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  • 1001. Wahlström, B.
    et al.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    SwedPower AB, Stockholm.
    Issues of Safety Culture: Reflections from the Learnsafe Project2004In: American Nuclear Society 4th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation, Control and Human Machine Interface Technology, 2004, p. 207-216Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The LearnSafe1 project has been investigating processes of management of change and organizational learning at nuclear power plants across Europe. The focus of the project has been upon senior managers at nuclear power plants, who are responsible for strategic choice and resource allocation. This focus was selected due to the importance of their role in decisions, approaches and attitudes that have an influence on the safety and economy of the plants. In the project two large data sets have been collected with senior management perceptions at nuclear power plants in five European countries. The first data set contains challenges the managers see for continued operation of the nuclear power plants. The second data set contains views on facilitators and hindrances for organizational learning. The data sets have been analyzed to investigate similarities and differences between plants and countries. The results provide many interesting insights on issues related to safety culture.

  • 1002.
    Wandall, Birgitte
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Influences on toxicological risk assessments2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to characterize and discuss two kinds of influences on the outcome of a toxicological risk assessment. One kind of influence has to do with values and the role played by value-based judgment. Currently, many toxicological risk assessments are characterized by scientific uncertainties. When this is the case, risk assessors are to some extent dependent on assumptions and judgment, and this has consequences for the outcome of the assessment. Another other kind of influence comes from the quality and accuracy of the empirical studies that risk assessments are based on. If toxicological research and testing are affected by systematic errors (bias), this will influence the ensuing risk assessment. In order to improve toxicological risk assessments work must be done both on understanding and dealing with the impact of values and on getting better and more efficient methods for gathering facts. The two papers that make up this licentiate thesis may be seen as a contribution to each of these objectives.

    Article 1: Values in science and risk assessment

    It is a widely accepted claim that scientific practice contains valuejudgments, i.e. decisions made on the basis of values. This paper clarifies the concepts involved in this claim and explains its implications for risk assessment. It is explained why values are necessarily a part of science and of risk assessment. A certain type of values that contribute to the aim of science, so-called epistemic values, are identified as rationally justified as basis for judgment in science. It is argued that the aims of pure science and risk assessment differ in some aspects and that consequently pure science’s epistemic values are not sufficient for risk assessment. I suggest how the epistemic values may be supplemented in order to align better with the aim of risk assessment.

    Article 2: Bias in toxicology

    In this article, the potential for bias in toxicological research and in the performance of standardized toxicological testing in discussed. Due to the lack of empirical studies of bias in toxicology, very little is known aboutits prevalence and impact. Areas to consider for such studies are pointed out, and it is suggested that such investigations should be given priority.

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  • 1003.
    Wandall, Birgitte
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The controversy over trans fatty acids: Effects early in life2008In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 46, no 12, p. 3571-3579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study of two diverging risk assessments of trans fatty acids. One risk assessment was conducted by the Danish Nutrition Council in 2003, the other by the European Food Safety Authority in 2004. In this paper, the two reports' assessments of adverse effects early in life are compared. The two risk assessments are based on the same scientific evidence, and agree on the interpretation of that evidence, but nevertheless differ considerably in their recommendations for risk management: One of them recommends that pregnant women's consumption of trans fatty acids be minimized, while the other makes no such recommendation. It is shown that the reason why the assessments reach different conclusions is that they depend on different attitudes towards the trade-off between the risk of false positives and the risk of false negatives. It is hypothesized that this difference in attitude may be caused by institutional differences between the European Food Safety Authority and the Danish Nutrition Council, since the former has responsibility for risk assessment only, whereas the latter is responsible for both risk assessment and recommendations for risk management.

  • 1004.
    Wandall, Birgitte
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Infrastructure.
    Values in science and risk assessment2004In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 152, p. 265-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a widely accepted claim that scientific practice contains value judgments, i.e. decisions made on the basis of values. This paper clarifies the concepts involved in this claim and explains its implications for risk assessment. It is explained why values are necessarily a part of science and of risk assessment. A certain type of values that contribute to the aim of science, so-called epistemic values, are identified as rationally justified as basis for judgment in science. It is argued that the aims of pure science and risk assessment differ in some aspects and that consequently pure science's epistemic values are not sufficient for risk assessment. I suggest how the epistemic values may be supplemented in order to align better with the aim of risk assessment. It is concluded that since risk assessment is no less value-laden than pure science, it is important (a) that risk assessors become aware of what values they are (often implicitly) relying on, (b) that the values are justifiable, and (c) that transparency is ensured, i.e. that the values and value-based assumptions applied in particular risk assessments are explicitly acknowledged.

  • 1005.
    Wandall, Birgitte
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Bias in toxicology2007In: Archives of Toxicology, ISSN 0340-5761, E-ISSN 1432-0738, Vol. 81, no 9, p. 605-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for bias, i.e., influences that cause results to deviate systematically from the truth is substantial both in toxicological research and in the performance of standardized toxicological testing. In this contribution, major potential sources of bias in toxicological research and testing are identified. Due to the lack of empirical studies of bias in toxicology, very little is known about its prevalence and impact. Areas to consider for such studies are pointed out, and it is suggested that such investigations should be given priority.

  • 1006.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Cause and consequence of crisis: how perception can influence communication2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on how different events that cause a crisis are perceived by communication officers. The aim of this paper is to investigate how the attribution of whatever has caused a crisis affects how the crisis is perceived and how this in turn affects communication efforts. Previous research indicates that people will respond differently to risks depending on the cause of the risk, even though the consequence is the same. If individuals react to a crisis differently depending on what caused it, is that also true for crisis professionals and if so, does this influence the planning and execution of crisis communication? This article presents the results from an empirical investigation of crisis communicators in Sweden. The results reveal that there are differences within this group of professionals when they are presented with crises due to different causes. The possible implications this might have for crisis communication are discussed.

  • 1007.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Effective crisis communication – results from a Swedish survey study: Final report submitted to the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency2009Report (Other academic)
  • 1008.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    En enkätundersökning om Stockholmares attityder till dubbdäck2006Report (Other academic)
  • 1009.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Fight, flight or freeze: assumed reactions of the public during a crisis2011In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 207-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on how professionals at municipal level responsible for crisis communication (N=152) in Sweden judge the probability of 10 different responses occurring among the public, among people within their own emergency organization and themselves in case of a crisis. The direct physical effects of the crisis were kept identical throughout the study, but the cause of the crisis varied over three scenarios: accidental, terrorist and unknown. The results show that there are differences between how the respondents judge the reactions of themselves, their peers and the public, and there are also differences in the three crisis presented. The respondents judged their own reactions to be more logical and rational, and less marked by fear, panic and irrationality compared with the other two groups in all three crises. Also, it was investigated what source of information the crisis communicators thought would be used most by the public. The perceived sources of information varied depending on the cause of the crisis. The merit of these assumptions and implications for crisis communication are discussed.

  • 1010.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Green Boating – Nordic boat owners’ attitudes towards boating in the Baltic Sea: TemaNord, 2009:5102008Report (Other academic)
  • 1011.
    Wester, Misse
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Talking to me?: Risk communication to a diverse public2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the process of communication of environmental risks. A basic assumption in this thesis is that even though ambitious risk communication efforts can take place, the intended recipients are left with a feeling of alienation: Talking to me? The thesis presents a review of theories developed in the field of risk communication research and theories concerning risk perception. Results in this thesis are based on the findings in four papers. The first two papers report results from traditional risk communication strategies that have taken place in Sweden in accordance with the Seveso II Directive. The third paper looks at how industry and organizations view participatory strategies that include stakeholders in risk debates. The fourth paper attempts to fuse together placeidentity and risk perception in order to broaden the understanding of environmental conflicts.

    The main results of this thesis can be summarized under three headings. First that there is no homogenous public in a risk communication context. Instead there seems to be a number of publics that differ in risk perception or have different environmental concerns. Second, strategies that tend to incorporate parts of the concerned public or stakeholders seem to work better than traditional risk communication efforts. Third, if discussion about risk are to be fruitful, the concept of risk needs to be broadened to include concerns that are not directly or apparently linked to issues of health or safety. Instead concerns such as local culture or local attachment need to be included. The purpose of this thesis is to suggest methods for communicating about environmental risks in order to make the affected public feel: Yes, you are talking to me.

  • 1012.
    Wester, Misse
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Underlying Concerns in Land-Use Conflicts: The role of Place- Identity in Risk Perception2004In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years, debates over proposed usage of land for high-risk ventures have caused some debate, both in the affected communities as well as among policy makers. It has been recognized by industry and government agencies that the opinion and concerns of the local population has to be considered in order to mediate or reduce conflicts. Usually these concerns tend to focus on issues of health and safety in relation to the risk presented by different projects. It is suggested in this paper that the discussion needs to be expanded, especially if the proposed project can alter the esthetic appearance of the landscape. It is argued in this paper that the local attachment to a specific geographical place, also referred to as place-identity, needs to be included in discussions concerning industrial risks. Research in environmental psychology has suggested that place-identity is vital to a person's identity and that. this can be seen through four principles. In this paper, suggestions are made on how these four aspects of identity can be affected in a negative way if changes are made to a landscape by the introduction of a high-risk and stigmatized industrial venture.

  • 1013.
    Wester, Misse
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Sandin, Per
    Privacy and the public: perception and acceptance of various applications of ICT2010In: The backwards, forwards and sideways changes of ICT / [ed] Arias-Olivia M, Ward Bynum T, Rogerson S, Torres-Coronas T, 2010, p. 580-586Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1014.
    Wester, Misse
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Sildemark, B.
    Bülow, William
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Assessing public acceptance of privacy invasive ICT solutions: Slutrapport Myndigheten för Samhällsskydd och Beredskap, MSB3532011Report (Other academic)
  • 1015.
    Wester-Herber, Misse
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Lars-Erik, Warg
    Did they get it?: Examining the goals of risk communication within the Seveso II Directive in a Swedish context2004In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 495-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the success of a risk communication programme conducted in two municipalities in Sweden is evaluated. The communication efforts were initiated in order to comply with the Seveso II Directive, passed as a national law in July 1999. Data from two different questionnaires are used. Between the distribution of the two questionnaires, an information campaign took place in the communities. The first questionnaire was aimed at measuring the public's opinion and understanding of the risks related to chemical industries in their communities, as well as the public's knowledge of emergency behaviour in the event of an accident. The second was aimed at measuring the effects or impact of the risk communication programme on the public. A total of 346 respondents participated in the study by answering two questionnaires. An evaluation of the risk communication efforts was focused around three dimensions: comprehension, audience evaluation and communication failures. The results showed differences between the two campaigns that gave significantly different results in the two communities. In the community with the multimedia channel campaign, the respondents showed greater knowledge of the production process at the local industry, they also judged the health threats for that industry to be less after the campaign, and they saved the information material to a greater extent. However, the overall effects of the information campaigns were weak. Future research is needed to explore the relation between people's emergency behaviour and risk communication.

  • 1016.
    Wikman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Trivial risks and the new radiation protection system2004In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection proposes that doses below a certain level should be excluded from the system of protection, without regard to the number of people exposed. As the Commission assumes that there is a risk of harm even from very low doses, the proposal also disregards these very low risks. The arguments for this proposal are examined here. It is argued that the fact that risks are small compared to natural sources cannot be used as justification for accepting them. The principle 'if the risk of harm to the health of the most exposed individual is trivial, then the total risk is trivial-irrespective of how many people are exposed' is analysed. It is found to equivocate on the meaning of the word trivial and to ignore the total risk. It is also argued that the new proposal is not justified by a change from a utilitarian ethic to an ethic based on individual rights. Finally, it is suggested that small doses should only be disregarded if the expected value of harm is small, and the exclusion level should thus depend on the number of people exposed.

  • 1017.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Ethical aspects of radiation protection2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This aim of this thesis is to examine ethical aspects of radiation protection from ionizing radiation. Radiation protection is the professional field that deals with the protection of humans and the environment from the harmful effects of radiation. The field is based on scientific knowledge of the health effects of radiation, but also on ethical value judgements.

    This thesis consists of a summary and three essays. Essay 1 gives an overview of ethical issues in radiation protection. Based on this overview four ethical problem areas are identified as central for radiation protection. The first are ethical problems related to uncertainty and the influence of value judgements, especially in scientific risk assessment. The second problem area is ethical issues regarding distributions of risks and benefits between different individuals, both in space and time. The third general problem area is related to limit-setting. A major problem here is how to set limits in an ethically justifiable way when there is no known level of exposure that is associated with a zero risk. The fourth area concerns procedural justice and social decision-making in radiation protection. Essay 2 discusses ethical problems related to the proposal that individual risks below a certain level should be excluded from the system of radiation protection, without any regard to the number of people exposed. It is concluded that there are at least three problems associated with disregarding very small risks: (1) that many small risks to an individual may add up to a large risk for that individual, (2) that many small risks to many individuals may add up to a large expected value of harm, and (3) that a small risk each to many individuals may add up to a large probability that several people are harmed. It is also argued that the proposal is hard to justify in a rights-based ethical setting. Essay 3 examines what makes one distribution of individual doses better than another. This is done by creating a mathematical framework, based on preference logic, in which such assessments of can be made precisely in terms of comparisons between alternative distributions of individual doses. Principles from radiation protection and from parallel discussions in moral philosophy and welfare economics are defined using this framework and then analysed on basis of their formal properties. The analysis shows that there can be efficiency-related problems with a strict application of individual dose constraints. It is concluded that a principle that assigns extra weight to individual doses exceeding a certain limit, in proportion to the size of the excess dose, may be preferable to the standard combination of principles in radiation protection, since it satisfies efficiency related properties better without sacrificing other desirable properties.

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  • 1018.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on the assumption that the intersection of moral philosophy and practical risk management is a rewarding area to study. In particular, the thesis assumes that concepts, ideas, and methods that are used in moral philosophy can be of great benefit for risk analysis, but also that practices in risk regulation provide a useful testing ground for moral philosophical theories. The thesis consists of an introduction and five articles.

    Article I is a review article on social and ethical aspects of radiation protection related to nuclear power generation. The paper concludes that four areas of social and ethical issues stand out as central: The first is uncertainty and the influence of value judgments in scientific risk assessments. The second is the distributions of risks and benefits between different individuals, in both space and time. The third is the problem of setting limits when there is no known level of exposure associated with a zero risk. The fourth is related to stakeholder influence and risk communication.

    Article II discusses ethical issues related to the proposal that doses (or risks) below a certain level should be excluded from the system of radiation protection, without any regard for the number of people exposed. Different arguments for excluding small radiation doses from regulation are examined and a possible solution to the problem of regulating small risks is proposed in the article: Any exclusion of small doses (or risks) from radiation protection ought to be based on a case-by-case basis, with the condition that the expected value of harm remains small.

    Article III examines what makes one distribution of individual doses better than another distribution. The article introduces a mathematical framework based on preference logic, in which such assessments can be made precisely in terms of comparisons between alternative distributions of individual doses. Principles of radiation protection and from parallel discussions in moral philosophy and welfare economics are defined using this framework and their formal properties analyzed.

    Article IV argues that the ethical theory of “responsibility-catering prioritarianism” is well positioned to deal with the reasonable requirements in an ethical theory of risk. The article shows how responsibility-catering prioritarianism can be operationalized using a prioritarian social welfare function based on hypothetical utilities. For this purpose, a hypothetical utility measure called ‘responsibility-adjusted utility’ is proposed, which is based on the utility that would normally be expected given circumstances outside of the control of the individual.

    Article V was written as a response to the Fukushima disaster. Several authors have called the Fukushima disaster a ‘black swan.’ However, the article argues that the hazards of large earthquakes and tsunamis were known before the accident, and introduces and defines the concept of a ‘black elephant,’ as (i) a high-impact event that (ii) lies beyond the realm of regular expectations, but (iii) is ignored despite existing evidence.

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  • 1019.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    The flow of values in environmental risk assessments.2021In: Research Ethics for Environmental Health  / [ed] Friedo Zölzer, Gaston Meskens, Taylor & Francis Group, 2021, p. 198-208Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Value judgments in environmental risk assessments can sometimes have critical influences on policies. The phenomenon that values can have lasting effects is conceptualized as “value-inertia.” Value-inertia is exemplified and demonstrated through assessments of climate change risks. The problems of value-inertia are discussed, and suggestions to mitigate the problems are provided. Most importantly, decision-makers need to be aware that environmental risk assessments may be affected by value-inertia. However, because it is often difficult for decision-makers to both identify and compensate for previous value judgments, scientists and experts also have a moral responsibility to mitigate problems caused by value-inertia.

  • 1020.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History.
    Lindblom, Lars
    Umea Univ, Dept Hist Religious & Philosoph Studies, Humanisthuset, S-10044 Umea, Sweden..
    Toward a Responsibility-Catering Prioritarian Ethical Theory of Risk2019In: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 655-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard tools used in societal risk management such as probabilistic risk analysis or cost-benefit analysis typically define risks in terms of only probabilities and consequences and assume a utilitarian approach to ethics that aims to maximize expected utility. The philosopher Carl F. Cranor has argued against this view by devising a list of plausible aspects of the acceptability of risks that points towards a non-consequentialist ethical theory of societal risk management. This paper revisits Cranor's list to argue that the alternative ethical theory responsibility-catering prioritarianism can accommodate the aspects identified by Cranor and that the elements in the list can be used to inform the details of how to view risks within this theory. An approach towards operationalizing the theory is proposed based on a prioritarian social welfare function that operates on responsibility-adjusted utilities. A responsibility-catering prioritarian ethical approach towards managing risks is a promising alternative to standard tools such as cost-benefit analysis.

  • 1021.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Peterson, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Principles of protection: a formal approach for evaluating dose distribution2006In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 69-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     One of the central issues in radiation protection consists in determining what weight should be given to individual doses in relation to collective or aggregated doses. A mathematical framework is introduced in which such assessments can be made precisely in terms of comparisons between alternative distributions of individual doses. In addition to evaluation principles that are well known from radiation protection, a series of principles that are derived from parallel discussions in moral philosophy and welfare economics is investigated. A battery of formal properties is then used to investigate the evaluative principles. The results indicate that one of the new principles, bilinear prioritarianism, may be preferable to current practices, since it satisfies efficiency-related properties better without sacrificing other desirable properties.

  • 1022.
    Wirling, Ylwa Sjolin
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Grüne-Yanoff, Till
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History. Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Introduction to the synthese topical collection 'modal modeling in science: modal epistemology meets philosophy of science'2023In: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 201, no 6, article id 208Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1023.
    Wiséen, Tina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Wester-Herber, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Dirty soil and clean consciences: Examining communication of contaminated soil2007In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 181, no 1-4, p. 173-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification and remediation of contaminated sites in Europe is a continuous undertaking that includes different aspects. There are many variables to take into consideration such as the nature of the contaminants, the risks they pose, the location of the site and possible future usages. Also, possible negative effects on the local residents or the environment have to be considered. Within this context, it is necessary to establish a communication between different actors, such as industry, authorities and municipalities, as well as with the surrounding public. This can be done in a variety of ways, where some are more useful and constructive than others. In the present study, eight different construction companies and municipalities were interviewed in order to elicit their views on and experiences of risk communication. The results show that even though most actors were seriously committed to involve and respond to the local populations' concerns and fears, there is certainly room for improvement in many areas. Concluding remarks call for an increased exchange of experiences with all actors involved in risk research and to develop better official guidelines for communicating risks that are specific for contaminated soil.

  • 1024.
    Wormbs, Nina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Vi måste tala om individens ansvar i klimatomställningen2022In: Respons, ISSN 2001-2292, no 4-5Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Recension av boken "Ditt ansvar för klimatet – En moralfilosofisk essä"

    Författare: Anders Hansson

    Förlag: Ad Hoc

    152 sidor

    ISBN 9789198701852

  • 1025. Zetterberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Time for a New EU Regulatory Framework for GM Crops?2017In: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 325-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the EU legislation on genetically modified (GM) crops has come under severe criticism. Among the arguments are that the present legislation is inconsistent, disproportionate, obsolete from a scientific point of view, and vague in terms of its scope. In this paper, the EU GM legislation (mainly the "Release Directive", 2001/18/EC) is analysed based on five proposed criteria: legal certainty, non-discrimination, proportionality, scientific adaptability, and inclusion of non-safety considerations. It is argued that the European regulatory framework does not at present satisfy the criteria of legal certainty, non-discrimination, and scientific adaptability. Two ways of reforming the present legislation toward greater accommodation of the values expressed through the proposed criteria are briefly introduced and discussed.

  • 1026.
    Zhang, Li
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Choice revision2019In: Journal of Logic, Language and Information, ISSN 0925-8531, E-ISSN 1572-9583, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 577-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choice revision is a sort of non-prioritized multiple revision, in which the agent partially accepts the new information represented by a set of sentences. We investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new approach to belief change called descriptor revision. We prove that each of two variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized with a set of plausible postulates, assuming that the object language is finite. Furthermore, we introduce an alternative modelling for choice revision, which is based on a type of relation on sets of sentences, named multiple believability relation. We show without assuming a finite language that choice revision constructed from such relations is axiomatically characterized with the same sets of postulates that we proposed for the choice revision based on descriptor revision, whenever the relations satisfy certain rationality conditions.

  • 1027.
    Zhang, Li
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    On Non-Prioritized Multiple Belief Revision2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates a sort of non-prioritized multiple revision, the operation of making up one's mind, and its generalization, the operation of choice revision. Making up one's mind about a sentence is a belief change that takes the agent to a belief state in which either the sentence or its negation is believed. In choice revision, the input information is represented by a set of sentences, and the agent should make a choice on which sentences to be accepted. Apart from being practically important, these operations are technically interesting since the standard approach of intersecting a set of optimal outcomes is not workable.

    Paper I provides a construction based on descriptor revision in which the operation of making up one's mind can be modelled in a ``select-direct'' way, which is different from the traditional ``select-and-intersect'' methodology employed in the AGM model. The article shows that this construction is axiomatically characterized with a set of plausible postulates, and investigates the additional postulates that correlate with properties of the construction.

    Paper II investigates a new modelling for sentential belief revision operations, which is based on a set of relations on sentences named believability relations. It demonstrates that two special kinds of such relations, i.e. H-believability relations and basic believability relations, are faithful alternative models of two typical sentential revision generated from descriptor revision. It also shows that traditional AGM revision operations can be reconstructed from a strengthened variant of the basic believability relation and there exists a close connection between this strengthened believability relation and the standard epistemic entrenchment relation.

    Paper III studies the constructions of choice revision based on descriptor revision and multiple believability relations, which extends the domain of believability relations from sentences to sets of sentences. It is shown that each of two variants of choice revision based on descriptor revision is axiomatically characterized with a set of plausible postulates, assuming that the object language is finite. Furthermore, without assuming a finite language, it is shown that choice revision constructed from multiple believability relations is axiomatically characterized with the same sets of postulates proposed for choice revision derived from descriptor revision, whenever these relations satisfy certain rationality conditions.

    Paper IV explores choice revision on belief bases. A generalized version of expansion operation called partial expansion is introduced for developing models of this kind of choice revision. Based on the partial expansion as well as two multiple contraction operations from the literature, two kinds of choice revision operators on belief bases are constructed. This paper proposes several postulates for such two operators and shows that they can be axiomatically characterized by such postulates. Furthermore, it investigates two kinds of making up one's mind operators generated from these two choice revision operators and presents the axiomatic characterizations of them.

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  • 1028.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Improving the transparency and predictability of environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk assessment process and the subsequent risk management measures need tobe constantly evaluated, updated and improved. This thesis contributes to that workby considering, and suggesting improvements, regarding aspects like userfriendliness,transparency, accuracy, consistency, data reporting, data selection anddata evaluation.The first paper in this thesis reports from an empirical investigation of themotivations, intentions and expectations underlying the development andimplementation of a voluntary industry owned environmental classification systemfor pharmaceuticals. The results show that the purpose of the classification systemis to provide information, no other risk reduction measures are aimed for.The second paper reports from an evaluation of the accuracy and the consistency ofthe environmental risk assessments conducted within the classification system. Theresults show that the guideline recommendations were not followed in several casesand consequently alternative risk ratios could be determined for six of the 36pharmaceutical substances selected for evaluation in this study. When additionaldata from the open scientific literature was included the risk ratio was altered formore than one-third of the risk assessments. Seven of the 36 substances wereassessed and classified by more than one risk assessor. In two of the seven cases,different producers classified the same substance into different classificationcategories.The third paper addresses the question whether non-standard ecotoxicity data couldbe used systematically in environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals. Fourdifferent evaluation methods were used to evaluate nine non-standard studies. Theevaluation result from the different methods varied at surprisingly high rate and theevaluation of the non-standard data concluded that the reliability of the data wasgenerally low.

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    Marlene Ågerstrand
  • 1029.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Breitholtz, M.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Comparison of four different methods for reliability evaluation of ecotoxicity data: A case study of non-standard test dataused in environmental risk assessments of pharmaceutical substances2011In: Environmental Sciences Europe, ISSN 2190-4707, E-ISSN 2190-4715, Vol. 23, no 17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1030.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Evaluation of the accuracy and consistency of the Swedish Environmental Classification and Information System for pharmaceuticals2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 11, p. 2327-2339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish environmental and classification system for pharmaceuticals is a voluntary, industry-owned system with the purpose to provide environmental information about active pharmaceutical ingredients in the Swedish market. In this paper we report the results from a detailed evaluation of the accuracy and consistency of the risk assessments conducted within this system. The evaluation focused on the following three aspects: 1) comparison of the companies' risk assessments with the classification system's own guidance document, 2) how the risk assessments are affected if additional effect data is used, and 3) the consistency of different risk assessments for the same pharmaceutical substance. The analyses show that the system's guidance gives no criteria for when to consider a study "long-term" or "short-term", and that this confusion affected the outcome of the risk assessments in some cases. Furthermore, when the system's guidance document is followed and the risk assessment was supplemented with effect data from the open scientific literature, then the risk classification for a substantial number of the evaluated substances was altered. Our analyses also revealed that in some cases risk assessors disagree on the outcome of the assessment for the same active pharmaceutical ingredient. Finally we list some recommendations to improve the classification system. The recommendations include clarifying concepts and instructions in the guidance document, introduction of a standardized way of reporting data to the website, and promotion of use of nonstandard test data when considered the most relevant.

  • 1031.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in the environment: The Swedish environmental classification system for pharmaceuticals2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1032.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The Swedish environmental and classification system for pharmaceuticals: An evaluation of the system’s achievements so far2010In: Towards Sustainable Pharmaceuticals in a Healthy Society / [ed] C Rudén, K Liljelund, H Hagerman, Elanders Sverige AB , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1033.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The Swedish environmental information and classification scheme for pharmaceuticals - An empirical investigation of the motivations, intentions and expectations underlying its development and implementation2008In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 180, p. S177-S178Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1034.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    The Swedish Environmental Classification and Information System for Pharmaceuticals: An empirical investigation of the motivations, intentions and expectations underlying its development and implementation2009In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 778-786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2005 the Swedish Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry (LIF) initiated a national environmental classification and information system for pharmaceuticals. This investigation reports the results from a survey, conducted among the persons involved in the start-up process. The aim of this study is to generate knowledge contributing to the clarification of the motivations, expectations, and intentions underlying the development and implementation of the system. The decision to implement a classification and information system for pharmaceuticals was the result of a combination of several driving forces, mainly political pressure and a possibility to increase the industries' goodwill, while at the same time keeping the process under the industries' control. The expected possible effects of the system, other than increased goodwill, are according to this survey assumed to be low. The system offers little guidance for end-users in the substitution of one pharmaceutical for another. One possible reason for this could be that LIF needs to observe the interests of all its members' and should not affect competition. The affiliation of the involved actors correlates to how these actors view and value the system, but this has not hampered the collaborative process to develop and implement it.

  • 1035.
    Åhman, Henrik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    The aesthetic turn: Exploring the religious dimensions of digital technology2016In: Approaching Religion, E-ISSN 1799-3121, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 156-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The arena for developing digital technology has undergone an aesthetic turn, broadening the focus from a functionalist approach producing centralized systems in the 1970s and 1980s to an increased awareness of the aesthetic aspects of the individual user’s interaction with technology in the 1990s and 2000s. Within the academic research fields studying digital technology (e.g. Human-Computer Interaction and Interaction Design) the aesthetic turn has resulted in a shift from a strong emphasis on user behaviour to an increased interest in aesthetic perspectives on the role of the designer, the design process, and the design material. Within these fields, aesthetics has often been interpreted as belonging to the realm of the individual; personal experiences such as pleasure, engagement, and emotions have been emphasized in both technology development and technology research. Aesthetics is not, however, only an individual phenomenon but also has relational and structural components that need to be acknowledged. Structural aspects of aesthetics condition the possibilities for individuals interacting with digital technology. Thus, the tension between individual and relational aspects of aesthetics in digital technology also reflects a tension between freedom and limitation; between change and permanence; between destabilizing and stabilizing forces. Such a broadened understanding of aesthetics offers a model of digital technology that roughly corresponds to Mark C. Taylor’s definition of religion. Taylor argues that religion is constituted by, on the one hand, a figuring moment characterized by structural stability and universality, and, on the other hand, a disfiguring moment characterized by disruption, particularity, and change. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the aesthetic turn and Taylor’s definition of religion to illustrate similarities between the two, suggesting possible religious dimensions of digital technology and how that can inform our understanding of people’s interaction with digital technology.

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    The aesthetic turn
  • 1036.
    Swedish Congress of Philosophy (Filosofidagarna) 14-16 June, 2013: Abstracts2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
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