Change search
Refine search result
1 - 11 of 11
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Gasch, Tobias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Multiphysical analysis methods to predict the ageing and durability of concrete2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the societal demand for sustainability and the increasing age of infrastructure, a crucial task for the civil engineering community is to improve the durability of concrete structures. This thesis aims to contribute to such development through theoretical studies using mathematical modelling and numerical simulations. During its service life, a concrete structure is subjected to many different actions, ranging from mechanical loads to chemical and physical processes. Hence, a sound modelling strategy requires multiphysics and the inclusion of coupled chemical and physical fields (e.g. temperature, moisture and cement hydration) in addition to methods that describe mechanical integrity of the material. Conditions and phenomena critical for concrete structures at hydropower facilities have been of particular interest to study.

    The thesis presents several mathematical models of various complexity to describe the multiphysical behaviour of concrete using a material point description. A significant focus is on models that describe the mechanical behaviour of concrete where aspects such as ageing, cracking, creep and shrinkage are investigated. For the creep behaviour, a state-of-the-art model based on the Microprestress–Solidification (MPS) theory is reviewed and further developed. The appended papers (III to IV) presents a mathematical framework for the modelling of durability aspects of concrete based on multiphase porous media theory. The governing equations are derived with the Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory (TCAT) as a starting point. It is demonstrated how this framework can be applied to a broad variety of phenomena related to durability; from the casting and hardening of concrete to the long-term absorption of water into air-entrained concrete. The Finite Element Methods (FEM) is used to solve the proposed mathematical models, and their capabilities are verified using experimental data from the literature.

    The main research contribution is the development and evaluation of theoretical models that advance the understanding and improve knowledge of the ageing and durability of concrete and concrete structures. More precisely, it is shown how multiphysical models and the developed multiphase framework can be used to gain insights on the material behaviour of concrete at smaller scales while they are also applicable to structural-scale simulations. During all model development, the efficient solution of structural problems has been fundamental. Through case studies and several examples from the literature, it is exemplified how these models can be used to enhance the performance and thereby increase the durability of concrete structures.

  • 2.
    Magnusson, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures. Fortifikationsverket.
    Shear in Concrete Structural Elements Subjected to Dynamic Loads2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete structural elements subjected to severe dynamic loads such as explosions at close range may cause shear failures. In the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 two concrete columns on the ground level were reported to have failed in shear. Such shear failures have also been reported to occur in several experimental investigations when concrete beams and slabs were subjected to blast or impact loads. The dynamic shear mechanisms are not yet fully understood and it is therefore of research significance to further investigate these mechanisms. The main objective of the research presented in this thesis is to experimentally and theoretically analyse shear failures of reinforced concrete elements subjected to uniformly distributed dynamic loads.

    The experimental work consisted of concrete beams of varying concrete grades and reinforcement configurations subjected to blast loads. One series involved testing of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams and the other series involved tests with concrete beams reinforced with steel bars. The former investigation showed that SFRC beams can resist certain blast loads. In the latter investigation, certain beams subjected to blast loads were observed to fail in flexural shear while the same beams exhibited flexural failures in the static tests. Such shear failures specifically occurred in beams with relatively high reinforcement contents. With these experiments as reference, numerical simulations with Ansys Autodyn were performed that demonstrated the ability to predict flexural shear failures.

    A direct shear failure mode has also been observed in experiments involving concrete roofs subjected to intense distributed blast loads. In several cases, the roof slabs were completely severed from their supporting walls along vertical or near-vertical failure planes soon after the load had been applied. Theoretical analyses of the initial structural response of beams subjected to distributed loads were conducted with the use of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and numerical simulations in Abaqus/Explicit. These analyses show that the initial structural response consists of shear stresses and bending moments developing at the supports. The remaining parts of the beam will be subjected to a rigid body motion. Further simulations with Abaqus shows that that dynamic direct shear failure appears to be due to a deep beam response with crushing of the compressive struts at the supports, and therefore differs from a static direct shear mode. The results also showed that parameters such as element depth, amount of reinforcement, load level and load duration played a role in developing a dynamic direct shear failure.

  • 3.
    Mohammadi Mohaghegh, Ali
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Structural Properties of High-Performance MacroBasalt Fibre Concrete; Flexure, Shear, Punching Shear and Fire Spalling2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Gram, Annika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Modelling of Bingham Suspensional Flow: Influence of Viscosity and Particle Properties Applicable to Cementitious Materials2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation of fresh concrete flow has spurged with the advent of Self-Compacting Concrete, SCC. The fresh concrete rheology must be compatible with the reinforced formwork geometry to ensure complete and reliable form filling with smooth concrete surfaces. Predicting flow behavior in the formwork and linking the required rheological parameters to flow tests performed on the site will ensure an optimization of the casting process.

    In this thesis, numerical simulation of concrete flow and particle behaviour is investigated, using both discrete as well as a continuous approach. Good correspondence was achieved with a Bingham material model used to simulate concrete laboratory tests (e.g. slump flow).

    It is known that aggregate properties such as size, shape and surface roughness as well as its grading curve affect fresh concrete properties. An increased share of non-spherical particles in concrete increases the level of yield stress, τ0, and plastic viscosity, µpl. The yield stress level may be decreased by adding superplasticizers, however, the plastic viscosity may not. An explanation for the behaviour of particles is sought after experimentally, analytically and numerically. Bingham parameter plastic viscosity is experimentally linked to particle shape. It was found that large particles orient themselves aligning their major axis with the fluid flow, whereas small particles in the colloidal range may rotate between larger particles. The rotation of crushed, non-spherical fine particles as well as particles of a few microns that agglomorate leads to an increased viscosity of the fluid.

    Generally, numerical simulation of large scale quantitative analyses are performed rather smoothly with the continuous approach. Smaller scale details and phenomena are better captured qualitatively with the discrete particle approach. As computer speed and capacity constantly evolves, simulation detail and sample volume will be allowed to increase.

    A future merging of the homogeneous fluid model with the particle approach to form particles in the fluid will feature the flow of concrete as the physical suspension that it represents. One single ellipsoidal particle in fluid was studied as a first step.

     

     

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Models for analysis of young cast and sprayed concrete subjected to impact-type loads2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The strive for a time-efficient construction process naturally put focus on the possibility of reducing the time of waiting between stages of construction, thereby minimizing the construction cost. If recently placed concrete, cast or sprayed, is exposed to impact vibrations at an early age while still in the process of hardening, damage that threatens the function of the hard concrete may occur. A waiting time when the concrete remains undisturbed, or a safe distance to the vibration source, is therefore needed. However, there is little, or no, fully proven knowledge of the length of this distance or time and there are no established guidelines for practical use. Therefore, conservative vibration limits are used for young and hardening concrete exposed to vibrations from e.g. blasting.

    As a first step in the dynamic analysis of a structure, the dynamic loads should always be identified and characterized. Here it is concluded that impact-type loads are the most dangerous of possible dynamic loads on young and hardening concrete. Shotcrete (sprayed concrete) on hard rock exposed to blasting and cast laboratory specimens subjected to direct mechanical impact loads have been investigated using finite element models based on the same analysis principles. Stress wave propagation is described in the same way whether it is through hard rock towards a shotcrete lining or through an element of young concrete. However, the failure modes differ for the two cases where shotcrete usually is damaged through loss of bond, partly or over larger sections that may result in shotcrete downfall. Cracking in shotcrete due to vibrations only is unusual and has not been observed during previous in situ tests. The study of shotcrete is included to demonstrate the need of specialized guidelines for cases other than for mass concrete, i.e. structural elements or concrete volumes with large dimensions in all directions.

    Within this project, work on evaluating and proposing analytical models are made in several steps, first with a focus on describing the behaviour of shotcrete on hard rock. It is demonstrated that wave propagation through rock towards shotcrete can be described using two-dimensional elastic finite element models in a dynamic analysis. The models must include the material properties of the rock and the accuracy of these parameters will greatly affect the results. It is possible to follow the propagation of stress waves through the rock mass, from the centre of blasting to the reflection at the shotcrete-rock interface. It is acceptable to use elastic material formulations until the strains are outside the elastic range, which thus indicates imminent material failure. The higher complexity of this type of model, compared with mechanical models using mass and spring elements, makes it possible to analyse more sophisticated geometries. Comparisons are made between numerical results and measurements from experiments in mining tunnels with ejected rock mass and shotcrete bond failure, and with measurements made during blasting for tunnel construction where rock and shotcrete remained intact. The calculated results are in good correspondence with the in situ observations and measurements, and with previous numerical modelling results. Examples of preliminary recommendations for practical use are given and it is demonstrated how the developed models and suggested analytical technique can be used for further detailed investigations.

    The modelling concept has also been used for analysis of impact loaded beams and concrete prisms modelled with 3D solid elements. As a first analysis step, an elastic material model was used to validate laboratory experiments with hammer-loaded concrete beams. The laboratory beam remained un-cracked during the experiments, and thus it was possible to achieve a good agreement using a linear elastic material model for fully hardened concrete. The model was further developed to enable modelling of cracked specimens. For verification of the numerical results, earlier laboratory experiments with hammer impacted smaller prisms of young concrete were chosen. A comparison between results showed that the laboratory tests can be reproduced numerically and those free vibration modes and natural frequencies of the test prisms contributed to the strain concentrations that gave cracking at high loads. Furthermore, it was investigated how a test prism modified with notches at the middle section would behave during laboratory testing. Calculated results showed that all cracking would be concentrated to one crack with a width equal to the sum of the multiple cracks that develop in un-notched prisms. In laboratory testing, the modified prism will provide a more reliable indication of when the critical load level is reached.

    This project has been interdisciplinary, combining structural dynamics, finite element modelling, concrete material technology, construction technology and rock support technology. It is a continuation from previous investigations of the effect on young shotcrete from blasting vibrations but this perspective has been widened to also include young, cast concrete. The outcome is a recommendation for how dynamic analysis of young concrete, cast and sprayed, can be carried out with an accurate description of the effect from impact-type loads. The type of numerical models presented and evaluated will provide an important tool for the work towards guidelines for practical use in civil engineering and concrete construction work. Some recommendations on safe distances and concrete ages are given, for newly cast concrete elements or mass concrete and for newly sprayed shotcrete on hard rock.

  • 6.
    Bryne, Lars Elof
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Time dependent material properties of shotcrete for hard rock tunnelling2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis different mechanical properties for shotcrete (sprayed concrete) such as compression strength, bond strength, bending tensile strength, elastic modulus, free and restrained shrinkage as a function of its age was investigated. One of the main issues was to investigate the difference between ordinary cast concrete and shotcrete. Reliable material data for young and hardening shotcrete is scarce which in the past have made such comparisons difficult. Also, less accurate data representative for cast concrete has often been used in numerical modelling and design analyses. The focus of the project has particularly been on the properties bond strength and restrained shrinkage for which two new testing methods has been developed and evaluated. Microstructural studies have also been performed as a complement to the bond strength testing.

    The bond to rock is one of the most important properties for shotcrete used as rock reinforcement. During the very first time after spraying the physical properties and the bond to the rock depend on the set accelerator and the micro structure that is formed. The investigation of early age bond strength of shotcrete is of great importance both from a production perspective and a safety perspective. The newly developed method was tested and evaluated and proved that it can be used for bond strength testing already from a couple of hours after shotcreting. The bond, or adhesion, depends on several factors such as texture of the rock, the type of accelerator, application technique, etc. In this work the development of the microstructure in the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) and strength of the bond was investigated. The results show that the bond strength is related to the hydration process, i.e. the strength gain of the shotcrete. The early development of the ITZ was here studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) making it possible to observe changes over time, before and after proper cement hydration.

    Restrained shrinkage cracking of shotcrete, especially in the case of shotcrete sprayed on soft drains that are parts of a tunnel lining not continuously bonded to the rock, can be detrimental for the sustainability of an infrastructure tunnel system. Maintenance and repair costs can be high over time. It is shown that the developed test method realistically captures the behaviour of shotcrete drains on hard rock in situ. The method can be used in the evaluation of different technical solutions for avoiding or minimizing shrinkage cracks in shotcreted soft drains. It can also be used to assess the performance of shotcrete fully bonded to a rock surface, with respect to the ability to prevent cracking or to distribute possible shrinkage damage into several fine cracks instead of one wide.

  • 7.
    Jansson, Robert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Fire Spalling of Concrete: Theoretical and Experimental Studies2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire spalling of concrete is not a new phenomenon. To some degree there has always been a risk during rapid heating of concrete. Therefore, to a certain degree the effect of fire spalling is included in the bank of data from fire tests and fires on which our understanding of the fire resistance of concrete is based. However, the development and modern use of more dense concrete mixes have produced cases of very severe fire spalling which have increased the urgency to understand this phenomenon. In this context, the use of an addition of polypropylene (PP) fibres to the mix to limit the amount of spalling has been one topic of interest for this thesis.

    During fire tests on a post-tensioned concrete structure made of spalling sensitive concrete, it has been shown that substantially lower amounts of PP fibres than 2 kg/m3, which is recommended in the Eurocode (1992-1-2:2004), can be used with successful results.

    As part of this study, another important aspect has emerged, i.e. the impact the test method used can have on the fire spalling depths observed in concrete specimens. This has been known for many years but is seldom discussed in the scientific literature. In this thesis it has been shown that results from tests on unloaded cubes do not necessarily correspond to results seen on larger loaded slabs. In the results presented, none of the tested cubes spalled whereas some of the large slabs spalled to the degree that the reinforcement became fire exposed. Further, the difference in spalling depths between small and large post-tensioned slabs was shown to be substantial; although in general the ranking in severity from least to greatest spalling correlated between these two specimen sizes. The correlation to larger specimens was much vaguer in the case when the small slabs were not loaded in compression as there sometimes was no spalling in the small slabs.

    From time to time the randomness of the fire spalling of concrete has been mentioned. To investigate this further, an analysis of 110 fire tests performed on small slab type specimens was performed. This analyse showed that the spalling behaviour had a good repeatability between two identical tests, which proved that the so called “random factor” relating to spalling depth was low for the chosen data set. It was also possible to make a multiple least squares fit of test parameters that could be used to predict the spalling behaviour which also underlines that a substantial stochastic factor was not present.

    Regarding the influence of different factors, the results compiled on the influence of ageing show that for three of the tested Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) mixes, the amount of spalling was reduced with age whereas for the fourth mix (which included the highest amount of limestone filler, 140 kg/m3) the spalling was not reduced with age. In this test series no systematic influence of the intensity of the fire, between standard fire exposure and the more severe hydrocarbon fire, on the spalling depth was detected for this type of specimen. The only major difference was that spalling started earlier during the more severe fire exposure.

    Pressure measurements conducted as part of the work within this thesis, supported by results from the literature, indicate that there is no relationship between pressure rise due to moisture and fire spalling. Based on this and the fact that the spalling event in many cases happens at relatively low temperatures where the saturation vapour pressure is low two alternative factors to explain the function of PP fibres have been presented: (i) PP fibres reduce the moisture content in the critical zone close to the heated surface which affects the mechanical properties advantageously, and (ii) PP fibres amplify moisture movement leading to larger drying creep and shrinkage which locally relax the thermal stresses.

    To  investigate  the  influence  of  the  presence  of  moisture  on  the  compressive  strength, specimens were tested after being boiled for varying periods of time in a water bath. The study showed a remarkable reduction of strength due to boiling of the mortar specimens. After boiling mortar in a water bath for 3, 10 or 20 minutes, i.e. approximately the same time span as the initiation of fire spalling during fully developed fires, the strength was only 64% of the corresponding value for a dry specimen. As no strength change was detected between the specimens  boiled  3, 10 or 20 minutes,  and that the corresponding  saturation  pressure  for steam at 100ºC is negligible compared with the tensile strength of concrete, it was concluded that pore pressure is not a significant  contributor  to the measured reduction in strength.  It appears that the presence of moisture itself rather than an increased pressure is the most important factor reducing strength. This is a clear indication that moisture plays a key role in the fire spalling of concrete but in a different way from previously assumed.

  • 8.
    Vogt, Carsten
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ultrafine particles in concrete: Influence of ultrafine particles on concrete properties and application to concrete mix design2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ngoma, Athuman M. K.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Characterisation and Consolidation of Historical Lime Mortars in Cultural Heritage Buildings and Associated Structures in East Africa2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For the period of several centuries, the influence of several distinct cultures produced rich and diverse cultural heritage that we see today in East Africa countries. The most tangible remains of these heritages are stone built buildings and structures including, palaces, mosques, residential houses and tombs. At present, these heritages are in different physical state, some are in relatively good condition while many are in an appalling condition. The presence of these historical monuments has benefited these countries economically and culturally therefore, it is essential to ensure that these monuments continue to exist.

    Material characterisation of the historical buildings and associated structures was used to develop a suitable method of intervention that is sympathetic to the original materials. Mortar is the most damaged material therefore, historical mortar from Stone Town historical buildings and associated structures has been characterised by visual examination, optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction and hydrostatic weighing and the results have been compared. The historical mortar is mainly comprised of calcite, quartz and feldspar. The mortar condition has been divided into hard mortar, soft mortar and, soft and friable mortar. The deteriorated mortar that required consolidation is soft mortar and, soft and friable mortar with a porosity of approximately 27%.

    Calcium hydroxide solution (limewater) has been selected as consolidant and the consolidation procedure involves two steps. Firstly a limewater impregnation procedure has been developed and secondly, the effect of limewater treatment has been determined. For the application procedure it has been observed that, when limewater comes into contact with calcium carbonate a precipitation reaction occurs and that is the cause of poor penetration ability of calcium hydroxide solution. Major influencing factors on the penetration ability of calcium hydroxide solution have been established as, application method and absorption capacity of the treated material during the impregnation process. Optimization of the penetration ability of calcium hydroxide solution has been achieved by impregnating from the middle of the impregnated specimen.

    Sugar has been used to study the influence of additive on enhancing calcium hydroxide solubility. It has been verified that solubility of calcium hydroxide in a solution of sugar is proportional to the amount of sugar in the solution.

    Porosity and strength tests have been used to study the effectiveness of calcium hydroxide treatment. Under the conditions studied no appreciable change of porosity has been detected. It is postulated that the calcium hydroxide was deposited at the binder/aggregate interface and at the secondary pores. In terms of strength, evidence has been found to suggest the strength increment varies quantitively with the amount of calcite crystals deposited.

  • 10.
    Westerberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Time-dependent effects in the analysis and design of slender concrete compression members2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The report deals with the effect of time-dependent concrete properties in the analysis and design of slender compression members. The main focus is on how to take these effects into account in nonlinear analysis, not on the properties as such in a materials science perspective.Simplified methods for practical design have earlier been calibrated against accurate calculations based on nonlinear analysis. Creep was then taken into account in a simplified way, using an effective creep ratio and an extended concrete stress-strain curve; shrinkage and strength increase were disregarded. The significance of these simplifications is studied here by comparisons with a more rigorous analysis, including a complete creep function plus the effects of shrinkage and strength increase.A good reason for not taking into account strength increase in normal design is that high loads can occur early in the service life. For slender compression members, however, this means that strength at the beginning of the service life is combined with second order effects at the end of it (including the full effect of creep). This is conservative but in principle not logical. Therefore, the effect of strength increase has been studied here. (Whether it should be allowed to take it into account in design is another question, to be considered by code writers.) The reduction of concrete strength due to high sustained stress is studied from different angles. The conclusion is that there is no need to take this into account in design. There are several independent reasons for this, each sufficient on its own: load factors, lower stress levels in case of second order effects, strength increase.The realism of the models for creep, shrinkage and strength increase given in Eurocode 2 (2004), when used in an accurate nonlinear analysis, has been examined by comparisons with tests of slender columns reported in the literature. Good agreement is found in most cases. The comparisons also confirm that high sustained stress has no effect in slender columns.

  • 11.
    Masanja, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Foam concrete as a structural material2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
1 - 11 of 11
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf