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  • 1.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Mendoza, David S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Radiom, Soheil
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Gielen, Georges
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    A remote-powered RFID tag with 10Mb/s UWB Uplink and -18.5dBm sensitivity UHF downlink in 0.18μm CMOS2009In: Digest of technical papers / IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, ISSN 0193-6530, p. 198-199,199aArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a 10 Mb/s impulse UWB RFID tag in 0.18 mum CMOS is presented. The tag is remotely powered by a UHF signal with a minimum input RF power as low as 14.1 muW. The primary innovation is to employ two different communication links (UWB and UHF) respectively in the uplink and downlink of the tag. This is because the amount of data or instructions from a reader to a tag is small and as a result a conventional UHF-RFID link at 900MHz can be used as the downlink. The UHF signal also provides remote power to the tag. The uplink requires higher data rates and precise positioning capability therefore an l-UWB transmitter is employed.

  • 2.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Mendoza, David S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Enabling Ubiquitous Wireless Sensing by a Novel RFID-Based UWB Module2007In: The First International EURASIP Workshop on RFID Technology, RFID 2007, 24-25 September 2007, Vienna, Austria, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a novel passive CMOS module which uses two different standards in uplink and downlink. It can be used in many applications such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), and ubiquitous wireless sensing. Such as conventional RFID systems, the module captures power supply from received RF signal transmitted by a reader and extracts data and clock by using an envelope detector and PIE encoder. However, in uplink instead of back scattering, an Impulse-UWB transmitter is used to improve the system performance and throughput. The UWB communication offers several advantages to the system. A new communication protocol is proposed for the system based on slotted-ALOHA anti-collision algorithm. The module consisting of a power management unit, an RF narrowband receiver, a clock management unit, an IR-UWB transmitter, and a digital baseband are designed in 0.18 CMOS process.

  • 3.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    A novel passive tag with asymmetric wireless link for RFID and WSN applications2007In: 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS: VOLS 1-11, 2007, p. 1593-1596Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a radio-powered module with asymmetric wireless link utilizing ultra wideband radio system for RFID and wireless sensor applications. Our contribution includes using two different standards in uplink and downlink. Such as conventional RFIDs, incoming RF signal transmitted by reader is used to power the internal circuitry and receive the data. However, in upstream link, an IR-UWB transmitter is utilized. Unlike traditional RFID systems, due to great advantages of UWB communication, this tag is very robust to multi-path fading and collision problem and it is more secure against eavesdropping or jamming. The module consists of a power scavenging unit, a RF receiver, an IR-UWB transmitter, digital baseband controller, and an embedded UWB antenna are designed for integration on Liquid-Crystal Polymer (LCP) substrate, using 0.18um CMOS process technology.

  • 4. Bao, D.
    et al.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Huan, Y.
    Zhai, Chuanying
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Bagaian, T.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Källbäck, B.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai, China .
    A smart catheter system for minimally invasive brain monitoring2015In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices, SciTePress, 2015, p. 198-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates a smart catheter system with intracranial pressure (ICP) and temperature sensing capability which is designed for real-time monitoring in traumatic brain injury (TBI) therapy. It uses a single flexible catheter with a 1 mm (3 Fr) diameter that integrates electrodes and sophisticated silicon chip on flexible substrates, enabling multimodality monitoring of physiological signals. A micro-electromechanical-system (MEMS) catheter pressure sensor is mounted on the distal end. It can be used for detecting both pressure and temperature by different switch configurations, which minimizes the size of catheter and reduces the cost. The interconnects (signalling conductors) are printed on a bio-compatible flexible substrate, and the sensor is interfaced with an embedded electronic system at the far-end. The electronic system consists of analog front end with analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a microcontroller, and data interface to the hospital infrastructure with a graphical user interface (GUI). The overall smart catheter system achieves a pressure sensing root mean square error (RMSE) of ±1.5 mmHg measured from 20 mmHg to 300 mmHg above 1 atm and a temperature sensing RMSE of ±0.08°C measured from 32°C to 42°C. The sampling rate can be up to 10S/s. The in vivo performance is demonstrated in laboratory animals.

  • 5. Bao, D.
    et al.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Wang, Q.
    Nejad, Majid Baghaei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Fudan University, China.
    A wirelessly-powered UWB sensor tag with time-domain sensor interface2014In: Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2014, p. 2503-2506Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a wirelessly-powered sensor tag with a time-domain sensor interface for wireless sensing applications. The tag is remotely powered by RF wave. Instead of traditional approaches employing conventional ADCs for quantization and transmitter for data communication, in this work, a Pulse Position Modulator incorporating simple impulse radio UWB (IR-UWB) transmitter is proposed to convert and transmit the analog sensing information in time domain. The analog signal is compared with an adjustable triangular wave for analog to time conversion in signal-varying environments. Then a UWB transmitter converts the PPM signal to very short pulses and sends it back to the reader. The time interval of UWB pulses represents the original input signal in time domain which can be measured on the reader side by a time-to-digital conversion. This approach not only simplifies the ADC design but also relaxes the number of bits transmitted on the tag side. The sensor tag is designed in 180nm CMOS process. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach reduce transmission power consumption by nearly 3 orders of magnitude over traditional approaches, while consuming only 85 μW for 1.5 MS/s sampling rate.

  • 6. Huan, Y.
    et al.
    Qin, Y.
    You, Yantian
    KTH.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. Fudan University, China.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH. Fudan University, China.
    A multiplication reduction technique with near-zero approximation for embedded learning in IoT devices2017In: International System on Chip Conference, IEEE Computer Society , 2017, p. 102-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a multiplication reduction technique through near-zero approximation, enabling embedded learning in resource-constrained IoT devices. The intrinsic resilience of neural network and the sparsity of data are identified and utilized. Based on the analysis of leading zero counting and adjustable threshold, intentional approximation is applied to reduce near-zero multiplications. By setting the threshold of the multiplication result to 2-5 and employing ReLU as the neuron activation function, the sparsity of the CNN model can reach 75% with negligible loss in accuracy when recognizing the MNIST data set. Corresponding hardware implementation has been designed and simulated in UMC 65nm process. It can achieve more than 70% improvement of energy efficiency with only 0.37% area overhead of a 256 Multiply-Accumulator array.

  • 7. Huan, Yuxiang
    et al.
    Ma, Ning
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Blixt, Stefan
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    A 61 μa/MHz reconfigurable application-specific processor and system-on-chip for Internet-of-Things2016In: International System on Chip Conference, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 235-239Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a SoC design that combines general purpose control and application-specific acceleration within a reconfigurable ASIP core for Internet-of-Things applications. Sufficient processing capability and re-configurability are provided by highly customizable data path and efficient sequence control loop. By fully utilizing the data path of proposed architecture, the processor significantly reduces >4X code size and offers superior performance compared with MSP430 and Atmega128 in FIR and Whetstone benchmarks. More than 10X speedup can be obtained in executing encryption algorithms by optimized micro-instructions without extra hardware accelerators. Fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS, our SoC's energy efficiency beats most of the microcontrollers with a value as low as 61 μA/MHz.

  • 8.
    Huan, Yuxiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits. Fudan University, China.
    Ma, Ning
    Mao, Jia
    Blixt, Stefan
    Lu, Zhonghai
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH. Fudan University, China.
    Zheng, Li-rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits. Fudan University, China.
    A 101.4 GOPS/W Reconfigurable and Scalable Control-Centric Embedded Processor for Domain-Specific Applications2016In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Part 1: Regular Papers, ISSN 1549-8328, E-ISSN 1558-0806, Vol. 63, no 12, p. 2245-2256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adapting the processor to the target application is essential in the Internet-of-Things (IoT), and thus requires customizability in order to improve energy efficiency and scalability to provide sufficient performance. In this paper, a reconfigurable and scalable control-centric architecture is proposed, and a processor consisting of two cores and an on-chip multi-mode router is implemented. Reconfigurability is enabled by a programmable sequence mapping table (SMT) which reorganizes functional units in each cycle, thus increasing hardware utilization and reducing excessive data movement for high energy efficiency. The router facilitates both wormhole and circuit switching to construct intra- or inter-chip interconnections, providing scalable performance. Fabricated in a 65-nm process, the chip exhibits 101.4 GOPS/W energy efficiency with a die size of 3.5 mm(2). The processor carries out general-purpose processing with a code size 29% smaller than the ARM Cortex M4, and improves the performance of application-specific processing by over ten times when implementing AES and RSA using SMTs instead of general-purpose C. By utilizing the on-chip router, the processor can be interconnected up to 256 nodes, with a single link bandwidth of 1.4 Gbps.

  • 9. Isfahani, S. M. M.
    et al.
    Kazerouni, I. A.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    An ultra-low power multi-tunable triangle wave generator with frequency and amplitude control2010In:  , 2010, p. 236-239Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     ultra-low power adjustable triangle wave generator with a multi tunable amplitude and frequency is introduced in this paper. The proposed circuit consists of a Schmitt trigger and a current source. The overall nonlinearity of the TWG circuit is less than 2% in its current-to-frequency transfer characteristic. The tunable frequency and amplitude range are 10KHz to 40KHz and 0.1V-1.7V respectively. The topology is suitable for VLSI realization and can be used in the WINeR system.

  • 10. Jin, Y.
    et al.
    Shen, Jue
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Nejad, M. B.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Fudan University, China.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Zheng, L.
    A Power management scheme for wirelessly-powered RFID tags with inkjet-printed display2017In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on RFID Technology and Application, RFID-TA 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 180-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work proposes a new power management scheme for wirelessly-powered UHF RFID tags with flexible inkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) display for human-to-device interaction. EC display on polyimide substrate is integrated at tag side to provide an ambient and direct human-to-device display interface. An aggressive duty-cycling power management scheme with dual supplies is designed to drive the EC display under the tag power budget in microwatt level through RF energy harvesting. In this scheme, energy for display refreshing is accumulated over multiple power management cycles. A single-pixel addressing scheme with minimal pixel size is proposed to further reduce display power and improve tag sensitivity by exploiting EC display bi-stability. The experimental results show that the EC display can be refreshed with the tag sensitivity of -10.5 dBm at 11.7 sec/cm2 update rate.

  • 11. Kazerouni, I. A.
    et al.
    Dehrizi, H. G.
    Isfahani, S. M. M.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    A 77 nW bioamplifier with a tunable bandwidth for neural recording systems2010In: IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, Proceedings, APCCAS, 2010, p. 36-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a low-power low-noise amplifier for neural recording and biomedical applications is presented. The frequency band of the amplifier is tunable. It has a gain of 28.3 dB. The low and the high cut-off frequency can be adjusted from 24 mHz to 30.6 Hz and 4.5 kHz to 7.47 kHz, respectively. The circuit is designed in 0.18μm CMOS process, and it consumes only 77.8 nW at 1.8V supply voltage. The simulation results show a 14.3μV input-referred noise corresponding to 1.32 efficiency factor (NEF). It is a great improvement compared with recent presented works in terms on power consumption and NEF which is vital in neural recording applications.

  • 12. Kianpour, I.
    et al.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    An 8-bit 166nw 11.25 kS/s 0.18um two-step-SAR ADC for RFID applications using novel DAC architecture2010In: 28th Norchip Conference, NORCHIP 2010, 2010, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SAR ADCs have been mostly used for moderate-speed, moderate-resolution applications that power consumption is one of the major concerns (e. g. RFID). Furthermore two-step ADCs are classified as high-speed, low to moderate-accuracy ADC. In this paper an ultra low power two-step-SAR ADC for RFID application is presented. Several techniques are used to further reduce the power consumption and relatively elevate the speed of the ADC. These techniques include a low power comparator with no static current and a dual-stage (Resistor-string / capacitive dividing) architecture as digital-to-analog converter (DAC). In this DAC architecture fine search will be performed by only two C and 15C capacitors which reduced the silicon area significantly. The circuit designed in 0.18um CMOS technology and simulations show that the 8-bit ADC, consumes almost 166nW at 11.25kS/s. The results show that the proposed ADC has higher speed with almost the same power consumption in comparison with its charge redistribution counterpart.

  • 13. Liu, L.
    et al.
    Jin, Y.
    Liu, Y.
    Ma, Ning
    KTH. Fudan University, China.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH. Fudan University, China.
    Zheng, L.
    Designing bio-inspired autonomous error-tolerant massively parallel computing architectures2017In: 30th IEEE International System on Chip Conference, SOCC 2017, IEEE Computer Society, 2017, p. 274-279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scalable and massively parallel computing systems composed of many processors, which are connected on chips that will become more and more complex and unreliable. This paper presents a bio-inspired error tolerance framework and three design principles based on the Autonomous Error Tolerant (AET) architecture. A nearby error perception mechanism is carefully designed to detect faults and an initiative evolutions strategy is studied to handle unrecoverable errors. A circuit backup mechanism is proposed for generating an effective way by setting the routing rules to bypass the failed link or node to achieve fault tolerance capabilities. The print circuit board (PCB) prototype is designed and implemented based on a reconfigurable and scalable control-centric dual-core embedded processor (ReSC). Different testing programs associating fault-detection or self-backup schemes and routing algorithms are explored in the platform. Experimental results show that error perceptron can detect the faults and reassign the task for other remaining free and healthy AET cell through Network-on-chip (NoC) when faults occur at the AET cell. The system can complete error recovery within 3 seconds, the paper shows the error-tolerant capability of the proposed architecture is better than the conventional multi-modular redundant system.

  • 14.
    Ma, Ning
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Blixt, Stefan
    Lu, Zhonghai
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics and Embedded Systems.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    A 2-mW Multi-mode Router Design with Dual-core Processor in 65 nm LL CMOS for Inter-silicon Communication2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Ma, Ning
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Lu, Zhonghai
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics and Embedded Systems.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Design and Implementation of Multi-mode Routers for Large-scale Inter-core Networks2016In: Integration, ISSN 0167-9260, E-ISSN 1872-7522, Vol. 53, p. 1-13Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructing on-chip or inter-silicon (inter-die/inter-chip) networks to connect multiple processors extends the system capability and scalability. It is a key issue to implement a flexible router that can fit into various application scenarios. This paper proposes a multi-mode adaptable router that can support both circuit and wormhole switching with supplying flexible working strategies for specific traffic patterns in diverse applications. The limitation of mono-mode switched routers is shown at first, followed by algorithm exploration in the proposed router for choosing the proper working strategy in a specific network. We then present the performance improvement when applying the mixed circuit/wormhole switching mode to different applications, and analyze the image decoding as a case study. The multi-mode router has been implemented with different configurations in a 65 nm CMOS technology. The one with 8-bit flit width is demonstrated together with a multi-core processor to show the feasibility. Working at 350 MHz, the average power consumption of the whole system is 22 mW.

  • 16.
    Ma, Ning
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Lu, Zhonghai
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics and Embedded Systems.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Implementing MVC Decoding on Homogeneous NoCs: Circuit Switching or Wormhole Switching2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To implement multiview video decoding on network on-chip (NoC) based homogeneous multicore architectures, the selection of switching techniques for routers is one of the most important aspects for design space exploration. Circuit switching and wormhole switching are two most feasible switching techniques for on-chip networks. To choose the suitable switching technique, we perform the comparison on decoding speed of the whole system, link utilization and delay between circuit switching and wormhole switching for implementing eight-view QVGA video decoding on 4 × 4 NoCs at 30 fps. The required link bandwidths are both around 800 Mbps with the similar network utilization and delay. We conclude that, to implement multiview video decoding on homogeneous NoCs, circuit switching is more suitable considering the similar performance and lower cost compared with wormhole switching.

  • 17.
    Ma, Ning
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Lu, Zhonghai
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Blixt, Stefan
    A Hierarchical Reconfigurable Micro-coded Multi-core Processor for IoT Applications2014In: 2014 9TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RECONFIGURABLE AND COMMUNICATION-CENTRIC SYSTEMS-ON-CHIP (RECOSOC), 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a micro-coded multi-core processor featuring reconfigurability and scalability with high energy efficiency for IoT domain-specific applications. By simplifying the control logic and removing the pipelines, the gate count of one core is minimized to 14 K. Meanwhile, all the hardware units are directly controlled and can be reorganized by the long microinstructions. High utilization of the hardware is thus achieved when designing the micro programs properly. Furthermore, both the ISAs for C and Java have been implemented by the micro programs to supply the general-purpose programmability. Besides, application-specific instructions can be further developed once higher performance is demanded in specific scenarios. Depending on the performance requirement, the activity and working strategies of the cores are adjustable. Moreover, several processors can be further connected to construct a network with the integrated router for even higher performance. As a case study, the AES encryption is implemented using both C and micro programs. More than 10 times of performance improvement is achieved when using micro programs on the single core, and 20 times on two cores.

  • 18.
    Ma, Ning
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Lu, Zhonghai
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics and Embedded Systems.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Huan, Yuxiang
    Blixt, Stefan
    A 101.4 GOPS/W Reconfigurable and Scalable Control-centric Embedded Processor for Domain-specific Applications2016In: Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, IEEE, 2016, p. 1746-1749Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the energy efficiency and performance while providing the customizability and scalability is vital for embedded processors adapting to domain-specific applications such as Internet of Things. In this paper, we proposed a reconfigurable and scalable control-centric architecture, and implemented the design consisting of two cores and an on-chip multi-mode router in 65 nm technology. The reconfigurability is enabled by the restructurable sequence mapping table (SMT) thus the reorganizable functional units. Owing to the integration of the multi-mode router, on-chip or inter-chip network for multi-/many-core computing can be composed for performance extension on demand even in the post-fabrication stage. Control-centric design simplifies the control logic, shrinks the non-functional units and orchestrates the operations to increase the hard are utilization and reduce the excessive data movement for high energy efficiency. As a result, the processor can both conduct general-purpose processing with 29% smaller code size and application-specific processing with over 10 times performance improvement when implementing AES by SMT. The dual-core processor consumes 19.7 μW/MHz with die size of 3.5 mm2. The achieved energy efficiency is 101.4GOPS/W.

  • 19.
    Mao, Jia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Sarmiento M., David
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Chen, Jian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Wang, Peng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    A 90nm CMOS UHF/UWB asymmetric transceiver for RFID readers2011In: European Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2011, p. 179-182Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an integrated asymmetric transceiver in 90nm CMOS technology for RFID reader. The proposed reader uses UHF transmitter to power up and inventory the tags. In the reverse link, a non-coherent Ultra-wide Band (UWB) receiver is deployed for data reception with high throughput and ranging capability. The transmitter delivers 160 kb/s ASK modulated data by an integrated modulator and a Digital Controlled Oscillator (DCO) in UHF band with 11% tuning range. The DCO consume 6 mW with 0.12 mm2 area. On the other side, adopting two integration channels, the 3-5 GHz energy detection receiver supports maximum 33 Mb/s data rate both in OOK and PPM modulations. The receiver front-end provides 59 dB voltage gain and 8.5 dB noise figure (NF). Measurement results shows that the receiver achieves an input sensitivity of -79 dBm at 10 Mb/s, with power consumption of 15.5 mW.

  • 20.
    Mao, Jia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Sarmiento, David
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Chen, Jun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Wang, P.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Jönsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Xu, L. D.
    Zheng, Li-rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. State Key Laboratory of ASICs and Systems, Fudan University.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. State Key Laboratory of ASICs and Systems, Fudan University.
    A hybrid reader tranceiver design for industrial internet of things2016In: Journal of Industrial Information Integration, ISSN 2452-414X, Vol. 2, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an integrated asymmetric UHF/UWB reader transceiver in 90 nm CMOS technology for industrial enterprise IoT applications. The reader uses UHF transmitter to power up and inventory the tags. Instead of backscattering, tag replies the reader using Ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses, allowing high throughput transmission and precise positioning. Therefore, a UWB receiver is deployed in the proposed reader for data reception and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) estimation using energy detection schemes. The transmitter delivers 160 kb/s ASK modulated data by an integrated modulator and a Digital Controlled Oscillator (DCO). The DCO has 11% tuning range ability to cover different UHF signal channels. On the UWB receiver side, the 3–5 GHz energy detection receiver supports maximum 33 Mb/s data rate in both OOK and PPM modulations. The receiver front-end provides 59 dB voltage gain and 8.5 dB noise figure (NF). Measurement results shows that the receiver achieves an input sensitivity of -79 dBm at 10 Mb/s, and the power consumption of transceiver is 21.5 mW.

  • 21.
    Mao, Jia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mendoza Sarmiento, David
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A power scalable and high pulse swing UWB transmitter for wirelessly-powered RFID applications2012In: NORCHIP, 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 6403099-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a 3-5 GHz, high output amplitude, carrier-less based Ultra Wideband (UWB) transmitter for wirelessly powered RFID application. The UWB transmitter consists of a baseband pulse generator, a driver amplifier and an output on-chip filter. The baseband pulse generator and the driver amplifier are designed as zero DC power consuming circuit, which enables scalable power with the pulse rate. IC pad and bonding wire parasitics are considered to be absorbed as part of output filtering network, realizing package co-design. The simulation result shows that the proposed transmitter radiates 2.34 pJ/pulse energy with 1.63 V pulse amplitude. The total energy consumption under 1.8 V power supply is 18 pJ/pulse, corresponding to 13% energy efficiency.

  • 22.
    Mao, Jia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    A 35 pJ/pulse injection-locking based UWB transmitter for wirelessly-powered RFID tags2013In: 2013 Proceedings of the ESSCIRC (ESSCIRC), 2013, p. 379-382Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an energy-efficient injection-locking based UWB transmitter for RFID tags in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The transmitter is powered by 900 MHz UHF signals radiated by a reader wirelessly, and responds UWB pulses by locking-gating-amplifying the sub-harmonic of the UHF signal. A simple harmonic injection-locking ring oscillator (ILRO) is utilized to generate a 450 MHz carrier for sub-GHz UWB, eliminating power-hungry and complex timing components such as PLL and crystal on tags. The measurement results show that the sensitivity of the ILRO is -15 dBm under 21% locking range without any extra amplifier. Thanks to fast setup time of the ILRO, the proposed transmitter is power-scalable with 35 pJ/pulse energy consumption by duty-cycling. The amplitude of the transmitted UWB pulse is 0.75 Vpp, allowing a pulse rate up to 5 MHz under the FCC regulations. The entire power consumption of the transmitter is 175 μW, which is favorable to wirelessly-powered RFID applications.

  • 23.
    Mao, Jia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A Subgigahertz UWB Transmitter With Wireless Clock Harvesting for RF-Powered Applications2014In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II - Express Briefs, ISSN 1549-7747, E-ISSN 1558-3791, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 314-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A subgigahertz ultrawideband (UWB) transmitter (TX) with wireless clock harvesting is presented for RF-powered applications such as RF identifications and implantable devices in the 180-nm CMOS process. The proposed low-power TX consists of a harmonic injection-locked ring oscillator (ILRO), a synchronized pulse generator, and a driver stage. Through wireless injection locking, a 450-MHz carrier is extracted using the sub-harmonic of an ultrahigh frequency signal radiated by a reader. Following the ILRO, the carrier is gated and amplified to generate the UWB pulses. This approach avoids power-hungry frequency synthesis circuitry and bulky crystal reference, and it relaxes the timing synchronization between the reader and the tag. Due to aggressive duty cycling and the fast setup time (< 50 ns at an input power of -15 dBm), the proposed TX is power scalable with an energy consumption of 35 pJ/pulse. To comply with the Federal Communications Commission regulations, the maximum pulse rate is up to 5 MHz with a peak-to-peak pulse amplitude of 0.75 V and a corresponding power consumption of 175 mu W, which is favorable to RF-powered applications.

  • 24.
    Mao, Jia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Fudan University, China.
    A UWB-Based Sensor-to-Time Transmitter for RF-Powered Sensing Applications2016In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II - Express Briefs, ISSN 1549-7747, E-ISSN 1558-3791, Vol. 63, no 5, article id 507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ultrawideband (UWB)-based sensor-to-time transmitter consisting of a remote control (RC) time-constant interface and an ultralow-power pulse generator is presented. The sensing information is directly extracted and transmitted in the time domain, exploiting UWB pulses with a high time-domain resolution. This approach eliminates the need for an analog-to-digital converter and baseband blocks of sensor tags; meanwhile, it reduces the number of bits to be transmitted for energy saving. The sensor interface measures the discharging time of the RC time constant proportional to the sensor variation. The UWB pulses are triggered with intervals of the RC discharging time, without any digitizing or modulations. The circuit prototype is implemented in the standard 0.18-mu m CMOS process. Resistance measurement results show that the proposed system exhibits an effective number of resolution bits (ENOB) of 7.7 bits with an average relative error of 0.42% in the range of 200-1500 Omega. The overall energy consumption of conversion and transmission per sample is measured to be 0.58 nJ with a 1.27-Vp-p pulse amplitude, which is favorable to radio-frequency-powered wireless sensing applications.

  • 25. Matindoust, S.
    et al.
    Baghaei-Nejad, M.
    Abadi, M. H. S.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Food quality and safety monitoring using gas sensor array in intelligent packaging2016In: Sensor Review, ISSN 0260-2288, E-ISSN 1758-6828, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 169-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to study different possibilities for implementing easy-to-use and cost-effective micro-systems to detect and trace expelled gases from rotten food. The paper covers various radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies and gas sensors as the two promoting feasibilities for the tracing of packaged food. Monitoring and maintaining quality and safety of food in transport and storage from producer to consumer are the most important concerns in food industry. Many toxin gases, even in parts per billion ranges, are produced from corrupted and rotten food and can endanger the consumers' health. To overcome the issues, intelligent traceability of food products, specifically the packaged ones, in terms of temperature, humidity, atmospheric conditions, etc., has been paid attention to by many researchers. Design/methodology/approach - Food poisoning is a serious problem that affects thousands of people every year. Poisoning food must be recognized early to prevent a serious health problem. Contaminated food is usually detectable by odor. A small gas sensors and low-cost tailored to the type of food packaging and a communication device for transmitting alarm output to the consumer are key factors in achieving intelligent packaging. Findings - Conducting polymer composite, intrinsically conducting polymer and metal oxide conductivity gas sensors, metal- oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) gas sensors offer excellent discrimination and lead the way for a new generation of "smart sensors" which will mould the future commercial markets for gas sensors. Originality/value - Small size, low power consumption, short response time, wide operating temperature, high efficiency and small area are most important features of introduced system for using in package food.

  • 26. Matindoust, Samaneh
    et al.
    Farzi, Ali
    Nejad, Majid Baghaei
    Abadi, Mohammad Hadi Shahrokh
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Ammonia gas sensor based on flexible polyaniline films for rapid detection of spoilage in protein-rich foods2017In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482X, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 7760-7768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work details the fabrication and performance of a sensor for ammonia gas, based on conducting polymer. The fabrication procedure consists following steps; polyaniline synthesis via oxidative polymerization technique, then a sensitive polyaniline film was deposited on a printed circuit board and finally, polyaniline microdevice were assembled on an interdigitated electrode arrays to fabricate the sensor for amomonia gas detection. Response time of this chemiresistive devices and humidity impact were examined for NH3 sensitivity and compared with commercial gas sensors (Taguchi Model 826). Data export from sensor to the computer was carried out via data logger model ADC-24 and analyzed using SPSS software. The sensor was found to have a rapid (t = 40 s) and stable linear response to ammonia gas in the concentration range of interest (50-150 ppm) under room temperature operation condition. It was reviled also reliable results to the variation of environment humidity. Power consumption, sensitivity, dimension, flexibility and fabrication cost were used as most important parameters to compare the new polymer based device with those of other similar works and the results showed that small size, low cost, flexibility, low power consumption and high sensitivity are from the benefits of this innovative device. In real-time application conditions flexible polyaniline based gas sensor with polyimide substrate in thickness 0.25 mm exhibits relatively good performance and accurate evaluation of food spoilage.

  • 27. Nilsaz, A. S.
    et al.
    Parashkoh, M. K.
    Ghauomy-zadeh, H.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Low power 0.18 um CMOS ultra wideband inductor-less LNA design for UWB receiver2010In: IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, Proceedings, APCCAS, 2010, p. 855-858Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an inductor-less low-noise amplifier (LNA) design for ultra-wideband (UWB) receivers and microwave access covering the frequency range from 0.4 to 5.7 GHz using 0.18-μm CMOS. Simulation results show that the voltage gain reaches a peak of 18.94 dB in-band with an upper 3-dB frequency of 5.7 GHz. The IIP3 is about 3 dBm and the noise figure (NF) ranges from 3.15-3.86 dB over the band of interest. Input matching is better than -8.79dB and the LNA consumes 5.77mW at 1.8V supply voltage. A figure of merit is used to compare the proposed design with recently published wideband CMOS LNAs. The proposed design achieves a superior voltage gain and tolerable NF, with the additional advantage of removing the bulky inductors. It is shown that the designed LNA without on-chip inductors achieves comparable performances with inductor-based designs.

  • 28.
    Sarmiento M., David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Wang, Peng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Analog front-end RX design for UWB impulse radio in 90nm CMOS2011In: 2011 IEEE International Symposium of Circuits and Systems, ISCAS 2011, 2011, p. 1552-1555Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a reconfigurable differential Ultra Wideband-Impulse Radio (UWB-IR) energy receiver architecture has been simulated and implemented in UMC 90nm. The signal is amplified, rectified and integrated. By using an integration windowed scheme the SNR requirements are relaxed increasing the sensitivity. The design has been optimized for large bandwidths, low implementation area and configurability. The RX can be adapted to work at different data rates, processing gains, and channel environments. It works between the 3.1-4.8 GHz bands with OOK or PPM modulation with a tunable data rate up to 33Mb/s. In order to relax the ADC sampling time an interleave mode of operation has been implemented. It has a maximum power consumption of 22m W with a power supply of 1V. The complete RX occupies an area of 1.11mm2.

  • 29.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Majid, Baghaei-Nejad
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Pang, Zhibo
    KTH.
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xu, Lida
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Interactive UHF/UWB RFID tag for mass customization2017In: Information Systems Frontiers, ISSN 1387-3326, E-ISSN 1572-9419, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1177-1190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass customization (MC) under the context of the Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to reform the traditional mass manufacturing. To contribute to MC from information communication and user interaction aspects, this work proposes an Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) RFID tag with an Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wide Band (IR-UWB) transmitter and an inkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) display. First, compared to the conventional UHF RFID tags, the proposed tag shows the advantage of higher transmission data rate with still low power consumption. The response time in multi-tag accessing scenarios can be reduced to less than 500 ms per 1000 tags by the pipeline of the tag responses in IR-UWB link and the reader acknowledgments in UHF RFID link as well as by reducing the length of empty slots. Second, the tag is integrated with a flexible EC display manufactured by inkjet-printing on the polyimide substrate. It works as an automatically refreshed paper label that offers an intuitive human-to-device interface to improve the efficiency of the offline workers. To conquer the material variations and make use of the long retention time of the printed EC display, its threshold voltage is utilized and a feedback comparator enabling the display driver by the threshold voltage is designed. A System-on-Chip (SoC) is implemented in UMC 0.18 mu m CMOS process. According to the experimental results: 1) the IR-UWB transmitter achieves 1.02 V pulse amplitude and 900 ps pulse duration with 18 pJ/pulse energy consumption; 2) the EC display driver automatically refreshes the display when the image fades out, and consumes 1.98 mu W per 1 cm(2) display size to retain an image. The UHF/UWB RFID display tag integrated on polyimide substrate is conceptually demonstrated at the end of the paper.

  • 30.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Yang, Geng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Nejad, Maji
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A 180 nm-CMOS Asymmetric UWB-RFID Tag with Real-time Remote-monitored ECG-sensing2015In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices, 2015, p. 210-215Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes an asymmetric ultra-wideband - radio frequency identification (UWB-RFID) tag with electrocardiogram (ECG)-sensing capability for patients remote-monitoring in hospital environment. A UWB-RFID communication protocol is suggested for real-time transmission of undistorted ECG by interleaving ADC sampling and burst-mode UWB transmission. The proposed system shows a maximum accessing capability of 400 tags/second at 1.5 KHz ECG sampling rate with 10 Mbps UWB pulse rate. The tag consists of UHF-RFID receiver, UWB transmitter, ECG analog front-end, multi-input ADC and baseband circuitry integrated on two silicon dies. It was implemented by 6 mm2 -sized 180 nm CMOS technology. Electrodes for ECG-sensing are manufactured by inkjet-printing on polyimide substrate. Experiment results show that the tag transmits UWB pulses at 1 Mbps rate with 18 µW power. The printed electrodes conduct ECG waveform comparable to commercial electrodes.

  • 31.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Nejad, Maji
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A Passive UHF/UWB RFID Tag with Inkjet-Printed Electrochromic Polyimide Display for IoT ApplicationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a passive Ultra-High Frequency(UHF) Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tag withinkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) polyimide display andUltra-Wideband (UWB) transmitter for information display inthe Internet-of-Things (IoT) - both remotely by transmitting information to backend side and locally by displaying at tag side. The UHF part remotely powers-up and controls the tag asconventional passive RFID tag does. To overcome the limitations of uplink capacity and massive-tag information feedback, UWB transmitter replaces UHF-RFID backscattering to achieve Mbps transmission data rate and 2000 tags/sec tag identification rate. To provide an ambient and direct human-to-device displayinterface, EC display on polyimide substrate is integrated at tagside. Aggressive duty-cycling power management scheme with dual supplies is designed to drive EC display and UWB transmitter under the microwatt level tag power budget through RF energy harvesting. In this scheme, energy for display refreshing is accumulated over multiple power management cycles; energy for UWB transmission is stored over a load capacitor. Single-pixel addressing scheme with minimized pixelsize is proposed to further reduce display power and improve tag sensitivity by exploiting EC display bi-stability. The circuit prototype has been fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS process. Experimental results demonstrate that the EC display can be refreshed with tag sensitivity (input RF power) of -10.5 dBm at11.7 sec/cm2 update rate, and the UWB transmitter can bepowered up for 2 Mbps pulse rate and 35% operation duty cycle with tag sensitivity of -18.5 dBm.

  • 32.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Nejad, Majid
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Pang, Zhibo
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xu, Lida
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Interactive UHF/UWB RFID Tag for Mass CustomizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass customization (MC) under the context ofthe Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to reform traditionalmass manufacturing. To contribute to MC from information communication and user interaction aspects, this work proposes an Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) RFID tag with Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wide Band (IR UWB) transmitter and inkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) display. First, compared to conventional UHF RFID tags, the proposed tag shows advantages of higher data rate while still keeping low power consumption. A modified communication protocol for such tag is proposed to decrease the response time in multi-tag accessing scenarios to less than 500 ms/1000 tags by the pipeline of IR UWB transmission of tag response and UHF RFID reception of reader acknowledgement and by reducingthe length of empty slots. Secondly, the tag is integrated with a flexible Electro-chromic (EC) display manufactured by inkjet-printing on the polyimide substrate. The tag with the display works as an automatically refreshed paper label which offers an intuitive human-to-device interface to improve the efficiency of the offline workers. To conquer material variation while make use of long retention time of the printed EC display, the threshold voltage of EC display is utilized and a feedback comparator is designed to start refreshing EC display based on the threshold voltage. For functional verification, a Silicon-on-Chip (SoC) is implementedin UMC 180 nm CMOS process. According to experimental results: 1) the IR UWB transmitter shows performances of 1.02 V pulse amplitude, 900 ps pulse duration and 18 pJ/pulse energy consumption; 2) the EC display driver with a feedback comparator automatically starts to refresh display when the image fades out, and reduces the power consumption for retaining image to 1.98 mW per 1 cm2 display size. The UHF/UWB RFID display tag integrated on polyimide substrate is conceptually demonstrated at the end of the paper.

  • 33. Tcarenko, Igor
    et al.
    Huan, Yuxiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Juhasz, David
    Rahmani, Amir M.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Westerlund, Tomi
    Liljeberg, Pasi
    Zheng, Lirong
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Smart Energy Efficient Gateway for Internet of Mobile Things2017In: 2017 14TH IEEE ANNUAL CONSUMER COMMUNICATIONS & NETWORKING CONFERENCE (CCNC), IEEE , 2017, p. 1016-1017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) is a fast developing vision in which physical quantities are digitized, processed and analyzed. Internet of Mobile Things (IoMT) as one of new domains of IoT, due to mobility, requires a more demanding and rigorous solution in many aspects, especially in terms of energy efficiency. We propose a solution consisting of energy efficient and fast hardware platform for building IoMT Fog layer facilities. Experimental results are presented to prove superiority of the proposed hardware in several aspects to popular general purpose platforms.

  • 34.
    Wan, Qiansu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Life Cycle Assessment of Paper Based Printed Interconnections for ECG Monitoring2017In: European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, ISSN 2506-8016, Vol. 2, p. 65-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents quantitative environment impact evaluation and assessment of inkjet printed flexible cable on soft substrates for Electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring. The studied printed ECG cable is fabricated by inkjet printing of nanoparticles wire on paper substrate which enables wireless transmission of ECG signals between bio- electric electrodes and central medical device. In order to facilitate the inventory analysis, the environmental impacts evaluation of inkjet printing technology has been carried out by comparing with traditional ECG cables. With the life cycle inventory modeling by using GaBi software, the life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to qualify the input and output of raw material resources, energy resources used in manufacturing phases and the impacts to the environment.

  • 35. Wang, L.
    et al.
    Hu, Y.
    Zheng, L.
    Shen, Jue
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Design of wideband mixer and VGA for Software Defined Radio in RFID application2015In: NORCHIP 2014 - 32nd NORCHIP Conference: The Nordic Microelectronics Event, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents Software Defined Radio (SDR) in RFID sensing applications focusing on wideband mixer and VGA design. The wideband receiver can support UHF, UWB band for commonly used long-range RFID standards ranging from 400MHz to 6GHz. The wideband mixer is of folded topology with switching biased technique, achieving a maximum 11.5dB conversion gain with only an 8dB DSB noise figure and 16dB flicker noise at 10kHz. The VGA utilizes a four-stage modified Cherry-Hopper amplifier, along with DC-offset cancelling and common-mode feedback. A maximum gain of 67dB can be achieved with more than 600MHz of bandwidth. The design is implemented in a 65nm CMOS process. The total power consumption of the mixer and the VGA is 7mW by simulation. The die area of these two blocks is 0.045mm2.

  • 36. Wang, T.
    et al.
    Qian, B.
    Liu, Y.
    Zheng, L. -R
    Huan, Y.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Architectural design of radiation-hardened SOC solution for nanosatellite power management2015In: Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC, International Astronautical Federation, 2015, p. 7171-7174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid development of nanosatellite industry, adaptive and ultra-small-scale power management system is demanded for maintenance and sustainable use of space power supply. Radiation-tolerant System-on-Chip (SoC) technology has been recognized as a promising solution but challenges still exist. In this paper, we present a comprehensive architectural design of SoC power solution for nanosatellite applications including space-level 16-bit processor, 8-channel ADC, precision amplifiers, interface units etc. Based on antiradiation requirements, we customize three application scenarios for nanosatellite. It comprises reconfigurable architecture, fault tolerance strategy and in-orbit calibration strategy. The space-level processor named FC-4065 uses these anti-irradiation solutions after Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Single Event Upset (SEU) tests. Then, by exsiting radiation-tolerant SoC platform, optimized nanosatellite power conditioning procedures are proposed. The modularized power management system is composed of Main Error Amplifier (MEA) IP, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) IP, Battery Balancing (BB) IP, S3R IP and other soft IP cores. This microsystem can monitor and control the entire nanosatellite power modules without manual operations. Finally, TID trial is carried out in the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics in China. Practical stability and accuracy of SoC architectures are proven, and suggestions for future nanosatellite power development are discussed based on the spaceflight missions.

  • 37. Zamolo, Giovanni
    et al.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Elektronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Power-Aware Optimization for CS-based IR-UWB System2016In: 2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON UBIQUITOUS WIRELESS BROADBAND (ICUWB2016), IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging technology that can be applied to impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) receivers. CS represents an attractive solution for its capability of recovering a signal from a small number of measurements using sub-Nyquist sampling rate analog to digital converters (ADC). In this paper we investigate practical design parameters for low power CS based UWB system, including pulse bandwidth, number of measurements and frame length. Considering the FCC mask, three different pulses are compared in noisy environment in order to provide an optimal solution for high bit rate and low bit rate applications. Performance impact on number of measurements and frame length are also evaluated so that minimum numbers and length can be used for power saving.

  • 38.
    Zhai, Chuanying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Software defined radio IR-UWB positioning platform for RFID and WSN application2012In: Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, p. 501-505Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a software defined radio (SDR) platform for Impulse Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) sensing and positioning applications. The platform is composed by a software simulator (SW) and a hardware testbed (HW). The software simulator based on Matlab offers reconfigurable modules/functions of UWB systems with a graphic user interface (GUI). Correspondingly, the testbed is implemented by an oscilloscope and a set of off-the-shelf components. The oscilloscope (Lecroy WaveMaster 816Zi-A) features high-speed real-time sampling (i.e., 40 GS/s with 16 GHz analog bandwidth) with 4 independent channels, enabling a multi-antenna multichannel receiver network in UWB bands, with signal processing capability at the Nyquist rate. The SW and HW are seamlessly integrated by the build-in software in the oscilloscope. It allows rapid prototypes of various algorithms to be verified in real environments. Finally, a case study on UWB ranging for localization is given to demonstrate the feasibility and usability of the proposed platform.

  • 39.
    Zhai, Chuanying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xu, L.
    A 2.4-GHz ISM RF and UWB hybrid RFID real-time locating system for industrial enterprise Internet of Things2017In: Enterprise Information Systems, ISSN 1751-7575, E-ISSN 1751-7583, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 909-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a 2.4-GHz radio frequency (RF) and ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) hybrid real-time locating system (RTLS) for industrial enterprise Internet of Things (IoT). It employs asymmetric wireless link, that is, UWB radio is utilised for accurate positioning up to 10 cm in critical sites, whereas 2.4-GHz RF is used for tag control and coarse positioning in non-critical sites. The specified communication protocol and the adaptive tag synchronisation rate ensure reliable and deterministic access with a scalable system capacity and avoid unpredictable latency and additional energy consumption of retransmissions due to collisions. The tag, consisting of a commercial 2.4-GHz transceiver and a customised application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) UWB transmitter (Tx), is able to achieve up to 3 years’ battery life at 1600 tags per position update second with 1000 mAh battery in one cluster. The time difference of arrival (TDoA)–based positioning experiment at UWB radio is performed on the designed software-defined radio (SDR) platform.

  • 40.
    Zhai, Chuanying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A Software Defined Radio platform for passive UWB-RFID localization2012In: 2012 IEEE International Conference on Wireless Information Technology and Systems, ICWITS 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 6417741-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radio-Frequency-Identification (RFID) with high sensing and positioning capability is the key technology enabler for the vision of the context-aware and location-aware computing towards the Internet-of-Things. However, the existing passive RFID in Ultra-High-Frequency (UHF) based on backscattering scheme can only provide limited ranging resolution and insufficient localization accuracy. Besides, it is sensitive to narrowband interference and multipath environment. Alternatively, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) has been recognized as a promising technology for the next generation RFIDs [1,2]. The Impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB) implementations employ sub-nanosecond duration pulses without carrier, thus significantly reducing hardware complexity and power consumption. The wideband of the signals provide the potential of fine resolution in dense multipath scenarios. As one of the most attractive characteristics, UWB RFID potentially provides centimeter-level localization accuracy thanks to the ultrashort pulses with high time domain resolution by using time-of-arrival (ToA) estimation of the signal. There has been many works using UWB as active RFID tags for positioning and tracking application [3,4]. Moreover, in order to introduce UWB to passive RFID systems, UHF powered UWB-RFID system with asymmetric links has been proposed in [5]. Based on this UHF/UWB hybrid architecture, the positioning feasibility and ToA estimation has been studied in [6] in algorithm level.

  • 41. Zhang, Wei
    et al.
    Hu, Youde
    Huan, Yuxiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Cui, Keji
    Bao, Dongxuan
    Pan, Dashan
    Wang, Lebo
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Hierarchical Design of a Low Power Standing Wave Oscillator Based Clock Distribution Network2016In: 2016 2ND IEEE NORDIC CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (NORCAS), IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a hierarchical clock interconnection network with two-level bufferless standing wave resonant clock distribution to minimize the clock power consumption in a synchronous system. The first level is a serpentine network which consists of many coupled standing wave oscillators to distribute clock signals in the whole chip area. The second level is a group of fishbone architectures connected to the standing wave oscillators to route clock signals in the local areas. A clock synthesis flow for the fishbone architecture is also introduced to enable design automation. This fishbone architecture is studied through a pipelined floating-point fused multiply-add module under 28nm standard CMOS process. Simulation results show that, this architecture can reduce more than 30% clock power consumption compared with a traditional buffered clock network.

  • 42.
    Zheng, Lirong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Nejad, Majid Baghaei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mendoza, David Sarmiento
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhang, Zhi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Future RFID and Wireless Sensors for Ubiquitous Intelligence2008In: 26th Norchip Conference, Norchip, 2008, p. 142-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Next generation RFID towards ubiquitous wireless sensing and identification requires high network throughput along with long operation range and ultra low energy consumption. In this paper, we review future RFID for ubiquitous intelligence and their technology needs from system to device perspectives. As a promising enabling technology, ultra wideband radio (UWB) and its use in various RFID implementations are investigated. A special focus on an UWB/UHF hybrid passive RFID and sensor system with asymmetric wireless links is studied as an example. Unlike conventional RFID systems relying on backscattering and narrowband radio, UWB is introduced as the uplink for tag to reader communication. It enables a high network throughput (2000 tag/sec), high data bandwidth (100MHz pulse rate), under ultra low power and low cost constraint. The hardware implementation in silicon level is also presented. Finally, applications of the system in intelligent warehouse and fresh food tracker are introduced.

  • 43.
    Zheng, Li-rong
    et al.
    KTH.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH.
    Smart electronic systems: Heterogeneous integration of silicon and printed electronics2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unique in focusing on both organic and inorganic materials from a system point of view, this text offers a complete overview of printed electronics integrated with classical silicon electronics. Following an introduction to the topic, the book discusses the materials and processes required for printed electronics, covering conducting, semiconducting and insulating materials, as well as various substrates, such as paper and plastics. Subsequent chapters describe the various building blocks for printed electronics, while the final part describes the resulting novel applications and technologies, including wearable electronics, RFID tags and flexible circuit boards. Suitable for a broad target group, both industrial and academic, ranging from mechanical engineers to ink developers, and from chemists to engineers. 

  • 44.
    Zhou, Qin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    A mixed-signal timing circuit in 90nm CMOS for energy detection IR-UWB receivers2010In: 23rd IEEE International SOC Conference, SOCC 2010, 2010, p. 413-416Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a flexible timing circuit with 1.1ns delay resolution for energy detection IR-UWB receivers. Referenced at 900MHz input clock, the circuit generates multi-phased integration windows and reset signals that enable/disable the operation of analog blocks. The design is highly programmable, adapting the receiver to pulse level synchronization, symbol level synchronization, different data rates and various channel environments. Mixed-signal design flow is adopted to avoid the complexity of full custom design and the large power consumption of full synthesized digital design. The timing circuit is implemented in UMC 90nm CMOS process, with 219 #x03BC;W power consumption and 190*295 #x03BC;m2 die area.

  • 45.
    Zhou, Qin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Low complexity burst packet detection for wireless-powered UWB RFID systems2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Wireless Broadband (ICUWB), 2015, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of UWB signal acquisition in the context of wireless powered UWB RFID systems. In this scenario, the data transmission is based on short packet so as to meet the micro-power budget of autonomous power harvesting. The burst short packet transmission as well as the low duty cycling UWB pulse modulation places a stringent challenge at the UWB receiver for timing acquisition and packet detection. Besides, in a positioning enabled RFID system where variable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to the variable link distance and noise background is unavoidable, conventional packet detection schemes rely on predefined threshold can hardly achieve good performance. In this study, we propose a low complexity method for burst packet detection. It is performed by sensing the preamble signal characteristic instead of the received signal strength, and thus bypassing the necessity of detection threshold. The validity of the proposed approach and its adaptivity to SNR variations is demonstrated by simulation results as well as field test with a UWB software defined radio (SDR) platform.

  • 46.
    Zhou, Qin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Noise-reducing architecture of compressed sensing receiver for IR-UWB ranging systems2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A compressed sensing (CS) based impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) receiver with two-path noise-reducing RF front-end architecture is proposed. By adding an identicalinput path (antenna and gain stage) together with a mixer, the noise in the received signal before feeding into the CS sampling block is alleviated comparing with the conventional CS receiver. Moreover, the mixing stage shifts the signal frequency spectrum to the lower band which eases the CS sampling hardware as well as the complexity of back-end signal reconstruction. Simulation results for a ranging system validate that the proposed CS receiver significantly outperforms the conventional one in both additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel and IEEE802.15.4a multi-path channel.

  • 47.
    Zhou, Qin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    A Flexible Back-end with Optimum Threshold Estimation for OOK Based Energy Detection IR-UWB Receivers2011In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), 2011, p. 130-134Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) exhibits strong advantages in low power and low cost applications such as RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks. This paper presents an on-off keying (OOK) based energy detection IR-UWB receiver with focus on the back-end design. In order to optimize the receiver performance according to different multi-path environment, variable integration interval and adaptive threshold optimization are considered in the proposed back-end which is composed by a programmable timing circuit and a reconfigurable baseband processor. The timing circuit is able to generate multi-phased integration windows with wide-range variable integration interval and is implemented in 90 nm CMOS process. Novel schemes on synchronization and optimum threshold estimation are suggested for baseband processing. The proposed synchronization scheme is based on maximum energy variance (between symbol `0' and `1') detection, covering both the pulse level and symbol level synchronization. And the scheme for optimum threshold estimation is based on look up table, enabling low complexity implementation. System simulation with IEEE 802.15.4a channel models shows an appreciable improvement on the bit error rate (BER) performance compared with the conventional scheme.

  • 48.
    Zhou, Qin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    A flexible energy detection IR-UWB receiver for RFID and WSN2010Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an energy detection impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) receiver for radio frequency identification (RFID) and wireless sensor networks (WSN) applications. As opposed to coherent receivers, it uses simple square-integrate samplers, that allows low complexity and low power implementations. This prototype is composed by an analog front-end and timing-critical digital blocks in UMC 90nm CMOS process, and an Altera Cyclone III FPGA development kit for back-end processing, connected by a high speed mezzanine card (HSMC). Thanks to the flexible back-end on FPGA, the receiver is featured by high programmability and multi-mode operation which adopts a wide range of pulse rates and data rates, different modulation and synchronization schemes, and various channel environments.

  • 49.
    Zhou, Qin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Adaptive synchronization and integration region optimization for energy detection IR-UWB receivers2012In: Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, p. 62-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-coherent energy detection (ED) IR-UWB receivers exhibit strong advantages in low data rate, low power and low cost applications such as RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks. However, the performance of ED receivers is usually suffered from the noise enhancement due to the large time-bandwidth product. The integration region of the receiver integrator significantly affects the bit error rate (BER) performance. This paper presents a method of synchronization and estimating the optimal integration region (i.e., the starting point and the length of the integration window), which is based on the analysis of received signal energy capture and combined with a time of arrival (TOA) estimation. The proposed scheme is based on the symbol rate sampling and does not require a priori information about the channel delay profile. Besides, it can adapt to various indoor channel environments. The algorithm has a moderate accuracy but a very low complexity and fast synchronization speed. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by numerical results using IEEE 802.15.4a channel models.

  • 50.
    Zhou, Qin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Architectural analysis of compressed sensing based IR-UWB receiver for communication and ranging2014In: Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, 2014, p. 222-227Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compressed sensing (CS) based impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) receiver has attracted much attention in recent years. This paper presents an architectural analysis of the CS-based IR-UWB receiver with focuses on investigating the random noise processes in the CS measurement procedure. We find that different noise sources (sky noise or amplifier noise) and different receiver architectures (parallel or serial) will results in different noise situation (correlated or uncorrelated) in the CS measurement procedure. Bit error rate (BER) simulation for a communication system and time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation for a ranging system in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel as well as IEEE 802.15.4a CM1 channel are performed. It shows that CS-based signal detection in uncorrelated noise situation outperforms the correlated noise situation. This noise driven architectural analysis can be used as a design guideline for the CS-based IR-UWB receiver regarding different application scenarios.

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