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  • 1.
    Von Hausswolff, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Weurlander, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    A Deweyan approach to ‘practical thinking’ while programming ­- Encountering programming in a university lab setting.2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Magnell, Marie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Geschwind, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    A seamless blend of research and professional practice: dual coupling in engineering education2019In: Higher Education Research and Development, ISSN 0729-4360, E-ISSN 1469-8366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to challenge the idea of incompatibility between links to research and links to professional practice in engineering education. The concept of ‘academic drift’ is introduced, both related to drift towards theory and towards research links in the curriculum.  Empirical data were collected through a case study conducted at a department in a research-intensive technical university, including semi-structured interviews with academic staff and an analysis of course syllabuses. The results show that the respondents perceive no incompatibility between including links to research and including links to professional practice in engineering education. Indeed, they state that the two aspects are mutually reinforcing and overlapping. Their rationales for incorporating such coupled links to research and professional practice include increased motivation among students and preparing them for employment. In conclusion, including research in the curriculum does not necessarily lead to academic drift; conversely, the curriculum in engineering education can consist of a seamless blend of research and professional practice.

  • 3.
    Attorps, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Eng, Johanna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Att undervisa om och för hållbar utveckling: Utveckling av ett ämnesövergripande övningsmaterial till gymnasiet om plast och intressekonflikter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the development has gone from a fact-based environmental education to teachingon sustainable development that will not only deal with facts, but also values, feelings and the challenges facing the world. The complexity of teaching about sustainable development combined with what teachers are expected to include in their subjects puts great pressure on them, because many lack or believe they lack knowledge about sustainable development and how to teach about it. This contributes to teachers teaching about sustainable development to a lesser extent than expected from the global goals and curriculum.

    With that as a basis, this study aims to reduce that gap by developing an education material that can be used across subjects in high school. Important didactic aspects and knowledge aspects derived from interviews with active high school teachers and researchers in polymer technology. From the interviews with the teachers, it emerged that the students should be given the opportunity to discuss, see different perspectives, and that the teachers should include areas that the students care about and can relate to. The most central that emerged in the interviews with the researchers were the conflicts that revolves around plastic, such as how waste management is to be handled, distribution of land use and how responsibility for littering should be distributed. This, together with didactic research and current science onplastic, resulted in three exercises with conflicts of interest as a pervasive theme where students are given the opportunity to develop several important skills needed to achieve theglobal goals.

  • 4.
    olofgörs, Siri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Att utveckla en teknisk organisation för inkludering: En kartläggning av en organisationskultur samt lärandets förutsättningar för mångfald och inkludering i en teknisk organisation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For organizations to harvest different knowledge, perspectives and ideas, it is essential for organizations to welcome people from different backgrounds and with different experiences to the organization and into organizational processes. Therefore, many organizations have implemented a change management for diversity and inclusion. The purpose of this study is to develop support for how change management for diversity and inclusion can benefit from an examination of both an organizational culture and a learning praxis that aim to develop knowledge and awareness of diversity and inclusion.

    The study provides two examinations in an organization of technical development. One investigate how an organizational culture can be inclusive or exclusive for different employees within the organization. Both a theoretical and an empirical thematic analysis of free text answers from an employee survey are used. The result shows aspects and patterns of organizational culture and distinguish processes that are inclusive or exclusive for different employees. The other examination evaluates a learning situation that aims to develop knowledge and awareness of diversity and inclusion among employees. Through an analysis, the content of the learning situation is shown. The content will affect the potential to change the organizational culture. How knowledge content can be designed for more appropriate change management is analysed.

    A discussion of how learning can change organizational culture, highlights the importance of collective awareness and of mutual understanding of structural inequality in organizations.

  • 5.
    Svärdh, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Attityder till matematikämnet hos elever på teknikprogrammet: En studie av förväntningar och attityder till ämnet matematik på en gymnasieskolas teknikprogram2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many adults and teenagers believe that math is a challenging subject that only a lucky few can fully grasp. When students step towards more math intensive programs like the Swedish upper secondary technology or science program they are faced with higher expectations of mathematical comprehension and a noteworthy increase in study pace. The understanding of students expectations of the mathematics and their attitude towards the subject can be of interest to mathematics teachers as well as a pivotal factor to consider when constructing a subject plan.The purpose of the study was to analyse the expectations students had of mathematics when they were faced with the choice of the technology program, and to analyse the attitude towards mathematics of the programs first, second and third year students. The results of the study show that when students make their choice of the technology program they expect the mathematics to be challenging and fast paced. The study shows that only few students chose the technology program due to their interest in mathematics, many students expressed the complete opposite, that mathematics was unnecessarily difficult and something that you just have to power through. The result of the study also show that the programs first year students have a more positive attitude towards the study of mathematics than third year students and that second year students are the most negative. A possible interpretation of the results is that the mathematics in the first year aligns with student expectations as the year repeats elementary school mathematics, which makes it manageable. First year students also expressed that the subject felt relevant and useful in technology and science courses. In second year, the mathematics subject contains a lot of new knowledge and the majority of students in the group expressed that they experienced a lack of self-esteem, they said that the subject was more difficult than expected and that the pace was too fast. Additionally, the study found that second year students doubted weather it was relevant to study as much mathematics as they did. The analysis of discussions with third year students gave a similar result as second year students, however, with the difference that third year students expressed joy for the subject and an understanding of its relevance.

    The study was conducted on a total of 39 students from the technology programs first, second and third year who attended a small upper secondary school in one of Sweden’s conurbations. The selected upper secondary schools technology program consisted of students with low or very low academic credits from secondary school, median 150–180 points for all three years of intake.My ambition with this analysis is to contribute to a deeper understanding of expectations of and attitudes towards mathematics among students at the upper secondary school program.

  • 6.
    Ahlberg, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Frid, Julia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Automation and Autonomy: Developing and Evaluating Open Learning Material on IR Cameras in Automation Applications2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis project was based on the development and evaluation of an open learning material in thermal imaging for automation applications. The outsourcer – FLIR Systems – wanted a three-day course covering all necessary topics for infrared cameras in automation applications. These topics include thermography, optics, detectors, networks, protocols, and more. The open learning material was designed to function as a three-day, self-paced, distance course, and it was based on theories of andragogy, self-directed learning and transformative learning. The master thesis process was essentially divided into two phases: the development phase and the evaluation phase. The method for the development phase was based on a literature study. The literature on creating open learning material included ways of compensating for the lack of social interaction in distance courses, such as a friendly, warm narrator using the pronoun “I”, encouraging phrases, and self-assessment questions (SAQs). An SAQ is a framing of question intended to guide the learner towards self-assessment of his or her learning and knowledge. The vital part of the SAQ is the response, where not only the correct answer is given, but feedback on the wrong choices too. The development of the open learning material was an iterative process where discussion with supervisors at FLIR Systems and KTH Royal Institute of Technology led to improvements of the material.

    The evaluation phase consisted of two tests with test subjects. The first test was conducted by sending a sample unit of the material to test subjects around the world along with a questionnaire. The main objective was to test the tone and style of the material. There were variations in the result, but the majority found the material friendly and readable. The second test was an in-house test with three participants. Three sample units of the material was used, and the main objective was to test the usability of the material and the test subjects’ perceived learning process. The usability of the material varied with the three test subjects and depended on their technological prerequisites and reading comprehension in English. All test subjects responded positively to their perceived learning outcome.

    The following conclusions were drawn: the open learning material has the potential to promote autonomous and self-directed learners and can be used as a basis for further development – such as web-based courses and teacher-led classes.

    The open learning material as a whole and the results and analysis from the tests are included as appendices.

  • 7.
    Hansen, Hanne Foss
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Geschwind, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Kivistö, Jussi
    Tampere University.
    Pekkola, Elias
    Tampere University.
    Pinheiro, Romulo
    University of Agder.
    Pulkkinen, Kirsi
    University of Lapland.
    Balancing accountability and trust: university reforms in the Nordic countries2019In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the accountability mechanisms introduced in the universities in the Nordic countries by building on a typology of accountability types. By utilising survey data, it analyses how academics experience the changes in accountability mechanisms and how they perceive the impact of these changes on their performance. The analysis shows that especially political/bureaucratic and managerial accountability demands have been strengthened. This development has fostered debates on how to measure academic performance. Some academics, more in Denmark than in the other countries, have experienced the development as a sign of mistrust.

  • 8.
    Bern, Caroline
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Bedömning av kompetens i tekniska karriärspår: En fallstudie om hur föreställningar om kompetens, kompetensbedömning och karriär påverkar organisationers möjlighet att skapa inkludering och mångfald2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Having a diverse workforce has become an important issue in today’s organizations in order to capture a wide range of competence, skills and abilities. Today many companies encourage work with diversity and inclusion since they argue that it increases creativity and, in extent, company profit. However, many companies struggle to manage such work in a successful way. A method of creating the prerequisites for diversity and inclusion is to study the perception of competence and assessment processes. Assessment of competence is, for example, the basis for decision making in career advancement. The assessment requires one to decide on what competence is and in turn who is competent. The complexity of the concept of competence and norms being a part of the assessment process complicates such decisions. As an attempt to ensure that competence is assessed objectively, many companies apply different formalized procedures for inclusion and diversity work. This study aims to provide a deeper understanding of how career, assessment of competence and formalized procedures interact.

    A case study has been carried out in an engineering industry, which is referred to in the report as Organization A. The purpose of the study was to examine how formalized technical careers affect organizations' ability to create inclusion and diversity, based on perceptions of competence, competence assessment and career. To fulfil the purpose, the following two questions were stated.

    1. How are technical careers structured?
    2. What conditions do technical careers create for equal assessment of competence?

    In the study, a technical career path has been investigated within Organization A. The thesis is part of a MSc in Engineering and Education at KTH. The engineering part of the work is reflected in the technical point of view of the work where an organization with technology-intensive activities has been placed in focus. The educational part of my degree is applied by relating the organization's technical career paths to similar organizations in education, discussing similarities and differences in assessment processes. In order to answer the research questions, interviews with employees and focus groups with managers within Organization A have been conducted. The study shows how technical careers are organized based on formal and informal structures related to assessment of competence and norms affecting assessment processes. The observed technical career path within Organization A is based on an informal pyramid structure that allows for subjective perceptions of the purpose and goals of the career. This enables a view of employees' different capabilities to reach higher levels and is therefore problematized from a diversity and inclusion perspective.

    The assessment criteria of the career path provide room for interpretation and there is no education or support for managers how the criteria should be interpreted and applied. It is a result of a lack of management required to ensure that the career process is used the intended way. The shortcoming contributes to the fact that norms and prejudices can continue to influence the assessment process. The organization's implemented diversity and inclusion work provide some management but is done without caution. Processes of change requires follow-up and evaluation which is lacking. The organization can learn from what in learning research is addressed as formative assessment. The study shows a shortcoming in all three key parts included in formative assessment. Based on stated conclusions, recommendations are given to Organization A to question the purpose of the pyramid structure and to apply clearer management in terms of education and forums for collaboration. Additionally, recommendations are given for how the organization can apply formative assessment in career assessment processes.

  • 9.
    Lindqvist, Henrik
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Weurlander, Maria
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Learning in Engineering Sciences. Karolinska Inst, CLINTEC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wernerson, Annika
    Karolinska Inst, CLINTEC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Educ, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Boundaries as a coping strategy: emotional labour and relationship maintenance in distressing teacher education situations2019In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Student teachers have to cope with distressing emotions during teacher education. Coping is important in relation to both attrition and bridging the gap between being a student teacher and starting work. The data consist of semi-structured interviews with 25 student teachers, which were analysed using a constructivist grounded theory framework. The aim of the current study was to examine student teachers' perspectives on distressing situations during teacher education, as well as how boundaries were established as a way of coping with emotions related to these situations. The findings show that the student teachers' main concern was to make sense of the imbalance between resources and the demands placed by distressing situations. As a coping strategy, student teachers established professional boundaries linked to emotional labour and relationship maintenance.

  • 10.
    Hartell, Eva
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM). KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Learning in Engineering Sciences.
    Comparative judgment: How it can be used to enhance teachers' formative assessment skills and students' learning2019In: Education Canada Magazine / EdCan Network, ISSN 0013-1253, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 18-21Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative judgment (CJ) is an assessment methodology based on the ranking of two pieces of work at a time. CJ can be used both as a professional development tool to sharpen assessment skills and develop shared standards, and as a way of identifying exemplars of quality that allow students to better understand learning goals and expectations

  • 11.
    Lindqvist, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Weurlander, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Wernerson, Annika
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet.
    Conflicts starting to teach: Beginning teachers coping with emotionally challenging situations.2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lindqvist, Henrik
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Weurlander, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Wernerson, Annika
    Karolinska Inst, CLINTEC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Conflicts viewed through the micro-political lens: beginning teachers' coping strategies for emotionally challenging situations2019In: Research Papers in Education, ISSN 0267-1522, E-ISSN 1470-1146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to use the narratives of beginning teachers to investigate the emotionally challenging situations they face, with a focus on how their perspectives and definitions of such situations guided their actions and made coping possible. A short term longitudinal qualitative interview study was adopted. Twenty participants were interviewed at the outset of their last year of teacher education and then followed up with an interview at their first year of teaching. In between self-reports were written in addition to the interviews. The material was analysed using constructivist grounded theory tools. The findings show that new teachers experienced conflicts that were both interpersonal (with students, parents and colleagues) and intrapersonal (being 'good enough'; establishing boundaries related to time and engagement; suppression of emotions) as they started out in teaching. In order to cope with these challenges, the beginning teachers used various strategies including collaboration, conformity, influencing and autonomy. It was found that the strategy chosen could have an effect on turnover or attrition intentions among beginning teachers. Practical implications of the research are discussed.

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Lisa
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    De kemiska processerna i fotosyntesen: Utveckling av pedagogiskt material för Naturens Hus2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study concerning photosynthesis as a school subject. A part of the study has been to develop an addition to a school program that regards the chemical processes in the photosynthesis. The school program’s name is Regnskogsträd eller Ökenväxter i Edvard Andersons växthus which translates to Rainforest trees or Desert plants in Edvard Andersons greenhouse. A school program is a pedagogic activity and this program in particular is offered by the House of Nature to students of all ages, from Primary School to Upper Secondary School. The House of Nature is a part of The House of Science that offers natural science teaching with the aim of inspiring students to continue their studies within the natural science field. The goal of the development process has been to create additional material that can complement the teaching of photosynthesis in the courses Biologi 2 and Kemi 2, translated to Biology 2 and Chemistry 2, studied by upper secondary school students. To be able to create a complementing addition a study regarding different didactical theories has been made. Partly a research regarding the theories from Bernstein, classification and framing, and their visibility in the teaching of photosynthesis has been investigated. Where classification stands for the degree of boundaries between the two school subjects and framing stands for who has the control in the classroom. Partly a research regarding the teaching material of the same courses has been made and the results have been discussed in connection with theories of how the teaching material can control what is taught in school. The result from the research shows that there is a strong classification between chemistry and biology as school subject but that concerning the subjects of biochemistry the demarcation is weaker. Regarding the teaching material, several concepts are only mentioned in the biology literature and the sections that concerns photosynthesis in the chemistry literature has been placed in the advanced knowledge chapters.

  • 14.
    Bårman, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Den didaktiska formeln för(Matematik)Idrottselev: En diskursanalys på ett idrottsgymnasium2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish model of elite sports secondary schools consist of Riksidrottsgymnasium, RIG,and National Sports Education Programs, NIU, which offer a training program with specialized sports to student-athletes in order for them to combine sport and study. The underlying philosophy for the model is seen as creating “winners in the long run” in preparingstudent-athletes for a post-athletic career, as well as coping with current demands to optimise development in an elite sporting career. For young student-athletes to successfully combine elite sport and study, it is important tohave a holistic perspective. Previous research in “dual careers” is based on the holistic perspective that describes the importance of a balance between sport, school and private life. The studies point out that the student-athlete has a challenging life situation to manage andit is important for the young student-athlete to feel good to be able to perform both in sportand study. The various research studies are based on and emphasize the sport, the sportenvironments and coaches. They put focus on the importance of the education and theimportance of the holistic perspective of sport, school and private life but do not go into depthhow the teacher's teaching or the student's way of learning should be designed for best results.

    This discourse analysis is defined as “mathematics at an elite sport secondary school”. The research question which shapes the given discourse reads: “What are the didactic perspectives in the student-athlete's educational environment, especially in mathematics teaching, seen as discourse?” The math teachers and the student-athletes are put into focus and the study investigates how they describe the math education at the RIG-school. The study is based onthe didactic perspective/teaching perspective in the student-athlete's educational environment. Data for the study was collected through interviews with math teachers and a questionnairefor student-athletes, at a RIG-school with approximately 60 student-athletes, during thespring of 2019.In the results of the analysis, the norms of the discourse, highly valued positions and dilemmaappear as five themes: “the important math-subject”, “the good student-athlete”, “thedilemma of the student-athlete's absence”, “strategies for support” and “the ambiguity of theform of the mathematics education”.

    These findings point to the fact that an ideal image of a successful student-athlete is clearly presented, that the math-subject is valued important and difficult based on its tradition and that the specific study form for mathematics education for student-athletes lacks a clear form. The model that is applied for the mathematics education at the RIG-school can be describedas teacher-led classroom education supplemented with various adaptations to facilitate the student-athletes' self-studies. In this study the discursive analysis also point out the success factors, which are summarized as the student-athletes' high responsibility, motivation and ability to plan and carry out self studies as well as the math teachers' various adaptations and support to facilitate the student athletes' self-studies.

  • 15.
    Lind, Linus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Den ideella räknestugans matematik: Volontärers föreställningar om och undervisning i matematik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish educational landscape, supplementary tutoring, from both private and public organizations, has in the last decade gained a more and more significant and natural place. Where both non-profit and for-profit organizations have received government subsidies or grants in recent decades. It is therefore of important to gather an understanding of the type of mathematics education provided by these organizations. Of particular interest for this study are the non-profit organizations, and its volunteers, offering free tutoring in mathematics for student in the upper secondary school.Previous research on the non-profit supplementary tutoring in Sweden, and its volunteers, is lacking. The purpose of this work is to create an understanding of the activities in the non-profit supplementary tutoring, its volunteers and the mathematics teaching that is there provided. In order to investigate the volunteer’s educational practice, both interviews with the volunteers regarding their beliefs about mathematics as a school subject and their beliefs about mathematical education where conducted, and also on observations of the volunteer’s educational practice where done. Analysis and interpretation of observations and interviews are based on previous research about teachers’ beliefs of mathematics, learning and its teaching.

    The volunteers gave a coherent picture, where the beliefs of mathematics expressed in interviews was in agreement with what was observed in teaching practice. Of the previous research’s three beliefs of mathematics, the interviewed and observed volunteers, expressed two of the three beliefs. The Instrumentalists beliefs, mathematics as a tool, was expressed by all volunteers in both interview and teaching. The perspective of mathematics as problem solving was not expressed by any of the volunteers in their tutoring practice, and was almost invisible in the beliefs of mathematics expressed in interviews. The conclusion is that, from the beliefs of mathematics expressed in tutoring practice, the supplementary tutoring can be seen to have certain limitations as a form of education, since the observed practice primarily expressed the belief of mathematics as a tool. The platonic perspective appeared to some extent and the notion of mathematics as problem solving was not expressed in teaching.

  • 16.
    Klein, Bizzy
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Den som inte sett gruvan, har inte sett Sverige: En studie om förutsättningarna för efterbehandling, kulturarvsprocesser och återanvändning i Aitikgruvan med utgångspunkt i Falu gruva.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about two Swedish copper mines, Aitik in Gällivare which is still in use and theFalun mine, which closed in 1992. The aim of this study is to explore the prerequisites for using the Falun mine as a model for the future closure of the Aitik mine, with regards specifically to mine reclamation, heritagisation and reuse. In particular, the aspect of learning within the heritagisation and reuse framework is discussed. A qualitative research method has been used and the theoretical starting point is that a mine can be seen as a large technological system consisting of artifacts and social components. Data has been collected through interviews with representatives from the Falun mine owners, the Aitik mine owners and from the local government of Gällivare. This data, along with data from a limited document study, made up the results of this study. The results were then analyzed thematically and discussed against the theoretical frameworks used in this study.

    The results show that Aitik can be developed post-closure and that the Falun mine can, ins ome regards, be used as a model for this development process. Among other aspects, theFalun mine can be used as a model for Aitik for education as a part of reusing the mine, where Aitik can learn from the Falun mine by not making the same mistakes that were made there. However, the results show that the Gällivare and Falun societies are different in terms of identity and in their relations towards the mines. The conclusion of this study is that aspects such as regarding artifacts as resources; the mine’s role in society; and who determines what a cultural heritage is, are all important in order to use the Falun mine as a model for Aitik from an educational perspective.

  • 17.
    Höglund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Den svårfångade matematiken: En kritisk analys av den svenska skolmatematiken under åren 1990–20062019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats observeras hur politiker, forskare och experter kraftfullt och enstämmigt ger uttryck för hur viktigt kunskaper i matematik är för såväl den enskilde som för samhället. Samtidigt konstateras hur det i artiklar och rapporter går att läsa hur resultaten sjunker och om hur matematikundervisningen inte bibringar eleverna det kunnande som samhällslivet tycks kräva. Slutsatsen som ofta visar sig dras är att någonting behöver förändras och att felet ligger i själva undervisningsmetoden. Vad som i studien hävdas är att dessa två observationer – å ena sidan den essentiella matematiken och å andra sidan det problemkantade ämnet – står i motsättning till varandra och att kritiken rimligen borde medföra ett ifrågasättande av matematikens starka ställning. Detta verkar dock inte ske, utan studien visar tvärtom på hur kritiken snarare bidrar till att förstärka matematikens redan starka ställning och ge ämnet än mer positiv uppmärksamhet. Forskningsfrågan som ställs är hur denna motsättning upprätthålls. Studien behandlar i huvudsak perioden 1990–2006, men dess resultat kastar förhoppningsvis ljus över även de efterföljande årens skoldebatt. Ett centralt perspektiv i studien är att bilden av matematik – så som den vardagligen uppfattas – är en bild som skolan står bakom och genom sin undervisning får oss alla att ta för given och tro på. Med detta perspektivval möjliggörs en analys där denna bild av matematiken görs till en del av själva studieobjektet utan att, så att säga, stå i vägen och fördunkla.

  • 18.
    Pears, Arnold Neville
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Developing Computational Thinking, "Fad" or "Fundamental"?2019In: Constructivist Foundations, ISSN 1782-348X, E-ISSN 1782-348X, ISSN 1782-348X, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 410-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Publicised by Wing and later expanded on, computational thinking purports to be the foundation of thought for coming generations, an indispensable skill-set that compulsory education must provide. The target article uses small tasks to develop skills relevant to computational science and computing, and explores the student interaction with these tasks. Useful skills may be developed by these students, but the article does not explicitly connect these tasks to computational thinking skills or competencies. This causes the reader to ask the question: are they developing computational thinking, or some other set of computer-related skills? A more fundamental question, and one beyond the scope of the target article, is what are the skills that are ultimately unique for computational thinking?

  • 19. Pulkkinen, Kirsi
    et al.
    Aarrevaara, Timo
    Berg, Laila Nordstrand
    Geschwind, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Hansen, Hanne Foss
    Hernes, Helge
    Kivistö, Jussi
    Lind, Jonas K.
    Lyytinen, Any
    Pekkola, Elias
    Pinheiro, Romulo
    Stensaker, Björn
    Söderlind, Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Does It Really Matter? Assessing the Performance Effects of Changes in Leadership and Management Structures in Nordic Higher Education2019In: Reforms, Organizational Change and Performance in Higher Education: A Comparative Account from the Nordic Countries / [ed] Rómulo Pinheiro, Lars Geschwind, Hanne Foss Hansen, and Kirsi Pulkkinen, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, 1, p. 3-36Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities are public organisations, which operate in a highly institutionalised environment. They are heavily dependent on public resources. As such, universities are susceptible to shifts in governance arrangements but are also far from being passive recipients of reform agendas. They face demands from multiple internal constituencies (academics, administrators, students, managers) and from a variety of external stakeholders. This chapter explores the interplay between governance arrangements resulting from policy shifts and university dynamics. It sets the stage for the book, asking the following research questions: (1) what characterises changes in governance regimes in Nordic universities in the last decade and a half, and (2) what effects have these changes had in the evolution of higher education systems? The chapter takes a comparative approach and identifies similarities and differences across the Nordic countries. This chapter serves as a frame of reference for the book and includes a common methods and data section.

  • 20.
    Hartell, Eva
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Dual coding in STEM subjects2019In: Dual coding with teachers / [ed] Oliver Caviglioli, Woodbridge, UK: John Catt Educational Limited , 2019, p. 184-185Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Weurlander, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lönn, Annalena
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Seeberger, Astrid
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hult, Håkan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet.
    Wernerson, Annika
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Emotional challenges of medical students generatefeelings of uncertainty2019In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 53, p. 1037-1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES Health care students face many situations during their education that might be emotionally challenging. Students are confronted with illness, suffering, death, patient treatment dilemmas, and witnessing unprofessional behaviour on the part of health care professionals. Few studies have focused on what these experiences lead to inrelation to the process of becoming a professional. The purpose of the study was toexplore medical students’ main concerns relating to emotionally challenging situations during their medical education.

    METHODS A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to explore and analyse medical students’ experiences. Data were gathered by means of focus group interviews, including two interviews in the middle and two interviews at the end of the students’ undergraduate programme. A total of 14 medical students participated.

    RESULTS Students’ main concerns relating to emotionally challenging situations were feelings of uncertainty. These feelings of uncertainty concerned: (i) insufficient knowledge and skills; (ii) the struggle to manage emotions in patient encounters; (iii)perceived negative culture and values amongst health care professionals and in the health care system, and (iv) lacking a self-evident position on the health care team. The first two aspectsr elate to uncertainties concerning their own capabilities and the other two aspects relate to uncertainties regarding the detached medical culture and the unclear expectations of them as students in the health care team.

    CONCLUSIONS In the process of becoming a physician, students develop their professional identity in constant negotiation with their own perceptions, values and norms and what they experience in the local clinical context in which they participate during workplace education. The two dimensions that students have to resolve during this process concern the questions: Do I have what it takes? Do I want to belong to this medical culture? Until these struggles are resolved, students are likely to experience worry about their future professional role.

  • 22.
    Svedenkrans, Christian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    En analys av elevernas attityder och strategier vid problemlösning i matematik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the attitudes and strategies that emergewhen students solve mathematical problems and to test whether it is possible todemonstrate any connection between students' attitudes to mathematical problem solvingand their problem solving ability.The survey was conducted with the help of a qualitative study of four students at the end ofyear 8. The data collection consisted of two parts, one observation part and one interviewpart. The empiri was analyzed by thematic analysis and a theoretical framework. Theframework consists of three attitude components which in total have seven subcategories,these are followed by the problem-solving strategy and the method and procedurecategories. The attitude components are: Cognitive beliefs, Affective states and Perceivedcontrol. The subcategories are: Perceived relevance, Perceived difficulty, Gender beliefs,Pleasure and delight, Worry, dissatisfaction and unease, Self-efficacy and Contextdependency. The analysis result consists of four attitude profiles, one of each participant.

    The study contributes with a better understanding of attitudes and strategies inmathematical problem solving. The result indicates that a more positive attitude can mean amore developed problem-solving ability. Further outcome of the study is that students’metacognition (thinking about your own thinking) benefit their problem solving ability.Implications and further research are discussed.

  • 23.
    Norrman, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Energi som fysikbegrepp och samhällsfråga: En jämförande innehållsanalys av gymnasieläroböcker2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish curriculum for the senior secondary school from 2011, it is part of the physics subject that students should be able to participate in debates about social issues and to discuss ethical issues from a scientific perspective. Sustainable development can contribute to an understanding of the importance of physics in the society, with the energy concept, energy resources and energy usage for a sustainable society included in the course Physics 1. How this is manifested can be analyzed in terms of scientific literacy, emphases, socio-scientific issues, etc. The study compares four textbooks for Physics 1 using a quantitative, but interpreting, text analysis based on a method and coding scheme developed by Engström for investigating how sustainable energy systems is dealt with in education and textbooks for Physics A according to the Swedish curriculum for the upper secondary school from 1994. A comparison is also made between textbooks for Physics 1 and Science studies 1b concerning the energy area in order to compare differences in emphasis between different visions of scientific literacy for the two subjects. Furthermore a qualitative text analysis is made between different editions of the same textbook series about to what extent the divergence can be explained by the difference in curricula. Finally a qualitative text analysis is included about how concepts related to the second law of thermodynamics is dealt with in the textbooks and to what extent this corresponds with other differences. The content analysis indicates that the difference between the textbooks in physics concerning visions of scientific literacy is comparatively small, but larger when it comes to contents related to technical applications. On the other hand, the difference is obvious between the subjects, with the textbooks in physics being dominated by vision I, which is dominated by science as such and its methods, while the textbooks in science studies have a decidedly larger element of vision II, thus including more attempts to set science in its social and political context. The difference in how the textbooks in Physics describe the second law of thermodynamics is in accordance with the quantitative text analysis. To what extent the debate between different views of scientific literacy in Sweden is handled by having separate subjects with partly overlapping contents is discussed. Likewise whether there is a tendency that the formulation in the curriculum conserves the choice of which socio-scientific issue is brought up in the teaching. This would, however, be in conflict with the principle that these should be current and of interest to the students.

  • 24.
    Hansen, Hanne Foss
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Aarrevaara, Timo
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Geschwind, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning. KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Organisation and leadership.
    Stensaker, Björn
    Department of education, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Evaluation Practices and Impact: Overload?2019In: Reforms, Organizational Change and Performance in Higher Education: A Comparative Account from the Nordic Countries / [ed] Rómulo Pinheiro Lars Geschwind Hanne Foss Hansen Kirsi Pulkkinen, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 235-266Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Fahrman, Birgit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Norström, Per
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Learning in Engineering Sciences.
    Gumaelius, Lena
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Skogh, Inga-Britt
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Experienced technology teachers' teaching practices2019In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers' teaching practice plays a key role in the learning process of pupils, and for teaching to be successful, teachers must have knowledge in many different fields. This obviously also applies to teaching the subject technology. However, lower secondary school technology education in Sweden has reportedly been described in terms of teaching not following the curriculum along with widespread uncertainty among teachers regarding how to design their teaching practices. To address this national challenge, we need to understand the existing technology teaching practice. The purpose of this study is therefore to explore the considerations experienced technology teachers make. The study is based on interviews with technology teachers who work in lower secondary school (13--15-year-old pupils). The collected data consist of teacher's statements regarding their own expertise and teaching practice. To visualize the described teaching practice we have analysed collected data through the lens of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The results show both similarities and differences in the teachers' descriptions. Speaking in terms of PCK, the purpose and teaching focus expressed by the respondents, framed within the category `Orientations to teach technology', vary considerably. However, regarding `instructional strategies', the consensus among those experienced teachers is striking. Experienced technology teachers' teaching practices are proven to provide valuable information about the subject's potential, and the findings offer a basis for the future development of the subject of technology as well as future teacher education and professional development courses.

  • 26. Lind, Jonas Krog
    et al.
    Hernes, Helge
    Pulkkinen, Kirsi
    Söderlind, Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    External Research Funding and Authority Relations2019In: Reforms, Organizational Change and Performance in Higher Education: A Comparative Account from the Nordic Countries / [ed] Rómulo Pinheiro, Lars Geschwind, Hanne Foss Hansen, Kirsi Pulkkinen, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 145-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Hedvall, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lindberg, Helena
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Future perspectives on Challenge Driven Education: Challenging how we perceive and engage external stakeholders in Tanzania and Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The engineering education has changed and evolved over decades in harmonywith societies challenges. Today, sustainable development is of great importanceand one way of equipping future engineers with the competencies to tackle these challenges is through Challenge Driven Education (CDE). CDE is a relatively new educational concept which brings together universities andexternal stakeholders to jointly foster the engineers of tomorrow. The research focuses on the challenge owner’s perspective, which is a sub-category of external stakeholder. The challenge owner could be a company or organisation providing the students with challenges and also takes an active role in the students path to solve them. Through qualitative interviews in Sweden and Tanzania this study investigates some aspects of the CDE concept and develops a product in the form of a guide.First, it was investigated which competencies for sustainability that could be considered important in future engineers, according to interviewees. It was also investigated which competencies were developed during CDE projects. Results show that UNESCO’s key competencies correlates well with interviewees views, justifying the legitimacy of the framework. However, some skills and attributes mentioned in interviews lie outside of UNESCO’s framework but where still considered important. This implies the need to supplement orevolve the framework in order to be a more comprehensive tool for improving CDE and the engineering education.

    Secondly, several differences on how CDE is portrayed and executed where found in the interviews. From the Tanzanian context a somewhat limited view of the challenge owner was identified and findings show possibilities of broadening the perspective of the challenge owner role. Also, findings shows a need to emphasise the importance of sustainable development and societal contributions in the future development of CDE. Lastly, in order to facilitate communication with potential challenge owners in future CDE collaborations in Tanzania, the need for a guide was identified. Using an iterative design method, a guide based on interviewees feedback and the findings from this study was created. The main purpose is to present a widened view of CDE and to inspire potential challenge owners to join.

  • 28.
    Geschwind, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning. KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Organisation and leadership.
    Hansen, Hanne Foss
    Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pinheiro, Romulo
    Department of Political Science & Management, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Pulkkinen, Kirsi
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Governing Performance in the Nordic Universities: Where Are We Heading and What Have We Learned?2019In: Reforms, Organizational Change and Performance in Higher Education: A Comparative Account from the Nordic Countries / [ed] Rómulo Pinheiro Lars Geschwind Hanne Foss Hansen Kirsi Pulkkinen, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, 1, p. 269-299Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Kidwell, Ann-Sofie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Gymnasieelevers uppfattningar om negativa tal och vilka strategier som synliggörs i deras beräkningar: En fenomenografisk studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From an early age we learn to use positive numbers. We can put two numbers together and get a bigger number or subtract a number from another to get a smaller number. For example,young children learn that two plus two apples will be four apples and that if you have three pears and remove two you have one pear left. It is easy to visualize the numbers in front of you. Something that is not as obvious is calculations such four minus five. How can one have four pears and subtract five? Negative numbers rarely appear in everyday problems, but it is still something we are required to learn in school.

    The purpose of the work described in this report is to examine the upper secondary school pupils' perceptions of negative numbers and as the theoretical framework a phenomenographic approach is used. To find out what different perceptions pupils may have about negative numbers, eight pupils were interviewed. They were all in their second year in upper secondary school and study mathematics at the (Swedish) level 2b. The survey intended to answer the following question: How do upper secondary school students perceive negative numbers and what strategies are made visible in their calculations? What different categories of descriptions about negative numbers can be distinguished? A qualitative study was preformed of the collected material using a phenomenographic analysis.

    After the analysis, five distinctly different description categories could be distinguished, where all categories, except the last one, results in the student using some form of strategy as help when performing calculations containing negative numbers: (1) Minus minus becomes plus, (2) Negative numbers are explained by metaphors, (3) Calculations become easier if the terms in an expression are moved around, (4) Negative numbers are on the other side zero, and (5) Experience of uncertainty about negative numbers.

    The results can help math teachers understand the challenges students face when calculating with negative numbers. For example, the pupils do not think it is natural or enough to describe a number as negative, which may be because they are used to mathematics which can beexplained by concrete examples. This is something that math teacher should be aware of.

  • 30.
    Saleem, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Ye, Julia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Gymnasielärares syn på matematisk problemlösning och läroböckers presentationer av problemlösning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During our VFU periods in upper secondary school, we have observed that different mathematics teachers work in different ways when it comes to problem solving. This may be due to the teacher's approach to the mathematical problem solving and which textbook the teacher chooses to use in his or her teaching.The purpose of this study is to address the various factors that make the teacher work with problem solving in a certain way, examine what teaching aids the teacher is using and why the teacher chooses to use a particular teaching material.We did a qualitative study where we sent out a digital questionnaire to three high school teachers where they had to answer questions regarding their thoughts and approaches to problem solving in mathematics in high school. Furthermore, literature (mathematical textbooks) were examined to see how these handle the issues we asked teachers: we studied the textbooks’ view of mathematical problem solving and compared it to the mathematical teachers’ perspective on problem solving.After a thorough analysis with discussion and investigation, we have in this study been able to draw the following conclusions: the majority of teachers choose to teach through a mathematical textbook, following a solution procedure.

  • 31.
    Mikaelsson, Tobias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Gymnasiematematik under sommaren: Elevers uppfattningar om sommarskola2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summer schools in Sweden are used to achieve a pass grade for those students who have not achieved a pass grade during the regular school. There are statistics on how many people go to summer school, and how many people achieve pass grades, but there is very little research on what kind of teaching and learning takes place at summer schools. The purpose of this thesis is to gain better knowledge of mathematics teaching at summer schools, what learning is made possible there and students' perceptions of their learning. A qualitative study of mathematics teaching at a summer school in Sweden has been performed, where the data consists of interviews, observations and a written evaluation. Thematic analysis has been used to find patterns within the study data. The analysis results indicate that the students' work effort is much better at summer school compared to the regular school and is also perceived by the students themselves as much better because of higher motivation and a better study environment. This higher motivation can be related to the students having a short and clear objective.

  • 32.
    Nordlöf, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Engström, Susanne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    How teachers value skills and content in Technology teaching in Swedishcompulsory school – a “climate” change2019In: PATT 37 Developing a knowledge economythroughtechnology and engineering education / [ed] Sarah Pulé and Marc J. de Vries, eds, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish curricula, Technology is described in terms of five skills and core content divided into three areas. In this paper, we interpret and define the three areas of core content, founded on different scientific base areas (SBA): (1) Engineering science, (2) Developing and making and (3) Human, society and environment.The SBA-model is based on the Swedish Technology curriculum and is constructed with inspiration from previous research in natural science education (Östman, 1995); with relation to the philosophy of technology knowledge (e.g., Ropohl, 1997) and to technology education; in curriculum emphasis (Klasander, 2010), in different views of technology among students (DiGironimo, 2011).Technology has developed from being a vocational subject to a broader, complex and comprehensive subject. Evaluations show that teachers in Sweden have difficulties in interpreting the content of the whole subject and its skills. During the autumn and winter 2018-2019, CETIS developed a material for inspiration of teachers, which shows the width of the subject including skills, content and time consumption. In the present study, we showed the material to about 130 teachers. We asked them to discuss it in groups and to fill in a form. In the form, they were asked to value the five skills of technology, based on how important they rate the skills in comparison to each other. They could also express their opinions of the material. We analysed their values of the skills and their opinions about content in relation to SBA. The result shows that the teachers focus on SBA 2 Developing and making and SBA 3 Human, society and environment when they teach Technology. Compared to previous studies, the focus in teaching is transferred towards social and environmental aspects

  • 33.
    Jägbrandt, Sanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lindqvist, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Höja kompetens och medvetenhet inom miljöfrågor: En utveckling av ett utbildningsmaterial för Sandvik AB2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sandvik AB conducts a business which can cause harm on the environment as well onthe human health. In order to decrease these disturbances, the company is controlled by legal requirements and regulations. The company strives against the vision “we set the industry standard” which can be interpreted as if they aim to exceed the legal requirements, also in the sustainability area. These intentions seek to make the company a leading actor in the field. At Sandvik in Sandviken attention was paid to the need of an  environmental education, in order to ensure the continuous environmental work of the company. But also, to be able to meet the requirements and increase the knowledge and competences of the employees. This would be done to support the company’s continued work towards becoming competitive, both against customers and the labor market.

    The project was aiming to create an image and understanding of the employees’ knowledge and competencies in the external environment. At first, a study was conducted to form the basis of the product which has been developed in the form of an educational material. To complete the study, interviews have been held with employees whose duties include responsibility for environmental work at their unit. A thematical analysis has been done based on the interview material, using the didactic questions what, why, for whom and how. In the analysis of the interviews, themes emerge for what an environmental education for the company should contain, why this content is relevant and why an environmental training is needed. The analysis also showed who is working at the company, their prerequisites and how an environmental training could be carried out.

    According to the product development process the result of the study, together with documents and literature studies and focus group interviews with employees has been the basis for the educational material. The proposal presented is divided into six different blocks (introduction, waste, energy, water and sewage, emissions to air together with noise and emissions to land) which all deal with environmental aspects that have emerged as important in the study. The blocks are recommended to be carried out one at a time, continuously for a long time. In addition, it is proposed to focus on the participants’ interaction with each other to promote learning.

  • 34.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Stenbom, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Benjaminsson, Simon
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning. Smartera AB.
    Jansson, Malin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Identifying and exploring the effects of different types of tutor questions in individual online synchronous tutoring in mathematics2019In: Interactive Learning Environments, ISSN 1049-4820, E-ISSN 1744-5191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although we know that asking questions is an essential aspect of onlinetutoring, there is limited research on this topic. The aim of this paperwas to identify commonly used direct question types and explore theeffects of using these question types on conversation intensity, approachto tutoring, perceived satisfaction and perceived learning. The researchsetting was individual online synchronous tutoring in mathematics. Theempirical data was based on 13,317 logged conversations and aquestionnaire. The tutors used a mix of open, more student-centredquestions, and closed, more teacher-centred questions. In contrast toprevious research, this study provides a more positive account indicatingthat it is indeed possible to train tutors to focus on asking questions,rather than delivering content. Frequent use of many of the questiontypes contributed to increased conversation intensity. However, therewere few question types that were associated with statisticallysignificant effects on perceived satisfaction or learning. There are nosilver bullet question types that by themselves led to positive effects onperceived satisfaction and learning. The question types could be used byteachers and teacher students when reflecting on what types ofquestions they are asking, and what kind of questions they could be asking.

  • 35.
    Brunday, Helene
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Imitera mera: nyttan av färdiga exempellösningar i matematikundervisning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been conducted due to the need of a boost of the Swedish school's mathematics education. The aim has been to be able to show an idea of how high school mathematics education can be customized as a result of an extended and more targeted use of sample solutions. This has been done by introducing an alternative teaching method into two classes at a secondary school in Stockholm. The students has then performed mathematical tests with and/or without the alternative teaching method. In addition to mathematical tests, interviews and surveys have been conducted. The results of the study indicate that students' performance increase when teaching with sample solutions. Furthermore, the study points out that those who are most successful in raising their mathematical results often are the students who usually perform the weakest in regular education. The study also shows that students with different academic background appreciate to work with sample solutions, and can find their own way in how to use them. To summarize, this work indicates that sample solutions can be used as an element in mathematics education, for example, when introducing new procedures or theories in order to easier and less time-consuming provide students with the support they need and require.

  • 36.
    Wallin, Pontus
    et al.
    Swedish Institute for Educational Research.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Fejes, Andreas
    Linköping University.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Stockholm University.
    Individanpassad vuxenutbildning: Med fokus på digitala verktyg2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Ekman Rising, Marianne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Geschwind, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lindgren, Monica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Organization and management. Sevenday.
    Instrumentalisation of academic work: Creeping, myopic and individualising processes and their consequences2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Amcoff-Nyström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University.
    Interaction and group work in blended synchronous higher education: exploring effects on learning outcomes, satisfaction and retention2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Fall, Emmeli
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Kirsch, David
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Koden först: Utformning av ett induktivt introduktionsmoment iprogrammering på Tekniskt basår med bakgrund iidentifierade svårigheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018, programming became an integral part of mathematics education in Sweden. However, the choice of how to integrate it with the curriculum remains a decision of the teacher. Consequently, teachers at KTH’s Technical Preparatory Year announced a master’s degree project aiming to design programming labs in mathematics for students attending the program during 2018/2019. The degree project was reformulated to focus on introducing programming without the mathematical context. The aim of this master thesis was to pinpoint earlier students’ difficulties during theintroductory course in programming of their engineering program at KTH. These difficulties would later be the basis of the programming introduction for the current Technical Preparatory Year students. A review of the research literature on the learning of programming identified a number of common areas of concern. In order to collect data to identify our prior students’ difficulties a survey was designed. The data collected in the survey was then categorized through a thematic analysis.The results indicated seven themes of difficulties: abstract, complex, theory, work procedure, programming courses, new and miscellaneous. The results are similar to those found in prior categorizations of programming difficulties. Taking these themes into consideration, a suggestion of the content for the introduction was presented based on ideas from inductive learning and problem based learning. Future research should focus on determining whether the introduction dealt with the difficulties and what the effects were. Furthermore, future research could develop the material for the introduction, in particular how students are assessed.

  • 40.
    Malkki, Pertti
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Kreativitet och fysik: En kvalitativ studie om gymnasieelevers uppfattningar om kreativitet i fysikoch förslag på förbättringar2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Kuniholm, Johanna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Kunimodellen: En utbildningsmodell för signaltekniker på Roslagsbanan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to find and solve signal failures in Roslagsbanan in Stockholm, it is important that the maintenance technicians working with the signalling system has the right knowledge and feel confident with how the system works. One part of the safety system at Roslagsbanan is called ATC (automatic train control) which sends information to the train driver about where adjacent trains are located and how upcoming signals, switches and road crossing barriers are set. The ATC also interferes by applying brakes if the driver does not stop at a stop signal. To make troubleshooting of the ATC system more efficient, the company maintaining the signalling system, tracks and power supply at Roslagsbanan, Strukton Rail AB, would like to further educate their maintenance technicians. They want a model for training sessions in troubleshooting that can be used with training equipment and can be applied to other technical systems. To create this model my research questions were ”What could a pedagogical model for troubleshooting education on the safety system ATC at Roslagsbanan look like? How does the model affect the participants’ activity compared to other education sessions in the railway business?”. It was important to Strukton that participants should be active and cooperate with each other during the session. After reading about the sociocultural perspective on learning, accelerated learning and workplace learning and also conducting interviews with two technicians at Strukton and two teachers in other parts of the railway business to hear what they value as good education, I created an educational model for in-service training of the signalling system ATC, named the Kuni model.

    The model is based on participants solving troubleshooting cases together. An education session starts with an overview of the system that can vary in detail depending on the participants’ previous knowledge. Then the participants solve cases by discussing in groups and agreeing on a plan on how they should troubleshoot, and then try their plan on the test equipment where the error is planted. Depending on their need for education and the available time, they can get a different number of cases on different levels, but the cases should try to cover as many of the system’s components as possible. At the end of the session there is time for reflection where the participants tell each other what they have learnt. To get a measurable indication of if the participants have learned anything, they fill out a questionnaire just before and just after the education with questions on how confident they feel troubleshooting the different components. Two such sessions were held with the Kuni model, each with two cases to solve, for a total of seven participants. To measure participant activity, I filled out an observation form for 20 minutes per hour where I registered whether each participant had spoken or not for 40 intervals of 30 seconds each, which I also did at two other training sessions that signalling technicians attend to get a control group. Additionally, I conducted group interviews with the participants after the sessions to see what they thought of the model and what could be improved.

    The results from the interviews show that the participants were content and thought it was a good model to work with, but that some technical information about the test equipment that exists in the real world was missing. They also wanted more detailed information in the initial overview with focus on, among other things, why the ATC system exists. The participants’ self-estimated confidence in troubleshooting increased after the session, but they were not significantly more active during training with the Kuni model than the control groups. The Kuni model itself did not change very much between sessions. The results should however only be seen as indications due to the small number of participants, the participants not necessarily being representative for the whole group and since all people interviewed knew me when I interviewed them.

  • 42.
    Stolpe, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Atterström, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Kunskapsöverföring som verktygför implementering avhållbarhetsarbete: En fallstudie inom järnvägsprojekt2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is a concept that is used frequently in various contexts and isbecoming increasingly popular. In the UN global Agenda 2030, 17 sustainable development goals are described as an attempt to concretise what should be worked towards in order to create sustainable development. There is a shared responsibility for achieving the goals and thus requires commitment from most actors, including the business community. However, implementation of sustainability has been proved challenging for project based organizations too because of the difficulties in transferring knowledge between projects. Strategies for implementing sustainability often relies on the assumption that sufficient level of knowledge is present within the workforce. Hence an important factor is to establish functional processes for knowledge management regarding sustainability. There is great potential in utilizing and transferring employees' knowledge to become successful in the market.

    The purpose of the study is to analyze and evaluate knowledge management regarding sustainability in a project based organization in order to find strengths and weaknesses and thereby highlight how knowledge management can affect sustainability work within railway projects.

    In order to achieve the purpose of the study, a case study has been done within a project organization, which in the report is referred to as the Company. A document study, a survey and various forms of interviews have been carried out with employees from different parts of the Company. The result has been analyzed using a theoretical framework based on theories of knowledge, levels of knowledge, knowledge management, implementation of sustainability work and project based organizations.

    The result shows that organized efforts of knowledge management to some extent enables co-workers to implement sustainable development aspects in their individual work. According to the study, concretization of sustainability in the specific context of railway projects is one of the most important factors in order to achieve successful implementation. There is also a connection between efforts of knowledge management and individual level of knowledge concerning sustainability, since the result shows that co-workers whose been participating in activities related to knowledge transfer also have higher level of knowledge about sustainability. According to this, the result indicates that organized efforts of knowledge management seem to increase individual’s level of knowledge and their ability to implement sustainable development aspects into their work.

  • 43.
    Artjomenkov, Nikolai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Laborativt arbete inom fourieranalys och motivation till matematikinlärning: Utvärdering och vidareutveckling av en laboration inom fourieranalys och ljudbehandling vid Vetenskapens Hus2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the ability of a lab exercise in House of Science (Vetenskapens Hus),Stockholm, to create bridges between upper-secondary school students’ knowledge, university mathematics and practical application of that knowledge, thus increasing their motivation and interest to learn more mathematics and physics. The topic of the lab exercise is Fourier analysis and its practical application in Digital Sound Processing (DSP). The lab exercise deals with mathematics, physics and IT-technology thus making the activity interdisciplinary.

    An important part of the work is also to improve this lab exercise based on the results of this study. The result is based on qualitative data from interviews, questionnaires filled by students and their teachers and also on literature studies. Some data is also collected through an iterative process of improving the lab exercise.

    This report starts with justification for conducting this work, setting the goals and objectives and formulating main questions. Then the methods, which were used in order to answer these questions, are described. The middle part of the report summarizes literature and research studies in education, interest and motivation of students and also summarizes a scientific basis for the content of the school program in Fourier analysis. Next, the development process of the school program is described. This is followed by a presentationof the results of testing the school program with upper secondary school students with regard to how their interest and motivation are affected by it. The report ends with a discussion of these results and its credibility.

    The result shows that the final version of the lab exercise, that is modified within the framework of this study, wakes students’ interest and motivation towards the topic of the exercise. The result also shows that some complex concepts (both new and those which are learned in school) become clearer for the students after the exercise which could potentiallylead to an increase in their motivation for learning the mathematics and physics in general. The problem is that the lab exercise was tested on too few classes for being able to generalize the result over the whole target group of the upper-secondary school students.

  • 44.
    Hektor, Matilda
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Livsberättelser åskådliggör minnen om erfarenheter av och uppfattningar om matematik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out how students´ memories about their experiences of mathematics teaching influence their perception of mathematics as subject and mathematics teaching, and if these perceptions can be connected to the chosen learning theories: a socio-cultural, a cognitive and a behavioral learning theory. Another aim of this report is to describe positive and negative positions in relation to the mathematics as subject and mathematics teaching based on students' stories about mathematics teaching.

    The research issues for this study are:

    - How have students´ memories of their experiences contributed to their current perceptions of mathematics as subject?

    - How can students´ memories of their experiences in mathematics be explained according to selected learning theories?

    To obtain empirical data within the study, five individual interviews were conducted with students in 8th grade in a school outside Stockholm. The result is presented in different profiles for the students projected as life stories. The result shows that negative perceptions about the subject were often based on the fact that they did not understand how a task would be solved, and they therefore got stuck. Those who experienced the subject of mathematics negatively experienced that it was That it is easier to compare results and knowledge within mathematics than other subjects, as there often are only one correct answer. The result also shows that the main reason why the students developed a positive opinion in relation to the subject is that they have lived with the feeling that they are able to solve tasks without problems.

    The result also shows that the themes that could be distinguished life stories told by the students were relatable and able to interpret through more than one learning theory. Which may indicate that different theories can explain a good learning and how positive emotions develop to a topic and explain when there is not enough learning which can create knowledge gaps and the development of negative emotions on the subject.

  • 45.
    Gustafsson, Dan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lärares syn på problemformuleringar inom matematik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find and describe teachers’ perceptions of the wording of problems in mathematics tests and specifically how it affects pupil’s ability to present their knowledge at high school level.Interviews were conducted to obtain data for a thematic analysis in order to describe the perceptions of the teachers in these interviews. The empirical data consists of five interviews with high school teachers. Despite the small data set a clear picture is revealed of views and descriptions as such and their implications on students’ ability to show knowledge.

    The teachers perceive that that the wording has an important impact on the students’ ability to interpret or solve problems, i.e. has clear influence on results. They describe that it influences students. They will vary wordings in tests on purpose and perceive that it is a part of the subject’s culture to do so. None of the interviewees try conscientiously to specifically explain for the students how wording should be understood, thus not teached. None of the teachers can recall wording of problems being a part of their educations to become teacher (not included in education of teachers). It emerged as well a perception of ambivalence, e.g. it impacts more weaker students, one is supposed to vary but does not teach how to interpret.

  • 46.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lärares uppfattningar om införandet av programmering i gymnasieskolans matematikämne2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Computers and other digital technology are becoming increasingly important in our society. Due to that, the Swedish Government has instructed their National Agency for Education to strengthen the students' digital competence. One outcome of this was that programming become a part of teaching mathematics both in primary and upper secondary school. Programming is not a part of the mandatory studies needed to become a certified mathematics teacher.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the ideas, attitudes and ideas of mathematics teachers that have arisen because of the National Agency for Education's revision of the curricula in mathematics. According to this revision of the curricula, students should use programming as a problem-solving tool.

    The basis for this study is a transcription of qualitative interviews with ten mathematics teachers and an examination of previous research. This study found that there was some concern among the teachers. Most of the concern was about lack of knowledge in programming. The majority of teachers preferred to use Excel and Geogebra as a digital tool to teach programming. Many teachers expressed spontaneously a general dissatisfaction with the impact that calculators already have in mathematics education. There was some dissatisfaction with the introduction of this new requirement at very short notice. Many teachers expected and trusted that the textbook authors would come up with an update of the textbooks in mathematics. An update that would thus solve their new educational challenge.

  • 47.
    Söderlind, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Geschwind, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Making sense of academic work: the influence of performance measurement in Swedish universities2019In: Policy Reviews in Higher Education, ISSN 2332-2969, p. 75-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on data from interviews conducted with 14 academic managers at two Swedish universities, this article investigates the consequences of the increasing prevalence of performance measurement in the higher education sector. The study contributes to the discussion of how performance measurement impacts academic work, focusing specifically on its influence on how meaning is created and recreated by academic managers. By applying the sensemaking perspective, as proposed by Weick ([1995. Sensemaking in Organizations. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications]), the article explores seven properties of the sensemaking process. The study results demonstrate the influence of metrics on the process by which managers give meaning to academic work. Performance measures are interpreted by academic managers as important in acquiring resources, supporting decision-making, and enhancing organisational legitimacy. They also reinforce social scripts of competition and success, although they are often understood as being unable to indicate scientific quality. The consequence for sensemaking in teaching and research activities is that measurable performance is understood to be increasingly important. However, a notable finding from the study is that the managers are aware of how metrics promote specific forms of academic work and often attempt to balance these incentives by acknowledging the values and priorities that these metrics are unable to assess. This finding highlights the important role of academic managers as they counteract some of the pressure caused by various performance measures.

  • 48.
    Ödborn Jönsson, Linnéa
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Mapping re-growth following chemotherapy in high-risk neuroblastoma: The research process in laboratory work2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study is to study characteristics of high-risk cancer cells within the childhood disease neuroblastoma (NB) by mapping regrowth after treatment with the chemotherapy doxorubicin (doxo). The cell-line SK-N-BE(2)-C (BE(2)-C) was used as a model. Results from a previous study by Hultman et al., (2018) have indicated that while a majority of BE(2)-C cells could be shown resilient to a 1 μM dose of doxorubicin (doxo), only a very small fractions had the capacity for immediate replication following a single or double treatment of doxo (“remaining replicating cells”; RRC). The current study aims to investigate if RRC are responsible for regrowth. Cultured BE(2)-C cells were exposed to doxo and labelled with the nucleoside analogues EdU (5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine) and BrdU (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine). The results from the current study indicated that the RRC subpopulation might not be responsible for regrowth since the nucleoside labelling was not shown to be present in the cells of the regrowing colonies. However, technical challenges, e.g. the settings of thresholds for EdU and BrdU detection, in combination with the dilution of DNA markers in replication, call for further studies using additional methods, e.g. isotope markers, in order to firmly conclude that other subpopulation(s) than the RRC population are responsible for regrowth.

    Apart from studying cell populations responsible for regrowth, a pilot study was performed including another combination of treatment using an ATM-inhibitor (KU-60019) together with the chemotherapy doxo. There were some measurement points missing, but the current results indicate that regrowth is postponed when the ATM-inhibitor is added in combination with single or double treatment of doxo.

    The research procedures and processes involved in this thesis, are similar to those included in the syllabi for the natural science subjects for the upper secondary school. This underlines the importance of studying inquiry and laboratory work. A literature review was performed, analysing current research on open-and closed ended laboratory work. Ten research articles were collected and characterized by natural science subject, type of laboratory style (open or closed) and student learning competences. Findings from the current study indicate that open-ended laboratory work promotes student interest in the subject. The learning competences problem-solving ability and procedure ability are most commonly studied in laboratory work based on the results from the current study.

  • 49.
    Rosén, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Edström, Kristina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Grøm, Audun
    Gumaelius, Lena
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Munkebo Hussmann, Peter
    Högfeldt, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Karvinen, Meeri
    Keskinen, Marko
    Knutson Wedel, Maria
    Lundqvist, Ulrika
    Lyng, Reidar
    Malmqvist, Johan
    Nygaard, Mads
    Vigild, Martin
    Fruergaard Astrup, Thomas
    Mapping the CDIO Syllabus to the UNESCO key competencies for sustainability2019In: Proceedings of the 15th International CDIO Conference, Aarhus University, June 25-27, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a framework of key competencies for sustainability defined by UNESCO is used to evaluate the relevance of the CDIO Syllabus for promoting engineering education for sustainable development. The evaluation is performed in two steps. First, topics, terms and concepts in the CDIO Syllabus that corresponds to the different UNESCO key competencies are identified. The second step is a qualitative discussion where areas of strong mapping are highlighted and aspects that could be better visualized or strengthened in, or added to, the Syllabus are identified. Differences in definitions of various concepts between the CDIO Syllabus and the UNESCO key competencies and the overall relation between the two frameworks are discussed. It is concluded that the CDIO Syllabus is rather well aligned with the UNESCO framework, however several opportunities (not to say needs) for strengthening the Syllabus in relation to the key competencies are identified. The UNESCO key competencies are found to be useful instruments for scrutinizing and updating the CDIO Syllabus. Other opportunities for knowledge and methods transfer between the Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) domain and the Engineering Education domain are identified. The paper is proposed to be used as basis for updating the CDIO Syllabus into a version 3.0 for maintaining its relevance in a changing world.

  • 50.
    Berggren, Ebba
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Seery, Niall
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Weurlander, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Master students’ experiences of using Design Thinking for solving an authentic challenge2019Conference paper (Refereed)
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