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  • 1.
    Wiberg, Emelie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Bjerring, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    5D-kalkylering av produktionskalkyl2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development in the construction industry is slowly but surely moving forward. The industry has begun to understand the successes and opportunities of digitizing itself, but it is a long journey that is constantly improving. In the construction industry's digitization, it is mostly common that it talks about BIM, a concept that has many different meanings. Simply explained, it is about connecting a 3D model with different types of information, which can provide many opportunities for streamlining the construction of the building and the project. It is mainly talked about the possibility of obtaining a 4D (time) and 5D (cost) models through a 3D model. Many housing production companies have begun their journey towards a digital world and JM AB is definitely one of them. In 2018, JM AB began to work with its ambition to one day be the leading actor in the industry of digitization. Part of the digitization work takes place within the calculations department at JM, where the department in this now makes quantity and cost estimations in the Vico Office program. It is the calculations department that produces the production costing for the construction start and this is also done in VO. Thanks to the development in digitalization, they can now make clear connections between time schedule and costs with 3D models as a base. A calculation that is not linked in this way is the overhead cost calculation. This requires a study into how the calculation can be linked to a 5D model and in the long run be able to contribute to the development of the production costing, which for us is the purpose of the report. This study focuses on developing various key figures for overhead costs that can be linked to 5D calculation. In this process, interviews with experts have been required, in order to get a clear picture of both, who establishes the calculations and how they are produced. To confirm and strengthen what has been said in the interviews, literature in the form of articles and books has been used. The result in the report shows what is required in 5D calculation of the production costing in VO. It also shows which key figures have been produced based on data from the specified comparison projects. In order for the key figures to be best visualized and reported in VO, they need to be linked to a time frame, which in this case is the projects timetable. The aim of the report has been to improve the analysis of estimated production costs with the application of 5D calculation. The compilation of key figures on costs, which is visualized in VO, aims to optimize the projects by producing better connections between cost and time. The report's reliability must of course be validated on the basis of the company's, JM, response to the rapport. This visualization and key figures presentation are an example of how a possible approach might look. The procedure and the 5D visualization are also the first of its kind within the company JM AB.

  • 2.
    Berndtsson, Filippa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Suleyman Bal, Harun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Acceleratorers påverkan för sprutbetongens tidiga hållfasthet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During maintenance work in trafficked tunnels, the traffic must be halted. Therefore, such efforts often take place night-time. In order to enable a quick release of traffic again, it is crucial to have an effective reinforcement work. Due to the safety risks of using shotcrete as a reinforce method, there is a chance of adding additional strength-requirement can exist due to safety risks. If the concrete achieves the strength requirements sooner than expected, the number of nights dedicated to maintenance work can be reduced. This study intends to investigate how different types of admixtures, so called accelerators, can expedite the shotcrete’s initial strength development. Furthermore, the study will include a conclusion of the suitability for the accelerators that have been applied in the shotcrete. To investigate the effects of these accelerators, extensive tests has taken place. During these tests, shotcretes with different recipes were sprinkled into test boxes. Thereafter, tests of strength development could be performed on these boxes in agreement with prevailing standards. To delimitate the study, the selected methods only show the early strength-development of shotcrete. The results from these tests will be presented in graphs. Uncertainties regarding measurement data and how separated physical parameters affect the test results will be discussed as well. By reading the data presented in the graphs, a positive development can be identified in recipes with added hardening accelerators compared to recipes containing only shotcrete accelerators within the first four hours. Following the first four hours, a significant uncertainty in measurements will be noticed. Finally, due to high irregularity in measured values, conclusions of the accelerators’ effect cannot be confirmed solely by the results from these tests. Therefore, a hypothesis trial is necessary as it would exclude if the recipes statically can be separated. Furthermore, the company recommends performing additional small-scale tests in a laboratory environment. Through laboratory tests, a more certain result can be received.

  • 3.
    Franzén, Henny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Elmondt Nilsson, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Akustiska värden i platonkonstruktioner: Minimera lågfrekvent buller i skolmiljöer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study highlights the intensity and the extent of sound levels produced by a so called floating floor. The study has closely observed floor constructions made of Platon mat in order to detect the acoustic factors and how they are manifested when stepping on the floor. The study also compares the results of step- and drum sound levels with Granab constructions, another type of floating floor, as well as how the Platon construction stands in relation to the statutory guide values. This study has focused on how the sound from a Platon floor is perceived in an objective and a subjective perspective, because in some cases measured values do not correspond to the actual experience. Measurements that have been carried out give an idea of how to design floors and what type of material should be used to obtain the most favorable sound level possible. Overall, this study shows that the design of the floors can, to a large extent, minimize step- and drum sounds. This knowledge can be of great use when designing a floating floor since it has been shown that high sound levels in the lower frequencies affect, among other things, our abilities of learning and concentrating.

  • 4.
    Lundgren Mårtensson, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Björkman Ioannou, Stephanie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Arbetsgång efter brand i en kulturhistorisk byggnad: Med fokus på återställandet av konstruktionen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In current situation [2019], Sweden is failing to provide preparatory plans for possible fire accidents in buildings with cultural-historical value. Because fire accidents on monumental buildings do not occur frequently, there is no standardized method on how to manage the restoration after the accident in a productive and sustainable manner. Purpose of the report is to produce a simplified standardized and measurable work process on how to improve arrangements during a fire accident on monumental buildings, where preventive measures, improvements during fire process and restoration of the building are included. The report is written with the aim of preserving good social sustainability and for preserving the Swedish cultural heritage for the future. The goal when restoring a cultural-historical heritage building is to maintain the classical appearance and to preserve the traditional and original condition. The main object reviewed is the cultural heritage building Kasern II on Skeppsholmen together with two more reference objects. The main object, where the fire accident takes place in September 2016, is today [2019] being restored after extensive moisture damage from the extinguishing work and fire damage to the material which was exposed to high temperature. Part of the standardized process is to describe how the choice of extinguishing agent can determine the extent of moisture damage to the material of the building and how pollution from the extinguishing agent and fire residues affect the neighboring environment from a sustainable point of view. Preventive fire protection and desirable fire protection after restoration work are also included. The report materially presents bricks and wood, which most often constitute the supporting structure and the floor structure of a cultural-historical building. By observing how wood materials and masonry react at high temperature and humidity, an assessment is made whether these materials can be decontaminated and reused or need to be discarded. In addition, with focus on restauration of the construction, decontamination methods for removal of fire odor and microbiological growth on wood materials are studied. Goal when restoring a building with cultural heritage is to maintain the traditional construction, therefore the solid brick and wooden beams are to be remedied to the extent required to preserve them. The choice of fire protection installations varies depending on the building's design and purpose. An example is the installation of sprinklers, which is a tradeoff between the risk of fire and the risk of possible moisture damage in the event of fire. Compressed air foam system [CAFS] is the extinguishing equipment used during extinguishing work on Kasern II which, compared to other extinguishing systems, emits less water therefore minimizing moisture damage. During the fire accident, updated drawings, documentation and action plans help the rescue service perform a functional extinguishing work. Bricks are resistant to fire as bricks are burned during manufacturing process. During a fire accident, bricks may crack if the sintering temperature is exceeded or in case of a rapid cooling during extinguishing work. Cracks can be restored with reinforcement on masonry. As cracks in brick are usually visible to the naked eye, bricks are reused if there is no visible physically damage to the material. The strength of wood material does not deteriorate when exposed to high temperature except in the burned part called char, which lies on the surface layer of the beam after fire exposure. The charring part can be mechanically planed away during sanitation. Mechanical planning is regarded as a relatively simple sanitation method and does not require any chemical environmentally impacting substances.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Jennifer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Franke, Klara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Arken: Bostäder i stadens skärgård2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A few steps away from the district of Liljeholmen in Stockholm lies the area of Lövholmen. A largely abandoned industrial zone where visitors are greeted by crushed window panes, dilapidated buildings and defaced facades. Stockholm City has along with a number of different developers made a proposal for a change in the detailed development plan, from an industrial area to a residential area. The urban planning Strukturplan och Ramverk för Lövholmen contains proposed guidelines for the design of a new neighborhood. Our purpose in this thesis is to design a residential proposal as if the detailed development plan has won legal force, also to examine how floor plans can affect human health and well-being. The proposal will relate to urban development guidelines by Stockholm stad, where the aim is to make Lövholmen a safer and nicer place. This will be done with the help of analyzes and surveys from the public's wishes and views. The result of our vision; Arken, will consist a housing proposal with an architectural connection to the place that will make Lövholmen a more harmonious site. The housing proposal will bring a sense of community to people who settle in the neighborhood as well as elaborated floor plans based on surveys on human well-being.

  • 6.
    Schmied, August
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Strömberg, Moa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Armering i pålfundament: Effektivare byggprojektering med grafisk programmering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the time spent on project planning is dedicated to the development of construction documents, mainly 2D-drawings. A more modern method is to gather all information about a building project in a coordinated 3D-model, so called BIM-model. Building information modelling (BIM) is a well-known design method based on a digital 3D model having enough information to enable procurement work and actual production. The model consists of parameters that represent different properties and when a parameter is changed, the model is updated automatically. These parameters can be accessed and modified through external programs, so called plug-ins that extend the original software’s functionality using program code. Visual programming is a modern programming method which utilizes a visual interface that favours users with little or no experience. Using visual programming, parameter control can be made more efficient and save valuable time. For this reason, Dynamo (a plugin developed by the company Autodesk for Revit), has been studied to create a so-called script that automates 3D modelling processes in Revit linked to placement of reinforcement in pile caps. In addition, possibilities for standardization have been investigated, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the method. With this project, the potential of Dynamo and the scripts created through an empirical study is described, where a relatively simple case study is carried out in order to illustrate the amount of time saved through visual programming compared to corresponding work manually done in Revit. Furthermore, calculation templates were created, according to the strut and tie model and Eurocode 2, to provide the script in Dynamo with the correct inputs. The result shows that Dynamo and visual programming can make placement of reinforcement in pile caps more efficient. While the degree of efficiency is case dependent, the case study showed an overall 85-90% time saving. A general conclusion suggests that the more complicated rebar designs, the more time there is to be saved. Since visual programming is based on the automation of repetitive processes, there is great potential to standardize structural design with the help of Dynamo scripts. Companies can thus create routines that increase continuity and quality in their projects. The automation also leads to fewer human errors and a more efficient execution. The client is advised to further develop this method by implementing explicit routines regarding 3D modelling with visual programming and investigate the possibilities of automation of reinforcement design in other load-bearing structures.

  • 7.
    Pihlvang, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Svorono, Pierre
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Automatiserad process för mängdavtagning och kalkylering: En jämförelse mellan traditionell mängdavtagning och kalkylering mot BIM för BTH Bygg AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Replacing an already functioning but old process can be time consuming and unprofitable. This has been demonstrated especially in the construction industry, where digitization is progressing slowly. This study examines what aspects of the traditional process of quantity takeoff as well as calculation process at the company BTH Bygg AB will be affected when changing to a process based on modeling and BIM, Building Information Modeling. The purpose of the study is to compare the traditional quantity takeoff and calculation with the aid of Bluebeam and MAP against a process that is carried out with modeling in the software ArchiCAD with a connection to Vico Office for quantity takeoff and calculation. The difference from the traditional process will be to move from 2D manual quantity takeoff to using 3D models, BIM models, and performing automatic calculations via Vico Office. The study is a qualitative study with elements of a quantitative survey where the focus on getting the most work-efficient and profitable solution for BTH Bygg. Comparisons between two different construction projects has been made. The projects comprises similar size and conditions as well as limited to calculations of floors, interior walls and ceilings. The basis for the study has been personal interviews with people from the calculation section at BTH Bygg to gather knowledge about their process for quantity takeoff and calculation. Interviews with employees of the companies for the software Bluebeam, ArchiCAD and Vico Office have also been carried out to obtain an objective picture of all the software. The conclusion is that implementing information-rich BIM models in the quantity takeoff and calculation has proved to be profitable when it comes to quality through reduced manual work when connecting between software. In addition, there are great opportunities for saving time in other stages by working in an integrated process where all parts of the con- struction process are linked to each other.

  • 8.
    Linder, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Lundberg, Emil
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Automatisering av LCA - och LCC - beräkningar för anläggningskonstruktioner: Ett verktyg för hänsynstagande av miljö och kostnad i tidigt projekteringsskede2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    While carrying out structural design work, it is important to take into consideration the environmental impacts and costs throughout the life time of the structure. This is done through life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCC analysis), respectively. LCA addresses the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts throughout a product’s life cycle i.e. from cradle to grave. An LCC analysis summarizes the investment cost and costs for operation and maintenance during the life time of the product. BIM 3D modeling tool are used for modeling several different types of buildings and civil works. Ideally, digital information readily available through these powerful BIM tools, should be reused to perform LCA and LCC analyses. It would also be beneficial if it was possible to connect it to a company’s internal systems for instance in this study, the Swedish Transport Administration's “Klimatkalkyl” (a tool based on the method for LCA). The purpose of the thesis project is to integrate cost and environmental impact into the early design phase through an automated connection between BIM programs and LCA / LCC tools. By automating this process, optimization of structures can be made more efficient. An Excel sheet has been created through programming in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) which retrieves quantities from either Tekla Structures, Excel or manual input and then generates LCA and LCC reports. These have then been compared with existing LCA and LCC analyses to ensure the program's quality. The result of the work shows that produced LCA and LCC reports can contribute to a more efficient structural design process for optimizing structures regarding environmental impacts and investment cost. The Excel sheet's user-friendly structure also enables people with limited knowledge in LCA and LCC to make more sustainable choices when undertaking structural design tasks. This helps to promote sustainable thinking in companies and encourages employees to work towards a common goal of a carbon-neutral infrastructure sector.

  • 9.
    Löfgren, Kim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Hannula Virving, Lisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Avstämningsmetod för installatörer kopplat till slutkostnadsprognos2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis has mainly been built on interviews with interested parties at Arcona and the installer, Nymans Elektriska, since it was decided to limit the study only to the project Glömstaskolan. The aim of the study is that Arcona should be able to report a more accurate final cost forecast to the client regarding the installer and to simplify the reconciliation for both the construction company and the installer. The background is based on the fact that installers do not calculate components and activities such as other building production, which makes it difficult to reconcile if an activity has been carried out in accordance with budget. Both parties agree that it is working hours that need to be checked, as this is where the difficulty of control lies. To be able to check real hours, knowledge of the planned number of hours is needed. The time schedule is an important tool in the project and should be included in reconciliation. Arcona and Nymans Elektriska are recommended to use existing control documents with certain appendixes for the measuring progress.

  • 10.
    Cavallius, Matilda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Östman, Albin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    BIM Model for Facility Management: What facility management wants and needs2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the majority of the work with BIM is performed in the design stage. Despite this, the biggest economic benefits can be made in the facility management stage. This report is written in a collaboration with Veidekke, which is Sweden's fourth biggest building developer. Veidekke is in the lead of digitalization and is constantly evolving. After the building stage Veidekke has a BIM model left which is full of information. What Veidekke want to accomplish is to be able to use it in facility management and increase the value of the model. This report aims to examine what information commercial facility management wants in a BIM model for FM&O purposes. The result is achieved by interviewing property managers and design stage consultants. The interviews aims to provide knowledge about what information property managers wants and what experiences the consultants have. In addition to the interviews, a survey is made which is only directed to property managers, regardless of the business area. The literature study will provide results from earlier research and show what possibilities and challenges there is with BIM in facility management. The proven challenges that has been shown is lack of communication, lack of knowledge about how BIM can contribute and information exchange between the building stage and facility management stage. There are different tools that can facilitate these challenges, such as the neutral file format IFC, a language for exchanging facility information - fi2xml, and COBie which is a standard for information exchange. Another tool is CoClass which is a mutual classification system that enhances communication between different participants. There are guidelines for how an implementation could be performed in “BIM i staten” and in other reports such as Linda Strind’s, about business values connected to BIM, where the result showed a manual for digitalization. Some of the benefits are lower operating costs, more accessible operating and maintenance information, time savings and better communication. What facility management needs is information about operation and maintenance, surface areas and general information about the building such as placement of bearing walls or different installations. New working methods are required to enable BIM in facility management, and all BIM-models should be prepared for future maintenance even if the customer is unknown. It’s also possible to add information to the BIM-model at a later stage, which is an important function for FM&O.

  • 11.
    Alsabti, Roni
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Certifieringens påverkan i byggbranschen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the impact of the certification for building materials in the construction industry is examined. The study has been conducted because of the lack of information on how the certification has made an impact on the construction industry. In order for a producer to be able to hold certification for his product, it is necessary to undergo a procedure that is controlled by a certification body. The goal of becoming certified is a quality development in materials and produce more sustainable and efficient materials. Those who create directives and requirements are EU and certification bodies in Sweden that Nordcert offers this certification to producers, which means that the producer's product meets the EU requirements and holds the right to be sold within the EU borders. A contact with the producers that was maintained was the basis for this study. The contact created interviews with 19 producers in total and these interviews were the result of this study. The questions that are answered read: • Has the certification contributed to improving the efficiency of materials? • Has the certification contributed to a quality development in materials? • Has the certification contributed to improvements in the work environment? • Is there any connection between different times lengths of the certification? The results largely indicate that the certification has affected the producers a great deal in terms of what it has contributed to. It appears that the certification follows a correlation with its impact on the producers. It is clear that a certification is a profitable process to go through for producers as it benefits them in their quality, efficiency and work enviromental develompent.

  • 12.
    Erlandsson, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Landström, Inez
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Cirkulär materialhantering för minskad klimatpåverkan inom byggbranschen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of waste is important for the environment in today ́s society. Through less use of new raw material and increased use of recycled material, the climate change can be battled. To eliminate linear flow of material in favour of circular is a part of circular economy. The construction industry contributes to a significant part of both the energy consumption and the amount of waste, and therefore has great opportunities to recycle NCC wants to know how much recycled material they used in their housing projects. Through interviews with their suppliers, this study investigates how much recycled material some of their most used building goods (for example concrete, reinforcement and isolation) contained. Further, the opportunities for recycling of the different types of building goods were analysed. The purpose was also to find more eco-friendly alternatives to the construction industry in general and in particular to the goods which had the largest potential of improvement. The result showed that the proportion of recycled material varied and the total proportion for NCC’s housing projects was low. The knowledge and the opportunities to increase the proportion is known by the suppliers but the majority of the building goods consists a general low proportion. One factor was that the second hand value was varied. Another was that there were no incentive for recycling, which leads to a lack of motivation at the worksite. The conclusion is therefore that waste should be seen as a resource in order to implement circular economy to a greater extent and to contribute to the climate in a positive way. Education, collaboration and personal engagement is factors which is needed to fulfil this adaptation of the society.

  • 13.
    Salmi Källström, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Nilsson, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Digitala verktyg i Skanskas produktion: En jämförelse av användandet av digitala verktyg mellan verksamhetsgrenarna Hus respektive Väg och anläggning.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a report financed by Smart Built Environment it was stated that there are possibilities to improve quality and reduce cost in the finished product through digital solutions in the construction industry. One area where digitization has got a high impact is in the use of digital tools on the construction site (Bygg 4.0, u.å.). Digital tools are defined as software and applications suited for the construction industry. The purpose of this thesis was to map out the digital tools used in Skanska's production and to compare the use of digital tools within the business areas infrastructure and commercial building. The study focuses on how the use of digital tools is encouraged through strategies and objectives in Skanska's organization. The method for collecting material was a literature study of theory, a quantitative survey and qualitative interviews. The survey focused on the use of digital tools and the interviews on Skanska's employees perception on Skanska's work with digitization. The results of the study show differences in the extent that the digital tools are used within the business areas. The results of the quantitative study show that the business area commercial building uses the digital tools to a greater extent. The reason for this is that the business area commercial building works proactively through recommendations such as Basnivå Hus, Projekt i världsklass and Smarta projekt. The business area commercial building also has a role called digital leader in every project, who are supported by a digital coach in every region. The business area infrastructure does not have an equally established foundation, since only Projekt i världsklass is the starting point for digital work within the business area. There are also no digital leaders in projects within the business area. This role arises organically through committed individuals with good knowledge of digital tools. The business area commercial building has a well-established system for working with digital tools, which means that the business area has come further than the business area infrastructure.

  • 14.
    Hall, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Sjöberg, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Dimensionering av överbyggnader på tillfälliga vägar: En fallstudie i Hallonbergen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When temporary roads are being constructed there is normally no design made in advance, in most cases they are built and dimensioned from experience. If a temporary road will be used as a permanent road after the construction is finished, there will occasionally be a complete design of the road. Example of this is when roads are built for wind power stations or forest roads. The company Auctoritas Projektstyrning AB has been assigned to project lead any necessary property maintenance for Terränglöparen 9 situated in Hallonbergen, Sundbybergs county. To go through with the renovations, the company is investigating the possibilities for a temporary road to ease the logistics during the production time. The purpose with this report is to investigate technical solutions for the construction of a temporary road. The investigation should result in a suggestion for appropriate choices with regard to cost and rules. This is later applied like a case study with a temporary road to Terränglöparen 9. The authors have explored ten different road constructions with regards to current land ratio, service years, annual traffic per lane and cost. In addition to this, a proposed road section has been investigated with regards to current topography, turning radius of lorries and load-bearing capacity. This led to a choice of road construction and a road section for a temporary road to Terränglöparen 9.

  • 15.
    Mohammed, Mostafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Hagi Omar, Hassan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Effektivisering av FEM-Design för brodimensionering: Trafiklaster på broar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    FEM-Design is generally used for structural design of buildings. This work aims to make the program more adaptable to bridge design. It is possible in this way that loads of military vehicles are modeled in FEM-Design. In this work Wheeled vehicles, tire vehicles, convoys have been modeled. A previous degree project on modeling of special vehicles and load modeling was checked in this work. It was made to ensure that they were modeled correctly. The loads were analyzed by inserting the modeled loads on a plate or a beam where the moment diagram would give the same result as if it had been made by hand. The military vehicle loads were calculated according to the Swedish transportation administration requirements and the result was defined in FEM-Design so that the result can be used for load modelling. The work together with Strusoft AB resulted in 128 new loads being modeled in FEM-Design. In addition, 30 already modeled special vehicle loads of load models 1-3 were checked. The result shows a large number of new vehicle loads that are defined in FEM-Design according to the Swedish Transport Administration's standards. If the program also manages to apply more functions that are more adapted to define loads, through further studies, FEM design in the future can be more competitive with the other bridge design programs.

  • 16.
    Issa, Mona
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Nabaz Taha, Rawand
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Effektivisering av förvaltningsskedet med hjälp av flerdimensionella BIM-modeller: En studie om BIM 360 Ops2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The technological development is progressing rapidly. The application of BIM (Building Information Modeling) is becoming increasingly common in the construction sector. However, the property management slips behind in the development, in comparison with the early stages of the construction process, the design and production phase. BIM in the property management stage is frequently spoken about but BIM has not yet been implemented to a greater extent. This study aims to examine how digitalized property management is at present times and if the software BIM 360 Ops can be a more efficient alternative. BIM 360 Ops is a software created by Autodesk that targets the property management stage. Through interviews with Diagona AB, Fabege, HSB, Uppsala Kommuns fastighetsaktiebolag (UKFAB), Akademiska Hus, Locum, Stockholmshem and FastPartner, an insight on how these companies are proceeding at present times, which knowledge managers have about BIM and what is lacking in the management stage is brought forward. The software which the respondents use is analyzed in order to gain a greater understanding of different workflow used in the management stage. A detailed approach of the BIM 360 Ops software is demonstrated to show how the software works and to detect any difficulties, advantages and disadvantages of the software. The result shows that none of the interviewees use BIM in the management stage. The companies strive to digitalize the management stage, but has not yet fully accomplished it. There is interest in BIM in the management stage, however, many managers lack knowledge of Building Information Modeling. This study draws attention to the digitalization of the property management stage and presents a thorough study on the BIM 360 Ops software which brings forth BIM in the management stage.

  • 17.
    Sanna, Karemsijan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Kasabian, Maral
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    En granskning av IFC-exporter från Tekla Structures2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, BIM (Building Information Modeling) is applied as a leading tool in structural design and modeling and enables solutions that are sustainable and optimized between different disciplines to effectively manage information flows. In connection with transfers between software’s a neutral file format, IFC (Industry Foundation Classes), is used. This file format is exported from the 3D-modeling program Tekla Structures. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the reason for missing information on IFC exports from Tekla Structures. The study includes a case study, comparative study and interviews In the case study, the settings for an IFC- export are studied from a complex 3D- model in Tekla Structures. The comparative study concerns two coordination programs Solibri Model Checker and Navisworks Manage, which are compared against each other. What is examined is how IFC- files are suitable in the coordination programs. The interviews have given clear guidelines during the work. The results indicate that the causes of missing information in IFC -files are the human factor and the lack of knowledge of the settings of an IFC- export. Additional to the results that was achieved are the comparison between the coordination programs shows that both programs are suitable for the IFCformat. The difference between the coordination programs is how one of them signalized the format better than the other Regarding the results, the human factor is crucial for the information loss. The human factor has shown that the lack of communication and knowledge of IFC- exports is a reason for the information loss. Through the comparative study, it has also been shown that Solibri is better suited for IFCexports from Tekla Structures.

  • 18.
    Semakala, Chanel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Cömert, Emre
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    En jämförande studie mellan diesel- och eldrivna tunneldrivningsmaskiner för masshantering i tunnel2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is facing a reality where the dependency on fossil fuels needs to cease and be replaced by options that are more climate friendly. One such option is the electrification that has not made a breakthrough in the construction industry yet and therefore needs to be examined. In this thesis an investigation is made by two different systems of wheel loaders and trucks. One system that conducts machines run by electricity and another one where the system is powered by diesel. The investigation is based on goal formulation which serves as the basis for answering these questions. The machines were examined in such as to obtain results that illustrate which system of machines that are profitable with regards to time, energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and total costs. This thesis has also as an intent to identify any advantages and disadvantages of each transport method. This is done in order to lend structure to any further research conducted in the future. To be able to compare and examine the properties of the machines, these machines were applied to a tunneling project. The project that was received was the metro station Hagalunds industriområde. The planned expansion of the subway will lead to a new metro line between Arenastaden and Odenplan, where Hagalunds industriområde will become an intermediate station. In order to truly optimize our efforts and carry out the calculations, the focus was placed on a partial stretch of 1 000 meters with respect to the main tunnel and working tunnel. The result obtained shows that the electric wheel loader leads to less time, carbon dioxide emissions and better energy efficiency than the diesel-powered wheel loader. On the other hand, the disadvantage is that the purchase cost of the electric wheel loader leads to greater total costs. These investments may be necessary to break the dependence on fossil fuels. When comparing the trucks, the result showed that the electric truck is a better alternative from an environmental perspective and total costs. While the diesel-powered truck saves on both time and energy. The reason why the total cost of the diesel-powered truck differs greatly from the electricpowered truck is the rental costs. If the diesel-powered truck was instead purchased, the total cost difference could be reduced.

  • 19.
    Paananen, Linnea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Burom Injonglan, Gamm
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    En möjlighet till en hållbar byggbransch: Jämförelsestudie mellan stommaterialen KL-trä och prefabricerad betong2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is currently responsible for about 21 percent of Sweden’s total annual emission of greenhouse gases. A major challenge is to be able to achieve the goals of the climate change act, which means that Sweden will not have any net emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in the coming decades. At the same time, the need for more housing increases in connection with an increased population. Concrete is the construction material that dominates today’s industrial construction of multi-storey buildings and in connection with the earlier Swedish law that prohibited wooden structures with more than two stories, wood construction in Sweden is not as developed to the same extent as concrete structures. In order to increase understanding and knowledge of CLT structures among operators in the construction industry, such as clients, the purpose is to compare a CLT structure and a prefabricated concrete frame based on differences in environmental impact, material cost and construction time. With documents from a reference project with CLT structure obtained by the company Bjerking, an investigation of the construction’s material consumption has been accomplished, in order to be replaced with a prefabricated concrete frame. The comparative study has been completed using the material consumption for each frame. The results shows that the CLT structure has less environmental impact and total material cost compared to the prefabricated concrete frame, however, not all materials in the CLT structure are included in the study. The excluded materials are reportedly costly, which in the end means that the CLT structure can become the more expensive alternative. The construction time, which in this case is the time for the frame assembly, was estimated to be about one working week per storey for both frames, but less workers is required for the CLT structure. The conclusion is that the CLT structure is the most environmentally-friendly frame material for building the reference project in Kajstaden because it contributes least to the environmental impact. The prefabricated concrete frame is more advantageous if a lower material cost is the priority. If a shorter construction time with less workers is desired, the CLT structure is more favorable. In the future, the most important parameter in the choice of frame material should be the one with least environmental impact for the construction industry to become more sustainable.

  • 20.
    Magnusson, Erika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Nylander, Moa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    En studie av Stockholmshem och Skanskas tre projekt genomförda i samverkan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is a study about three partnering projects between Skanska and Stockholmshem. The projects, Främlingsvägen, Kv. Golvläggaren and Kv. Syllen were constructed during 2012-2019 and are considered to be connected to each other due to their similar prerequisites, even though the house design differs between the projects. For example, several of the employees from the project organization, and from other companies, have been involved in more than one project. All three projects have also been constructed in a managed partnering turnkey contract where the client and the building contractor have formed a mutual project organization with mutual ambitions. One other thing that the projects have in common is that all of them are told to have been successful in many ways. The purpose with this study is therefore to investigate which factors that have been contributing to the progress of the projects. The purpose is also to identify the projects challenges, to what extent the concept of partnering has been contributing to the successful outcome and what can be transferred to a potential fourth project. The delimitation of the study has been narrowed down to project planning, construction, handover and a category for other aspects. To collect data and information, a number of interviews were carried through together with a literature study and informative conversations with experts within relevant areas in the construction industry. The result of the thesis tells that the collaboration between Skanska and Stockholmshem, together with a well-functioning project organization, have been two important factors behind the projects successful outcome. According to the interview candidates, communication and openness have been the underlying foundations throughout the projects. Among the employees, this have encouraged to a personal commitment and created a will for the project organization to work their best. Something else that is presented in the result is that the involved key figures and the gained experiences from the previous constructed projects are two other important reasons behind the successful outcome. When it comes to having a structured collaboration within the project organization, the majority of the interview candidates have positive mindset about partnering as a method, however, they do not consider the method to be the decisive factor for if a project will succeed or not. Some of the mentioned challenges that the projects have been struggling with are the project planning, insufficient documents and coordination of the subcontractors. The current labor market in Stockholm is also presented to be a challenge where there are difficulties with keeping key figures and dealing with employees quitting. A summary of the primary factors of success and challenges, based on the three projects, is found within the chapter of Analyze. The discussion is about some of these factors where it is found that many of the succeeded factors are relying on each other. For example, the good collaboration between the parties probably would not have been the same without the projects key figures. That several key figures have been involved in more than one project have meant that experiences from previous projects have been transferred to the next project, in a way that otherwise would not have been possible. It also emerges that partnering as a cooperation method is increasing within the construction industry, this indicates a certain movement of pattern where there is a demand for closer cooperation between the client and the contractor with more focus on the soft parameters. The conclusion of the study is that partnering itself may not be the solution to everything but that the method should be seen as a tool for managing the collaboration in a project organization towards a desirable direction. The method aims to increase awareness about group dynamics in a project organization, which is important for the process of evolving into a high-performing team. Therefore, it is not surprising that it is the key figures and the cooperation between the client and the contractor that are considered to be the primary factors of success for these projects.

  • 21.
    Wallin, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Dahlqvist-Sjöberg, Gustav
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Energioptimering av VVS-system: Energibesparingsåtgärder och arbetsmetoder för att minska inköpt energi2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Akademiska Hus AB is a government owned real estate company, their primary mission is to own and administrate facilities for education, research and student housing. One of their energy goals is to reduce the amount of acquired energy by half between the year 2000 and 2025. The purpose of this thesis is to find solutions and ways to make improvements regarding HVAC-systems to achieve this energy goal. The work has been carried out at the property area Campus Solna, which have an agreement with special amendments and conditions with Stockholm Exergi concerning district heating and cooling. The agreement is designed with beneficial tariffs at high utilization, one example is that during the winter season Akademiska Hus gets compensated for using the district cooling but it also exists surcharges at underutilization of delivered heating and cooling. This puts limitations in which types of measures that can be performed to reduce the amount of acquired energy and at the same time have a positive economical result. The selected solutions are two different types of heat pumps and a change to more efficient heat recovery exchangers for ventilation. The calculations have been executed with regard to the current special agreement and then compared to another existing agreement within the corporation to examine if Campus Solna would benefit from another agreement. The utilization time for the district heating and cooling consist of a relation between energy and power, results show that saving measures where the ratio between them are about the same size is the most profitable economically. The results after the performed calculations show that the two types of heating pumps generate large savings in acquired energy but in relation to the reduced power usage causes surcharges and an economical loss. When compared to the other agreement without the additional charges the potential economical outcome improves while reducing the acquired energy. However, when performing a total cost analysis, the calculations with the other agreement indicate that the total annual cost for acquired energy with the heating pump solutions will amount to the same as using the existing agreement without performing any energy saving measures. This is due to the difference in tariffs between the agreements. The heat recovery exchangers have a better relation between energy and power savings, which results in an economical profit regardless of the agreements. This measure also decreases the consumed energy, which has a positive impact on the environment and sustainability. In conclusion, if the current agreement is to be used in the future energy saving measures have to meet the requirement of the energy and power ratio. However, finding enough of such measures that helps Campus Solna to achieve their energy goal can be problematic. The alternative is to renegotiate the agreement to make solutions like heat pumps profitable. Through qualitative interviews with a selection of personnel, work methods connected to energy saving has been discussed to see if there are possibilities for improvements regarding collaboration between the different departments to achieve the energy goal. One conclusion after the interviews is that the personnel are experiencing that there is not enough time to focus on energy savings and projects in their daily work. Hence, there is a need for better working methods, a clearer structure for how the work is to be distributed and more resources in the form of a dedicated working group that works operationally with the energy issue.

  • 22.
    Holmstjerna, Elin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Haraldsson, Erika
    Ett gestaltningsförslag på ett flerbostadshus i trå: Stubben i Rosenlundsparken2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is about wood as a building material. The work contains a report with explanatory illustrations and a project planning document for a residential. The building sector has a big impact on the climate, where the biggest contribution is the manufacturing of materials. Wood is the only material that is carbon oxide neutral, but still a small amount of the high apartment buildings is constructed with a wooden frame. The reason behind this is that a former law prevented wooden buildings higher than two floors and therefore there is a lack of knowledge and experience regarding wooden building technique. Wood has many positive qualities, which can be of advantage in a building. Such as a good load bearing capacity during a fire, good strength, good thermal conductivity, and it provides a healthy internal climate. There are also limitations with wooden constructions regarding fire and sound, but this can often be solved with supplements and thorough planning. This study examined the possibilities regarding span, height, and architecture. Additionally, sound- and fire conditions had an impact on the design. The project resulted in a long free span in consequent of a thick slab and therefore the building height increases. The property that was chosen for the project is located to Rosenlundsparken at Södermalm in Stockholm. The condition of the ground was not optimal to build on, because it consists of clay. But an advantage with a wooden construction it that it is light, which reduces the land work. This study resulted in a 9-floor high building where the frame is completely in wood. The frame is constructed with a column and beam system in the entrance floor and CLT walls on the other floors. A ribbed slab was chosen, which is a combination of CLT and glulam. The result showed that if thick slabs are implemented, residential buildings with long free span can be built and with a higher building height as a consequence. A long free span gives freedom when making floor plans. Furthermore, the wood offers flexibility, which makes different shapes possible. The building has round shapes which makes a contrast to the existing cityscape. Moreover, the woods natural character has a positive effect on humans and is aesthetically appealing. Wood is used as a cladding to the extent possible both interior and exterior.

  • 23.
    Anjevall, Hilma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Jääskeläinen Nyberg, Johannes
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Flödeseffektivitet i partneringprocessen: En studie av produktbestämningsskedet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Partnering as a working method has existed in Sweden since the late 90s and has become increasingly common, especially in public construction. The way of working is a reaction to the traditional procedure that has been criticized for being fragmented and misleading knowledge and creating many conflicts. In an integrated organization and with an iterative process, all players develop and implement the project with full transparency in all sub-processes to maximize the value of the product and put the customer's needs in focus. ByggDialog is a company that from the start specializes in partnering and who organizes and leads the design phase often called Phase 1, after which one also coordinates all contractors and performs the construction with their own workforce. ByggDialog wants to develop their work in Phase 1 and create a process as flow-efficient as possible to reach production within a reasonable time. This is important as one strives for efficiency in general, but also for it to be possible to forecast resource needs, growth rates and results with good precision and small deviations. Flow efficiency is a concept derived from Lean theory that originates from Toyota's car factories. It is about creating a process where non-value-creating activities are eliminated, and the focus is on the density of the value transfer to the product and its flow. The purpose of this report is to apply these theories to ByggDialog's processes in Phase 1 and to survey non-value-creating activities in Phase 1 through interviews with people with great experience of Phase 1. The study also included proposing measures for improved flow efficiency. An effort was also made to calculate the flow efficiency in several completed projects to investigate the possibility of an appropriate indicator for the company's improvement work on Phase 1. In summary, it turned out that flow efficiency in Phase 1 can be positively affected by openness, integrated organizations, standardized working methods, iterative design methods and distinct project management. An indicator of flow efficiency that considers the ratio of value-creating time and throughput divided by BTA proved to be too complex to develop. A viable route, however, is to only let the indicator reflect the throughput divided by BTA or production cost. In-depth studies are recommended for ByggDialog to seek the most useful method for monitoring and measuring the effectiveness of Phase 1.

  • 24.
    Törnkvist, Frida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Metzler Sædén, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Fritidshus 2.02019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To have a second home, a country house, a summer cottage has been a part of Swedish culture for a long period of time. This report examines the phenomenon of leisure, cottages and cottage areas in a historical pretext. From being a benefit for those who are most well-off financially it became more and more common among ordinary people during the time of the twentieth century. How relevant the division between first and second homes are today, the different rules when it comes to construction, insulation and availability is discussed. The needs of our time are investigated and results in a draft for development of a property. A place close to Stockholm is selected. The ground is used as a basis for further development to a leisure area. Roads, joint facilities and houses are being planned close to a lake in the region Södermanland. The focus lies primarily on creating an area with buildings of durability and sustainability. The territory and the living areas are meant to offer recovery and recreation close to nature.

  • 25.
    Abdi Yussuf, Yusuf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Jalal Ibrahim, Zand
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    FRP:s användning inom brokonstruktioner2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At present, most bridges in Sweden are made with concrete or steel. These bridges are often associated with high costs, which often depend on maintenance and repair. FRP, which stands for Fiber Reinforced Polymer, is a relatively new material in load-bearing structures but is a well- established material in the context of reinforcement. In Europe and in particular the Netherlands, there are several bridges built in FRP. But due to a lack of norms and regulations to lean against, there is rarely any kind of FRP bridge construction in Sweden. The aim of this thesis is to examine existing norms and study how the material FRP is used in the reinforcement and construction of bridges. Furthermore, this thesis also aims to investigate the properties of FRP as building material and compare it with conventional materials such as steel and concrete. FRP, also called fiber-composite, is a composite material that can be assembled in several different ways. Through various materials that are combined and different manufacturing processes used, one can thus provide individual designs for the material. The benefits of FRP are many, but generally it has good strength, good durability while having a low weight. This results in that within bridge construction, it gives the structure a reduced self-weight, which in turn facilitates a variety of things. This thesis shows that FRP materials have advantageous properties and in some situations can be more favorable to use than steel or concrete. However, as previously pointed out, there are no specific Eurocodes for this material. However we are sure that the introduction of a new Eurocode and encouragement from authorities will undoubtedly increase the use of FRP in bridge construction.

  • 26.
    Mitro, Gabriel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Östlund, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Från underutnyttjade ytor i staden till attraktiva områden: En studie om hur tillfälliga bostäder kan bidra till ett multifunktionellt stadsområde2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of this work is an issue that the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket) illuminates and which is currently relevant in several municipalities in Sweden, namely efforts towards a mixing of functions, densification and a more efficient exploitation of urban areas. The housing shortage is still a problem in several municipalities. Students and young adults are particularly affected by the housing shortage and have difficulties obtaining a home due to their financial conditions. The dwellings in the proposal of the study are intended for this target group. The goal of this thesis is to present a proposal on how temporary dwellings in the form of modular houses can be built on underutilized sites in big cities such as Stockholm. An inspiration for the thesis was the concept SNABBA HUS which is about building mobile modular houses with temporary building permits. The purpose of this thesis is to show an example of how well-designed modular houses can contribute to the conversion of an underutilized space into a multifunctional area. This work has focused mainly on design and planning for housing. Questions about water, sewage and sustainable materials have been of interest due to the environmental aspects that have been of significant importance during the education of the authors. A survey was carried out in order to identify a suitable location for the assembling of the proposed module houses. Methods for a more aesthetically pleasing design have been identified through a design study that included examination of similar projects about modular houses. Literature studies and consultations were carried out to examine the possibility of applying a small-scale water and sewage system to make the houses independent of general pipeline systems and promote mobility. Literature studies about CLT (cross-laminated timber) were made in efforts to link the important aspects of environment and design. This thesis presents a proposal of the design of student housing raised above a parking lot with a temporary building permit. The modular houses are designed to fit the standard measures of two parking spaces and to meet the conditions regarding transportation. The way the modules are constructed makes it possible to stack them in close position and on top of each other. The assembling of the houses would mean a higher grade of exploitation to meet the need of the municipalities and can presumably create a basis for the emergence of a multifunctional urban area.

  • 27.
    Mobasheri, Farzaneh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Mohamed, Najma
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Förbättrad logistik med hjälp av BIM-projektering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of the construction industry depends on many factors, one of which is logistics. Well-planned logistics can, among other things, reduce waste of time and costs. Studies have previously shown that inefficient time management in the construction industry occurs more often than in other industries. This report has been written to investigate which problems can occur in the logistics process and how digitization can prevent problems in the logistics flow. Digitization reflected in Building Information Modeling (BIM) creates opportunities for achieving an efficient logistics flow. The report contains two main parts: The collection of facts covers the concept of logistics and various strategies related to the topic such as Lean and Just In Time and their application in the construction industry. Comparisons between different standards related to improved handling and classification of materials are addressed, among them BEAst and Coclass. The impact of the BIM design on logistics has also been theoretically investigated with the software Vico Office and its 4D and 5D functions. The second part focuses on surveys about construction workplaces and interviews with BIM specialists, logistics managers, researchers using selected interview questions. The questions are designed according to each work role and all answers are transcribed at the end of the report as appendices. All collected information from the survey results and interviews are presented in results and analysis to finally discuss the advantages and disadvantages of BIM design for logistics purposes. The report proposes more use of BIM design in the design stage to streamline logistics in the construction industry.

  • 28.
    Hamadi, Farah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Wallin, Viktor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Förseningstimmar på mötesseparerade 2+1-vägar: Hur förseningskostnaden påverkas av ombyggnad till 2+2-väg i relation till investeringskostnaden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From the late 1990s, a large part of the non-separated 13-meter-wide roads have been reconstructed into meeting separated roads, where traffic in each direction is separated by a middle strip. Meeting separated roads have been a very successful project for road safety and have contributed to a large reduction in severely injured and casualties in traffic. There are many meeting separated roads in Sweden. In the case of accidents on 2+1-roads, it becomes difficult for the traffic to turn around on the road, which leads to a stop and makes it difficult for the emergency services and tow trucks to reach the scene of the accident. These accidents lead to delay hours and, in turn, to community costs. This thesis is written for the Swedish Transport Administration to review 2+1 roads in the Swedish Transport Administration’s Region East. The report produces and compares the reduction of delay costs after rebuilding a road from 2+1- to 2+2-standard, the report also presents and compares the delay cost with the investment cost for the reconstruction. This study is based on literature studies, analysis of data from the “Traffic Management”, internet-based programs and through the use of Microsoft Excel for calculating delay hours and -costs for selected roads and routes. The result of the report shows whether it is worth investigating in a reconstruction from 2+1- to 2+2-road from delay cost perspective. This is presented through a general comparison per Scandinavian mile of 2+1-road based on roads 50, 55 and 56 in the Swedish Transport Administration’s Region East. The report also contains an analysis of the five most affected accident sites on the E18's 2+1-routes. The analysis of these accident sites showed that all five were between Köping and Västerås in Västmanland county.

  • 29.
    Unell, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Ruuska, Natalie
    Gatuutformning med autonoma fordon.: En undersökning över möjliga förändringar i Stockholm.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development with automated functions in vehicles is moving forward and in the future it is possible that cars is completely self-driving. Stockholm is growing and also the traffic, which poses challenges to solve, such as increasing accessibility, availability and sustainability. Therefore, the City of Stockholm has developed goals for clarifying what the future street areas should fulfill. The purpose of this report was to compile information on how autonomous vehicles can influence street design and compare the results with the goals of street planning in the City of Stockholm. The result showed that autonomous vehicles can enable an increased sharing economy within the transport system, which means that fewer people own their own vehicle. Instead, the vehicles can be included in new mobility solutions. This can lead to improved land use and new opportunities for how we use the street space. For example, the street room is mentioned as being able to be switched off for traffic after rush hour and providing space for other activities. The results also showed that the vehicles need more integrated technology in the street space and requirements for higher readability of line markings and road signs. One conclusion was that many of Stockholm's goals can be achieved, such as environmental goals, less congestion and higher road safety. The result shows that the two most important factors are the political and technical development of autonomous vehicles.

  • 30.
    Fredriksson, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Gluhajic, Bane
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Heating systems in small houses: A comparison between geothermal heating and district heating2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    District heating and geothermal heating are in present times two established heating systems that are often compared against each other. The purpose of this work is to describe which factors influence the choice of heating system during the planning stage and what the costs are for each system. In this paper, a typical house model has been developed and used as a basis for the comparison of both systems. The comparison has been made in the form of energy calculations in the energy calculation program BV2, where heat requirements and regulatory requirements for energy performance have been compared in different geographical areas in Sweden. Furthermore, cost calculations have been carried out based on the energy calculations' results, where investment costs and annual costs have been set against each other. The result of the work shows how the measurement of energy performance differs from the actual amount of purchased energy due to geographical conditions. In the southern parts of Sweden, where the geographical correction factor is below 0, consumers are penalized by raising the primary energy number, unlike the northern parts where the primary energy number is instead lowered. Based on the cost calculations, it can be concluded that district heating, when available, is more economically advantageous in the short term. Geothermal heating on the other hand is a more profitable alternative in the long run.

  • 31.
    Forsgårdh, Felix
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Dahlin, Karl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Hyra eller köpa rörläggarutrustning?2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report will try to give clarity in when and if it is most advantageous for a specific pipelaying entrepreneur to invest in buying pipelaying-equipment or renting it to their pipelaying-projects. The purpose of the report is also to give the reader a good perception of both alternatives as it could be a useful tool in future procurements. The information and prices that is used for the calculations in this report are gathered through the entrepreneur’s calculation-section, interviews with field-experts, rental companies, books and publications and internet. The report is limited to equipment that pipelayers normally are in need of in projects and the specific usage percentage is not used in the calculations. The result in this report shows what equipment is needed in a typical pipelaying-project and when it is best economically for a company to buy or rent their equipment both as individual articles and as a complete set. The result also shows that the hourly rate of buying the equipment is far less than the rate of renting it. It also brings up critical factors for investment-calculating regarding pipelaying-equipment.

  • 32.
    Jin, Jacky
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Matskin, Artur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Hållbara ytbeläggningar i parkeringshus: En undersökning av olika beläggningssystem efter 5 till 10 års drift2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Parking facilities are constantly exposed to traffic loads from driving vehicles and chloride attacks during the winter period. The consequence of this is costly damage to the concrete structure, especially in the event of cracks. Chloride penetration causes the reinforcement bars to corrode and weaken the underlying concrete structure. Replacement of the corroded reinforcement bars and concrete repairs are costly for Stockholm Parking. The solution is to pretreat the unprotected concrete and apply a coating above it. The most common coatings found in Sweden are cement-based, bitumen-based and thermoset-based coatings. There is no clear choice when it comes to coatings since they all have different properties. The advantages and disadvantages of different coatings that the customer must value depend on such conditions of the parking garage as the shaping, the traffic load and whether it is the base plate or the intermediate floor. Besides the material, the execution is also important. A well done pretreatment of the concrete substrate and meticulous laying of the coating reduces the possibility of the occurrence of damage in the future and thereby the repair costs. The purpose of the thesis project was investigation of various coatings systems that have been in operation for 5 to 10 years and identification and mapping damages that occur to them. In this report, five parking facilities have been selected as case studies to investigate the most common coatings used today in Stockholm Parkering parking facilities. Based on literature studies, interviews with various parties in each project, observations made on study visits and comparison between case studies conclusions were drawn about the most sustainable surface coating systems. Finally, a guidance is created to simplify the choice of coating systems for parking facilities with different conditions.

  • 33.
    Le Guillarme, Jonathan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Lindstam, Jakob
    Implementering av Structural Health Monitoring: SHM - system för detektering och övervakning av vanligt förekommande skador på betongbroar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Like many countries around the world, Sweden has an aging infrastructure and the need for maintenance is increasing. In an article in Svenska Dagbladet from 21 / 9–2018, the analysis and engineering consulting company WSP reports a rough estimate that SEK 300 billion needs to be invested to upgrade existing infrastructure. After the upgrade, it would require approximately SEK 25 billion annually to carry out ongoing condition assessment and maintenance of Sweden's road and railway networks. Today, inspections are used to assess the condition of bridges. There are three types of inspection; main inspection, general inspection and special inspection. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a technology that is globally more used as a method for condition assessment of bridges. SHM aims to perform automatic assessment of the state of the entire construction and individual damages in real time. SHM uses sensors placed at critical positions to collect measurement data compared to pre-defined limit values. In Sweden, SHM is used sparingly today, where knowledge is at an academic level and there is uncertainty about how SHM should be implemented in practice. By implementing SHM, damage can be detected at an early stage and minimized by quickly performing repairs on the design before the damage becomes critical. The study aims to produce a report that can be used as a guide on how SHM can be implemented and show how the SHM systems have been implemented on previous projects. The report should give the reader an overall picture of how condition assessment is performed today, which damages are common and how SHM can be used as a tool when assessing the condition. The report also aims to provide an overall explanation in Swedish of the SHM technology and what is needed for implementation. Open unstructured interviews were conducted with researchers within SHM and damages to concrete structures as well as experts in condition assessment. The interviews were used as a starting point for further studies of commonly occurring damages and SHM techniques. In the literature study, various scientific databases were used, such as Diva and ScienceDirect, as well as KTH's library to obtain earlier material on concrete damage to bridges, its damage mechanisms and about SHM technology. Furthermore, information was obtained from a number of doctoral dissertations, articles and previous degree projects. Through literature study and interviews with experts, the study concluded that reinforcement corrosion and cracks in the concrete are damages that are commonly found in concrete bridges. The damage mechanisms are described in the report. The study identified three different systems that can be used for detection and monitoring of reinforcement corrosion and cracks, those systems are acoustic emission, SOFO system (SOFO is an abbreviation for Surveillance d'Ouvrage pair of Fiber's Optics) and MuST system (MuST is a commercial name). The report gives examples of how the systems can be used for the detection and monitoring of the damages by presenting four case studies where the systems have been used. Two of the case studies present how acoustic emission has been implemented and two of the case studies present how the SOFO-system has been implemented. The study could not identify any case study for the MuST-system and how the system was implemented. The conclusion of the study is that SHM can be used as a supplement to condition assessments but cannot for the time being used for performing automated condition assessments today.

  • 34.
    Bäckner, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Vigert, Tobias
    Kan kostnadsbedömningar i tidiga skeden byggt på BIM utföras?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's society is at the forefront of a paradigm shift in digitization where cost-efficiency, productivity and digitalization interact. The Swedish construction sector has proven to have a low degree of development in digitization. Ottosson has shown that over 80% of all complications in construction projects are due to lack of communication. Svensk byggtjänst declares increasing costs for construction production and management by about SEK 60 billion each year. Basically, it is about how actors in the sector communicate among themselves, but also how information is handled digitally. A known concept in today's construction industry concerning information management and communication is BIM, "Building information model / modeling". The concept is about creating and utilizing precise digital models from construction projects. The aim is to obtain information from the digital model that is significant for the realization of the construction work and which then fulfills the BIM concept. The concept concerns information management, i.e. communication between different actors. ÅF-Infrastructure AB section "Byggekonomi – Rådgivning tidiga skeden" commissioned the authors of this master thesis to examine a specific method for cost assessments using digital models as a basis. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the suggestion for approaches to cost assessments using digital models in order to develop the company's internal cost assessment tools. With this procedure, the right basis at the right stage within the early stage can contribute to increasing the quality of the adoption of financial decisions. The degree project is based on a qualitative method in the form of literature studies, interviews, participation in subject-specific seminars, observations of meetings and a quantitative method performed in order to simulate multi-dwelling housing projects. The methods have investigated the possibility of the information management systems Level Of Development and CoClass being available with a basis for cost assessment of the three stages in the early stages: the idea- feasibility study- and the program action stage. The study has shown two greater challenges. There is development potential both with regard to the classification system CoClass and the cost assessment tool Calc Frame. Regarding CoClass, it should above all be the classification system that informs the user about what ought to be contained under each level of information. It should not be up to the business community to interpret what information includes in each level in the system, this necessitate should be refined and clarified within the classification system itself. From a cost assessment point of view, it has not been possible to produce generic building complexes in Calc Frame. But since the tool is capable of handling several different construction works, these can thus be combined into specific and unique building works. Theoretically, the development of generic building complexes would be possible if the program were further developed. If this is considered desirable, then our assessment is that it is possible to further develop and apply the methodology on building complexes (with the same principle as the program is designed) to create generic complexes. Our study has shown that an economic evaluation in the early stages of the building process can be done with BIM. Whether ÅF-Infrastructure AB's updating of its internal cost assessment tool is compatible with digital models, the authors consider that the study has shown that the method used to increase the quality of cost assessments is compatible with the new classification system CoClass. The recommendation is therefore to update and develop cost assessment tools against the classification system CoClass.

  • 35.
    Mohamud, Mahad Muse
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Muse, Liban
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Korslimmat trä som bjälklag i hybridkonstruktioner: Jämförelse mellan KL-trä och håldäck i bjälklag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere is an issue that recently has been taken into consideration in the construction industry, which accounts for a large part of the emissions. In order to reduce the increasing emissions of carbon dioxide, the use of structural timber has become an integral part of the solution. CLT, Cross Laminated Timber, has in recent years taken a more prominent role in the Swedish construction industry, where the usage comprises everything from flooring, walls to outer roofs in all types of buildings. The most common frame for premises such as office buildings currently consists of steel columns, steel beams, and hollow core slabs. A possibility that arises about the structural frame is whether CLT could be a satisfactory alternative to hollow core slabs. The work was based on predetermined questions where possible obstacles to a replacement of hollow-deck for CLT-wood are considered. Possible span length for CLT-floors, fulfillment of current Swedish norms on vibration and sound requirements and the solution for horizontal tie have proven to be challenging issues for the implementation of CLT in floor structures. The study has been carried out through literature survey including dissertations, information from suppliers, books, and similar sources have been studied. Case studies including, two CLT projects, and a hollow core slab projects, have been carefully investigated and compared to each other. Interviews with structural engineers, acoustic consultants, building owners from these reference projects and the suppliers have been carried out to get an in-depth picture. After analyzing the case studies, it has been found that the limited span length of CLT entails that certain parts of the market cannot be reached. CLT-slabs can be designed as both high-frequency and low-frequency slabs where the lowest natural frequency is below 8 Hz. The sound requirements result in an increased thickness of the CLT slabs in order to meet the highest sound requirements. It is recommended that a study is carried out to find how the composite action between concrete overlay and CLT-slabs can be used to obtain better stiffness. With better stiffness, longer span can be achieved while the sound insulation capacity is simultaneously increased.

  • 36.
    Celik, Engin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Bohman, Tobias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Leveransstörningar i produktion: En undersökning av JM:s leveransprecision och arbetsledarnas nyttjande av digitala verktyg2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The logistics and delivery process in the construction business has always been a problematic area. Due to the fact that building projects take place in project form and production is site-based, it becomes difficult to create standardized logistics flows. This means that effective methods must be applied in order to achieve a successfull logistics process. One of these methods is the implementation of digital tools. Through digital systems that facilitate communication and information transfer between all parties, construction companies aim to improve construction logistics. However, digitization in the construction industry is still a developing area and the usage of digital tools on construction sites is still low today. This report examines delivery disturbances in production and the frequency of reported delivery disturbances in JM's digital systems. The purpose of this thesis is to highlight the problems surrounding JM's digital tools and at the same time improve the usage. Another purpose is to find out the number of unreported delivery disturbances. The study is limited to four projects south of Stockholm and the field study is performed in four weeks. The survey that is ongoing on these projects is divided into quantitative and qualitative methods. Interviews with supervisors are carried out on the projects and in parallel with this, own statistics are also made regarding the delivery precision. In addition, JM's digital systems are also being examined. This report includes the following digital systems: avropssystemet, inköpssystemet and the BI-system. The field study results showed that the delivery precision was 69%. In contrast, JM's statistics reported 89%. The difference and thus the unreported delivery disturbances was 20 percentage points. The supervisors felt that the complexity of avropssystemet was a major cause of the low usage. The field study also showed that the following factors contributed to the low use of the systems: • The lack of time • The size of the delivery defect • The suppliers' lack of knowledge regarding avropssystemet • The new design of inköpssystemet In order to achieve a higher delivery precision at the construction sites, JM's digital systems need to undergo changes and become more user-friendly. The systems must be designed and adapted to the supervisors. This, in turn, will mean that JM can collect more data centrally and gain better control.

  • 37.
    Malmström, Jacob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Nyström, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Livscykelanalys av slitsmurskonstruktion: En jämförelse av klimatpåverkan mellan en slitsmur och en kombination av spont och platsgjuten betongmur2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The West Link Project is as tunnel project for the railroad that will be constructed below central Gothenburg. The project is built through clay and solid rock thus making use of several techniques and structural solutions. The West Link Project (Västlänken) is the first major infrastructure project in Sweden where diaphragm walls are used as a part of the permanent structure. Two different structures have been examined on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration, with regards to their climatic impact. The two structures examined are a temporary sheet pile with a cast-in-place concrete wall that is used as a part of the tunnel wall, and a diaphragm wall. The diaphragm wall is used as an earth retaining wall during the construction stage and as a part of the permanent tunnel wall. Diaphragm walls have just recently been approved as parts of permanent structures by the Swedish Transport Administration. Due to this there isn’t a lot of information available on their climatic impact. The purpose of this paper is to examine the climatic impact of these two different structures. The comparison has been performed by the use of a lifecycle analysis to get the most comprehensive analysis. A lifecycle analysis (LCA) is a tool that helps to get a perspective on a product’s total environmental impact over the course of its lifetime. This is accomplished by doing an inventory of all the different processes involved in its production. For the LCA the computer program SimaPro, and the database Ecoinvent were used. In SimaPro both of the structure have been modelled and their environmental impact has been calculated with ReCiPe 2016.Input for the LCA have been gathered from drawings and communication with experts. The result of the LCA shows that in this project the diaphragm walls have a higher climatic impact than the sheet pile and concrete wall. With regards to the diaphragm wall the majority of its climatic impact is from the large amounts of reinforcement and concrete used. For the sheet pile the steel used to manufacture sheets of the dimensions used in the project is the largest contributing factor. Due to the fact that some of the structures in the project are still being at the design stage at the time of writing further studies are recommended to validate the results.

  • 38.
    Azad Ali, Bawan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Ahmadiyan, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Livslängdsdimensionering av korrosionsutsatta betongkonstruktioner2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through history, iron has mainly been used as reinforcement in concrete. Contemporary building technology would not have been possible without reinforced concrete, however, from a global perspective, many concrete buildings have begun to encounter reinforcement corrosion, mainly due to chlorides and carbonation. When the chlorides come into contact with the reinforcing bars, a chemical reaction begins, which causes the iron to oxidize and begin to corrode. In a humid environment when the reinforcement corrodes, the iron expands and bursts the concrete from inside, which in turn results in cracks occurring in the concrete structure. In an environment with lack of oxygen, it often occurs that non expanding rust products form that are not defected on the concrete surface occurs through discoloring or spalling. This type of damage is not detected ocularly and therefore forms a more serious type of injury. This type of rust is a silent type of damage that can cause deteriorated bearing capacity in the construction, since the cross-sectional area of the reinforcement in the concrete decreases. Sweco has been involved in a couple of projects where there have been huge problems due to corrosion of reinforcement. The damages that emerged leading to the repairs of these type of damage costing large sums. This report is based on previous projects, articles, literature studies, reports and interviews. Interviews have been conducted with competent people who have shared their valuable opinions, knowledge and experiences. In order to stop ongoing corrosion of reinforcement and also repair the damage, several alternative solution and repair measures have been devolped. Some of the most relevant suggestions in this report is to remove the damaged concrete and then re-cast or alternatively cast in cathodic protection or a combination of these.

  • 39.
    Chyad, Yousif
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Ali, Khadija
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Logistik vid begränsat utrymme: Jämförelsestudie mellan fyra byggarbetsplatser2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Planning of material handling in limited spaces has become more relevant in the construction industry and since material cannot always be delivered at the right time in the right place, a delay in the flow chain is created. Each construction site has unique conditions and thus different solutions.In this thesis, four workplaces at Peab have been visited and inspected. The purpose of the thesis was to explore the problems that arise with the logistics in a limited space and find solutions that can be implemented on future construction projects.The aim of the study was to find the common factors that exist for the workplaces within a small area and find ways of working that can change the planning and execution of logistics.Surveys to professional workers and interviews with site managers and supervisors contributed with information to the report.After compiling the thesis work, the result shows that there are opportunities to change the working method of the work management to increase efficiency and productivity.In the study, it appears that there is a lack of communication in the workplaces as a large number of workers do not know when the next delivery of material takes place. In addition, the professional workers admit that they did not have a great influence over the business. Recommended solutions that were developed in the study were experience feedback and further development of the APD plan.

  • 40.
    Issa, Omar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Issa, Hadi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Logistiksamordningsprogrammet Myloc Construction2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the biggest challenges in today's construction industry is the logistics issue, at an increasing, projects are being affected by logistic challenges and it is of great importance that these challenges are reviewed and addressed. More and more companies have started to address these challenges with the help of various logistics coordination tools to save time, get a better overall image and planning over the flow of materials, reduce damage to materials and more. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate whether the logistics coordination program Myloc Construction is an effective system to use in logistics management by examining how the program is perceived on three different projects. Through this study, the authors have reached the goal of whether the right choice of logistics method has been made for the three projects, at which kind of project Myloc construction will be used and whether it is a system that Veidekke should use for future projects. At present, a construction and renovation project is under way on three different housing bodies by Sergelhuset at Sergel's square where Veidekke, NCC and Zengun carry out the project in a turnkey contract in collaboration. All three contracts utilize the logistics coordination tool Myloc construction for their respective parts of the project. The study has been based on a combination of various research methods such as interviews, questionnaires, literature studies, observations and electronic sources. To get a deeper understanding of Myloc construction, nine people using the software have been interviewed. The survey was distributed to different users of the program to get a larger overall picture. Due to the size, location and complexity of the project, where several contracts work together, a logistics program is necessary. The program can be used for all types of projects but is most necessary for larger and more complex projects. Provided that Myloc continues to update its service both on the web and on the mobile phone, it is something that Veidekke should use in the future.

  • 41.
    Wassberg, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Sand, Simon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Marknadshyra på nyproduktion: Behålla presumtionshyror eller avreglera?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In January 2019 the Swedish government created an agreement called “Januariavtalet” as a result of the 2018 election. Part of this agreement includes that they want to introduce market rent in the new-built part of the market. The tenant association Hyresgästföreningen have requested a report on how this reform would affect the Swedish rent market as their 2019 scholarship. The purpose of this report is to examine how this change would affect the property owners. We have interviewed politicians, property owners and a tenant association called Hyresgästföreningen. During the interviews these three groups were asked different questions that were used to analyze how the market works today and how it will be affected by this reform. The questions were based on the report’s problem definition which is: “How was the current rent system motivated as it was created? And what issues was it designed to prevent?” and “In what ways would this reform affect the property owners?”. This report is demarcated to the Stockholm region since each rental market in the country is different and unique for its location. During these interviews it became clear that this reform would not make significant difference for the larger property owners as to how the system works today, neither regarding how much they could produce or how they manage their rental income. Although the property owners did express their opinion that it would be much better to agree on a reform for the system that includes the existing property stock. For the smaller property owners on the other hand it would make a difference regarding how they would dare to invest in new construction of rental apartments. Mostly because of the possibility to make calculations that are much more accurate, since the current system only allows calculations 15 years in advance. What the property owners found most interesting with this reform was that it would hopefully be a step in the direction to implement it on the complete rental system in Sweden including the current system of the existing property stock as well. Due to the fact that the property owners consider the whole rental market to be dysfunctional. The tenant association Hyresgästföreningen opposes this reform since they consider it to make the rental market uncertain for the tenants. It would also diminish the consumer protection, as well as create a generic uncertainty as to how the rental market would develop over time. This projects conclusion is that market rent would not affect the larger property owners due to the current rents already is at a level which could be described as a market rent. Though for the smaller property owners this could be the difference between to build new property or not.

  • 42.
    Brännmark, Disa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Cano Norberg, Desirée
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Miljöpåverkan vid grundläggning i samband med vägbyggnad: En komparativ fallstudie av inblandningspelare, lättklinker, skumglas och cellplast (EPS) ur ett hållbart och ekonomiskt perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate normally varies over time but never before has the climate change been so rapid and tangible. Rising temperatures, elevated sea levels and endangered ecosystems are consequences of human impact on the environment. The use of resources and emissions contributes to the increased impact on the greenhouse effect. Everyone is affected by the climate change and must take his or her responsibility to create better conditions for future generations by understanding the environmental consequences of his or her actions. Studies reveal that the construction industry accounts for almost one third of the total greenhouse gas emissions but there are still gaps in knowledge about the environ¬mental impact. The knowledge can increase through agreements on climate actions, industry-wide forums and tools such as life-cycle assessments and environmental product declarations. Several available tools with generic data have been developed for life-cycle assessments of buildings, but for the infrastructure sector the tools are still not fully developed. Today, the foundation method is mostly chosen based on the economical aspect, and the environmental aspect is not given priority. The aim of this case study is to investigate which foundation method is best suited from an environ-mentally sustainable and economical perspective in a specific soil profile of clay which is common around Uppsala. To raise awareness of environmental impact, four common foundation methods were compared: deep soil mixing with Multicem and light filling methods; expanded clay lightweight aggregate, foam glass and expanded polystyrene foam. Based on settlement calculations in the soil profile, dimensions could be made for consumption of material for each method. The consumption of material was used to make estimations of costs and calculations of climate effect, in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents, during production of the material and transport to the specific location. In addition, the assessment of the chemical content was examined through two environmental databases, BASTA and SundaHus. The result revealed that foam glass has the lowest total climate effect, where about half of the carbon dioxide emissions come from production and the remainder from transport. This indicates that the geographical location of the foundation is important for the result of the climate impact. Foam glass receives the best ratings in BASTA and SundaHus but has the highest total cost of the compared alternatives in the study. Deep soil mixing with Multicem as binder has the lowest total cost and the second lowest climate impact. Through the interview study, it was found that the choice of foundation method is mainly determined by the cost, which means that Multicem would probably be prefered. Based on chemical content the assessment is incomplete since Multicem has not been declared in SundaHus. In summary, the choice of foundation method depends on a number of factors in which companies must evaluate which factor has the highest priority.

  • 43.
    Satof, Mostafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Al-asadi, Hasanain Hasse Hasson
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Modellering av rörliga laster: Jämförelse av resultat från influenslinje- och influensytametod från FEM-program2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At present, the usage of FEM-programs becomes wider for loads effect calculation of bridges. Even though the calculation in all FEM-programs works following the same procedure, it differs when it comes to moving loads where we can identify two different approaches, ILM and ISM (influence line and influence surface method). ISM is used in FEM-programs that are most adapted for bridges where moving loads have great influence, while ILM is used in FEM-programs where moving loads are less important as house constructions. The aim is to evaluate the use of ILM programs (eg FEM-Design) when managing of moving loads in bridge and facilities contexts. This is achieved by comparing the results obtained from ILM programs with the results obtained from IYM programs. In addition, it will be checked how FEM-Design envelops the max and min values regarding (most adverse, conditional summation and unconditional summation). The comparison between those two methods was carried out using two different FEM programs based on different methods. Work carried out using FEM-Design (ILM program) and Brigade/Standard (ISM program). A platform bridge has been modeled and analyzed in both programs and a comparison between the results of both models has been performed. This comparison aims to investigate how ILM and ISM works when calculating moving loads and its influence in a bridge plate and in what way these two methods differ. to achieve comparable results between the programs, we examined different parameters and conditions. The thesis has shown which factors influenced the difference av results between FEM-Design and Brigade, and which summation methods that FEM-Design uses.

  • 44.
    Birger, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Holmstedter, Christian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Nybyggnation av en fastighet till temporära bostäder i ett ljudutsatt område2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased globalization and expansion of larger cities, we’ve seen an increase in flight traffic around the airports in Sweden. At the same time, cities are getting more populated which leads to more roads that are being built to strengthen the communications between the cities. A consequence of this expansion is that more areas are being affected by sound pollution. This is a huge problem as sound pollution may have devastating consequences on the health of people being exposed by it. To counteract the exposure of sound pollution, Boverket (the national Board of Housing), has created specific regulations on real estate’s regarding the accepted levels of sound exposure for buildings. The allowed level of sound exposure are stricter to buildings that are meant to be permanently inhabited as the inhabitants run greater risk of health issues the longer they are exposed by it. As there are more people traveling across Sweden on e.g. business trips, there has been an increase in demand of temporary housing where people are allowed stay for up to 6 months. Just recently, plenty of new projects are taking advantage over the set regulations by the National Board of Housing because the regulations for sound exposure are lower on temporary housing. This thesis will investigate the possibilities regarding projecting a building meant for temporary housing in a sound polluted area. The project is limited to the Stockholm county and focus mainly on the architectural point of view in projecting a building. A projected architectural proposal of an apartment hotel on a property right next to Arlanda airport was made from the information that was provided by the site analysis and the theoretical framework. The property was located in an area where the sound exposure was above the regulations of maximum sound pollution by the facade of building meant for permanent housing. The result was a heavy constructed concrete building with thick layers of insulation and vegetation on the outside walls and roofs. The building was placed in an area where it was surrounded natural vegetation to improve the reduction of sound pollution. The thesis left a few unanswered questions however: Did the projected building meet the requirements of the property owners regarding architecture and lighting? By how much does the surrounding vegetation actually reduce sound pollution? Would it be more efficient to increase the width of the building rather than the height? These questions leaves room for further studies regarding the issues and how to solve them when projecting buildings in a highly sound polluted area. 

  • 45.
    Yosifova, Eliz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Baban, Zanwer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Nybyggnation av hotell: Gestaltning av hotell på en ljudutsatt plats i Stockholms stad2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One major problem today in Stockholm City is to be able to build functional housing and offices becuase of the impact from the noise large interchanges distribute in the City. In order to build housing and offices it is important to achieve the requirements that Boverkets Byggregler, which is the Swedish rules for constructions. The county in Stockholm has to plan and observe the noise exposed properties in the inner City. One obstacle to build more housing and offices which the city needs, is the rules and demands on the areas but also the growth of the traffic in Stockholm city. This problem results for increased noiselevels which also affects the acoustic comfort for housig and offices. To be able to solve the problem for the challenges that is caused by the lack of housing in Stockholm, hotels can be built on these areas that are located close to traffic in the city. In order to solve this problem a hotel that screen the exessive noise towards residental areas can be a solution, because Boverket does not require any guidelines and regulations for noise on hotel constructions. The fact that hotels can be built on properties that is close to the traffic can benefit the social development of the city. A hotel can open opportunities for different people and groups to meet in the same point which can be used to increase the city´s social development. The tourism in Stockholm City is developing a lot today and more visitors visits the city day by day. The increase of visitors creates challenges for the range of hotels in the city. Utilizing areas in the inner city of Stockholm and urban areas that are exposed to noise from traffic is an advantage to build a hotel since Boverket does not require any benchmarks for noise. To make use of these kinds of properties, can also increase the range of hotels for the visitors in the city. This project will present a hotel that is located in Årstafältet in the southern part of Stockholm City. Årstafältet is a place that is exposed to high noise because of the highway on Huddingevägen that passes through the place. The problem with the location is the traffic noise which has a negative effect on housing constructions in the area. The noise problem in the area gives the chosen property good conditions for building a hotel and allows the residents close to the hotel property, to be less affected by the noise level coming from the traffic jam.

  • 46.
    Aidinnezhad, Negin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Stendahl, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Optimering av sjötransport: Logistikflöde av prefabricerade brodelar i Mälaren2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of Sweden´s most trafficated railway section stretches between Stockholm Central to the Stockholm South Station. Getingmidjan is the name of the renovation work that is taking place in the central part of Stockholm. The Swedish Transport Administration acts as a client and needs to ensure the long-term durability of the Söderströms Bridge (part of Getingmidjan project). To do so they initiated a sub-project to handle the sea transport of the steel bridge that will replace the old Söderströms bridge. This thesis puts its focus on the maritime transport. The sub-project is responsible for shipping logistics of the three bridge sections between Tallinn to Riddarfjärden. This report aims to identify and visualize potential routes by mapping the cargo transportation in lake Mälaren, Stockholm. The transfer will firstly pass by Västerås before it arrives in Riddarfjärden. The writers look into alternative ports to Västerås – where the two bridge sections SS1 and SS2 are welded together. The shipping configuration consists of; pusher, tugboat, barge and bridge. Where the analyze will consider; width, length, depth below and height above the water surface in the mapping process. Results from the study has shown that the quay length is the bottleneck and delimits the possibility for bridge section SS1 and SS2 to be welded together. There are two ports that satisfy the requirements, the port of Köping and Västerås. This empirical study intends to find a visualization tool that improves communication and can be implemented at the Swedish Transport Administration. The research uses observations, interviews and a questionnaire survey for applicants at the coordination meeting. Our findings suggest that the initiation phase in general was problematic, furthermore there are some difficulties in having an open discussion between partners. It was clear that leadership played a key role for the team in these situations. The results from the survey indicates that there is substantial room for improvements. In general participant at the meeting mainly listens to their own agendas and not to others. This may cause misunderstandings and irritation in the group. All the group members also found that a weekly meeting was enough. Empirical data supports that the protocol of the meeting need to be modernized. Both small and large-scale project uses same project management tools regardless of the size of the project. An analysis was therefore made in accordance to these aspects to find an appropriate lean solution. It turned out that the visual planning was a great tool to use in the coordination meetings. The writers came to the conclusion that the Swedish Transport Administration should take a further look at Kanban and Peab´s project management model to modernize their team leading. This report is not intended to produce waterproof solutions. This piece of work will provide materials and useful information for communication and sea transportation. The writers decided to look over a future possibility for shipping. Underås, Enhörna was found to be ideal for transports through Södertälje. It is centrally located in Mälaren and may result in lead time reduction for large configurations. Furthermore, the interview will present how third parties may be affected by the project, especially public transportation, shipping and roads nearby. As well as risks that have occurred and may occur in the construction, sea transportation and lastly in the planned traffic shutdown.

  • 47.
    Haritidis, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Tran, Tony
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Parameterstyrd modellering av bergtunnlar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Project designing in the building construction industry has developed a lot during recent years and the result is that not only 2D documents are made, but also 3D models are created to facilitate the project. A problem most players are facing daily is when conditions and information in a project change and design engineers must make necessary changes to their models. These changes can be time-consuming, and the designers may need to do these changes more than once during the project. Could a parametric 3D model make these changes faster than a CAD model when conditions and information on a project change? One of the developers that frequently needs to make changes to its models is WSP geotechnical department. The desire is to find a new working method that increases the efficiency of project design of tunnels. The aim of this thesis was to try parametric modeling as a working method and to see if this method could be used to create ground tunnels. A script has been made in Grasshopper, a visual programming plug-in that generates a parametric model of a tunnel. The parametric model was then compared with an existing CAD model created by the WSP geotechnical department in an earlier project. Pros and cons have been presented and conclusions have been made about if parametric modelling could be more efficient than current working methods. The results of this thesis indicate that parametric modelling is an efficient working method and that it could be used as a working method for future ground tunnel projects.

  • 48.
    Zakhoy, Solin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Safeen Butros, Diana
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Parametrisk Design2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with the digitalization's entry, the companies has begun to apply new improved BIMtools to streamline the constructor's work. With the help of the implementation of graphical thirdparty applications, the BIM-tools can achieve increased functionality. An example of such a program is the third party applications Grasshopper linked to the Tekla Structure, which creates so called computational design, which means that the model's data is controlled and accessed by the external programs. The Bridge and Tunnel department at Ramboll wants to become, like many other consulting firms, more BIM oriented. However, there is no estimate of total timesaving and utilization of the implementation today. The purpose of this thesis project has been to come at a conclusion that provides support in decision-making regarding which types of projects that parameter-controlled models may be suitable for. By building an automated script for a retaining wall, this study has shown the connection between the software Microsoft Excel, Rhinoceros-Grasshopper and Tekla Structures. With this application, one has succeeded in creating an easy-to-use interface. Furthermore, one has compared the finished script in Grasshopper with a model in Civil 3D where the assumption that one can gain time by having a finished script. It has also been possible to draw conclusions under which conditions it is suitable to use parametric modeling and automation that points to early stages in design and standard constructions.

  • 49.
    Engwall, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Engwall, Pontus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Partikelavlagring i ventilationssystem vid brand: Hur påverkar det igensättningen av ventilationsfilter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fan-in-operation is a ventilation-technical fire protection that uses the exhaust fan to relieve a fire room and thereby prevent the spread of fire gas. A problem for these systems is that the ventilation filters risk to be clogged, as fire smoke is transported through the system. (Svensk Ventilation, 2018) Laboratory work shows that ventilation filters can’t hold a lot of smoke, but the problem has not been extensive. This may be because particles from the fire are deposited in the ventilation ducts. (Eriksson, 2019) The purpose of the report is to study particle deposition in ventilation systems and evaluate whether it can be an influencing factor for why laboratory tests differ from reality. Another purpose is to create a correlation factor between diesel smoke and the test dust ISO A2 Fine. A correlation factor describes the relationship between fire smoke and test dust, regarding the clogging of filters. The report is based on studies in laboratory ventilation systems built up at Camfil AB in Trosa. The results show that particle deposition is a factor that influences clogging of ventilation filters. As the ventilation system becomes longer and more complicated, the deposit increases and thus reduces the clogging. The resulting correlation factor shows the relationship between diesel smoke and ISO A2 Fine for a pressure drop of 300 Pa over a filter. In the analysis and conclusion of the work, the reliability of the results is discussed. Furthermore, factors are described which this work has not had the opportunity to investigate and it is encouraged to further research in this area.

  • 50.
    Olsson, Styrbjörn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Candler, Simon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Payback periods for photovoltaics integrated in nonbuilding structures2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provide Sweden and other countries across the globe with energy in a long-term and sustainable manner that accounts for our global environmental goals, we need to adopt more sources of renewable energy. Solar panels and other forms of solar power is one of these renewable energy sources that has a lot of potential and the technology has become increasingly more common in Sweden and other parts of the world in the latest decades. Everyone from private individuals to companies and authorities are increasingly making investments in the technology. With the help of our supervisors and after extensive literature studies we aim to increase the knowledge about solar panels and their economic aspects by calculating and presenting payback periods for solar panels implemented in nonbuilding structures. In conjunction with this we also aim to present a basic theoretical background about solar panels and their global impact to further the understanding of the technology even more. On behalf of, and in collaboration with Trafikverket we have examined the payback periods of four solar panel installations in connection to four of the authority´s nonbuilding structures. Three of these solar installations are applied on technical buildings that are scattered alongside the railway system across the country. The solar panels provide local electricity to the electrical components within the building. The fourth solar installation is connected to a road tunnel where it provides local electricity to the lights within the tunnel. The conducted calculations have resulted in a payback period for each respective solar installation measured in years based on various relevant factors that influence their energy production. Our hope is that this can clarify the economic aspects of the solar panels and be of help in potential future investments in solar power by Trafikverket. The conclusion is that the solar panel installation connected to the road tunnel has the shortest payback period by far and also has great potential to be economically lucrative by generating future revenue. The tree solar installations connected to the technical buildings each have a significantly longer payback period but are still expected to be paid back eventually. However they are not expected to generate a mentionable yield, if any.

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