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  • 101.
    Österlöf, Rickard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. Scania.
    Wentzel, Henrik
    Scania.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    A finite strain viscoplastic constitutive model for rubberwith reinforcing fillersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A three dimensional viscoplastic constitutive model for finite strains in aco-rotational explicit scheme is developed and implemented using finite elementsthat captures the amplitude dependency, commonly referred to as theFletcher-Gent effect, and frequency dependency of rubber with reinforcingfillers. The multiplicative split of the deformation gradient is utilized andthe plastic flow rule stems from an extension to finite strains of a boundarysurface model with a vanishing elastic region. The storage and loss modulusfor a 50 phr carbon black filled natural rubber are captured over a largerange of strain amplitudes, 0.2 − 50% shear strain, and frequencies, 0.2 − 20Hz. In addition, bimodal excitation is replicated accurately, even though thismeasurement data is not included when obtaining material parameters. Thiscapability is essential when non-sinusoidal loading conditions are to be replicated.By separating the material and geometrical influence on the propertiesof a component, the design engineers have the capability to evaluate more concepts early in the design phase. This also reduces the need of complexprototypes for physical testing, thereby saving both time and money.

  • 102.
    Österlöf, Rickard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. Scania.
    Wentzel, Henrik
    Scania.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Temperature dependency of a viscoplastic materialmodel derived for rubber with reinforcing fillersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature dependency of a finite strain time domain viscoplastic materialmodel for filled rubber is studied over the ranges 0.2-50% shear strain,0.8-17.9 Hz and 0 to 85 C. The storage and loss modulus of a 54 phr carbonblack filled natural rubber are accurately captured by the model at eachtemperature, thereby supporting the notion that a viscoelastic network inseries with a plastic element is suitable material model for rubber with reinforcingfillers. The variation of the moduli as a function of temperatureis non-linear, with a stronger dependency at lower temperatures. Therefore,a set of measurements are representative in a broader temperature range athigher compared to lower temperatures. Highly filled rubber are not thermorheologicalsimple materials, and an elevated temperature influences the stiffnessand dissipation differently at low and high strain amplitudes. Therefore,relying merely on low strain amplitude measurements can led to erroneousconclusions, when strain amplitudes in operational conditions are moderate to large. The presented modelling technique enables an accurate evaluationbetween compounds, early in the development phase of new components inindustrial applications.

  • 103.
    Özeren, Hüsamettin Deniz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Prediction of Plasticization in a Real Biopolymer System (Starch) using Molecular Dynamics Simulations2020In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 187, no 108387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virgin biopolymers are often brittle, which means that they need efficient, sustainable, non-toxic plasticizers for most practical applications. Although the mechanical properties of biopolymers plasticized with e.g. sugars have been extensively investigated, the explanation why efficient plasticization normally only occurs above 20 wt% plasticizer is still lacking. In this work, starch/glycerol was used as a model system to show that all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can be used to capture the transition region at 20–30 wt% plasticizer, where plasticization becomes pronounced. Tensile properties and PVT data (densities and glass transition temperatures) were obtained both from MD simulations and from measurements on real starch/glycerol materials, confirming that MD could capture the experimentally observed transition region. Also, the simulated glycerol diffusivity correlated well with the trends in the mechanical properties. Percolation theory was used to derive a probable explanation of the observed transition. The results indicate that the MD methodology can be used also for other polymer/plasticizer systems and has the potential to be a valuable tool for optimizing the type and amount of plasticizer in a given polymer, as well as being a tool for the design of new efficient plasticizers.

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