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  • 1.
    Wiberg, Emelie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Bjerring, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    5D-kalkylering av produktionskalkyl2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development in the construction industry is slowly but surely moving forward. The industry has begun to understand the successes and opportunities of digitizing itself, but it is a long journey that is constantly improving. In the construction industry's digitization, it is mostly common that it talks about BIM, a concept that has many different meanings. Simply explained, it is about connecting a 3D model with different types of information, which can provide many opportunities for streamlining the construction of the building and the project. It is mainly talked about the possibility of obtaining a 4D (time) and 5D (cost) models through a 3D model. Many housing production companies have begun their journey towards a digital world and JM AB is definitely one of them. In 2018, JM AB began to work with its ambition to one day be the leading actor in the industry of digitization. Part of the digitization work takes place within the calculations department at JM, where the department in this now makes quantity and cost estimations in the Vico Office program. It is the calculations department that produces the production costing for the construction start and this is also done in VO. Thanks to the development in digitalization, they can now make clear connections between time schedule and costs with 3D models as a base. A calculation that is not linked in this way is the overhead cost calculation. This requires a study into how the calculation can be linked to a 5D model and in the long run be able to contribute to the development of the production costing, which for us is the purpose of the report. This study focuses on developing various key figures for overhead costs that can be linked to 5D calculation. In this process, interviews with experts have been required, in order to get a clear picture of both, who establishes the calculations and how they are produced. To confirm and strengthen what has been said in the interviews, literature in the form of articles and books has been used. The result in the report shows what is required in 5D calculation of the production costing in VO. It also shows which key figures have been produced based on data from the specified comparison projects. In order for the key figures to be best visualized and reported in VO, they need to be linked to a time frame, which in this case is the projects timetable. The aim of the report has been to improve the analysis of estimated production costs with the application of 5D calculation. The compilation of key figures on costs, which is visualized in VO, aims to optimize the projects by producing better connections between cost and time. The report's reliability must of course be validated on the basis of the company's, JM, response to the rapport. This visualization and key figures presentation are an example of how a possible approach might look. The procedure and the 5D visualization are also the first of its kind within the company JM AB.

  • 2.
    ANDRÉN JAKOBSSON, NICOLINA
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    BOHMAN, SIMON
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    A Generative Design of TimberStructures According to Eurocode: Development of a Parametric Model in Grasshopper2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest of timber structures has in recent years increased, primarily due tothe environmental benets of timber. This has created an increased demand forstructural engineers with timber expertise. At the same time the concept of structuralparametric design have become more popular. This new way of working withdesigns enables for architects and engineers to explore dierent geometries in earlystages of a project. However, the combination of a parametric workow and timberdesign have so far been limited due to the complexity of the material.This thesis aims to create an parametric workow within the visual programmingenvironment Grasshopper. This enables analysis of structural design simultaneouslywith a cross sectional and topological optimization of timber structures. The structuralanalysis is performed with Karamba which is a plug-in tool to the Grasshopperenvironment. The design verication based on Eurocode EN-1995 have been manuallyscripted in python components. The parametric model have been applied to acase where the main bearing bearing of a glass roof is to be designed. Three dierentgeometries have been evaluated with regard to cross sectional dimensions andgeometrical shape.The framework with a truss turned out to be a preferable design if only consideringweight, deection and utilization. The truss frame provides the lowest weight and thesecond smallest displacement. Furthermore, a comparison of the structural analysisand design have been performed with the FEM-program Robot. The compassionshow similar results, increasing the reliability of the Grasshopper model and theresults from this tool. It conrms it is possible to perform generative design oftimber structures within the same interface.The Grasshopper model is limited and can not handle all variations of 2D timberstructures. The complexity and variation of such calculations in conjunction with theEurocode have not been implemented during the time-span of this thesis. However,it is general within the limitations of the case study meaning a variety of framegeometries can be evaluated.

  • 3.
    BIONDO VERDINI, YASMIN
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    A theoretical study of the variation in the modal properties of a road bridge exposed to scour2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the advent of climate change witnessed in past decades, consequences havebeen felt globally. One of short term effects from climate change includes theincrease of weather disasters and changes in the frequency of extreme events,which can cause heavier precipitation and increased risk of land sliding anderosion. One particular type of erosion is scour, in which soil material is removedfrom around a foundation caused by the action of water and it is known to to beone of the most predominant causes of bridge failure.Once soil is removed around the bridge pier, change in boundary conditions mayoccur, which could possibly lead to a change in the flexibility of the foundationand the stiffness and damping of the whole structure may alter.The analysis of the existing bridge was done through the construction of aFE model, in which springs and dampers were introduced to represent thefoundation. The stiffness and damping coefficient of those elements weredetermined trough impedance functions obtained from soil-structure interactionanalysis.The present project has shown that a possible noticeable change is expected tohappen in the first, third, fourth and sixth bridge’s natural frequencies, whichcould be used as a guideline on where to position accelerometers for possible fieldtests and measurements. Also, the study evidenced that deep level of scour isneeded in order to identify changes in the eigenfrequency.

  • 4.
    Berndtsson, Filippa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Suleyman Bal, Harun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Acceleratorers påverkan för sprutbetongens tidiga hållfasthet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During maintenance work in trafficked tunnels, the traffic must be halted. Therefore, such efforts often take place night-time. In order to enable a quick release of traffic again, it is crucial to have an effective reinforcement work. Due to the safety risks of using shotcrete as a reinforce method, there is a chance of adding additional strength-requirement can exist due to safety risks. If the concrete achieves the strength requirements sooner than expected, the number of nights dedicated to maintenance work can be reduced. This study intends to investigate how different types of admixtures, so called accelerators, can expedite the shotcrete’s initial strength development. Furthermore, the study will include a conclusion of the suitability for the accelerators that have been applied in the shotcrete. To investigate the effects of these accelerators, extensive tests has taken place. During these tests, shotcretes with different recipes were sprinkled into test boxes. Thereafter, tests of strength development could be performed on these boxes in agreement with prevailing standards. To delimitate the study, the selected methods only show the early strength-development of shotcrete. The results from these tests will be presented in graphs. Uncertainties regarding measurement data and how separated physical parameters affect the test results will be discussed as well. By reading the data presented in the graphs, a positive development can be identified in recipes with added hardening accelerators compared to recipes containing only shotcrete accelerators within the first four hours. Following the first four hours, a significant uncertainty in measurements will be noticed. Finally, due to high irregularity in measured values, conclusions of the accelerators’ effect cannot be confirmed solely by the results from these tests. Therefore, a hypothesis trial is necessary as it would exclude if the recipes statically can be separated. Furthermore, the company recommends performing additional small-scale tests in a laboratory environment. Through laboratory tests, a more certain result can be received.

  • 5.
    Kalm, Helen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Acoustic Soil-Rock Probing: A Case Study in Gubbängen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Soil-rock probing (Jb-probing) is the most common probing method in Sweden. Due to the

    penetration capacity of the Jb-probing it can be performed in both soil and rock. However, the

    capacity also results in inherent limitations and uncertainties, such as the difficulty identifying the

    soil layer sequences of soft soils. In order to attain a more detailed soil layer sequence it is

    necessary to perform complementary probing and sampling methods, an inefficient and

    consequently costly procedure. By instead implementing non-interfering complementary methods

    performed simultaneously as the Jb-probing the method may be rationalized. The so-called

    acoustic Jb-probing method may be a potential complement to the Jb-probing.

    In this thesis a continued study of the acoustic Jb-probing method is performed by means of a case

    study in Gubbängen with the focus on the potential additional information that the spectrogram (a

    visual representation of the frequency spectra) may contain compared to the Jb-parameters alone.

    This was done by obtaining vibration signals during Jb-probing using a triaxle geophone installed

    four meters from the boreholes. Vibration signals were collected from 13 boreholes. The vibration

    signals were then analyzed in time- and frequency domain which were compared to corresponding

    Jb-parameters and classified soil types.

    The results showed that the clay layers held the most promise for discovering additional

    information in the spectrogram, however this does not exclude potential in other soil types.

    Additionally, it was shown that the geophone ought to be fastened in the ground in order to attain

    satisfactory data. Overall, the acoustic Jb-probing method is a favorable way of collecting and

    analyzing data, which with continued development of the operational and computational process

    may be an economical alternative to the conventional method.

  • 6.
    Franzén, Henny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Elmondt Nilsson, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Akustiska värden i platonkonstruktioner: Minimera lågfrekvent buller i skolmiljöer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study highlights the intensity and the extent of sound levels produced by a so called floating floor. The study has closely observed floor constructions made of Platon mat in order to detect the acoustic factors and how they are manifested when stepping on the floor. The study also compares the results of step- and drum sound levels with Granab constructions, another type of floating floor, as well as how the Platon construction stands in relation to the statutory guide values. This study has focused on how the sound from a Platon floor is perceived in an objective and a subjective perspective, because in some cases measured values do not correspond to the actual experience. Measurements that have been carried out give an idea of how to design floors and what type of material should be used to obtain the most favorable sound level possible. Overall, this study shows that the design of the floors can, to a large extent, minimize step- and drum sounds. This knowledge can be of great use when designing a floating floor since it has been shown that high sound levels in the lower frequencies affect, among other things, our abilities of learning and concentrating.

  • 7.
    Urtasun López, Marc
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Analysis of Autonomous Buses impact on transportation between Stockholm’s universities2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The city of Stockholm is developing fast and its population is strongly growing,new solutions for urban mobility must be found. Implementations in the publictransport network are needed and the use of automated buses is a present topicfor efficient and sustainable transportation. The Vetenskapsstaden area has threeof the main university campus coexisting, this leads to a generation of campusto-campus trips which creates an impact in the Stockholm’s public transport.The unique environment and singular users arise the aim to execute a potentialsolution to release ridership from the public transport network. This thesisanalyzes and evaluates whether a new automated bus line is needed or not inthe studied area. A cost model will study the proposed solutions through therated decision variables: frequency and capacity, commercial speed and differentrates of demand. The relative efficiency of the proposed implementations isstudied compared with the costs of the current public transport modes used inthe area. Numerical analysis and results are given for two different scenarios:implementing one bus line connecting the three campuses or three lines betweencampuses. The former scenario shows to be more sensitive to the studied variablesand presents higher costs whereas the second-option costs have a robust responseand lower overall price evaluation. For both infrastructure models, the rateof demand is crucial to evaluate the advantages of a potential solution. Theestablished method and criteria contributes to a better understanding of theimpact of autonomous buses to low-demand analytic models.

  • 8.
    Monte Malveira, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Analysis of Walking and Route-Choice Behavior of Pedestrians inside Public Transfer Stations: A Study on how pedestrians behave in the approaching vicinity of level-change facilities,and how it affects their walking and route-choice behavior2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pedestrian walking and choice behavior presented was first studied by Fruin in 1971, and since then a lot of research have been carried out in order to understand how humans move and what does make them make choices and obtain certain patterns. In relation to pedestrians, a significant bottleneck inside public stations evaluated by research are the level-change facilities, as Stair Walks and Escalators. The aim of this research is studying how pedestrian behave in the vicinity to stairways and escalators, and how does that affect pedestrian choice, speed and acceleration when choosing one of the two facilities. Also, with a need for more data on pedestrian traffic, further data collection is a big requirement to analyze their behavior and use as tools in future measures. At last, how to optimize the movement of pedestrians in relation to level changes, considering the effects of the movements observed. Two case studies were analysed, Stockholm Central Station and Uppsala Central Station.The study compares data collection methods, tracking methods and previous studies to better fit the scope of this research. The data is backed up from previous research and explains which method better fitted the options available. As a result, video data collection was chosen to collect the data, a semi-automatic tracking software called T-analyst was used to extract speed, trajectories and acceleration from the videos, and microsimulation modelling from VISSIM further investigated different design options to optimize the overall performance and improve travel time in the same area. The analysis found out that there was a possibility to increase the overall performance of the location in higher flow levels, where the most significant queues could be seen, since there was the possibility to achieve higher speeds by modifying the width and position of the stair walks, which allow for a smaller queue in both directions.

  • 9.
    Lundgren Mårtensson, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Björkman Ioannou, Stephanie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Arbetsgång efter brand i en kulturhistorisk byggnad: Med fokus på återställandet av konstruktionen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In current situation [2019], Sweden is failing to provide preparatory plans for possible fire accidents in buildings with cultural-historical value. Because fire accidents on monumental buildings do not occur frequently, there is no standardized method on how to manage the restoration after the accident in a productive and sustainable manner. Purpose of the report is to produce a simplified standardized and measurable work process on how to improve arrangements during a fire accident on monumental buildings, where preventive measures, improvements during fire process and restoration of the building are included. The report is written with the aim of preserving good social sustainability and for preserving the Swedish cultural heritage for the future. The goal when restoring a cultural-historical heritage building is to maintain the classical appearance and to preserve the traditional and original condition. The main object reviewed is the cultural heritage building Kasern II on Skeppsholmen together with two more reference objects. The main object, where the fire accident takes place in September 2016, is today [2019] being restored after extensive moisture damage from the extinguishing work and fire damage to the material which was exposed to high temperature. Part of the standardized process is to describe how the choice of extinguishing agent can determine the extent of moisture damage to the material of the building and how pollution from the extinguishing agent and fire residues affect the neighboring environment from a sustainable point of view. Preventive fire protection and desirable fire protection after restoration work are also included. The report materially presents bricks and wood, which most often constitute the supporting structure and the floor structure of a cultural-historical building. By observing how wood materials and masonry react at high temperature and humidity, an assessment is made whether these materials can be decontaminated and reused or need to be discarded. In addition, with focus on restauration of the construction, decontamination methods for removal of fire odor and microbiological growth on wood materials are studied. Goal when restoring a building with cultural heritage is to maintain the traditional construction, therefore the solid brick and wooden beams are to be remedied to the extent required to preserve them. The choice of fire protection installations varies depending on the building's design and purpose. An example is the installation of sprinklers, which is a tradeoff between the risk of fire and the risk of possible moisture damage in the event of fire. Compressed air foam system [CAFS] is the extinguishing equipment used during extinguishing work on Kasern II which, compared to other extinguishing systems, emits less water therefore minimizing moisture damage. During the fire accident, updated drawings, documentation and action plans help the rescue service perform a functional extinguishing work. Bricks are resistant to fire as bricks are burned during manufacturing process. During a fire accident, bricks may crack if the sintering temperature is exceeded or in case of a rapid cooling during extinguishing work. Cracks can be restored with reinforcement on masonry. As cracks in brick are usually visible to the naked eye, bricks are reused if there is no visible physically damage to the material. The strength of wood material does not deteriorate when exposed to high temperature except in the burned part called char, which lies on the surface layer of the beam after fire exposure. The charring part can be mechanically planed away during sanitation. Mechanical planning is regarded as a relatively simple sanitation method and does not require any chemical environmentally impacting substances.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Jennifer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Franke, Klara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Arken: Bostäder i stadens skärgård2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A few steps away from the district of Liljeholmen in Stockholm lies the area of Lövholmen. A largely abandoned industrial zone where visitors are greeted by crushed window panes, dilapidated buildings and defaced facades. Stockholm City has along with a number of different developers made a proposal for a change in the detailed development plan, from an industrial area to a residential area. The urban planning Strukturplan och Ramverk för Lövholmen contains proposed guidelines for the design of a new neighborhood. Our purpose in this thesis is to design a residential proposal as if the detailed development plan has won legal force, also to examine how floor plans can affect human health and well-being. The proposal will relate to urban development guidelines by Stockholm stad, where the aim is to make Lövholmen a safer and nicer place. This will be done with the help of analyzes and surveys from the public's wishes and views. The result of our vision; Arken, will consist a housing proposal with an architectural connection to the place that will make Lövholmen a more harmonious site. The housing proposal will bring a sense of community to people who settle in the neighborhood as well as elaborated floor plans based on surveys on human well-being.

  • 11.
    Schmied, August
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Strömberg, Moa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Armering i pålfundament: Effektivare byggprojektering med grafisk programmering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the time spent on project planning is dedicated to the development of construction documents, mainly 2D-drawings. A more modern method is to gather all information about a building project in a coordinated 3D-model, so called BIM-model. Building information modelling (BIM) is a well-known design method based on a digital 3D model having enough information to enable procurement work and actual production. The model consists of parameters that represent different properties and when a parameter is changed, the model is updated automatically. These parameters can be accessed and modified through external programs, so called plug-ins that extend the original software’s functionality using program code. Visual programming is a modern programming method which utilizes a visual interface that favours users with little or no experience. Using visual programming, parameter control can be made more efficient and save valuable time. For this reason, Dynamo (a plugin developed by the company Autodesk for Revit), has been studied to create a so-called script that automates 3D modelling processes in Revit linked to placement of reinforcement in pile caps. In addition, possibilities for standardization have been investigated, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the method. With this project, the potential of Dynamo and the scripts created through an empirical study is described, where a relatively simple case study is carried out in order to illustrate the amount of time saved through visual programming compared to corresponding work manually done in Revit. Furthermore, calculation templates were created, according to the strut and tie model and Eurocode 2, to provide the script in Dynamo with the correct inputs. The result shows that Dynamo and visual programming can make placement of reinforcement in pile caps more efficient. While the degree of efficiency is case dependent, the case study showed an overall 85-90% time saving. A general conclusion suggests that the more complicated rebar designs, the more time there is to be saved. Since visual programming is based on the automation of repetitive processes, there is great potential to standardize structural design with the help of Dynamo scripts. Companies can thus create routines that increase continuity and quality in their projects. The automation also leads to fewer human errors and a more efficient execution. The client is advised to further develop this method by implementing explicit routines regarding 3D modelling with visual programming and investigate the possibilities of automation of reinforcement design in other load-bearing structures.

  • 12.
    Machado, Beatriz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Artificial intelligence to model bedrock depth uncertainty2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of bedrock level for soil and rock engineering is a challenge

    associated to many uncertainties. Nowadays, this estimation is

    performed by geotechnical or geophysics investigations. These methods

    are expensive techniques, that normally are not fully used because

    of limited budget. Hence, the bedrock levels in between investigations

    are roughly estimated and the uncertainty is almost unknown.

    Machine learning (ML) is an artificial intelligence technique that

    uses algorithms and statistical models to predict determined tasks.

    These mathematical models are built dividing the data between training,

    testing and validation samples so the algorithm improve automatically

    based on passed experiences.

    This thesis explores the possibility of applying ML to estimate the

    bedrock levels and tries to find a suitable algorithm for the prediction

    and estimation of the uncertainties. Many diferent algorithms were

    tested during the process and the accuracy level was analysed comparing

    with the input data and also with interpolation methods, like

    Kriging.

    The results show that Kriging method is capable of predicting the

    bedrock surface with considerably good accuracy. However, when is

    necessary to estimate the prediction interval (PI), Kriging presents a

    high standard deviation. The machine learning presents a bedrock

    surface almost as smooth as Kriging with better results for PI. The

    Bagging regressor with decision tree was the algorithm more capable

    of predicting an accurate bedrock surface and narrow PI.

  • 13.
    Rickardsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Olofsson, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Att utforma en gång- och cykelbana: En analys av utrymmesbehovet på ytbegränsade gång- och cykelbanor i Stockholm2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Region Stockholm recently set a goal to highly increase the bicycle traffic share the comingdecade. Bicycles as a means of transport has grown in popularity and current trends showa steady yearly increase. The ambitiously set goal puts high demands on the currentpedestrian and bicycle paths in the city. More often than not, pedestrians and cyclists sharethe same space, and thus creating a source for conflicts. Accident statistics show these twogroups are particularily vulnerable, and as a result there is a considerable need for gooddesign of pedestrian and bicycle paths.The aims of this study are to examine the current guiding manuals for design; to developand use a method of analysing the interactions between pedestrians and cyclists; andfinally to explore how the design recommendations from the guiding manuals are followedthroughout routes in the city. The study’s purpose could be summarised as investigatingwhich widths of the pedestrian and bicycle paths result in the smallest amount of conflictsbetween the two groups. The project is split into one part literature study, one part fieldstudy.The literature study scrutinises the guiding manuals for design published by RegionStockholm, The Swedish Transport Administration ( Trafikverket ), The City of Stockholm,and The Swedish Authority of Local Authorities and Regions ( SKL ). Other works, such asreports and papers, or guiding design manuals from Denmark, a country in the frontier ofbicycle planning, are included in the analysis. In the field study, nine suitable locations inStockholm are chosen for data collection. The number of interactions and conflictsbetween pedestrians and cyclists are analysed for each location with intention of findingconnections between the conflicts and the design of the pedestrian and bicycle paths.Ultimately the study concludes that pedestrian paths should have a minimum width of 210centimetres. A satisfying interval of 220 - 230 centimetres is shown to be sufficient as thewidth of the bicycle path, which in total adds up to about 4.3 metres.

  • 14.
    Pihlvang, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Svorono, Pierre
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Automatiserad process för mängdavtagning och kalkylering: En jämförelse mellan traditionell mängdavtagning och kalkylering mot BIM för BTH Bygg AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Replacing an already functioning but old process can be time consuming and unprofitable. This has been demonstrated especially in the construction industry, where digitization is progressing slowly. This study examines what aspects of the traditional process of quantity takeoff as well as calculation process at the company BTH Bygg AB will be affected when changing to a process based on modeling and BIM, Building Information Modeling. The purpose of the study is to compare the traditional quantity takeoff and calculation with the aid of Bluebeam and MAP against a process that is carried out with modeling in the software ArchiCAD with a connection to Vico Office for quantity takeoff and calculation. The difference from the traditional process will be to move from 2D manual quantity takeoff to using 3D models, BIM models, and performing automatic calculations via Vico Office. The study is a qualitative study with elements of a quantitative survey where the focus on getting the most work-efficient and profitable solution for BTH Bygg. Comparisons between two different construction projects has been made. The projects comprises similar size and conditions as well as limited to calculations of floors, interior walls and ceilings. The basis for the study has been personal interviews with people from the calculation section at BTH Bygg to gather knowledge about their process for quantity takeoff and calculation. Interviews with employees of the companies for the software Bluebeam, ArchiCAD and Vico Office have also been carried out to obtain an objective picture of all the software. The conclusion is that implementing information-rich BIM models in the quantity takeoff and calculation has proved to be profitable when it comes to quality through reduced manual work when connecting between software. In addition, there are great opportunities for saving time in other stages by working in an integrated process where all parts of the con- struction process are linked to each other.

  • 15.
    Linder, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Lundberg, Emil
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Automatisering av LCA - och LCC - beräkningar för anläggningskonstruktioner: Ett verktyg för hänsynstagande av miljö och kostnad i tidigt projekteringsskede2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    While carrying out structural design work, it is important to take into consideration the environmental impacts and costs throughout the life time of the structure. This is done through life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCC analysis), respectively. LCA addresses the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts throughout a product’s life cycle i.e. from cradle to grave. An LCC analysis summarizes the investment cost and costs for operation and maintenance during the life time of the product. BIM 3D modeling tool are used for modeling several different types of buildings and civil works. Ideally, digital information readily available through these powerful BIM tools, should be reused to perform LCA and LCC analyses. It would also be beneficial if it was possible to connect it to a company’s internal systems for instance in this study, the Swedish Transport Administration's “Klimatkalkyl” (a tool based on the method for LCA). The purpose of the thesis project is to integrate cost and environmental impact into the early design phase through an automated connection between BIM programs and LCA / LCC tools. By automating this process, optimization of structures can be made more efficient. An Excel sheet has been created through programming in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) which retrieves quantities from either Tekla Structures, Excel or manual input and then generates LCA and LCC reports. These have then been compared with existing LCA and LCC analyses to ensure the program's quality. The result of the work shows that produced LCA and LCC reports can contribute to a more efficient structural design process for optimizing structures regarding environmental impacts and investment cost. The Excel sheet's user-friendly structure also enables people with limited knowledge in LCA and LCC to make more sustainable choices when undertaking structural design tasks. This helps to promote sustainable thinking in companies and encourages employees to work towards a common goal of a carbon-neutral infrastructure sector.

  • 16.
    Löfgren, Kim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Hannula Virving, Lisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Avstämningsmetod för installatörer kopplat till slutkostnadsprognos2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis has mainly been built on interviews with interested parties at Arcona and the installer, Nymans Elektriska, since it was decided to limit the study only to the project Glömstaskolan. The aim of the study is that Arcona should be able to report a more accurate final cost forecast to the client regarding the installer and to simplify the reconciliation for both the construction company and the installer. The background is based on the fact that installers do not calculate components and activities such as other building production, which makes it difficult to reconcile if an activity has been carried out in accordance with budget. Both parties agree that it is working hours that need to be checked, as this is where the difficulty of control lies. To be able to check real hours, knowledge of the planned number of hours is needed. The time schedule is an important tool in the project and should be included in reconciliation. Arcona and Nymans Elektriska are recommended to use existing control documents with certain appendixes for the measuring progress.

  • 17.
    Ekmat, Benar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Hermes, Natalea
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Basic Creep of Young Concrete - Sensitivity in the Evaluation Method2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Creep is defined as deformation that takes place under constant load after an initial elastic response. This thesis focuses on a material property problem area that concerns stress analysis. Focus is on stress development considering creep deformations occurring when a concrete structure is under load, i.e. stress analysis with viscoelastic properties of the material.From laboratory tests, both elastic modulus and deformations over time are estimated in an evaluation process. Usually, deformations of moist sealed samples are denoted basic creep. At Luleå Technical University creep measurements are evaluated according to the theory and methodology in Larson and Jonasson (2003a, 2003b). The model is denoted Linear Logarithmic Model, used for moist sealed concrete samples. This thesis involves an investigation of the evaluation procedure for basic creep performed in Thysell laboratory at LTU, to examine how sensitive the evaluation process is for the outcome from stress calculations. The calculations are performed in the Finite Element Method software ConTeSt Pro.The aim of the thesis is to analyze the sensitivity of evaluation of basic creep and of the Linear Logarithmic Model (LLM) by making changes in the evaluation process to see how different parameters sets effect calculated stresses/strains during through crack analysis. The changes are solely done in the relaxation spectra.The purpose is also to analyze how sensitive the changes made in the evaluation process are when typical cases are studied. The typical cases are defined with a structure of a newly cast wall on a mature slab, where various thickness of the wall during different temperature conditions are analyzed. The temperature conditions are named standard, winter and summer. With this, concrete is tested and evaluated to yield two material parameter sets useful for temperature - and stress calculations for young concrete.The material parameter sets were analyzed and their creep values were converted into relaxation values, i.e. relaxation spectra, according to Maxwell-chain formulation for LLM. ConTeSt calculations generate temperature development for the walls and slabs. Colour maps and values of the strain ratio for each studied case are also obtained.It can be established that the evaluation process of basic creep is sensitive. A conclusion to be drawn is that small changes in the relaxation spectra, gives changes in the results of stress calculations for the typical cases. As soon as we deviate from the temperature development for the test performed in the laboratory, either by changing the thickness of the wall or by testing different temperature conditions we get a different temperature development than the tested one. With the deviation in the calculated temperature development compared to the measured one, a difference in the calculated strain ratios for the two different material parameter sets created are found.The main discovery in this work is that when a geometry of the wall that is identical to the geometry of the concrete tested at the laboratory is analyzed, a small deviation in the calculations of strain is obtained. This is expected since the temperature development in the created wall will follow the temperature development of the tested concrete. When differing from this geometry and temperature case, differences in calculated strain ratios are observed.

  • 18.
    Cavallius, Matilda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Östman, Albin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    BIM Model for Facility Management: What facility management wants and needs2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the majority of the work with BIM is performed in the design stage. Despite this, the biggest economic benefits can be made in the facility management stage. This report is written in a collaboration with Veidekke, which is Sweden's fourth biggest building developer. Veidekke is in the lead of digitalization and is constantly evolving. After the building stage Veidekke has a BIM model left which is full of information. What Veidekke want to accomplish is to be able to use it in facility management and increase the value of the model. This report aims to examine what information commercial facility management wants in a BIM model for FM&O purposes. The result is achieved by interviewing property managers and design stage consultants. The interviews aims to provide knowledge about what information property managers wants and what experiences the consultants have. In addition to the interviews, a survey is made which is only directed to property managers, regardless of the business area. The literature study will provide results from earlier research and show what possibilities and challenges there is with BIM in facility management. The proven challenges that has been shown is lack of communication, lack of knowledge about how BIM can contribute and information exchange between the building stage and facility management stage. There are different tools that can facilitate these challenges, such as the neutral file format IFC, a language for exchanging facility information - fi2xml, and COBie which is a standard for information exchange. Another tool is CoClass which is a mutual classification system that enhances communication between different participants. There are guidelines for how an implementation could be performed in “BIM i staten” and in other reports such as Linda Strind’s, about business values connected to BIM, where the result showed a manual for digitalization. Some of the benefits are lower operating costs, more accessible operating and maintenance information, time savings and better communication. What facility management needs is information about operation and maintenance, surface areas and general information about the building such as placement of bearing walls or different installations. New working methods are required to enable BIM in facility management, and all BIM-models should be prepared for future maintenance even if the customer is unknown. It’s also possible to add information to the BIM-model at a later stage, which is an important function for FM&O.

  • 19.
    Alsabti, Roni
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Certifieringens påverkan i byggbranschen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the impact of the certification for building materials in the construction industry is examined. The study has been conducted because of the lack of information on how the certification has made an impact on the construction industry. In order for a producer to be able to hold certification for his product, it is necessary to undergo a procedure that is controlled by a certification body. The goal of becoming certified is a quality development in materials and produce more sustainable and efficient materials. Those who create directives and requirements are EU and certification bodies in Sweden that Nordcert offers this certification to producers, which means that the producer's product meets the EU requirements and holds the right to be sold within the EU borders. A contact with the producers that was maintained was the basis for this study. The contact created interviews with 19 producers in total and these interviews were the result of this study. The questions that are answered read: • Has the certification contributed to improving the efficiency of materials? • Has the certification contributed to a quality development in materials? • Has the certification contributed to improvements in the work environment? • Is there any connection between different times lengths of the certification? The results largely indicate that the certification has affected the producers a great deal in terms of what it has contributed to. It appears that the certification follows a correlation with its impact on the producers. It is clear that a certification is a profitable process to go through for producers as it benefits them in their quality, efficiency and work enviromental develompent.

  • 20.
    Ljung, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    CFD simulation of particle matter inside an automotive car and the purification efficiency of cabin air purifier2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis work was to study the airflow patterns and the particle distribution in a generic car cabin in order to evaluate the air quality and find how it can be improved. A 3D CAD model was created using the Solidworks software program and meshed using ICEM CFD software. The ICEM CFD software was used to generate the mesh and ANSYS FLUENT was adapted for the simulation. In total, 12 different cases were simulated by considering different inlet velocities and vent setup. The predicted results were further used to analyze the airflow and particle distribution in the entire car cabin. With higher inlet velocity there were more particles being transported to the rear part of the cabin. In general, the particle concentration was higher in the front of the cabin when they were introduced through the inlets, especially with low inlet velocities. Opening the recirculation vents resulted in a slight reduction of the flow to the rear side and reduced the particle distribution accordingly. When smoke particles were introduced in the rear seats, they mostly stayed in the rear of the cabin, especially with low inlet flow velocities as the air did not mix sufficiently. Overall a higher inlet airflow velocity reduced the number of particles that were trapped on the front and rear seats. However, an increase in the number of particles that were trapped on the ceiling, floor and walls were obtained.

     

  • 21.
    Erlandsson, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Landström, Inez
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Cirkulär materialhantering för minskad klimatpåverkan inom byggbranschen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of waste is important for the environment in today ́s society. Through less use of new raw material and increased use of recycled material, the climate change can be battled. To eliminate linear flow of material in favour of circular is a part of circular economy. The construction industry contributes to a significant part of both the energy consumption and the amount of waste, and therefore has great opportunities to recycle NCC wants to know how much recycled material they used in their housing projects. Through interviews with their suppliers, this study investigates how much recycled material some of their most used building goods (for example concrete, reinforcement and isolation) contained. Further, the opportunities for recycling of the different types of building goods were analysed. The purpose was also to find more eco-friendly alternatives to the construction industry in general and in particular to the goods which had the largest potential of improvement. The result showed that the proportion of recycled material varied and the total proportion for NCC’s housing projects was low. The knowledge and the opportunities to increase the proportion is known by the suppliers but the majority of the building goods consists a general low proportion. One factor was that the second hand value was varied. Another was that there were no incentive for recycling, which leads to a lack of motivation at the worksite. The conclusion is therefore that waste should be seen as a resource in order to implement circular economy to a greater extent and to contribute to the climate in a positive way. Education, collaboration and personal engagement is factors which is needed to fulfil this adaptation of the society.

  • 22.
    Abdihakim Ali, Mohamed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Henriksson, André
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Comparison between high strength steel and conventional steel regarding the overall material usage for a composite bridge2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Structural steels are among the most widely used materials in the constructionsector, of which S355 is the steel that is considered being the norm in Europetoday. As the demands on civil engineering structures are increasing today parallelwith the construction sector intending to become a more environmentalfriendly industry, high strength steel (HSS) has become increasingly relevanttoday with the aim of reducing the material usage and facilitate a more sustainableconstruction. HSS is structural steel with a very high yield strength andultimate strength. In this dissertation, structural steels with a yield strengthof 500MPa or above were classified as HSS.In this thesis, the main steel girders of the E4 bridge over the Vapelbäcken,which is a continuous steel-concrete composite highway bridge, were optimizedwith HSS S690 and conventional structural steel S355 in order to investigatehow HSS affects the material usage for the bridge compared to the conventionalsteel. In addition to the above, a cost analysis, modal analysis and a fatigueassessment of bridge were carried out in order to analyse how the mass changedue to HSS affects the material cost of the bridge as well as the bridge’s dynamicproperties and fatigue resistance.The main girders of the bridge were optimized with respect to the ultimatelimit state (ULS). The optimization initiated with a structural analysis of thebridge using the finite element software Abaqus. Design calculations were thenperformed for the girders in accordance with the Eurocodes. Afterwards, thecross-sections of the main girders were optimized. When the optimization wascompleted, a cost analysis, modal analysis and the fatigue assessment wereperformed for the bridge.The optimization showed that HSS significantly reduces the material usagecompared to conventional steel if the optimization takes place with respect tothe ULS. The cost analysis showed that the bridge with optimized main girdersof HSS was the cheapest option, indicating that HSS can be a more economicalalternative than conventional structural steel if the material reduction is largeenough.The large material reduction that HSS entails led to deterioration of the bridge’sother properties. The modal analysis showed that the bridge with optimizedgirders of HSS was had the lowest natural frequency, indicating that the largemass reduction of the bridge due to HSS results in a impairing of the bridge’sdynamic properties since a large mass reduction impairs the stiffness of thestructure which in turn decreases the natural frequency. The fatigue assessmentshowed that the bridge with optimized girders of HSS had the lowestfatigue capacity, which means that the yield strength of the material does nothave an impact on the fatigue capacity and therefore the benefits of HSS cannotbe exploited in cases where fatigue governs the structural design.

  • 23.
    Mattsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Åman, Fredrik
    Cracking in a slender concrete slab due to thermal variation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete slabs used in thepulp and paper industries are often situated outdoors, which means that theslabs are exposed to temperature variations due to different weatherconditions. These temperature variations together with operational temperaturesassociated with the manufacturing process, may introduce high temperaturegradients in the concrete. It is believed that the combination of these thermalloads have resulted in cracking in a slender concrete slab.The aim of this degree project has been to determine if the combination ofseasonal temperature and operational temperature is sufficient to introduce thetype of cracking seen in-situ in the concrete slab of a factory in Sundsvall,400 km north of Stockholm. This was achieved by simulating the development ofcracks in a slender concrete slab exposed to thermal loads using finite elementanalysis (FEA). In order to determine the accuracy of the model, the resultswere compared and evaluated against a crack mapping produced by Sweco. Furthersimulations were also carried out, in order to investigate if continuedcracking would occur beyond the time span of the Sweco investigation.The material model Concrete damage plasticity (CDP) in BRIGADE/Plus and Abaquswas used to predict the crack pattern and crack width in the concrete slab.Linear-elastic and non-linear material properties were used in the modelling ofthe concrete slab. The linear-elastic model indicated that thermal variationshowed significant risk of cracking. Thereafter, non-linear material propertieswere used in the modelling process. The cracking was simulated using ambienttemperature data and operational temperatures from the production plant.The results showed that cracking started when thermal loads were introduced tothe model. The ambient seasonal temperature alone was not enough to introducethe type of cracking seen in-situ on the slab. The combination of seasonalambient temperature and operational temperature was needed, in order for cracksto develop in the concrete slab. The results also indicated that the crackswill propagate further, but this can only be confirmed by performing additionalcrack mapping on site.

  • 24.
    Uzan, Sacha
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Design of a low carbon building: Case study of an architectural competition2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

            Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions due to human activities have considerably increased in the past decades which are the main contributors of global warming. In order to limit the consequences of the global climate change happening, all sectors must reduce their carbon emissions and especially the building industry which represents 19% of the carbon footprint of human activities. This paper is giving methods to help reduce the carbon footprint of a building when designing it such as life cycle assessment which allow project teams to compare the global warming potential of all building materials. Those methods are used and challenged in a case study of an architectural competition project named quai d’Issy in Paris, France. Using biobased materials help reduce the carbon footprint of a building, a structure made of timber and concrete elements can emit less than 21% of GHGs than a classic concrete structure. By sourcing reused and recycled building materials, by using geothermal heat pump as heating and cooling systems for example, we have been able to reach for the quai d’Issy project a carbon footprint of 930kgC02eq/m2 of floor area, which is less than level needed for the highest French environmental certification. However, these results can be obtained only if the building materials companies continue their work to develop low-carbon materials and promote recycled and reused materials. This study emphasises the need to spread knowledge of the tools to design low-carbon building to all the actors of the building industry in order to promote behaviours that will limit the consequences of climate change.

  • 25.
    Salmi Källström, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Nilsson, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Digitala verktyg i Skanskas produktion: En jämförelse av användandet av digitala verktyg mellan verksamhetsgrenarna Hus respektive Väg och anläggning.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a report financed by Smart Built Environment it was stated that there are possibilities to improve quality and reduce cost in the finished product through digital solutions in the construction industry. One area where digitization has got a high impact is in the use of digital tools on the construction site (Bygg 4.0, u.å.). Digital tools are defined as software and applications suited for the construction industry. The purpose of this thesis was to map out the digital tools used in Skanska's production and to compare the use of digital tools within the business areas infrastructure and commercial building. The study focuses on how the use of digital tools is encouraged through strategies and objectives in Skanska's organization. The method for collecting material was a literature study of theory, a quantitative survey and qualitative interviews. The survey focused on the use of digital tools and the interviews on Skanska's employees perception on Skanska's work with digitization. The results of the study show differences in the extent that the digital tools are used within the business areas. The results of the quantitative study show that the business area commercial building uses the digital tools to a greater extent. The reason for this is that the business area commercial building works proactively through recommendations such as Basnivå Hus, Projekt i världsklass and Smarta projekt. The business area commercial building also has a role called digital leader in every project, who are supported by a digital coach in every region. The business area infrastructure does not have an equally established foundation, since only Projekt i världsklass is the starting point for digital work within the business area. There are also no digital leaders in projects within the business area. This role arises organically through committed individuals with good knowledge of digital tools. The business area commercial building has a well-established system for working with digital tools, which means that the business area has come further than the business area infrastructure.

  • 26.
    Hall, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Sjöberg, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Dimensionering av överbyggnader på tillfälliga vägar: En fallstudie i Hallonbergen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When temporary roads are being constructed there is normally no design made in advance, in most cases they are built and dimensioned from experience. If a temporary road will be used as a permanent road after the construction is finished, there will occasionally be a complete design of the road. Example of this is when roads are built for wind power stations or forest roads. The company Auctoritas Projektstyrning AB has been assigned to project lead any necessary property maintenance for Terränglöparen 9 situated in Hallonbergen, Sundbybergs county. To go through with the renovations, the company is investigating the possibilities for a temporary road to ease the logistics during the production time. The purpose with this report is to investigate technical solutions for the construction of a temporary road. The investigation should result in a suggestion for appropriate choices with regard to cost and rules. This is later applied like a case study with a temporary road to Terränglöparen 9. The authors have explored ten different road constructions with regards to current land ratio, service years, annual traffic per lane and cost. In addition to this, a proposed road section has been investigated with regards to current topography, turning radius of lorries and load-bearing capacity. This led to a choice of road construction and a road section for a temporary road to Terränglöparen 9.

  • 27.
    FERNANDEZ BARRERO, DIEGO
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Dynamic Soil-Structure Interactionof Soil-Steel Composite Bridges: A Frequency Domain Approach Using PML Elements and Model Updating2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis covers the dynamic soil structure interaction of soil-steel culverts applyinga methodology based on the frequency domain response. At the first stage of this masterthesis, field tests were performed on one bridge using controlled excitation. Then, themethodology followed uses previous research, the field tests, finite element models (FEM)and perfectly matched layer (PML) elements.Firstly, a 2D model of the analysed bridge, Hårestorp, was made to compare the frequencyresponse functions (FRF) with the ones obtained from the field tests. Simultaneously, a 3Dmodel of the bridge is created for the following purposes: compare it against the 2D modeland the field tests, and to implement a model updating procedure with the particle swarmalgorithm to calibrate the model parameters. Both models use PML elements, which areverified against previous solution from the literature. The verification concludes that thePML behave correctly except for extreme parameter values.In the course of this master thesis, relatively advanced computation techniques were requiredto ensure the computational feasibility of the problem with the resources available.To do that, a literature review of theoretical aspects of parallel computing was performed, aswell as the practical aspects in Comsol. Then, in collaboration with Comsol Support and thehelp given by PDC at KTH it was possible to reduce the computational time to a feasiblepoint of around two weeks for the model updating of the 3D model.The results are inconclusive, in terms of searching for a perfectly fitting model. Therefore,further research is required to adequately face the problem. Nevertheless, there are some accelerometerswhich show a considerable level of agreement. This thesis concludes to discardthe 2D models due to their incapability of facing the reality correctly, and establishes a modeloptimisation methodology using Comsol in connection with Matlab.

  • 28.
    Mohammed, Mostafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Hagi Omar, Hassan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Effektivisering av FEM-Design för brodimensionering: Trafiklaster på broar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    FEM-Design is generally used for structural design of buildings. This work aims to make the program more adaptable to bridge design. It is possible in this way that loads of military vehicles are modeled in FEM-Design. In this work Wheeled vehicles, tire vehicles, convoys have been modeled. A previous degree project on modeling of special vehicles and load modeling was checked in this work. It was made to ensure that they were modeled correctly. The loads were analyzed by inserting the modeled loads on a plate or a beam where the moment diagram would give the same result as if it had been made by hand. The military vehicle loads were calculated according to the Swedish transportation administration requirements and the result was defined in FEM-Design so that the result can be used for load modelling. The work together with Strusoft AB resulted in 128 new loads being modeled in FEM-Design. In addition, 30 already modeled special vehicle loads of load models 1-3 were checked. The result shows a large number of new vehicle loads that are defined in FEM-Design according to the Swedish Transport Administration's standards. If the program also manages to apply more functions that are more adapted to define loads, through further studies, FEM design in the future can be more competitive with the other bridge design programs.

  • 29.
    Issa, Mona
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Nabaz Taha, Rawand
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Effektivisering av förvaltningsskedet med hjälp av flerdimensionella BIM-modeller: En studie om BIM 360 Ops2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The technological development is progressing rapidly. The application of BIM (Building Information Modeling) is becoming increasingly common in the construction sector. However, the property management slips behind in the development, in comparison with the early stages of the construction process, the design and production phase. BIM in the property management stage is frequently spoken about but BIM has not yet been implemented to a greater extent. This study aims to examine how digitalized property management is at present times and if the software BIM 360 Ops can be a more efficient alternative. BIM 360 Ops is a software created by Autodesk that targets the property management stage. Through interviews with Diagona AB, Fabege, HSB, Uppsala Kommuns fastighetsaktiebolag (UKFAB), Akademiska Hus, Locum, Stockholmshem and FastPartner, an insight on how these companies are proceeding at present times, which knowledge managers have about BIM and what is lacking in the management stage is brought forward. The software which the respondents use is analyzed in order to gain a greater understanding of different workflow used in the management stage. A detailed approach of the BIM 360 Ops software is demonstrated to show how the software works and to detect any difficulties, advantages and disadvantages of the software. The result shows that none of the interviewees use BIM in the management stage. The companies strive to digitalize the management stage, but has not yet fully accomplished it. There is interest in BIM in the management stage, however, many managers lack knowledge of Building Information Modeling. This study draws attention to the digitalization of the property management stage and presents a thorough study on the BIM 360 Ops software which brings forth BIM in the management stage.

  • 30.
    Sanna, Karemsijan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Kasabian, Maral
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    En granskning av IFC-exporter från Tekla Structures2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, BIM (Building Information Modeling) is applied as a leading tool in structural design and modeling and enables solutions that are sustainable and optimized between different disciplines to effectively manage information flows. In connection with transfers between software’s a neutral file format, IFC (Industry Foundation Classes), is used. This file format is exported from the 3D-modeling program Tekla Structures. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the reason for missing information on IFC exports from Tekla Structures. The study includes a case study, comparative study and interviews In the case study, the settings for an IFC- export are studied from a complex 3D- model in Tekla Structures. The comparative study concerns two coordination programs Solibri Model Checker and Navisworks Manage, which are compared against each other. What is examined is how IFC- files are suitable in the coordination programs. The interviews have given clear guidelines during the work. The results indicate that the causes of missing information in IFC -files are the human factor and the lack of knowledge of the settings of an IFC- export. Additional to the results that was achieved are the comparison between the coordination programs shows that both programs are suitable for the IFCformat. The difference between the coordination programs is how one of them signalized the format better than the other Regarding the results, the human factor is crucial for the information loss. The human factor has shown that the lack of communication and knowledge of IFC- exports is a reason for the information loss. Through the comparative study, it has also been shown that Solibri is better suited for IFCexports from Tekla Structures.

  • 31.
    Semakala, Chanel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Cömert, Emre
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    En jämförande studie mellan diesel- och eldrivna tunneldrivningsmaskiner för masshantering i tunnel2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is facing a reality where the dependency on fossil fuels needs to cease and be replaced by options that are more climate friendly. One such option is the electrification that has not made a breakthrough in the construction industry yet and therefore needs to be examined. In this thesis an investigation is made by two different systems of wheel loaders and trucks. One system that conducts machines run by electricity and another one where the system is powered by diesel. The investigation is based on goal formulation which serves as the basis for answering these questions. The machines were examined in such as to obtain results that illustrate which system of machines that are profitable with regards to time, energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and total costs. This thesis has also as an intent to identify any advantages and disadvantages of each transport method. This is done in order to lend structure to any further research conducted in the future. To be able to compare and examine the properties of the machines, these machines were applied to a tunneling project. The project that was received was the metro station Hagalunds industriområde. The planned expansion of the subway will lead to a new metro line between Arenastaden and Odenplan, where Hagalunds industriområde will become an intermediate station. In order to truly optimize our efforts and carry out the calculations, the focus was placed on a partial stretch of 1 000 meters with respect to the main tunnel and working tunnel. The result obtained shows that the electric wheel loader leads to less time, carbon dioxide emissions and better energy efficiency than the diesel-powered wheel loader. On the other hand, the disadvantage is that the purchase cost of the electric wheel loader leads to greater total costs. These investments may be necessary to break the dependence on fossil fuels. When comparing the trucks, the result showed that the electric truck is a better alternative from an environmental perspective and total costs. While the diesel-powered truck saves on both time and energy. The reason why the total cost of the diesel-powered truck differs greatly from the electricpowered truck is the rental costs. If the diesel-powered truck was instead purchased, the total cost difference could be reduced.

  • 32.
    Paananen, Linnea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Burom Injonglan, Gamm
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    En möjlighet till en hållbar byggbransch: Jämförelsestudie mellan stommaterialen KL-trä och prefabricerad betong2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is currently responsible for about 21 percent of Sweden’s total annual emission of greenhouse gases. A major challenge is to be able to achieve the goals of the climate change act, which means that Sweden will not have any net emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in the coming decades. At the same time, the need for more housing increases in connection with an increased population. Concrete is the construction material that dominates today’s industrial construction of multi-storey buildings and in connection with the earlier Swedish law that prohibited wooden structures with more than two stories, wood construction in Sweden is not as developed to the same extent as concrete structures. In order to increase understanding and knowledge of CLT structures among operators in the construction industry, such as clients, the purpose is to compare a CLT structure and a prefabricated concrete frame based on differences in environmental impact, material cost and construction time. With documents from a reference project with CLT structure obtained by the company Bjerking, an investigation of the construction’s material consumption has been accomplished, in order to be replaced with a prefabricated concrete frame. The comparative study has been completed using the material consumption for each frame. The results shows that the CLT structure has less environmental impact and total material cost compared to the prefabricated concrete frame, however, not all materials in the CLT structure are included in the study. The excluded materials are reportedly costly, which in the end means that the CLT structure can become the more expensive alternative. The construction time, which in this case is the time for the frame assembly, was estimated to be about one working week per storey for both frames, but less workers is required for the CLT structure. The conclusion is that the CLT structure is the most environmentally-friendly frame material for building the reference project in Kajstaden because it contributes least to the environmental impact. The prefabricated concrete frame is more advantageous if a lower material cost is the priority. If a shorter construction time with less workers is desired, the CLT structure is more favorable. In the future, the most important parameter in the choice of frame material should be the one with least environmental impact for the construction industry to become more sustainable.

  • 33.
    Magnusson, Erika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Nylander, Moa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    En studie av Stockholmshem och Skanskas tre projekt genomförda i samverkan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is a study about three partnering projects between Skanska and Stockholmshem. The projects, Främlingsvägen, Kv. Golvläggaren and Kv. Syllen were constructed during 2012-2019 and are considered to be connected to each other due to their similar prerequisites, even though the house design differs between the projects. For example, several of the employees from the project organization, and from other companies, have been involved in more than one project. All three projects have also been constructed in a managed partnering turnkey contract where the client and the building contractor have formed a mutual project organization with mutual ambitions. One other thing that the projects have in common is that all of them are told to have been successful in many ways. The purpose with this study is therefore to investigate which factors that have been contributing to the progress of the projects. The purpose is also to identify the projects challenges, to what extent the concept of partnering has been contributing to the successful outcome and what can be transferred to a potential fourth project. The delimitation of the study has been narrowed down to project planning, construction, handover and a category for other aspects. To collect data and information, a number of interviews were carried through together with a literature study and informative conversations with experts within relevant areas in the construction industry. The result of the thesis tells that the collaboration between Skanska and Stockholmshem, together with a well-functioning project organization, have been two important factors behind the projects successful outcome. According to the interview candidates, communication and openness have been the underlying foundations throughout the projects. Among the employees, this have encouraged to a personal commitment and created a will for the project organization to work their best. Something else that is presented in the result is that the involved key figures and the gained experiences from the previous constructed projects are two other important reasons behind the successful outcome. When it comes to having a structured collaboration within the project organization, the majority of the interview candidates have positive mindset about partnering as a method, however, they do not consider the method to be the decisive factor for if a project will succeed or not. Some of the mentioned challenges that the projects have been struggling with are the project planning, insufficient documents and coordination of the subcontractors. The current labor market in Stockholm is also presented to be a challenge where there are difficulties with keeping key figures and dealing with employees quitting. A summary of the primary factors of success and challenges, based on the three projects, is found within the chapter of Analyze. The discussion is about some of these factors where it is found that many of the succeeded factors are relying on each other. For example, the good collaboration between the parties probably would not have been the same without the projects key figures. That several key figures have been involved in more than one project have meant that experiences from previous projects have been transferred to the next project, in a way that otherwise would not have been possible. It also emerges that partnering as a cooperation method is increasing within the construction industry, this indicates a certain movement of pattern where there is a demand for closer cooperation between the client and the contractor with more focus on the soft parameters. The conclusion of the study is that partnering itself may not be the solution to everything but that the method should be seen as a tool for managing the collaboration in a project organization towards a desirable direction. The method aims to increase awareness about group dynamics in a project organization, which is important for the process of evolving into a high-performing team. Therefore, it is not surprising that it is the key figures and the cooperation between the client and the contractor that are considered to be the primary factors of success for these projects.

  • 34.
    Wallin, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Dahlqvist-Sjöberg, Gustav
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Energioptimering av VVS-system: Energibesparingsåtgärder och arbetsmetoder för att minska inköpt energi2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Akademiska Hus AB is a government owned real estate company, their primary mission is to own and administrate facilities for education, research and student housing. One of their energy goals is to reduce the amount of acquired energy by half between the year 2000 and 2025. The purpose of this thesis is to find solutions and ways to make improvements regarding HVAC-systems to achieve this energy goal. The work has been carried out at the property area Campus Solna, which have an agreement with special amendments and conditions with Stockholm Exergi concerning district heating and cooling. The agreement is designed with beneficial tariffs at high utilization, one example is that during the winter season Akademiska Hus gets compensated for using the district cooling but it also exists surcharges at underutilization of delivered heating and cooling. This puts limitations in which types of measures that can be performed to reduce the amount of acquired energy and at the same time have a positive economical result. The selected solutions are two different types of heat pumps and a change to more efficient heat recovery exchangers for ventilation. The calculations have been executed with regard to the current special agreement and then compared to another existing agreement within the corporation to examine if Campus Solna would benefit from another agreement. The utilization time for the district heating and cooling consist of a relation between energy and power, results show that saving measures where the ratio between them are about the same size is the most profitable economically. The results after the performed calculations show that the two types of heating pumps generate large savings in acquired energy but in relation to the reduced power usage causes surcharges and an economical loss. When compared to the other agreement without the additional charges the potential economical outcome improves while reducing the acquired energy. However, when performing a total cost analysis, the calculations with the other agreement indicate that the total annual cost for acquired energy with the heating pump solutions will amount to the same as using the existing agreement without performing any energy saving measures. This is due to the difference in tariffs between the agreements. The heat recovery exchangers have a better relation between energy and power savings, which results in an economical profit regardless of the agreements. This measure also decreases the consumed energy, which has a positive impact on the environment and sustainability. In conclusion, if the current agreement is to be used in the future energy saving measures have to meet the requirement of the energy and power ratio. However, finding enough of such measures that helps Campus Solna to achieve their energy goal can be problematic. The alternative is to renegotiate the agreement to make solutions like heat pumps profitable. Through qualitative interviews with a selection of personnel, work methods connected to energy saving has been discussed to see if there are possibilities for improvements regarding collaboration between the different departments to achieve the energy goal. One conclusion after the interviews is that the personnel are experiencing that there is not enough time to focus on energy savings and projects in their daily work. Hence, there is a need for better working methods, a clearer structure for how the work is to be distributed and more resources in the form of a dedicated working group that works operationally with the energy issue.

  • 35.
    Holmstjerna, Elin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Haraldsson, Erika
    Ett gestaltningsförslag på ett flerbostadshus i trå: Stubben i Rosenlundsparken2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is about wood as a building material. The work contains a report with explanatory illustrations and a project planning document for a residential. The building sector has a big impact on the climate, where the biggest contribution is the manufacturing of materials. Wood is the only material that is carbon oxide neutral, but still a small amount of the high apartment buildings is constructed with a wooden frame. The reason behind this is that a former law prevented wooden buildings higher than two floors and therefore there is a lack of knowledge and experience regarding wooden building technique. Wood has many positive qualities, which can be of advantage in a building. Such as a good load bearing capacity during a fire, good strength, good thermal conductivity, and it provides a healthy internal climate. There are also limitations with wooden constructions regarding fire and sound, but this can often be solved with supplements and thorough planning. This study examined the possibilities regarding span, height, and architecture. Additionally, sound- and fire conditions had an impact on the design. The project resulted in a long free span in consequent of a thick slab and therefore the building height increases. The property that was chosen for the project is located to Rosenlundsparken at Södermalm in Stockholm. The condition of the ground was not optimal to build on, because it consists of clay. But an advantage with a wooden construction it that it is light, which reduces the land work. This study resulted in a 9-floor high building where the frame is completely in wood. The frame is constructed with a column and beam system in the entrance floor and CLT walls on the other floors. A ribbed slab was chosen, which is a combination of CLT and glulam. The result showed that if thick slabs are implemented, residential buildings with long free span can be built and with a higher building height as a consequence. A long free span gives freedom when making floor plans. Furthermore, the wood offers flexibility, which makes different shapes possible. The building has round shapes which makes a contrast to the existing cityscape. Moreover, the woods natural character has a positive effect on humans and is aesthetically appealing. Wood is used as a cladding to the extent possible both interior and exterior.

  • 36.
    Pawlowicz, Jakub
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Evaluation of air entraining behaviour in concrete using computer aided methods on hardened samples2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing awareness of sustainability in the concrete industry forces structural design and executionto focus on avoiding costly and unpredictable maintenance action, instead paying higher attention todamage prevention by direct actions on early stages of production. One of such approaches, whichdeals with the problem of freezing and thawing deterioration, is intentional air bubble introductionto the concrete mix. However, the mechanism of air entrainment in concrete can be negativelyaffected on different stages of production by many factors including cement type, admixture dosage,casting conditions or mixing procedure. Therefore, reliable tools for the end-product evaluationought to be considered. The experimental study, presented in this work, focuses on understandingthe blast furnace slag (BFS) influence as well as admixtures’ dosage effect on pore structure ofhardened concrete. Three types of cement were evaluated, including ordinary portland cement(OPC) and two types of CEM III cements with different BFS percentage. The optimal amountsof air entraining agent (AEA) and super plasticizer (SP) were chosen and later reduced in orderto evaluate their impact on total air content, spacing factor and specific surface of the air voids.The main method chosen for this evaluation was the use of an office flat-bed scanner to acquireimages and application of BubbleCounter software for the analysis of the air void structure. Thisapproach is based on linear traverse method and requires special surface treatment for contrastenhancement. Specimens for the analysis were cut from hardened concrete cubes and polishedto achieve a flat surface. The samples were later treated with black ink and zinc oxide paste toachieve a clear contrast between white voids and black paste/aggregate area. In order to estimatethe accuracy of this method, more conventional tools such as pressurised gauge method and air voidanalyser were applied for comparison. Resulted mixtures showed significant differences in air voidproperties between OPC and BFS containing concrete, with the latter being less affected by AEAdosage reduction. Changes in spacing factor and specific surface were also registered; however,their deterioration did not follow the same pattern as that of total air content. No significantdeviation between the two cements containing BFS was observed. An interesting effect of the usedpolycarboxylate ether SP on the AEA reactivity was registered, showing deterioration of air voidproperties with the decrease of plasticizer amount. Comparison of the results from different air voidanalysis methods, suggested an overall agreement on the measured air void system changes due tochanging the AEA content. However, the BubbleCounter software tended to slightly overestimatethe material’s resistance to freeze and thaw phenomenon, giving the most optimistic values inspacing factor and specific surface of air voids.       

  • 37.
    Andersson, Emil
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Evaluation of influence from matedness on the peak shear strength of natural rock joints2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the rock mass is commonly used for construction of tunnels and caverns. The rockmass is also used as a foundation for large structures such as bridge abutments and dams. Forthese structures, the understanding of the rock mechanical properties play a key role for reachingan acceptable safety level and minimizing cost. One of the properties that has a high uncertaintyis the shear strength of rock joints. These rock joints constitute the weakest link in the rock massand often govern it´s strength. The uncertainty lies in the amount of factors that affect the shearstrength such as the degree of weathering, the matedness, the roughness of the surface and thescale. Various authors have tried to develop a failure criterion that can predict the peak shearstrength of rock joints and takes into account the influence of the various factors.The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the ability of the newly developed Casagrande et al.criterion to determine the peak shear strength for perfectly mated and natural rock joints withdifferent degrees of matedness. All samples analyzed in this thesis have been scanned andcustomized to run in the programmed version of the Casagrande et al. criterion. This iterativeprocess will stop as the application reach the apparent dip angle where the total shearing force issmaller than the total sliding force. This angle combined with the basic friction angle gives thepeak friction angle for calculations of the peak shear strength.The result show that the Casagrande et al. criterion can predict the peak shear strength forperfectly mated joint. However, for the natural rock joint, as the degree of matedness decreases,the accuracy of the prediction of the peak shear strength decreases. The conclusion of this studyis that the Casagrande’s criterion cannot determine the peak shear strength of natural rock jointsand that further development of the Casagrande et al. criterion is needed taking this parameterinto account.

  • 38.
    ODHIAMBO, EVANS OTIENO
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Evaluation of Signal Optimization Software: Comparison of Optimal Signal Pans from TRANSYT and LinSig – A Case Study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The design of traffic signal control plan is directly related to the level of traffic congestion experienced both at the junction level and the network particularly in urban areas. Ensuring signals are well designed is one of the most cost-effective ways of tackling urban congestion problems. Signal time plans are designed with the help of signal optimization models. Optimization can either be done for multiple or single objectives and is formulated as a problem of finding the appropriate cycle lengths, green splits, and offsets. Some of these objective functions include; better mobility, efficient energy use, and environmental sustainability. LinSig and TRANSYT are two of the most widely used traffic signal optimization tools in Sweden. Each of them has an inbuilt optimization function which differs from the other. LinSig optimizes based on delay or maximum reserve capacity while TRANSYT optimization is based on performance index (P.I) involving delay, progression, stops and fuel consumption.This thesis compared these optimization models through theoretical review and application to a case study in Norrköping. The theoretical review showed that both TRANSYT and LinSig have objective functions based on delay and its derivatives. The review also showed that these models suffer from the inability to accurately model block back as they are based on the assumption of vertical queuing of traffic at the stop line. Apart from these similarities, these two models also have significant variations with respect to modeling short congested sections of the network as well as modeling mixed traffic including different vehicle classes, pedestrians, and cyclists.From the case study, TRANSYT showed longer cycle time compared to LinSig in both scenarios as its optimization objectives include both delay and stops while LinSig accounts for only delay. The Allocation of phase green splits and individual junction delay was comparable for undersaturated junctions while congested network sections had significant differences. Total network delay was, however, less in LinSig compared to TRANSYT. This could be attributed to different modeling criteria for mixed traffic and congested network in addition to the fact that cyclists were not modeled in TRANSYT. VISSIM simulation of the two-signal time plans showed that network delay and queue lengths from TRANSYT signal timings are much less compared to LinSig time plans. A strong indication of better signal coordination.

  • 39.
    Werner Åström, Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Experimental study on innovative connections for large span structural timber trusses2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Large span timber trusses are usually built with glulam. One problem with large span glulam trusses is that the connections needed to transfer the load between truss members are often complex and expensive. Another issue is transportation. Building large span trusses out of structural timber instead, could be a way of simplifying the connections and at the same time increase the degree of on-site construction and thereby solving the transportation problem.In this study, a total of 18 laboratory tests were performed with the purpose of investigating the tensile strength and the load slip behavior of different connection designs for large span structural timber trusses. Six different test groups corresponding to six different connection designs were tested. The materials used include members made of C24 timber and gusset plates made of birch plywood, aluminum, and steel. Screws were used as fasteners for five test groups and adhesive was used for one group. The influence of different reinforcement techniques including reinforcement screws and added aluminum sheets was studied.The results showed a ductile failure behavior for all test groups except for the group where adhesive was used. However, a decrease of ductility was observed for groups were aluminum sheets were used on the outsides of the mid placed plywood gusset plate. A 12-17 % increase in capacity was observed due to the presence of aluminum sheets. The reinforcement screws had no significant effect on the capacity. However, the presence of reinforcement screws did lead to a reduction in scatter both regarding capacity and stiffness.

  • 40.
    Bila, Kristi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Fatigue Analysis of a Lively Footbridge2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The commitment of building aesthetic bridges made of stiff materials results in theconstruction of slender structures highly susceptible to dynamic loading. In the caseof footbridges located over a highly trafficked highway, such dynamic loads maybe the aerodynamic pressure induced by the heavy trucks passing underneath thestructure and the pedestrian loading involving a pedestrian running and jumping.There have been reported cases in the literature that these types of dynamic eventscan cause discomfort to the users of the bridge, and thus, footbridges are usuallychecked in the serviceability limit state. However, footbridges are not checked forfatigue damage since the design codes do not demand fatigue analysis.In the present master thesis, a hypothesis is made: the dynamic loading actingon footbridges can cause fatigue damage. To test this hypothesis, a case study wasconsidered. The Smista bridge was chosen, which is a footbridge with noticeablevibrations even with the single action of a pedestrian running on the bridge oreven when a single truck passes underneath the bridge. The bridge was simulatednumerically using a 3D shell finite element model. Four load cases were studied:the aerodynamic pressure induced by the heavy trucks passing below the bridge,the pedestrian jumping in the middle of the bridge, the pedestrian running in thecenterline of the bridge and the pedestrian running near the edge of the bridge.The results showed that the dynamic events applied on the bridge did not producehigh enough response and stresses to account for fatigue damage accumulation.Therefore, it is concluded that fatigue design of such bridges, although very livelyand which can cause high discomfort to people, should not be added as a designcriteria in the design codes.

  • 41.
    Anjevall, Hilma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Jääskeläinen Nyberg, Johannes
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Flödeseffektivitet i partneringprocessen: En studie av produktbestämningsskedet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Partnering as a working method has existed in Sweden since the late 90s and has become increasingly common, especially in public construction. The way of working is a reaction to the traditional procedure that has been criticized for being fragmented and misleading knowledge and creating many conflicts. In an integrated organization and with an iterative process, all players develop and implement the project with full transparency in all sub-processes to maximize the value of the product and put the customer's needs in focus. ByggDialog is a company that from the start specializes in partnering and who organizes and leads the design phase often called Phase 1, after which one also coordinates all contractors and performs the construction with their own workforce. ByggDialog wants to develop their work in Phase 1 and create a process as flow-efficient as possible to reach production within a reasonable time. This is important as one strives for efficiency in general, but also for it to be possible to forecast resource needs, growth rates and results with good precision and small deviations. Flow efficiency is a concept derived from Lean theory that originates from Toyota's car factories. It is about creating a process where non-value-creating activities are eliminated, and the focus is on the density of the value transfer to the product and its flow. The purpose of this report is to apply these theories to ByggDialog's processes in Phase 1 and to survey non-value-creating activities in Phase 1 through interviews with people with great experience of Phase 1. The study also included proposing measures for improved flow efficiency. An effort was also made to calculate the flow efficiency in several completed projects to investigate the possibility of an appropriate indicator for the company's improvement work on Phase 1. In summary, it turned out that flow efficiency in Phase 1 can be positively affected by openness, integrated organizations, standardized working methods, iterative design methods and distinct project management. An indicator of flow efficiency that considers the ratio of value-creating time and throughput divided by BTA proved to be too complex to develop. A viable route, however, is to only let the indicator reflect the throughput divided by BTA or production cost. In-depth studies are recommended for ByggDialog to seek the most useful method for monitoring and measuring the effectiveness of Phase 1.

  • 42.
    Törnkvist, Frida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Metzler Sædén, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Fritidshus 2.02019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To have a second home, a country house, a summer cottage has been a part of Swedish culture for a long period of time. This report examines the phenomenon of leisure, cottages and cottage areas in a historical pretext. From being a benefit for those who are most well-off financially it became more and more common among ordinary people during the time of the twentieth century. How relevant the division between first and second homes are today, the different rules when it comes to construction, insulation and availability is discussed. The needs of our time are investigated and results in a draft for development of a property. A place close to Stockholm is selected. The ground is used as a basis for further development to a leisure area. Roads, joint facilities and houses are being planned close to a lake in the region Södermanland. The focus lies primarily on creating an area with buildings of durability and sustainability. The territory and the living areas are meant to offer recovery and recreation close to nature.

  • 43.
    Abdi Yussuf, Yusuf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Jalal Ibrahim, Zand
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    FRP:s användning inom brokonstruktioner2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At present, most bridges in Sweden are made with concrete or steel. These bridges are often associated with high costs, which often depend on maintenance and repair. FRP, which stands for Fiber Reinforced Polymer, is a relatively new material in load-bearing structures but is a well- established material in the context of reinforcement. In Europe and in particular the Netherlands, there are several bridges built in FRP. But due to a lack of norms and regulations to lean against, there is rarely any kind of FRP bridge construction in Sweden. The aim of this thesis is to examine existing norms and study how the material FRP is used in the reinforcement and construction of bridges. Furthermore, this thesis also aims to investigate the properties of FRP as building material and compare it with conventional materials such as steel and concrete. FRP, also called fiber-composite, is a composite material that can be assembled in several different ways. Through various materials that are combined and different manufacturing processes used, one can thus provide individual designs for the material. The benefits of FRP are many, but generally it has good strength, good durability while having a low weight. This results in that within bridge construction, it gives the structure a reduced self-weight, which in turn facilitates a variety of things. This thesis shows that FRP materials have advantageous properties and in some situations can be more favorable to use than steel or concrete. However, as previously pointed out, there are no specific Eurocodes for this material. However we are sure that the introduction of a new Eurocode and encouragement from authorities will undoubtedly increase the use of FRP in bridge construction.

  • 44.
    Mitro, Gabriel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Östlund, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Från underutnyttjade ytor i staden till attraktiva områden: En studie om hur tillfälliga bostäder kan bidra till ett multifunktionellt stadsområde2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of this work is an issue that the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket) illuminates and which is currently relevant in several municipalities in Sweden, namely efforts towards a mixing of functions, densification and a more efficient exploitation of urban areas. The housing shortage is still a problem in several municipalities. Students and young adults are particularly affected by the housing shortage and have difficulties obtaining a home due to their financial conditions. The dwellings in the proposal of the study are intended for this target group. The goal of this thesis is to present a proposal on how temporary dwellings in the form of modular houses can be built on underutilized sites in big cities such as Stockholm. An inspiration for the thesis was the concept SNABBA HUS which is about building mobile modular houses with temporary building permits. The purpose of this thesis is to show an example of how well-designed modular houses can contribute to the conversion of an underutilized space into a multifunctional area. This work has focused mainly on design and planning for housing. Questions about water, sewage and sustainable materials have been of interest due to the environmental aspects that have been of significant importance during the education of the authors. A survey was carried out in order to identify a suitable location for the assembling of the proposed module houses. Methods for a more aesthetically pleasing design have been identified through a design study that included examination of similar projects about modular houses. Literature studies and consultations were carried out to examine the possibility of applying a small-scale water and sewage system to make the houses independent of general pipeline systems and promote mobility. Literature studies about CLT (cross-laminated timber) were made in efforts to link the important aspects of environment and design. This thesis presents a proposal of the design of student housing raised above a parking lot with a temporary building permit. The modular houses are designed to fit the standard measures of two parking spaces and to meet the conditions regarding transportation. The way the modules are constructed makes it possible to stack them in close position and on top of each other. The assembling of the houses would mean a higher grade of exploitation to meet the need of the municipalities and can presumably create a basis for the emergence of a multifunctional urban area.

  • 45.
    Mobasheri, Farzaneh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Mohamed, Najma
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Förbättrad logistik med hjälp av BIM-projektering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of the construction industry depends on many factors, one of which is logistics. Well-planned logistics can, among other things, reduce waste of time and costs. Studies have previously shown that inefficient time management in the construction industry occurs more often than in other industries. This report has been written to investigate which problems can occur in the logistics process and how digitization can prevent problems in the logistics flow. Digitization reflected in Building Information Modeling (BIM) creates opportunities for achieving an efficient logistics flow. The report contains two main parts: The collection of facts covers the concept of logistics and various strategies related to the topic such as Lean and Just In Time and their application in the construction industry. Comparisons between different standards related to improved handling and classification of materials are addressed, among them BEAst and Coclass. The impact of the BIM design on logistics has also been theoretically investigated with the software Vico Office and its 4D and 5D functions. The second part focuses on surveys about construction workplaces and interviews with BIM specialists, logistics managers, researchers using selected interview questions. The questions are designed according to each work role and all answers are transcribed at the end of the report as appendices. All collected information from the survey results and interviews are presented in results and analysis to finally discuss the advantages and disadvantages of BIM design for logistics purposes. The report proposes more use of BIM design in the design stage to streamline logistics in the construction industry.

  • 46.
    Hamadi, Farah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Wallin, Viktor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Förseningstimmar på mötesseparerade 2+1-vägar: Hur förseningskostnaden påverkas av ombyggnad till 2+2-väg i relation till investeringskostnaden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From the late 1990s, a large part of the non-separated 13-meter-wide roads have been reconstructed into meeting separated roads, where traffic in each direction is separated by a middle strip. Meeting separated roads have been a very successful project for road safety and have contributed to a large reduction in severely injured and casualties in traffic. There are many meeting separated roads in Sweden. In the case of accidents on 2+1-roads, it becomes difficult for the traffic to turn around on the road, which leads to a stop and makes it difficult for the emergency services and tow trucks to reach the scene of the accident. These accidents lead to delay hours and, in turn, to community costs. This thesis is written for the Swedish Transport Administration to review 2+1 roads in the Swedish Transport Administration’s Region East. The report produces and compares the reduction of delay costs after rebuilding a road from 2+1- to 2+2-standard, the report also presents and compares the delay cost with the investment cost for the reconstruction. This study is based on literature studies, analysis of data from the “Traffic Management”, internet-based programs and through the use of Microsoft Excel for calculating delay hours and -costs for selected roads and routes. The result of the report shows whether it is worth investigating in a reconstruction from 2+1- to 2+2-road from delay cost perspective. This is presented through a general comparison per Scandinavian mile of 2+1-road based on roads 50, 55 and 56 in the Swedish Transport Administration’s Region East. The report also contains an analysis of the five most affected accident sites on the E18's 2+1-routes. The analysis of these accident sites showed that all five were between Köping and Västerås in Västmanland county.

  • 47.
    Unell, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Ruuska, Natalie
    Gatuutformning med autonoma fordon.: En undersökning över möjliga förändringar i Stockholm.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development with automated functions in vehicles is moving forward and in the future it is possible that cars is completely self-driving. Stockholm is growing and also the traffic, which poses challenges to solve, such as increasing accessibility, availability and sustainability. Therefore, the City of Stockholm has developed goals for clarifying what the future street areas should fulfill. The purpose of this report was to compile information on how autonomous vehicles can influence street design and compare the results with the goals of street planning in the City of Stockholm. The result showed that autonomous vehicles can enable an increased sharing economy within the transport system, which means that fewer people own their own vehicle. Instead, the vehicles can be included in new mobility solutions. This can lead to improved land use and new opportunities for how we use the street space. For example, the street room is mentioned as being able to be switched off for traffic after rush hour and providing space for other activities. The results also showed that the vehicles need more integrated technology in the street space and requirements for higher readability of line markings and road signs. One conclusion was that many of Stockholm's goals can be achieved, such as environmental goals, less congestion and higher road safety. The result shows that the two most important factors are the political and technical development of autonomous vehicles.

  • 48.
    Ounsi, Karim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Geographically Weighted Regression as a Predictive Tool for Station-Level Ridership: The Case of Stockholm2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies a new regression method, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR)to predict ridership at the station level for future stations. The case study of Stockholm’s blue lineis used as new stations will be built by 2030. This paper is written in English.Historically, linear regression methods, independent of the geographical location of theobservations, was and is still used as the Ordinary Least Square regression method. With the riseof GIS-softwares these last decades, geographically dependent regression can be used and previouspreliminary studies have shown a dependency between ridership and location of the station withinthe network.GWR equations for new stations are determined and used to predict their respectiveridership. GIS-data was collected using Geodata and Traffikverket (Traffic Authority) andridership as well as socio-economic related material for the base year of 2016 was used in order todetermine, first, significant variables from a group of candidate ones (Workers, number of buslines and type of change were chosen) and, second the OLS and GWR equations. Significances ofboth models were compared and the OLS equation was used in order to determine the hypotheticalridership of the new stations if they were present in 2016. GWR equations were then determinedusing these calculated ridership of these new stations. Having all GWR equations (each stationhaving its own equation), ridership was thus predicted for the new stations for 2030 usingassumptions and planned, programmed development around the stations (population, apartment tobe built…) and compared with the official predictions.The results show that the GWR method, generally, overpredicts ridership when comparedto the official predictions. Many reasons can explain this overprediction like the assumptions madewith regards to the number of buses as well as the method followed to calculate the number ofworkers around each station.Three main conclusions were drawn for this case study. One main conclusion, specific forthis study and two other, more general, conclusions were deduced from this study. First, GWR isa good predicting tool for future stations that are close to most currently available stations. Second,GWR is a good predicting method for stations where limited changes in the future environmentwill occur.

  • 49.
    BERG WINCENT, BOEL
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Gångavstånd för resor med elsparkcykel: En studie baserat på elsparkcykelaktören Voi Technology i Stockholm2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electric scooters, or e-scooters as they also are called, were launched in California in USA as a bike share system, in 2017. A year later, in September 2018, the Swedish company Voi Technology launched the first e-scooters in Stockholm, Sweden. Bike share systems has been around since the 1960s but has grown substantially in the past 15 years. New technical solutions have solved past problems with theft and payment in bike shares. Since e-scooters are new, there is a lack of research and knowledge about practical use. The study aims to examine how long users of e-scooters walk to utilize the service. Travel data from Voi Technology is used to determine walking distance. The distance from the location where the app was opened to the location where the e-scooter trip begun was measured. The result was also compared the walking distance of other bike share systems and travelers of public transportation. The majority of e-scooter users walk less than 100 meters and 38 per cent walk less than 50 meters. The users have the shortest walking distance in the morning and the longest in the afternoon. During the weekend's users walk further than in weekdays. The users who travel longer distances with the e-scooters don’t walk further than other users. About a third of the users walk in the opposite direction of travel, to some extent, to catch an e-scooter. That indicates that the aim of the user in general seems to be to always have the shortest possible walking distance to the e-scooter.

  • 50.
    Fredriksson, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Gluhajic, Bane
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Heating systems in small houses: A comparison between geothermal heating and district heating2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    District heating and geothermal heating are in present times two established heating systems that are often compared against each other. The purpose of this work is to describe which factors influence the choice of heating system during the planning stage and what the costs are for each system. In this paper, a typical house model has been developed and used as a basis for the comparison of both systems. The comparison has been made in the form of energy calculations in the energy calculation program BV2, where heat requirements and regulatory requirements for energy performance have been compared in different geographical areas in Sweden. Furthermore, cost calculations have been carried out based on the energy calculations' results, where investment costs and annual costs have been set against each other. The result of the work shows how the measurement of energy performance differs from the actual amount of purchased energy due to geographical conditions. In the southern parts of Sweden, where the geographical correction factor is below 0, consumers are penalized by raising the primary energy number, unlike the northern parts where the primary energy number is instead lowered. Based on the cost calculations, it can be concluded that district heating, when available, is more economically advantageous in the short term. Geothermal heating on the other hand is a more profitable alternative in the long run.

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