does nothave an impact on the fatigue capacity and therefore the benefits of HSS cannotbe exploited in cases where fatigue governs the structural design.

  • 4.
    Semakala, Chanel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Cömert, Emre
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    En jämförande studie mellan diesel- och eldrivna tunneldrivningsmaskiner för masshantering i tunnel2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is facing a reality where the dependency on fossil fuels needs to cease and be replaced by options that are more climate friendly. One such option is the electrification that has not made a breakthrough in the construction industry yet and therefore needs to be examined. In this thesis an investigation is made by two different systems of wheel loaders and trucks. One system that conducts machines run by electricity and another one where the system is powered by diesel. The investigation is based on goal formulation which serves as the basis for answering these questions. The machines were examined in such as to obtain results that illustrate which system of machines that are profitable with regards to time, energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and total costs. This thesis has also as an intent to identify any advantages and disadvantages of each transport method. This is done in order to lend structure to any further research conducted in the future. To be able to compare and examine the properties of the machines, these machines were applied to a tunneling project. The project that was received was the metro station Hagalunds industriområde. The planned expansion of the subway will lead to a new metro line between Arenastaden and Odenplan, where Hagalunds industriområde will become an intermediate station. In order to truly optimize our efforts and carry out the calculations, the focus was placed on a partial stretch of 1 000 meters with respect to the main tunnel and working tunnel. The result obtained shows that the electric wheel loader leads to less time, carbon dioxide emissions and better energy efficiency than the diesel-powered wheel loader. On the other hand, the disadvantage is that the purchase cost of the electric wheel loader leads to greater total costs. These investments may be necessary to break the dependence on fossil fuels. When comparing the trucks, the result showed that the electric truck is a better alternative from an environmental perspective and total costs. While the diesel-powered truck saves on both time and energy. The reason why the total cost of the diesel-powered truck differs greatly from the electricpowered truck is the rental costs. If the diesel-powered truck was instead purchased, the total cost difference could be reduced.

  • 5.
    Fredriksson, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Gluhajic, Bane
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Heating systems in small houses: A comparison between geothermal heating and district heating2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    District heating and geothermal heating are in present times two established heating systems that are often compared against each other. The purpose of this work is to describe which factors influence the choice of heating system during the planning stage and what the costs are for each system. In this paper, a typical house model has been developed and used as a basis for the comparison of both systems. The comparison has been made in the form of energy calculations in the energy calculation program BV2, where heat requirements and regulatory requirements for energy performance have been compared in different geographical areas in Sweden. Furthermore, cost calculations have been carried out based on the energy calculations' results, where investment costs and annual costs have been set against each other. The result of the work shows how the measurement of energy performance differs from the actual amount of purchased energy due to geographical conditions. In the southern parts of Sweden, where the geographical correction factor is below 0, consumers are penalized by raising the primary energy number, unlike the northern parts where the primary energy number is instead lowered. Based on the cost calculations, it can be concluded that district heating, when available, is more economically advantageous in the short term. Geothermal heating on the other hand is a more profitable alternative in the long run.

  • 6.
    IBISEVIC, AIDA
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    UGUR, HASANHÜSEYIN
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Numerical and experimental dynamic analyses of Hägernäs pedestrian bridge: Including seasonal effects2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wood as a construction material has in recent years increased, in particular concerningpedestrian bridges. By utilizing wood, the ecological footprint can be reduced,and the material can be designed to comply with the increasing aesthetic demandbridge designers are facing. However, as the material weighs little with respect toits bearing capacity, combined with design becoming more slender, human inducedvibrations are becoming a problem.Having this in mind, the objective of the thesis is to conduct a case study on anexisting timber pedestrian bridge and assess its dynamic parameters by means ofexperiential testing and numerical modelling. The case study concerns the Hägernäsbridge, an arch bridge located in Hägernäs, Täby. The thesis also considers seasonaleffects by conducting experiments on two separate occasions. In addition, the thesisevaluates influencing parameters on the dynamic behaviour by conducting a sensitivityanalysis. To aid the above mentioned objective, a literature review coveringsimilar type of analysis is conducted. The literature review also studies the seasonaleffect, mainly from the asphalt layer, as its stiffness contribution is temperaturedependant.The results from the dynamic parameters showed that not all modes fall above therecommended values concerning damping ratio (with values above 1-1.5%). However,all modes fulfill design criteria concerning the magnitude of the natural frequencies.Furthermore, results showed that the natural frequencies are highly temperaturedependant. The measured values during warm weather (+17C) resulted in lowervalues than those from the cold weather experiment (-10C). Moreover, the greatestdifference, by 21% was on the 1st transverse mode and the lower difference was onthe 1st vertical mode, that decreased by merely 5%. Moreover, the damping ratiowas calculated and it was not possible to find any correlation between warm andcold temperature. Instead, decreased temperature caused some modes to increase indamping ratio and others to decrease. The most affected mode was once again the1st transverse mode which increased by 146% going from warm to cold temperature

  • 7.
    Hallak Neilson, John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Numerical and experimental dynamic analyses of the Vega Pedestrian bridge including seasonal effects2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As timber structures become increasingly relevant and sought after – since they enable improvements in building time while reducing a structure’s life cycle impacts – streamlining their design can have meaningful economic and environmental implications.For timber footbridges, its design is frequently governed by serviceability criteria linked to excessive vibrations. To address this in design, it is necessary to correctly characterize the structure’s dynamic properties and understand what the leading parameters in its behaviour are.This thesis studied an existing timber arch footbridge, aiming to evaluate its dynamic behaviour both with experimental measurements and with theoretical models. The influence of temperature change over different seasons was considered, particularly around its effect on the asphalt layer – whose stiffness is highly correlated to temperature.The experimental results showed high correlation between temperature and natural frequencies: a variation of +21°C reduced the natural frequency for the 1st transverse mode of the deck by as much as 30.6% while the 1st vertical mode was reduced by 17.7% (variation of 0.029Hz/°C).The damping ratio was also measured, though a definitive correlation between its value and temperature was not identified.This change in behaviour cannot be explained by the influence of the asphalt layer alone however, as there is a high degree of uncertainty around many other components of the bridge and their interactions, such as the connections.Thus, to fully characterize the influence of each component with changing temperature, further experimental tests would have to be performed, or simpler structures with fewer connections should be considered.In designing a new structure, considering the asphalt layer as an added mass is a straightforward way to treat this material at the most critical condition (i.e. no contribution to stiffness). This strategy lead to sufficiently similar results between the computational model and the experimental results at warm temperatures.The asphalt stiffness could perhaps be considered for the 1st transverse mode of the deck, since it is in this mode that the asphalt layer plays its largest contribution.

  • 8.
    Niu, Chang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Numerical Study on PollutantRemoval Performance of Island Kitchen Exhaust Devices2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is reported that cooking can generate many kinds of airborne pollutants,which pose serious threats to human health. Kitchen range-hood is themost effective and popular equipment to exhaust the airborne pollutants,including smoke and oil particle in people’s daily life. The lack of astandardized and overall approach to test and evaluate range-hood makesboth consumer and some manufacturers confused. For these reasons,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory published a report, whichshowed the results of their elaborate experiment and some conclusion.However, they also pointed out that due to the limitation of the apparatus,some of the results are not reliable.Therefore, this project established a numerical model in Fluent toinvestigate the pollutant removal performance. Many attempts had beenmade before a validated numerical model was accomplished because aproper model needs the balance between iteration time and resultaccuracy. The validation part is presented in the literature. The captureefficiency curve of the numerical model and one of experiments show agood agreement at the low power input. Some conclusions are drawn onhow power inputs and height affect the capture efficiency, respectively.Dimensionless analysis is done to find a general characteristic curve forevaluating the removal performance of a particular range-hood.

  • 9.
    Woerli, Baptiste
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Parametric design and optimization of pipe bridges: Automatizing of design process and cost optimization2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in computer intelligence have led to the development of a number of optimization algorithms, used to solve complex problems. They have the potential to find optimal or near-optimal solutions in a reasonable time frame. Structural optimization is a field where such algorithms are used to optimize the design of structures. Despite the great amount of published research, the practice does not reflect that progress as the results usually concern small or unrealistic problems. Simultaneously, tools for automating tasks in the design process are being developed to help the designer in repetitive and complex actions. Made to be easily usable, they are today fully implemented in largely used softwares and are thus ready to become an everyday tool for designers. Designs based on a limited number of parameters are also especially adapted for an optimization process to be implemented. Combining parametric design and optimization has great potential in the development of the design practice among engineers and this thesis is addressing the need for a practical usage of optimization by presenting a software application for automated design and optimization of pipe bridges. Used as a preliminary design, limited in its details and complex layout, it shows the opportunities of using computational methods in structural engineering. This thesis introduces the concepts of parametric design and optimization in structural engineering practice, explains how the software application works and presents a case study carried out to evaluate the results. The results of the case study suggest a great potential in cost saving. Yet, the speeding up of the process and the opportunity of working on an adaptable design is perhaps the greatest benefit that would make designers turn to such practice. These findings show that the current tools for parametric design and optimization are robust enough and ready to use in order to extend the design practice and obtain better solutions.

  • 10.
    Nezamaldin, Darwn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Parametric design with Visual programming in Dynamo with Revit: The conversion from CAD models to BIM and the design of analytical applications2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, there is a big strive to achieve faster and more accurate results of designing buildings in construction companies. Construction companies that work with the design part are continuously searching for methods to increase efficiency in the working process. Autodesk have introduced a software that uses parametric design to provide input to Revit models and to retrieve and manipulate the outcomes of Revit models. The Dynamo software uses visual programming and is connected directly to Revit where the user can gain access to Revit’s data structure where parameters can be controlled and manipulated.

    This research consists of two parts. The first part shows how 2D Autocad drawing can be converted into 3D Revit models. This is done by using the 2D geometry as reference lines for placing BIM objects. The second part shows how the BIM model can then be used to analyze different elements with Dynamo. The calculations of element cost, weight and thermal transmission losses of floors, walls and roofs are used to illustrate this possibility.

    All the main goals were achieved and are presented in the report for engineers to utilize. The report illustrates the basics of Dynamo, shows examples of how to it can be used while sharing the scripts that were used for this research. The report also encourages other competent students to continue where this thesis ended. Even though several tasks were achieved in this thesis, there are still much more to learn about parametric design and visual programming.

  • 11.
    Kling, Oliver
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Dahlman, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Parametric Optimization of Foundation Improvements with RC Slabs on Piles2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Parametric design has proven to be a powerful tool for structural engineers to find innovativesolutions to complex problems more effectively compared to conventional methods. Theflexibility off parametric design is immense since all types of structures depend on a range ofparameters that can be isolated, controlled and altered.In this thesis a parametric model was built with the software Grasshopper to manage thedesign process of a common type of foundation improvement. The technique has beensuccessfully used by Tyréns AB on several 19th century buildings in Stockholm in the pastdecade. The buildings were settling due to decay of the original wooden piles. To stop furthersettlements steel piles are drilled from under the building down to the bedrock. In thebasement of the buildings new and thick reinforced concrete slabs are cast which are connectedto the ground walls with concrete corbels.The available area for the installation of these corbels, the minimum distances between thecorbels and the dimensions of each corbel are all contributing factors that limit the number ofpossible design configurations. The dimensions of the concrete corbels affect the maximumload capacity which will determine their quantity and position. The corbels have to carry thevarying line loads and point loads acting on the ground walls from the structure above.With the plug-in finite element software Karamba, reaction forces in each pile were calculatedwhich also affected the possible designs.A well-functioning and adaptable parametric model presented logical results where decreasingheight of the concrete slab was affecting the capacity of each corbel which in turn generated alarger number of corbels. The model offered both manual control and automatic optimizationwhere real time variations of loads and reactions were shown depending on the changingdesign.In the optimization process which was based on genetic algorithm a cost function to deal withthe numerous contributing parameters was designed.Verification of important results increased the confidence in the model in most cases but thelack of trust in the calculated moments of each shell element created limitations. The thesisdoes not include a complete finite element analysis of the structures generated by theparametric model. However, it presents a simple export process to the third party softwareFEM-Design for verification.The role of the model was therefore not to work as a complete solution but as a powerful andeasy-to-use design tool for the structural designer to get instant feedback of chosen corbelplacements. The model offered a simplified way of achieving more slender and economicstructures both financially as well as environmentally.Parametric design was shown to be successful for solving structural problems if the model wasbased on appropriate engineering judgements.

  • 12.
    Ljung, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Parametric Studies of Soil-Steel Composite Bridges for Dynamic Loads, a Frequency Domain Approach using 3D Finite Element Modelling2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, parametric studies have been performed for a soil-steel compositebridge to determine and investigate the most influential parameters on the dynamicresponse.High-speed railways are currently being planned in Sweden by the Swedish TransportAdministration with train speeds up to 320 km/h. According to the European designcodes, bridges must be verified with respect to dynamic resonance behaviour for trainspeeds exceeding 200 km/h. However, there are no guidelines or design criterion forperforming dynamic verifications of soil-steel composite bridges. The aim of thisthesis has therefore been to investigate the influence of the geometry and materialproperties of soil-steel composite bridges on their dynamic response.This thesis is based upon the frequency domain approach for dynamic analysis ofa soil-steel composite bridge using finite element software. In 2018, field measurementswere performed on a soil-steel composite bridge in Hårestorp, Sweden. Areference finite element model was developed based on previous research and wasverified against these field measurements. Parametric studies where performed byextrapolating the geometry of the reference model, focusing primarily on the crownheight, culvert span width and the location of the bedrock. Sensitivity analyses ofthe density- and stiffness of the soil was also performed.The parametric studies showed that the crown height was the most influential parameterwith respect to the amplitude of the resonance peak. Increasing it from 1 mto 3 m reduced the amplitude by approximately 70 %. An increased span width ofthe culvert was found to reduce the frequency and amplitude of the resonance peak,however increasing the stiffness of the culvert increased the resonance frequency.The position of the rock layer also reduced the amplitude of the resonance peak iflowered, likely because of lessened wave reflection. The lowest rock level investigatedshowed a significant decrease of more than 70 % in amplitude. However, the modelused to calculate this response was heavily extrapolated and thus difficult to verify.The sensitivity analyses showed that the soil density- and stiffness was negativelyand positively correlated with the resonance frequency, respectively. Additionally,the soil density lowered the amplitude of the resonance peak if increased.

  • 13.
    Olsson, Styrbjörn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Candler, Simon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Payback periods for photovoltaics integrated in nonbuilding structures2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provide Sweden and other countries across the globe with energy in a long-term and sustainable manner that accounts for our global environmental goals, we need to adopt more sources of renewable energy. Solar panels and other forms of solar power is one of these renewable energy sources that has a lot of potential and the technology has become increasingly more common in Sweden and other parts of the world in the latest decades. Everyone from private individuals to companies and authorities are increasingly making investments in the technology. With the help of our supervisors and after extensive literature studies we aim to increase the knowledge about solar panels and their economic aspects by calculating and presenting payback periods for solar panels implemented in nonbuilding structures. In conjunction with this we also aim to present a basic theoretical background about solar panels and their global impact to further the understanding of the technology even more. On behalf of, and in collaboration with Trafikverket we have examined the payback periods of four solar panel installations in connection to four of the authority´s nonbuilding structures. Three of these solar installations are applied on technical buildings that are scattered alongside the railway system across the country. The solar panels provide local electricity to the electrical components within the building. The fourth solar installation is connected to a road tunnel where it provides local electricity to the lights within the tunnel. The conducted calculations have resulted in a payback period for each respective solar installation measured in years based on various relevant factors that influence their energy production. Our hope is that this can clarify the economic aspects of the solar panels and be of help in potential future investments in solar power by Trafikverket. The conclusion is that the solar panel installation connected to the road tunnel has the shortest payback period by far and also has great potential to be economically lucrative by generating future revenue. The tree solar installations connected to the technical buildings each have a significantly longer payback period but are still expected to be paid back eventually. However they are not expected to generate a mentionable yield, if any.

  • 14.
    Uludag, Suat
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Diliwi, Helmut
    Potential measures and improvements in energy consumptions regarding ventilations systems with heat recovery2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ventilation system is in itself a huge necessity in our everyday life as it provides sufficient amount of fresh air to our indoor climate, while it simultaneously circulates the residing air pollutants out of the building. Although, for this to be made possible, large amounts of energy is required to be consumed, which in turn leads to an increased energy cost. The knowledge to minimize the use of energy occurs in many different scopes of practices throughout our society. Many people however, avoid such measures due to the high initial costs which are presented, but also because they haven't enough awareness of how they should rectify the problem. The Study is mainly based on researching previously performed measures of system upgrades in the ventilation industry regarding ventilation systems with heat recovery, while understanding the different elements that influences the choice to either upgrade or renovate the already existing system. The implementation of thesis happened through information gathering, a literature study and a qualitative research, which in this case were interviews. The literature study consisted of scientific reports, evaluations and a couple of digital sources which were relevant to the subject we were focusing on. The interviews on the other hand were conducted with experienced officials and employees in the ventilation industry, with the purpose of having a better understanding behind the reason of a system being upgraded. The final results of the study indicated that the most common reason why a costumer/property owner sought an upgrade or renovation of the ventilation system was mainly because of contamination in the heat exchanger, which in return increased the energy consumption while at the same time impaired the indoor climate.

  • 15.
    Anselius, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Safety first: a case study of incident and accident reporting in a company within the construction and civil engineering industry2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is an exciting and community developing industry, but it is also very much talked about because of the high injury frequency that the industry is characterized by. As a part of preventing accidents at work, the employer conducts systematic work environment work to detect risky parts of the work and to remedy these. Despite the elimination of risks at work, accidents and incidents - so-called deviations in the working environment - occur. Deviations in the working environment must be reported immediately to the employer. Within the company that is subject of this study, the deviations are reported and stored a system called BIA. BIA enables, based on the deviation reports, to create statistical data for the company with respect to different parameters. This report is based on this deviation statistics with regard to accidents and incidents, produced from the reporting tool BIA. The study has investigated in which stages/phases incidents and accidents occur, which work operations that cause incidents and accidents, as well as injury risks and causes of injury behind accidents and incidents. The majority of the company's incidents and accidents occur during construction projects, production and land work. Incidents are caused by work tasks such as excavation work, work at/with passing vehicle traffic and movement within the area. Accidents are caused by work at/by machine, manual handling of material / product and work at/with handheld work equipment. The damage risks in the event of incidents are vehicle accidents, hit by falling or flying objects and stuck or clamped between objects. The causes of injury caused by accidents are damage by self-handled objects, fall at the same level and contact with sharp objects. Fall from height and fall at the same level are the cause of damage in a large part of the accidents. The result of the study also shows that the information given in the event reports in BIA, either lacks of information or that the information is inadequate.

  • 16.
    Sharif, Bawar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Inayat, Ari
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Samverkan mellan Revit och FEM-Design: Modellöverföring från Revit Structure 2016 till FEM- Design 3D Structure 15 för analys och jämförelse med handberäkning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Barbaranelli, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Wallin, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Seismic Analysis of Norra Tornen: A Comparison Based on the Requirements in Eurocode 82019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, buildings are not designed to withstand earthquakes due to the rarity of an earthquake event and its consequential damage. However, the aim of this thesis was to study the seismic performance of some of the highest buildings in Stockholm, called Innovationen and Helix. The purpose of the study was to get an understanding of earthquake engineering for high rise buildings and to compare the behavior of the two towers during seismic action. In order to compare the two buildings and get an understanding of what will affect the seismic performance, Eurocode 8 was used. The Eurocode standard lists several properties that impacts the seismic resistance of buildings. One of the goals was to study how those factors influence the behavior of Innovationen and Helix and finally compare the results to each other in order to draw valid conclusions. The method to perform the analysis was a modal analysis using a finite element analysis program. The program used contains predefined response spectra’s based on Eurocode 8 which is used to define the seismic load acting on the structures. The extracted results are listed below: - Frequencies and mode shapes - Modal masses - Level and total masses - Accelerations - Displacements The conclusion of the study was that Innovationen and Helix have similar properties and some points from Eurocode 8 were better fulfilled by Helix and others by Innovationen: - Uniformity, symmetry and redundancy (Innovationen fulfills the requirements better than Helix) - Bi-directional resistance and stiffness (Innovationen fulfills the requirements better than Helix) - Torsional resistance and stiffness (Helix fulfills the requirements better than Innovationen) - Adequate foundation (Helix fulfills the requirements better than Innovationen) Of the two parameters studied, the height was the one with the most influence on seismic resistance.

  • 18.
    Kazi-tani, Zakaria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Simulation of Hardening of the MahanaKhon Tower Mat Foundation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cement hydration is the result of a series of simultaneous chemical reactions occurring during the production of concrete. An excessive amount of heat is generated, which consequently may give rise to thermal stresses and cause early age cracks in concrete that may affect its structural integrity, and load bearing capacity. Incorporating fly ash into the concrete mixture has shown to be an efficient method to reduce the temperatures developed during early age hydration, especially for massive concrete structures. Fly ash does additionally affect the concrete's development of compressive strength, tensile strength and Young's modulus.

    The MahanaKhon tower's mat foundation is divided into 14 layers, with fly ash incorporated in the concrete mix. A finite element model was developed of the mat foundation with COMSOL Multiphysics to simulate the developed temperatures and thermal stresses during curing. The simulations were carried out as parametric studies with different strain reference temperatures. The simulated temperatures were compared with existing temperature measurements that were conducted in three different elevations in each concrete layer. The result of the temperature analyses showed that the measured temperatures were generally larger than the simulated ones, which may have been the result of the numerical model's heat conductivity and convective heat transfer coeffcient not reflecting the actual case. Furthermore, the numerical model did not take into account the effects of solar radiation, which would most likely have increased the temperature of the concrete. The maximum simulated temperatures were mostly found in the center level of the concrete, followed by the lower level, and the lowest at the top. It was also observed that the maximum temperatures in some of the mat foundation layers could exceed 70 °C, which is generally considered high since the risk of delayed ettringite formation may arise. The large temperature is partially a result of not using cooling methods, such as cooling pipes, but also due to the high initial and ambient temperatures.

    The result of the thermal stress analyses showed that no tensile stresses arose when the strain reference temperature, Tref, was specified to 30 °C, corresponding to the mean ambient temperature. This is due to the concrete temperature not falling below Tref, and the concrete will therefore be in expansion and only be subject to compressive stresses. Increasing Tref to 50 °C, which was considered a reasonable estimation, resulted in developed tensile stresses in all mat foundation layers, where the majority of the mat foundation layers showed a risk of superficial surface cracks. The maximum tensile stresses were found at the final time of the simulations, which was expected, since the temperatures were at their lowest as a result of removing the curing insulation. Finally, setting Tref to 70 °C, corresponding to the maximum temperature during hardening, increased the induced tensile stresses considerably, due to the large temperature gradient between Tref and the concrete temperature. The maximum stresses were, as expected, located at the top level and caused by internal restraint. The second largest tensile stresses were found in the center level, also subject to internal restraint. The lowest tensile stresses were located in the lower level, subject to external restraint.

  • 19.
    Rogne, Eric
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Åbyhammar, Linnea
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Soil Steel Composite Bridges: A comparison of conventional and stainless steel solutions2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the aim is to compare soil steel composite bridges in conventional andstainless steel. The parameters that are compared are calculations according to theDesign method by Pettersson and Sundquist, finite element modelling, life cycleassessment and life cycle costing.Three different types of soil steel composite bridges are designed, one corrugated inconventional steel and two in stainless steel. The compared bridges are one MP200and two stainless steel plates with U120x55x9- and T80x80x8-stiffeners along theperimeter respectively. These bridges are evaluated with two different height of soilcover, 0.8 m and 2 m.The results obtained from the calculations in the Design method show that all threebridges pass the in this study applied capacity checks. The normal forces do nothave considerable differences between the three different bridges. For a height ofsoil cover of 0.8 m the stress is bigger in MP200 than U120x55x9 and T80x80x8.With a height of soil cover of 2.0 m T80x80x8 has the biggest stresses followed byMP200 and U120x55x9.The bridges are modelled as pipes surrounded by soil in the software Abaqus withtraffic loads acting on them. When the stresses from the finite element modelling arecompared to the ones from the Design method it can be seen that the ratios are 10-63%.The biggest difference between the bridge in conventional steel and the ones instainless steel in the life cycle assessment is the lifespans. The bridge inconventional steel is assumed in this study to have a lifespan of 60 years comparedto 120 years for the bridges in stainless steel. This lead to higher emissions for thebridge in conventional steel than the ones in stainless steel.The life cycle cost-analysis shows that the total cost is lower for the bridge inconventional steel than the two bridges in stainless steel, where the total cost in thisstudy is the sum of owner and user cost. The user cost is small compared to theowner cost.This is a preliminary study and the methods and results should be used with caution.The study is partly based on assumptions and simplifications. The input data andresults should be adjusted to be applicable in other studies.

  • 20.
    Tahan, Annabel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Al-kazaz, Haydar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Standardiserad tidsplanering för SSM i produktionen2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been carried out for the company SSM where the purpose was to standardize their time schedules and also their working methods regarding planning in production.

     

    To achieve this, the thesis has mostly been based on analysis of some of SSM's time schedules in production, where these have been examined in the smallest detail. Three out of six projects have been studied in more depth and the authors have then made their own standard templates based on these. In addition, interviews/meetings have also been held with time planners both within, but also outside the company.

     

    These methods resulted in conclusion that all site managers at SSM and personnel in the design department should use Vico Office in the future in order to standardize the time schedules. This because the program saves reusable information from each project that has been implemented, which can be used in future projects. The program contains various tools, which are stated in the report that allows the user to choose how to present the time schedule.

     

    After trying the different functions of the program, the recommendation is that the company use Vico in the future as they can combine different planning tools and connect the BIM-model with e.g. costs, quantities, resources and time. Custom standard templates have been developed to simplify and standardize time scheduling according to SSM's work processes.

  • 21.
    Kazi-Tani, Elias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Kazi-Tani Lindgren, Amaria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Systemberäkning för långa pålar: En analys av samspelet mellan jordens och pålars styvhet genom friktion i axiell led2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish landscape mostly consists of loose clay by the surface followed by hard moraine and hard bedrock at the bottom. Loose clay is an unfavorable soil formation for structural foundations due to its higher risk for settlements, which can be prevented by piling down to a hard soil layer. Piling is a common founding method in Sweden, whereat pile systems with varying pile types, lengths and materials are used. End bearing piles account for a large proportion of the different pile types used, considering the country's stable bedrock. This study focuses on three different variants of end bearing piles: hollow steel piles, concrete piles and concrete filled piles.

    During system calculations, end bearing piles are currently regarded as fixed to hard surfaces such as bedrocks and hard moraine where the entire load is transferred downwards through the pile tip. Thereby, no consideration is given to the contribution in bearing capacity that arises as a result of the friction from soil adhering along the shaft surface. This implies that the piles are estimated to have a lower stiffness than in reality and are therefore expected to be more compressed when axially loaded. This leads to the usage of approximated values in system calculations. Piles cannot be examined or repaired once the structure has been constructed, and it is thus important to perform more accurate system calculations during the design stage.

    This study was commissioned by our industrial supervisor with the aim of simulating, calculating and evaluating the difference in stiffness for individual piles, both with and without the influence of the surrounding soil friction, based on parameters such as pile length, load and axial deformations. The case studies consist of two cases where only homogeneous clay and friction soil layers occur. Through literature studies and the use of the finite element method (FEM) in MATLAB, the simulations could be carried out.

    The results show that the soil contributes to a noticeable increase of the piles’ stiffnesses in proportion to the soil depth. Furthermore, an analysis of the various cases shows that friction soil has a greater influence than cohesion soil at greater depth. Our conclusion is that the soil should be included in system calculations för end bearing piles, where a successful implementation of this could lead to a more sustainable development within the domain of construction, seen from an environmental and cost perspective. With this report as a basis, it is recommended that greater emphasis be placed on the soil’s bearing capacity and the possibilities for its utilization in future projects.

  • 22.
    HELGADÓTTIR, KRISTÍN
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    BJÖRNSDÓTTIR, RAGNHEIÐUR
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    The Nordic Prediction Method For Railway Traffic Noise: Improvements of the current corrections forrailway bridges, switches and crossings2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Railway noise is a very important and growing health hazard in today´s society.Railway systems pass through towns and cities and create noise. When trainsride through or over railway bridges, switches and crossings the noise increasessubstantially, causing great annoyance to the residents in the area.At the present time, acoustic regulations exist in most countries and are set to achievea good environmental quality in residential areas, schools, hospitals, offices andhotels.A few calculation models exist for railway traffic noise, such as The NPM 1996,NORD2000 and Cnossos-EU. The NPM 1996 is currently used in Sweden to calculatenoise propagation from railway traffic. To uphold the regulations set, it is importantthat the method used is as precise as possible. All of these calculation modelsare based on several correction factors. Today, the current corrections for trackconditions, that is railway bridges, switches and crossings, are not very accurate andneed to be reconsidered.The aim of this project was to investigate and quantify the error of the NPM correctionfactors and give some indication of how they should be adjusted. This is done to makethe noise prediction from railway traffic more accurate and thus protect the residentsfrom these health risks.The specific objective was to perform significant amount of field measurements ofnoise from trains on different steel bridges, switches and crossings, as well as on afew concrete bridge according to the measurement standard Nordtest NT 098. Thefield work was carried out over the period March to May, when weather conditionsmet the criteria for field measurements, in and around the Stockholm area.The results obtained revealed that the correction factors for steel bridges andcrossings are considerably lower in the NPM than measured in this project. However,the correction factors for switches and concrete bridges are similar to the ones inthe NPM. In this thesis, a part of the correction factors have only been invalidatedto a degree. It has been shown that each bridge is unique and perhaps there is apossibility of finding similarities between some type of bridges. However, much moreiv |measurements are needed to see any correlation between each bridge type. Thus,further and more comprehensive measurements have to be carried out in order toestablish new accurate correction factors for track conditions in the Nordic PredictionMethod.

  • 23.
    RODRIGUEZ MILLIAN, JULIAN DARIO
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Towards the application of UAS forroad maintenance at the Norvik Port2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the vital processes for the maintenance of infrastructure is the collection of information about the inventory and current state of the infrastructure. Such activities are mostly done manually by the inspector in the field. However, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) offer the possibilities to improving the accuracy, precision, and efficiency of those tasks. The present dissertation focusses on the evaluation of the requirements and possibilities for the incorporation of UAV in the assessment of port infrastructure, with an emphasis on pavement infrastructure. The first step to reach the goal of the research was the elaboration of an extensive literature review where the leading practices and trends for the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) were identified. Based on the literature review, it was possible to propose a roadmap for the implementation of the UAS in the assessment of port infrastructure. The roadmap was implemented in a case study for the Norvik port in Stockholm while the restrictions and information allowed. This research produced several key findings. First, it was possible to recognize the lack of precise definitions in the pavement assessment, the faults in the current manual collection of pavement distresses and the voids in an investigation regarding the recognition of pavement defects different than cracking as some of the critical problems in the area. Additionally, the current applications like bridge and structural inspection, and available technologies like LiDAR or visual sensors were identified along with its improvement opportunities and restrictions. The key steps for the implementation of a UAS for assessing infrastructure were formulated as the identification of the needs and critical parameters, the selection of the UAS components, mainly the UAV and sensor, and the postprocessing of the data. The main conclusion drawn from the research is that it is possible to use UAS to assess the state of the infrastructure. However, not all UAS are suitable for all situations or necessities. The selection of the UA, according to the needs and limitations of the project, plays a vital role regarding the viability of implementation of a UAS for monitoring port infrastructure. The sufficiency of a UAS is closely related on its capability to acquire the information of the selected structures, with the required quality, and overcome the limitations, challenges, and restrictions of the site of application. As a way forward, the most important element to address is the implementation of Machine Learning (ML) techniques and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to extract the relevant features of the data automatically.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Väderprognosstyrda värmesystem i byggnader: En jämförelse mot traditionell styrning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to investigate how forecast control can affect the energy consumption and the top effects for heating compared to the traditional control system in facilities with different building structures. In 2013 were the energy consumption 80 TWh for the heating and domestic hot water in resident buildings and facilities. This corresponds to 55 % of the total energy consumption within the building sector and facilities represent 28 % of the buildings. This indicates that there is room for efficiency for the heating systems in facilities.Demands from new directives for stricter energy consumptions for buildings are going to be established in the Swedish regulations and 19:th of June 2018 were the new amending directives published which need to be established in the Swedish regulations latest 10 March 2020. The demands on the buildings is pushed further and further. It is getting more difficult to reach the requirements from BBR and even more difficult to reach the requirements from environmental certifications like Miljöbyggnad. Therefore, it is important with detailed solutions that is able to lower the energy consumptions for the heating systems.A reference building has been used and created in the simulation software IDA ICE with three different building constructions to compare forecast control against the traditional control system. One with a large U-value and low amount of thermal mass, one with a smaller U-value and a low amount of thermal mass and one with a smaller U-value and a high amount of thermal mass.The centrally controlled forecast control is tested against the traditional controlled system for each building structure. Traditional controlled systems in facilities is normally using thermostatic valves, due to the lack of sustainability and the lack of maintenance the control systems are also tested without the thermostatic valves.The results for the forecast control indicate on an increase for the energy saving by 3.4 % without the thermostatic valves and an increase by 2.7 % with the thermostatic valves. The top effects can be improved with forecast control by 33 % without thermostatic valves and by 15 % with thermostatic valves. These improvements were made for the building construction with high amount of thermal mass. It is possible to argue for benefits with forecast control if it is installed in a heavy constructed building with regard to the decreased top effects. It is more difficult to argue for the benefits with regard to the energy consumption. Large benefits were found with in local control, especially for buildings with large U-value and low amount of thermal mass. The result indicated on an improvement of 30 % for the traditional control with thermostatic valves and of 28 % for the forecast control with thermostatic valves compared to the scenario without the thermostatic valves.Knowledge about the building characteristics has a significance for the choice of control system. According to the results forecast control may be a benefit with regard to the top effects if it is a heavy building construction. Regarding the energy consumption is the best strategy to carefully adjust and maintain the current traditional control system.

  • 25.
    MARTÍNEZ LÓPEZ, GUILLERMO
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Wind effects on simple girder bridges during construction stages2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wind is dynamic by nature, but its actions on structures were considered as static loads until thecollapse of Tacoma Narrows Bridge (1940). Nowadays, due to the developments in civil engineering,bridge designs are becoming slenderer and lighter, which makes wind dynamic eects even moreimportant than wind static eects. Furthermore, some types of bridges show specially vulnerablesituations during constructions stages, when the structure is lighter or does not have its nalstiness. The aim of this document is to assess the dynamic wind loading on simple girder bridgesduring their construction phases. Particularly, the studied section is formed by two steel beamssupporting a concrete slab. The analysis was made when the concrete slab has not been built yetand only the steel parts are in their positions. Eurocode 1 proposes some analytical methods toanalyse dynamic wind loads, but the parameters given are only for simple sections.Several CFD simulations were done with the software Ansys-Fluent to nd the aerodynamic parametersdepending on section's dimensions. The geometrical parameters tested were the heightof the beams (h), the distance between beams (d) and the height of the bridge (H). Three valueswere assigned to each parameter, and beams' width was set to b = 0:9m. Tree construction stageswere analysed. First, when only one beam is exposed to the wind, second, when the two beams arein their nal locations but they are not connected yet and, by last, when both beams are joinedby the bracing. Extra uid simulations were made with closed sections, in order to see if isolatingthe space between the beams with plates improves section's vulnerability. The results showed thatvortex shedding eects are stronger in the along-wind direction due to the low horizontal bendingstiness of the beams and their high area perpendicular to the ow. Increasing beams' distanceshowed to be a good solution to reduce wind eects. However, the alternative of closing the sectionwith light plates had the best results, decreasing the frequency of vortex shedding and its eects.Moreover, the obtained results were used to analyse the vulnerability of Banafjal Bridge with themethods proposed by Eurocode 1. The eects of vortex shedding on the bridge showed to be ofimportance only when just one beam is in its nal location. The low actions seemed to be becauseof the low frequencies of the bridge, which caused the resonance to occur with low wind speeds.Increasing bridge's natural frequencies the wind loads would increase, leading to high accelerationsthat could reduce the safety or the comfort of the workers. Anyway, the stresses were far fromsteel's elastic limit. Regarding bueting loads, with wind speeds above 25-30 m/s, or 40-45 m/swhen the bracing is done, the elastic limit of the steel was reached, leading to undesirable residualstresses in the beams. Increasing beams' width was in this case the best option to reduce buetingeects.

  • 26.
    Grandgirard, Alex
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    A model to foresee building heat performance2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades, the rehabilitation market has become increasingly significant in France. In particular, the renovation of university sites and hospitals from the 1970s, which is a fast growing segment of the French construction market. In parallel, the office and residential buildings construction sector is becoming a lot more environmentally friendly, with more efficient buildings and more advanced sustainable systems such as better design and implementation of renewable energy sources. This Master thesis, carried out in France with the company Elioth, focuses exclusively on the renovation market.

    The goal of this thesis is to determine a model that delivers forecast consumption for an existing building. The efforts during this Master Thesis project have been put to one typology of building in situation of an energetic performance commitment at Elioth. Rehabilitation projects on university campuses are the most ongoing and urgent demand from the company. So university as a based building has been chosen to support the thesis.

    The result of this Master thesis is a practical supporting protocol along with an operative tool named “Estim’ELIOTH”. It enables environmental engineers to define the data in their possession in order to use the tool to determine the energy consumption of the building studied. This feature aims to provide information for energy performance commitment management in the early stages of the design. Nowadays, this is essential for renovation projects in France.

  • 27.
    Smyth, Max
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    A Study of the Viability of Cross Laminated Timber for Residential Construction2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents an overview into cross laminated timber (CLT) as a construction material and how it compares to traditional methods of construction. CLT is also examined in the context of a move to off-site manufacturing (OSM) and a greater emphasis on sustainability in the construction sector. In this context it is found to perform well with mass timber products such as CLT being the only carbon negative building materials capable of building mid and high-rise buildings. 

    The barriers and opportunities for CLT are explored looking at literature, industry reports and case studies. The main barriers to wider use of CLT still come from uncertainties around the material. Although they have been proven to not be a problem, worries over issues such as how it performs during fires and the lifetime of buildings persist. A lack of standardisation may be the primary cause for this as a range of products and specifications across different manufactures and countries creates confusion and means that each building needs to be individually specified. The opportunities identified for CLT include its carbon saving properties which could benefit governments wanting to reach their carbon reduction targets. In addition, the ability to use CLT on a wider range of sites such as unstable brownfield land and over service tunnels lends to its strength in aiding with urban densification. 

    In terms of costs, these are found to be comparable to those of traditional construction methods with high material costs being offset by reduced foundations and construction time. CLT buildings do, however, face a premium in insurance costs. Transport costs, resulting from a concentrated production base in central Europe, also add a considerable amount to the overall cost of the finished product. This in turn encourages domestic production in countries outside of Europe. 

    The possibilities for CLT in the UK residential construction market are investigated with a focus on mid-rise and high-rise flat construction as that is what the economics and material properties of CLT most lend itself to. Although CLT currently has a low market share of less than 0.1% of homes in this sector there is the potential for this to increase to 20-60% over time. The lower range of this estimate is not predicted to be reached before 2035 and this is also dependant on rising CLT production levels. The volume of timber that is needed to manufacture enough CLT to reach these increased construction volumes can be sourced sustainably from existing forests production in Europe and North America. In addition, the UK has enough excess timber harvesting capacity to provide for the entirety of CLT buildings in the UK, however, large scale domestic CLT production is required to make this a reality. 

  • 28.
    Falcão de Queiroz, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    An alarm system for pore pressure measurements in the foundation ofconcrete dams: a case study of Storfinnforsen buttress dam2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete buttress dams are relatively light structures and less demandingon foundations; because of that, they may have problems with upliftforces and horizontal joints in the area of the dam´s foundation maypresent a failure mode through sliding. The Storfinnforsen dam, thelargest concrete dam in Sweden, had its foundation studied recently andthe discovery of sub-horizontal joints in the bedrock led to the necessityof having the safety of the dam foundation to sliding assessed.The safety is dependent on the pore pressure, which can vary throughtime. The implementation of an alarm system to monitor and assess thevalues of the pore pressure is necessary to improve the dam´s operation.In this thesis, a new system on how to define alarm limits for measuredpore pressures is suggested.The proposed alarm system will monitor the pore pressure of the joint,calculate the safety factor against sliding, compare it to the alarm limits ofthe system (adopted from RIDAS) and present countermeasures to theproblem.The analysis and implementation of the alarm system on monolith 42 ofStorfinnforsen showed that it does not comply with the Swedishguidelines with respect to sliding stability, but the measured porepressures are low enough to allow the creation of an alarm system thatwill monitor the pore pressure continuously. Furthermore, thecharacteristics of the local geology exclude any quick development of porepressure allowing countermeasures to be applied.However, further research on the definition of alarm limits for this kindof problem is needed.

  • 29.
    Gavrell, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Reuterswärd, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    An Automated Process for Concrete Reinforcement Layout Design2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As many tasks considering structural design in civil engineering become digitalised, the possibility of creating a more effective workflow increases. The development of computer programs that can handle large amounts of data and assist the decision making during design process increases the requirement of the data management to fully utilize the potential of a digital workflow. The design of reinforcement layout of concrete structures is time demanding and often performed manually. These characteristics of a workflow indicates that it may be suitable to be subject to automation.

    The aim of this thesis is to highlight the potential and the difficulties of using automated design procedures in civil engineering with focus on reinforcement layout design. Specifically, the selection of straight rebars and their placement within concrete structures has been studied with respect to buildability and the amount of reinforcement used.

    A computer program has been developed to select rebar diameters and arrangement, satisfying the required amount of reinforcement as well as some of the rules according to the Eurocode standard. In order to find feasible solutions, an optimization of the amount of reinforcement as well as different measures of buildability is performed, using a genetic algorithm.

    The result from two case studies showed that the program managed to perform tasks similar to an engineer and create design solutions which reduced the amount of reinforcement and the number of rebar types. Furthermore, it was shown that consideration to the identified buildability parameters played an important role in finding an optimal solution. The findings indicate that the design of reinforcement layout may be automated and that a more effective workflow can be achieved.

  • 30.
    El zain, Nadia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    An experimental study of the validity of the round panel test method for shotcrete2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Shotcrete (sprayed concrete) was used for the first time in 1914 and has become of  growing importance in stabilizing the excavated tunnel sections over the past century.  Even though the technology develops, there are some difficult tasks such as the design of a bolt anchored tunnel lining made of shotcrete. A proven and established design method does not exist today; instead the design of tunnel linings are based on trial and error or experience from similar projects. One method used today, to determine the actual structural behavior of fiber reinforced shotcrete, is the standard beam test method. Previous studies have shown that the beam method gives scattered results since the testing volume are relatively small and the fibers might be unevenly distributed. 

    In 1998, an alternative to determine the actual structural behavior of reinforced shotcrete was proposed, based on using round determinate panels. In 2004 this method became a part of the American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM, standards. The method has the potential of becoming a major, reliable test procedure that better reproduce the behavior of reinforced shotcrete in situ, compared to test beams.

    An experimental test series was performed to compare the different testing methods in terms of data variability and validity, in the laboratory of Vattenfall in Älvkarleby. The experiment was performed on 30 specimens in total, with five different concrete recipes. The difference in the recipe was the fiber and cement content. The round panels are designed according to ASTM C-1550 and the beams according to SS-EN14488-3. The results from the experiment is here presented and evaluated, and also including the data variability and validity for the proposed method. The two basic testing methods of using beams and round panels are investigated, compared and evaluated, and their advantages and disadvantages discussed.  

  • 31.
    Hellsten, Malte
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Larsson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Analys av väggeometri för två förslag till Östlig Förbindelse2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Stockholm uppstår det problem i trafiksystemet då det till stora delar är överbelastat till och från de östra delarna av länet, både på väg- och spårnätet. I och med att stor del av befolkningen måste ta sig till andra sidan staden för att komma till jobbet ställer det höga krav på att infrastrukturen fungerar väl. Med den starka befolkningstillväxten kommer bristerna som redan finns förstärkas ifall inga åtgärder vidtas.Behovet av en Östlig Förbindelse är stort och kommer hjälpa till att avlasta de befintliga vägarna och skapa ett bättre trafiksystem när den kopplar samman Södra länken och Norra Länken och bildar en ringled runt Stockholm.Två alternativ har tagits fram, ett alternativ med en sänktunnel som passage av Saltsjön och ett alternativ med en bergtunnel som passage av Saltsjön.Genom att studera tidigare undersökningar gjorda av Trafikverket och ritningar som WSP tagit fram har de två alternativen undersökts och jämförts mot varandra utifrån trafiksäkerhet, vägestetik, kostnad och miljö. Resultaten kontrolleras mot krav som Trafikverket ställer på nybyggda vägar.Syftet med arbetet är att ta fram fördelar och nackdelar med de olika alternativen för att kunna bedöma vilket som är mest fördelaktigt att gå vidare i projekteringen med.Undersökningarna visar att båda alternativen håller god standard ur trafiksäkerhet och vägestetik där inget alternativ är avsevärt bättre än det andra.Största skillnaden mellan alternativen är på kostnad, där bergtunneln är billigare att bygga men kommer kosta mer i utsläpp.

  • 32.
    Karlsson, Viktor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Rosin, Enok
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Analys av äldre murverkshus: Gällande befintliga byggnadens förutsättningar för påbyggnad2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is an established trend in Sweden and with a simultaneous housing shortage the authorities are planning for densification of the cities. In contrast to the issue of densifying cities, there are older masonry buildings occupying the attractive central locations of the mayor city areas.  Hence, storey extensions of these massive buildings can be intuitively perceived as uncomplicated projects. Behind the facade, however, is a construction material different from today's. Through the study carried out, three reference objects of masonry structures have been analyzed. Regarding strength properties of the existing structures and aspects that should be taken into account when it comes to storey extensions.

    Given that the construction of masonry houses in the late 19th century does not differ very much, general descriptions of the existing structure of the body can be made. On the other hand, one must have or acquire an understanding of the characteristics of brick and mortar form the past when designing a storey extension.

    There are several methods of analysis for masonry and the approach of obtaining the unknown strength properties can be complicated. Even difficult to interpret.

    With today’s possibilities to model structures in finite element programs results can easily be produced, but if the values are representative for the existing structure’s capacity is difficult to evaluate. Considering that changes in these structures can create instability and altered equilibrium systems.

    This report describes different calculation methods and how the load capacity is affected by the chosen method. It also outlines important factors when designing an extension of storeys.

  • 33.
    El Hamad, Hamad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Tanhan, Furkan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Analysis of post-tensioned concrete box-girder bridges: A comparison of Incremental launching and Movable scaffolding system2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When designing a bridge it is of high importance that the geometry for the cross section is optimized for the structure. This is partly due to the influence of the amount of material needed and its impact on the budget and environment. The influence of choosing the right amount of each material lies in the unit-price of the different material, where they can differ significantly.

    The Swedish Transport Administration, Trafikverket, has ordered the construction of Stockholm Bypass which is one of Swedens largest infrastructure project and is valued to 27.6 billion SEK according to the price index of the year 2009. The infrastructure project is divided into multiple projects where one of them is assigned to Implenia and Veidekke through a joint venture (Joint venture Hjulsta, JVH) and is valued to nearly 800 MSEK. The reference bridge that is used in the analysis of the master’s thesis is a part of the project.

    The aim of this masters thesis was to analyze and compare the two construction methods, mov- able scaffolding system (MSS) and incremental launching for the reference bridge with respect to amount post-tensioning and slenderness. Furthermore, an economical comparison between the two construction methods was carried out based on the obtained results.

    The analysis of the MSS was carried out by modeling the reference bridge structure in the finite element software SOFiSTiK AG. The bridge was modeled with different cross section height, i.e. different slenderness where the optimal amount of post-tension tendons could be determined by iteration until stress conditions from the Eurocode were fulfilled. For the incremental launching method, a numerical analysis was performed. The optimal amount of required post-tensioning was evaluated in the construction stages and final stages with different construction heights i.e. different values of slenderness.

    A cost analysis was also performed where the aim was to analyze how the total cost of the construc- tion of the bridge would be influenced by the different slenderness of the bridge as a comparison for the two construction methods. This was done by dividing the costs into fixed costs and variable costs.

    The results showed that the structural rigidity had a large influence on the required amount of prestressing steel for both construction methods. In other words, the smaller the cross section the more prestressing steel was required. Incremental launching proved to require a much greater amount of (PT) tendons compared to the MSS although the identical cross sections and properties for both methods, except for the PT. The prestressing for incremental launching is generally by centrical prestressing during the construction stages.

    A intersection point was obtained in the cost analysis for the construction methods. The incremental launching was the cheaper solution for slenderness smaller than the intersection point at slenderness between 17 and 18. The MSS was cheaper than the incremental launching for slenderness larger than the intersection point.

  • 34.
    Hosseini, Robabeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics. RISE -Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Steven, Yalta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering. RISE -Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Application of Dynamic Grouting to Improve the Grout Spread Using Varying Aperture Long Slot (VALS): AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the past centuries, grouting has been one of the most common techniques in geotechnical engineering to strengthen and seal underground structures. Concerning increasing demands for tightness and cost efficiency, cement-based grout has been one the most frequent used materials. One of the first grouting operations is the work done by Charles Bérigny in France back in 1802 in order to repair a sluice by stabilizing the ground with liquid grout. Several studies have been then conducted in grouting, which have contributed into successful improvement of the grouting operations. The investigations have also extended the understanding of the factors such as choice of materials, choice of equipment, and the applied pressure type and magnitude, etc. that influencing the grout spread in rock fracture systems.

     

    Among the factors, the applied pressure is one of the most significant ones influencing the spread of grout during grouting operations. Grouting at static pressure conditions is the most common method used in field, where in practice the injected grout can only penetrate into the rock fractures wider than 100 µm.

     

    Recent investigations conducted on application of static and dynamic pressure conditions, using Short Slot and Varying Aperture Long Slot (VALS) in the lab have yielded an overall improvement of the grout spread under dynamic pressure conditions rather than the conventional static pressure conditions. However, the efforts conducted are just a beginning, especially in very fine micro factures smaller than 70 µm 

     

    The main objective of this investigation was therefore to improve the spread of grout by dynamic grouting into fractures smaller than 70 µm effectively, which could not be done with grouting at static pressure conditions.  Furthermore, the aim was to investigate filtration and erosion phenomena/ tendency of grout flow during static and dynamic pressure application using Varying Aperture Long Slot (VALS) in the lab. The durations of peak and rest periods used in the experiments were 2s/2s and 1s/5.5s, which were equivalent to 0.25 Hz and 0.15 Hz, respectively. The results of dynamic grouting showed up to 10 times improvement in the volume of passed grout through fracture apertures smaller than 70 µm.

  • 35.
    Hellström, Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Assessing the impact of the indoor environment on productivity: A case study in a university building in Stockholm2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The impact that the indoor environment has on productivity is a topic that has been investigated in numerous studies. There are a variety of different methods that have been used to evaluate productivity with. There are quantitative methods and there are qualitative ones, and both have been used in the literature as indicators or real productivity. The quantitative ones are for instance short arithmetical or linguistic performance tests or measurements of the actual quantitative output of a job. Qualitative assessments of productivity consist of different ways of allowing the subjects to rate their own productivity. Both these two approaches of evaluating productivity are claimed to be subject to different issues, and the question of which way is preferable is a matter of contention among the researchers. The quantitative approach is claimed to be unable to reflect the complex and qualitative output of many modern jobs, while the qualitative one is believed to be highly influenced by bias. This master’s degree project has investigated the associations between the two approaches and conducted a qualitative assessment of the impact of the indoor environment on the productivity in a university building in Stockholm.

    Numerous studies have been reviewed that include both quantitative evaluations of productivity and qualitative evaluations of the indoor environment. Qualitative evaluations are for instance evaluations of environmental satisfaction, as well as evaluations of healthiness and productivity. The relationship between the quantitative measurements and the subjective evaluation is indeed complex. However, there appears to be a consistency to some extent between the two, and the trend seems to indicate that occupants who are more productive are also more satisfied with the indoor environment or perceive themselves to be healthier or more productive.

    A working hypothesis has been formulated; that subjective evaluations of the indoor environment may act as indicators of productivity. This approach has been used in a university building in Stockholm, where the productivity of the students has been evaluated through a survey, together with physical measurements of the indoor environment. The survey is designed based on the current literature within the field. It has a large emphasis on productivity, with several questions concerning it directly and indirectly. The physical parameters that were measured were radiant temperature, air velocity, relative humidity, CO2- concentration and sound pressure level. Considerable correlations were observed between perceived productivity and environmental satisfaction, perceived environmental control and between different ways of evaluating productivity subjectively. The correlations between the physical measurements and the subjective evaluations were in general considerably weaker than the ones between the different subjective parameters. The correlations between the mean CO2-concentration and productivity was weak, and similar findings were obtained concerning sound pressure level. This emphasise the importance of heeding the opinions of the occupants while evaluating the performance of a building, as physical measurements alone appear to be unable to reflect the users’ perspective reliably. The correlation between the thermal parameters (evaluated by the PMV- value) and the subjective evaluations were, on the other hand, considerably stronger. This may indicate that the thermal parameters are among the most influential ones in creating a productive workplace.

    Furthermore, the study discusses different methods that have been used to evaluate productivity with. It discusses their weaknesses and strengths and what elements they contain that may be used for future studies of productivity.

  • 36.
    Asmar, Aleksandra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Toygur, Aynur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Att bygga en grundskola som fungerar i en innerstadsmiljö2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As cities become denser, population increases and the build rate today for elementary schools is low,more and more students will need a place in schools that are not yet built. Today, temporary modulesare a solution to the school shortage, these modules come with the risk of being used for a longerperiods than was planned due to the lack in planning for permanent schools. At the same time alreadyexisting elementary schools, in particular, the inner cities ones face another problem, that of a limitedplayground.The aim of this work is to design a permanent elementary school that will fit in an inner cityenvironment and, despite its limited amount of space, will be able to achieve the recommended keyfigures for playgrounds outdoors. In order to design such a primary school, investigations were carriedout in the form of literature studies, web searches, personal interviews and personal visits at variouselementary schools. The interviews were conducted in person with specialists in the planning ofelementary schools, with primary school teachers and with experienced architects and constructorswith substantial knowledge in their fields. Based on the investigations, a primary school wasdeveloped which works in an inner city environment.The elementary school was designed with regard to internal and external noise and has a flexibledesign to be adapted to sites with different conditions. The building has a limited space that offersenough playgrounds for the students in the form of balconies, roof terrace and a playground in theground floor beneath a part of the building standing on pillars. We believe that this solution to aprimary school can in the long run be a good start for reducing the shortcomings of schools facing oursociety.

  • 37.
    Lythell, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    T. S. Jarjes, Wesam
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    AUTOMATISERAD PROJEKTERING: MODELLERING OCH BERÄKNING AV EN STÖDMUR I GRASSHOPPER, KARAMBA OCH TEKLA STRUCTURES2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många av dagens konstruktioner som projekteras är välkända och beprövade standardkonstruktioner. Projekteringsmetodiken för dessa är tidskrävande och repetitivt då projekteringen alltid påbörjas från grunden.  Detta ineffektiva arbetssätt anses kunna ersättas med en effektivare metod och därmed möjliggöra ett bättre nyttjande av resurser. Denna skulle kunna ersätta de repetitiva delmoment i projekteringen så dessa utförs per automatik. Metoden kan även utnyttja effektiviteten som återfinns i parametriskt styrda modeller och de välutvecklade beräkningssätt som idag används.  Undersökningen av detta har skett genom en sammankoppling av ett flertal processer och mjukvaror och med en automatiserad projekteringsmetod förmodas stora tidsbesparingar vara möjliga, vilket resultatet av detta arbete tyder på. 

  • 38.
    Samuelsson, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Gårdefors, Peter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Betongfyllda HSQ-balkar: Ett alternativ till traditionellt brandskydd2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den brandskyddsmetod av bjälklagsbalkar som används mest idag är brandskyddsfärg och brandskyddsskivor. Dessa metoder kräver ett extra arbetsmoment efter att balken är monterad. Genom att fylla balken med betong samtidigt som hålbjälklagskarvarna fylls och på så sätt integrera brandskyddet i balken kan ett extra arbetsmoment undvikas. Byggnadstekniska Byrån har märkt ett intresse från beställare att i ett tidigt skede få in brandskyddet i projekteringen. 

    Målet är att undersöka om betong, ingjuten i en HSQ-balk kan få balken att uppfylla de brandskyddskrav som idag ställs enligt Boverkets byggregler. Målet är även att ta reda på om det är kostnadseffektivt jämfört med brandskyddsfärg. 

    Referensobjektet som används är en skola på tre våningar och balken som undersöks är den som tar upp de största lasterna i projektet. Balken ska enligt Boverkets byggregler klara av en standardbrand i 60 min. Temperaturanalysen av balktvärsnitten har gjorts i Ansys Aim 18.2 och dimensioneringsmetoder av balken sker enligt Eurokoder. 

    Balken som idag finns på plats skulle inte i oskyddat tillstånd klara av en standardbrand i 60min. De utförda beräkningarna visar att balken i samverkan med betong och armering i tvärsnittet skulle klara momenten och tvärkrafterna i referensobjektet. Fenomen så som spjälkning av betong, dess inverkan på betongens hållfasthet samt armeringens vidhäftning har inte kunnat tas i beaktning. Därför rekommenderas att balkens underfläns dimensioneras upp från 20mm till 30mm och enbart betraktar den ingjutna betongen som kylande medium.

  • 39.
    Tesfamichael, Elsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Roka, Laxmi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Betongkvalitetens inverkan på byggtid och kostnader vid anläggningsprojekt2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the pursuit to complete a construction project in a shorter period of time, a number of studies have been published and methods tested.

    This thesis study examines if it is profitable to use a higher quality concrete than constructional needed to gain time and economical savings in the production phase of a construction project. High concrete quality possess a high strength class and a low water-cement ratio. If a high concrete quality exhibits shorter formwork striking time, rented components can be returned to the supplier at an earlier stage and economical savings could be made. However, a high concrete quality is more expensive than a low quality concrete, therefore a comparison was made to see if it overall is profitable.

    The report begins with facts about concrete and formwork. Thereafter a description of the studied construction parts are given. The construction parts belongs to a bridge at Interchange Vega and consist of a footing, column and a superstructure. The study analyzes three different concrete qualities: C 35 / 45 vct 0.40, C 40 / 50 vct 0.38 and C 45 / 55 vct 0.36. The formwork striking time for each construction part was calculated with the three above-mentioned concrete qualities. The calculation was performed by using the calculation program ProduktionsPlanering Betong. A total cost analysis was made based on the formwork striking time where the cost of concrete was compared with the costs for formwork, scaffolding and general costs. Ultimately, on the basis of the results of this research, it can be concluded that the use of a high concrete quality gives shorter formwork striking time and economical savings amongst the construction parts that was studied at Interchange Vega.

  • 40.
    Nordlander, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Blast Resistant Structures: A comparison of Quasi-Static- and Elasto-Plastic Analysis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Hallqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Berkal, Cherif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Branddimensionering av CLT-element i bärande väggkonstruktioner: en komparativ studie mellan gällande normer och senaste forskningen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a growing environmental awareness have led to an increase in timber buildings and since the 1994 amendment that made it possible to build tall houses with timber structures the progress in the field have seen an substantial increase. To build an element of perpendicularly placed layers of solid-sawn lumber have proven to be an effective way to obtain a product with good strength-to-weight ratio that is ideal for use in tall timber buildings. These elements go under a lot of different names but are often referred to as cross-laminated timber and will be called CLT in this report. The use of this product have these past decades increased substantially both in Sweden and in Europe and the demand does not seem to stagnate nor decrease in the near future.

     

    The report is comprised of relevant theoretical sections that must be taken into account when designing a structures fire protection such as the development of a fire in fire compartment, how to define and determine a structures class of fire resistance and hence required fire protection time for said structure. The basis of design in regards to loads and compressive/flexural strength of the material is thoroughly explained in order to account for the whole fire protection design processes. The lack of information regarding compressive and flexural strength of the residual cross-section was challenging but with the help from Maija Tiainen from Sweco structures Helsinki office the report could be completed.

     

    The most important part of the report is the theory and calculation with regards to the charring depth which is calculated by two different methods. The first one is presented in the European standard Eurocode 5: part 1-2 and the other one, that is based on the latest scientific knowledge with regards to timber structures and fire, is found in the technical guide Brandsäkra trähus version 3. The aforementioned method will form the basis for the upcoming update of Eurocode 5.

     

    In order to be able to compare the two methods four wall types was chosen and designed based on the same conditions. Namely protected by two layers of gypsum plasterboards as fire protection and exposed to a 90 minutes one-sided standard fire.

     

    The result showed differences between the methods where a clear difference was the size of the residual cross-section due to the fact that the zero-strength layer, , was notably larger when calculating with the method presented in Brandsäkra trähus version 3. This does not necessarily affect the elements bearing capacity when calculating with the two different methods due to the elements perpendicularly placed layers where only every other layer is load bearing.

     

    Although the method presented in Brandsäkra trähus version 3 are more conservative with regards to bearing capacity and will lead to a smaller residual cross-section the authors of this report recommend the use of said method pending incorporation into the Eurocode. The motivation for this suggestion is that the method is designed to explicitly handle CLT and since safety is the most important aspect in this context it is vital to acknowledge the apparent increased affect from a fire on the material according to the latest scientific knowledge and design the cross-section accordingly.

  • 42.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Nilsson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Buckling of End-Bearing Retaining Walls in Clay2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The design of back-anchored retaining walls in Sweden has traditionally not included global elastic instability of the retaining wall as a possible failure mode. Eurocode 3 part 5 (SS-EN 1993-5) requires design of steel structural members for retaining walls to assess the risk of buckling if the normal force exceeds 4 % of the critical buckling load of the retaining wall.

    The geological conditions in Eastern Sweden are characterized by the intersection of very hard Precambrian rock and very soft Holocene clays. Thus often ground anchors anchored in rock at a 30-50 degree angle to the vertical plane are used to support retaining walls, resulting in a very high utilization of the ground anchor and a significant normal force in the retaining wall. The threshold value for buckling risk is consequently frequently exceeded and the specific failure mode, of global buckling, is often limiting the use of the structural members in practical design.

    The buckling load can either be calculated using Euler’s second or third buckling mode, or by modelling the soil-structure interaction by a suitable model. Since no such model is specified in the code, the aim of this thesis was to develop a model which takes into account the stabilizing effect of the soil for the calculation of the buckling force and to model the soil-structure interaction with a beam-spring model connected to Winkler springs.

    The model simulations show that the soil has a significant influence on the critical load, especially when the retaining wall base is driven to depths greater than 2 meters below excavation depth. The model simulations suggest that higher utilization, with up to 4 times greater critical load, of the steel members is possible for some specific cases and an idealized design factor is also elaborated.

  • 43.
    Labartino, Isabella
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Building certification as a driver in green building design: The holistic apporach of WELL2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Construction industry is based on the evaluation of building environmental impact. The current situation shows buildings reaching high standards in the field of environmental sustainability, but they often neglect occupants' satisfaction. The International Well Building Institute (IWBI) has released a new building standard called WELL, whose aim is to create sustainable buildings paying attention to occupants' health and well-being. The goal of this thesis is to understand what does WELL add to existent building certification systems. There is a large number of certification systems, green codes, green standards and several other kinds of documents that influence the way in which designers think and develop their projects. A research background is carried out to identify their requirements and fields of applicability. The innovative concepts proposed by the IWBI, need to interface with requirements from different regulations or certifications. The gap analysis performed in this work highlights which are the gaps and the overlaps between WELL and Swedish building regulations (BBR), Miljöbyggnad, BREEAM-SE and LEED-IT. The White Arkitekter's office in Stockholm, known as Katsan and certified with Miljöbyggnad Gold, is used as a case study to have a more specific approach to the problem than the general approach provided with the gap analysis. The report shows significant gaps between WELL and the other regulations and certifications, which are reduced when considering the case study. The outcomes for the different standards have been compared and they have evidenced some innovative features present only in WELL. These features answer to the research question and underline what WELL adds to sustainability concepts.

  • 44.
    Arleij, Axel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Åhlander, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Bultförstärkning av berg vid konventionell tunneldrivning: En jämförelse av kamstålsbult och PC-bult2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The conventional rebar bolt, a grouted bolt with no pre-stress, is the most commonly used rock reinforcement bolt for tunneling in Swedish infrastructural projects. The assembly takes place by manually pushing the bolt into a borehole filled with grout. This gives rise to spillage and great physical exertion when thousands of bolts are mounted in each project.   Permanent safety is only achieved when the surrounding cement has cured. This entails a moment in the rock reinforcement stage where the contractor must secure the tunnel with temporary operating bolts.  To avoid temporary bolting, a pre-stressed bolt can be used as a permanent bolt. An example of such a bolt is the PC-bolt. When assembled, it provides immediate operational safety and permanent reinforcement by injection through the inner pipe. The bolt is then completely sealed with grout.  The purpose of the study is to compare the PC-bolt with the rebar bolt. The study explores the supposed benefit of economics and load ergonomics of using the PC-bolt as a permanent reinforcement bolt. By conducting a controlled observation on a field study to a site where tunneling with rock reinforcement occurred. The assembly of the two bolts has been compared out of a load ergonomic view point. In order to investigate differences in work volume and time, calculations were made on a compiled bolt protocol. The calculations show which reinforcement bolt results in the lowest cost of the assembly.  The result of the study shows that there is a great potential in the future use of the PC-bolt as a permanent bolt for tunneling. The potential lies in a clearly improved work environment regarding ergonomic loads and more time efficient installation that can be utilized in future projects.  

  • 45.
    Youssef, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Bchar, Paul
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Bygga till ett våningsplan på befintligt flerbostadshus: Utredning av konstruktionstekniska och byggnadstekniska åtgärder2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flerbostadshuset som studeras i rapporten är uppfört och dimensionerat med ett äldre regelverk och benämns BABS. Idag tillämpas Eurokod vid dimensioner av byggnadsverk. Skillnader i dessa regelverk skapar problem som förekommer vid en våningspåbyggnad. Dessa problem är både konstruktionstekniska och byggnadstekniska. Syftet med rapporten är att studera den mest effektiva varianten av våningspåbyggnad med avseende på bärighet, gällande krav, tilläggsåtgärder och effektivitet.

    Arbetet har utförts i samarbete med Sweco Structures för ett referensobjekt som har blivit modellerat i FEM för att få fram lasten vid den kritiska punkten i tre olika skeden. De tre olika skedena består av grundbyggnad, grundbyggnad med påbyggnad i betong och grundbyggnad med påbyggnad i trä.

    Erhållna resultat jämförs sedan med handberäkningar i enlighet med Eurokod och till viss del medhandberäkningar för BABS. Alla resultat jämförs sedan med maximal kapacitet på mark från den kritiska punkten för att kontrollera behovet av grundförstärkning.

    Referensobjektet undersöks även med avseende på de krav som gäller och jämförs med kraven från det äldre regelverket. Därefter analyseras eventuella tilläggsåtgärder som kan göras i samband med våningspåbyggnaden.

    Resultaten som erhölls var av stor betydelse för bestämmandet av typen av våningspåbyggnad. Detta eftersom resultaten bidrog till förståelse kring lastskillnader vid olika materialval och olika bestämmelser. Vid ett dåligt materialval kan lönsamhet och effektivitet äventyras. Vid oklarheter kring regelverk kan missförståelse förekomma och risk för feldimensionering uppstå.

    Resultaten påvisade att det mest effektiva valet av påbyggnad var påbyggnaden i trä. Detta eftersom att denna klarade av diverse krav. Påbyggnaden i betong bidrog med för stora krafter vilket skulle kunna äventyra markens stabillitet. Att förstärka marken är kostsamt och därmed drogs slutsatsen att trä var det mest effektiva materialvalet.

  • 46.
    Van Gompel, Benoît
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Capturing Engineering Knowledge: Concepts of Automation in Bridge Design2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the aim was to create an automation platform for bridge design using knowledge-based engineering (KBE) concepts. More specifically, the focus was put on the ultimate limit state design of reinforced concrete bridge columns.

    Compared to other engineering industries like manufacturing, the construction in- dustry only has a limited degree of automation, even though technically feasible automation already exist.

    This thesis proposes an automation framework, which has been developed using the object-oriented programming (OOP) paradigm in python. The platform employs a general piece of geometric logic on which a section analysis module is based that can analyse the normal force and two bending moments around mutually orthogonal axes in a reinforced concrete section of a column. The geometric logic is constructed out of six OOP classes, that are able to define a reinforced concrete section, and out of a set of three more OOP classes, that define the material parameters. The section analysis tool is based on the computation of limit surfaces for reinforced concrete sections. From these limit surfaces, interaction diagrams have been derived by taking plane sections of the limit surface.

    The verification of the automation application has been done by comparing in- teraction diagrams from the literature with interaction diagrams produced by the automation application. The comparison showed that both results coincided, taking into account some simplifications.

    Additionally, the automation framework is thought to be suitable for fulfilling a data management role in the design process, which is worthwhile to further investigate upon. The automation application can be further improved by augmenting the existing analysis modules with modules for other reinforced concrete elements or other construction materials.

  • 47.
    Gerland, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Cm-faktorer för böjd och tryckt stång: Lösning av nya elementarfall2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den mest grundläggande delen av Eurocode 3, SS-EN 1993-1-1, finns olika sätt att kontrollera bärförmågan för en balkpelare som utsätts för böjknäckning, d.v.s. en kombination av transversell och axiell last. Genom att använda formler där det dimensionerande värdet på andra ordningens moment ingår kan man kontrollera om balkpelaren håller för den aktuella belastningen.

     

    Beräkningar av andra ordningens moment ger differentialekvationer som kan vara besvärliga och tidskrävande att lösa, men beräkningarna kan förenklas om man känner till den momentfaktor, kallad Cm-faktor, som tar hänsyn till momentfördelningens form i det aktuella lastfallet.

     

    Denna rapport visar hur man kan härleda både exakta och approximativa värden på Cm-faktorer genom att studera två lastfall som skulle kunna vara av intresse för praktiskt bruk då konsolbalkar utsätts för böjknäckning.

    Resultaten visar att den approximativa metoden, som innebär avsevärt förenklade beräkningar, ger fullgoda resultat för de två fall som behandlas i rapporten.

     

    Cm-faktorerna presenteras som grafer för att kunna läsas av då normalkraften som angriper i konsolbalkens fria ände varierar. I rapporten ges även bakgrunden till begreppet momentfaktor genom förklaring och beräkning av förstoringsfaktorn, ofta kallad f.

  • 48.
    Lenkei, Zsolt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Crowdsourced traffic information in traffic management: Evaluation of traffic information from Waze2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The early observation and elimination of non-recurring incidents is a crucial task in trafficmanagement. The performance of the conventional incident detection methods (trafficcameras and other sensory technologies) is limited and there are still challenges inobtaining an accurate picture of the traffic conditions in real time. During the last decade,the technical development of mobile platforms and the growing online connectivity made itpossible to obtain traffic information from social media and applications based on spatialcrowdsourcing. Utilizing the benefits of crowdsourcing, traffic authorities can receiveinformation about a more comprehensive number of incidents and can monitor areaswhich are not covered by the conventional incident detection systems. The crowdsourcedtraffic data can provide supplementary information for incidents already reported throughother sources and it can contribute to earlier detection of incidents, which can lead tofaster response and clearance time. Furthermore, spatial crowdsourcing can help to detectincident types, which are not collected systematically yet (e.g. potholes, traffic light faults,missing road signs). However, before exploiting crowdsourced traffic data in trafficmanagement, numerous challenges need to be resolved, such as verification of the incidentreports, predicting the severity of the crowdsourced incidents and integration with trafficdata obtained from other sources.During this thesis, the possibilities and challenges of utilizing spatial crowdsourcingtechnologies to detect non-recurring incidents were examined in form of a case study.Traffic incident alerts obtained from Waze, a navigation application using the concept ofcrowdsourcing, were analyzed and compared with officially verified incident reports inStockholm. The thesis provides insight into the spatial and temporal characteristics of theWaze data. Moreover, a method to identify related Waze alerts and to determine matchingincident reports from different sources is presented. The results showed that the number ofreported incidents in Waze is 4,5 times higher than the number of registered incidents bythe Swedish authorities. Furthermore, 27,5 % of the incidents could have been detectedfaster by using the traffic alerts from Waze. In addition, the severity of Waze alerts isexamined depending on the attributes of the alerts.

  • 49.
    Lenkei, Zsolt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Crowdsourced traffic information in traffic management: Evaluation of traffic information from Waze2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The early observation and elimination of non-recurring incidents is a crucial task in traffic management. The performance of the conventional incident detection methods (traffic cameras and other sensory technologies) is limited and there are still challenges in obtaining an accurate picture of the traffic conditions in real time. During the last decade, the technical development of mobile platforms and the growing online connectivity made it possible to obtain traffic information from social media and applications based on spatial crowdsourcing. Utilizing the benefits of crowdsourcing, traffic authorities can receive information about a more comprehensive number of incidents and can monitor areas which are not covered by the conventional incident detection systems. The crowdsourced traffic data can provide supplementary information for incidents already reported through other sources and it can contribute to earlier detection of incidents, which can lead to faster response and clearance time. Furthermore, spatial crowdsourcing can help to detect incident types, which are not collected systematically yet (e.g. potholes, traffic light faults, missing road signs). However, before exploiting crowdsourced traffic data in traffic management, numerous challenges need to be resolved, such as verification of the incident reports, predicting the severity of the crowdsourced incidents and integration with traffic data obtained from other sources.

    During this thesis, the possibilities and challenges of utilizing spatial crowdsourcing technologies to detect non-recurring incidents were examined in form of a case study. Traffic incident alerts obtained from Waze, a navigation application using the concept of crowdsourcing, were analyzed and compared with officially verified incident reports in Stockholm. The thesis provides insight into the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Waze data. Moreover, a method to identify related Waze alerts and to determine matching incident reports from different sources is presented. The results showed that the number of reported incidents in Waze is 4,5 times higher than the number of registered incidents by the Swedish authorities. Furthermore, 27,5 % of the incidents could have been detected faster by using the traffic alerts from Waze. In addition, the severity of Waze alerts is examined depending on the attributes of the alerts.

  • 50.
    Levante, Riccardo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Data Management and Virtual Reality Applications of BIM models2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays new digital technologies play an important role in the AEC sector, which are goingthrough a significantly changing period. In this process BIM represent the main character,revolutionizing the traditional way of working in the main operative phases: Design,Construction and Maintenance. However, having all these aspects under a uniquemethodology can brings several problems without a strong framework to regulate the wholeprocedure. The huge quantity of information, as well as the high number of involved people,are the main weak points, that can become the main strong points when Facility Managementis involved in the process. In this scenario this work will analyse a real project located inGenova (Italy), seeing as a complex structure as an hospital can be regulated through the BIMmethodology.The thesis will focus on two fundamental aspects of the new construction methodology: DataManagement and Virtual Reality. The first part aims to analyse correlation between BIM andits information, focusing also on the study case, proposing operative solution through the BIMsoftware Revit and the visual programming toll Dynamo. The second part will showadvantage integrating virtual reality technologies in the AEC sector, showing how build aninteractive virtual simulation using the game engine software Unity based on our study case.Through this work we have seen the importance of new technologies for the future ofConstruction Industry, showing how important is the sharing information involving alwaysmore people into the process, particularly for complex structures.

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