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  • 101. Emanuel, Martin
    Bengt Halse En intervju av Martin Emanuel 5 oktober 20172017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Bengt Halse’s experiences from working with satellite technology at Ericsson, with a focus on microwave technology, antennas and signal processing, most notably in European projects such as ELDO F9, OTS, MAROTS, as well as the Swedish Tele-X project. As part of the story, Halse identifies some of the key project leaders and supporters at the higher level within the company of this relatively small segment. As a key aspect of the “return” of space-oriented projects, he points to their character as high tech, international, but still relatively small projects, which made them well-suited as a “school” in project management. Halse also elaborates on Ericsson’s relationship to other relevant actors with respect to space activities. On the international arena, ESA stands out as the most important funder, and Halse discusses the position of Ericsson within Star (one of three European space industry consortia) and the space industry landscape more generally. The company’s space related technology development was essentially carried out within the Military Industrial (MI) division in Mölndal. Still, according to Halse, Sweden stands out as a country where space technology was not carried out in any close collaboration with the Swedish Defence. In fact, in spite of the high potential to use satellite technology for signal intelligence purposes—and Ericsson’s capacity in the field—the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (Försvaret Materielverk) appears to have been reluctant to engage in such developments. Also with respect to the Swedish space landscape, Halse highlights the frictions between Ericsson and the Swedish Space Corporation (Rymdbolaget), due to their different agendas and necessary considerations, which were however differently navigated depending on personal dynamics. Finally, Halse brings some insider reflection on the merger between Ericsson’s and Saab’s space technology divisions into Saab Ericsson Space, which he considers as essentially a natural and friction-free process.

  • 102.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Bicycle Renaissance Cut Short: Bicycle Planning and Appraisal of the Bicycle in Stockholm, 1970–19852012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Like in most other European cities, Stockholm experienced a bicycle “renaissance” in the 1970s, after more than two decades of rapidly declining levels of bicycling. However, the renaissance had already abated by the early 1980s, and the present upward trend only began after 1990. This article is the result of on-going inquiries into the longer trends and contingencies in bicycle traffic and planning in Stockholm, focusing on the period 1970–85 and, thus, capturing two turning points in terms of bicycle traffic levels and public and political appraisal of the bicycle. Particularly, the fluctuations of bicycle traffic are considered in relation to urban planning, infrastructure provision, and the changing assessments of the bicycle in light of the 1960s’ predominantly urban environmental debates and the 1970s’ (“green”) environmental debates at the local level in Stockholm. While defined increasingly as a “humane” and environmentally-sensible alternative to the automobile, reassessments of the bicycle in terms of safety and speed proved more important to the (socially) constructed material conditions for using the bicycle. Although bicycle traffic had broad public and political support in the 1970s, design choices made during this decade, based on thrift and the persistence of the car as norm, led to conflicts among different road users—not least between bicyclists and pedestrians—and thus more hesitance towards stimulating bicycle traffic. In the 1980s, bicycle traffic received less policy attention and less funding for infrastructure. The huge labor dispute in Sweden in the spring of 1980 stands out as an important singular event. The resulting standstill of the Stockholm subway and generally deficient public transport (the staff went on strike) made many people turn to and reassess the bicycle as a transport option. However, due to the sudden growth of inexperienced bicyclists, the problems of bicycle traffic attracted much attention—which was similar to what had happened during the Second World War. In sum, bicycling stood out as an asset in environmental terms, but the early “greening” of the bicycle was not enough to overcome the long-standing notion of the bicycle as a safety problem.

  • 103.
    Emanuel, Martin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Conny Kullman: An interview with Martin Emanuel 15 November 2017 and 25 January 20182018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Conny Kullman’s experiences from space-related work, first at Saab Space in Gothenburg and later from his career within Intelsat. Kullman describes the Gothenburg department of Saab Space—where he worked as a system design engineer, designing and testing on board computer models for the Ariane launcher and a number of European satellites—as relatively independent from the Linköping main office. Coming to Intelsat as a systems engineer in 1986, during the 1990s Kullman advanced within the organization and held management positions with responsibility for Systems Operation, Systems Planning, as Chief Information Officer, and as Vice President for all operation as well as Engineering. In 1998 he became CEO of Intelsat and embarked on a three-tiered program: to privatize Intelsat, to make an IPO, and to have Intelsat develop a ground infrastructure for satellite communication. In the interview, Kullman elaborates on the organizational structure of Intelsat, an “intergovernmental cooperative” as he calls it, and how this structure, having been a strength in the early days, in his view became a major weakness. As fibre optics began to provide a cheap alternative to satellite telecommunication, and with the development of competing satellite communication systems, the treaty-based regulations as well as the interests of the largest Signatories (owners) of Intelsat, not least American Comsat and British Telecom, impeded sound operation from a business point of view. The interview treats in detail Kullman’s role in and insights from the privatization process, the transition in ownership in 2005, when Intelsat was bought by private equity firms, as well as Intelsat’s acquisition of Loral (2003) and PanAmSat (2006).

  • 104. Emanuel, Martin
    Conny Kullman, interview from 2017/20182018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Conny Kullman’s experiences from space-related work, first at Saab Space in Gothenburg and later from his career within Intelsat. Kullman describes the Gothenburg department of Saab Space—where he worked as a system design engineer, designing and testing on board computer models for the Ariane launcher and a number of European satellites—as relatively independent from the Linköping main office. Coming to Intelsat as a systems engineer in 1986, during the 1990s Kullman advanced within the organization and held management positions with responsibility for Systems Operation, Systems Planning, as Chief Information Officer, and as Vice President for all operation as well as Engineering. In 1998 he became CEO of Intelsat and embarked on a three-tiered program: to privatize Intelsat, to make an IPO, and to have Intelsat develop a ground infrastructure for satellite communication. In the interview, Kullman elaborates on the organizational structure of Intelsat, an “intergovernmental cooperative” as he calls it, and how this structure, having been a strength in the early days, in his view became a major weakness. As fibre optics began to provide a cheap alternative to satellite telecommunication, and with the development of competing satellite communication systems, the treaty-based regulations as well as the interests of the largest Signatories (owners) of Intelsat, not least American Comsat and British Telecom, impeded sound operation from a business point of view. The interview treats in detail Kullman’s role in and insights from the privatization process, the transition in ownership in 2005, when Intelsat was bought by private equity firms, as well as Intelsat’s acquisition of Loral (2003) and PanAmSat (2006).

  • 105.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Constructing the cyclist: Ideology and representations in urban traffic planning in Stockholm, 1930-702012In: Journal of Transport History, ISSN 0022-5266, E-ISSN 1759-3999, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 67-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Datorn i skolan: Skolöverstyrelsens och andra aktörers insatser, 1970- och 80-tal: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 30 oktober 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”Datorn i Skolan: Skolöverstyrelsens och andra aktörers insatser, 1970- och 80-tal” (The Computer in School: The National Board of Education and Other Actors’ Efforts during the 1970s and 1980s) was held at The National Museum of Science and Technology (Tekniska museet) in Stockholm on 30 October 2008 and was led by Thomas Kaiserfeld and Martin Emanuel. The seminar focused on the larger national projects dedicated to computers in Swedish compulsory schools. Most of them were conducted by the National Board of Education, such as the DISand PRODIS-projects (Datorn I Skolan, Computer in School; PROgramvaror och Datorutrustning I Skolan, Software and Hardware in School) in the 1970s and early 1980s, and the so-called three-year campaigns and the DOS-project (Datorn Och Skolan, Computer and School) later during the 1980s. While the 1970s was mainly a period of experimental and policy-related work, the 3-year campaigns meant financial support for schools’ purchase of hardware, and the later DOS-project aimed at software development. A few projects run by other actors in the field were also treated, such as the PRINCESS-project, a research and development project at today’s Department of Computer and Systems Sciences in Stockholm. This project turned towards computer-support in education, and the technology procurement project for developing a Swedish school computer, named TUDIS and it was managed by the National Swedish Board for Technical Development (Styrelsen för teknisk utveckling). In 1984 this led to a consortium led by Esselte Studium developing the Compis computer. Assembling representatives from all these project and actors, the seminar also treated issues of coordination and conflict, success and failure regarding the efforts on computers in education.

  • 107.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    En bild behöver ibland tusen ord: Anmälan av Ann-Sofi Forsmark, Stockholmsfotografer: En fotografihistoria från Stockholms stadsmuseum, Stockholmia Förlag, Stockhom, 20122013In: Respons, ISSN 2001-2292, no 1Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 108.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Europe as perceived from the bicycle saddle in the interwar period2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 109.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Folkbildning kring datorn 1978–85: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 9 oktober 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The witness seminar ”Folkbildning kring datorn 1978–85” (Adult education and computers 1978–85) was held at Tekniska museet (The National Museum of Science and Technology) in Stockholm on 9 October 2008 and was led by Ulla Riis assisted by Martin Emanuel. The seminar focused on different efforts to increase computer literacy as well as awareness of the role of computers and information technology in society and on human life, in particular by means of study circles given by adult education associations. From the perspective of these associations, the content of the circles, the recruitment of trainers and participants and the accessibility to computers was dealt with. The different initiatives to stimulate such study circles and stipulate their content and target groups from above, e.g. by the Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research (Forskningsrådsnämnden) and the Swedish National Board of Education (Skolöverstyrelsen), were however treated in greater detail. Particular attention was given to the initiative “Broader Computer Education and Training” (Bred datautbilding) led by the Swedish Commission for Informatics Policy (Datadelegationen) starting in 1982. The “broadness” was supposedly twofold. Firstly, the education and training should reach many people. Secondly, it should have a broad content, mediating knowledge about computers, i.e. the technology, as well as its use and its consequences. The roots of and motives behind these initiatives were discussed at depth. Key ingredients in this respect was to counteract increasing gaps in knowledge levels on what was considered a future key technology, and the concerns and strategies of the different parties on the labor market in relation to new information technology.

  • 110. Emanuel, Martin
    Gert Larsson och Tommy Ivarsson: En intervju av Martin Emanuel4 april 20172017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview primarily treats Gert Larsson’s experiences as head of central planning at Saab Missile and Electronics division and a key person with respect to Saab’s early space activities, and later as Vice President of the company. The interview also treats Tommy Ivarsson’s experiences from his time as a young engineer at ESRO and later a high rank manager at Saab. Key issues discussed are the motives for Saab to engage in space technology; the establishment of and division of tasks within the international consortium MESH for bidding on European space-related projects; and the competition and complementary nature of the Linköping and Gothenburg branches of Saab in relation to space projects. The late Tore Gullstrand is pointed out as pivotal for Saab’s engagement in space technology. The French government and the French company of MESH, Matra, are pointed out as unique, in a European perspective, in their space efforts and competence. The system’s perspective on space technology of the Linköping branch is contrasted to the cutting edge electrical expertise within the Gothenburg branch. Larsson and Ivarsson also discuss Swedish industry and innovation policy, their changes over time, and their implications for space activities. While proponents of space activities within and outside the company often allude to the build-up and transfer of know-how to other sectors, the interviewees find that little direct technology transfer actually took place as a result of Saab’s engagement in state-funded space projects—although indirect transfer, through the movement of experienced personnel across organizational boundaries, indeed happened.

  • 111.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Ideology and hierarchy in traffic planning: Concepts from gender systems theory applied on traffic planning in post-war Stockholm2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 112. Emanuel, Martin
    Ivan Öfverholm: En intervju av Martin Emanuel6 februari 20182018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Ivan Öfverholm’s experiences from Swedish industrial enterprises, in particular his role as CEO of Saab Space AB and Saab Ericsson Space AB 1984–99. Having worked as an engineer with computer-related projects with ASEA, LM Ericsson and Scandia Metrics, in 1984 he became CEO for the newly created company Saab Space. In the interview, Öfverholm elaborates on his views on and his role in the structuring of the company’s divisions in Gothenburg and Linköping and their respective focus on national (Linköping) and international (Gothenburg) projects. He also comments on the company’s relationship to the Swedish National Space Board and the Swedish Space Corporation, as well as to the other two Swedish industries producing for space-related activities: LM Ericsson and Volvo. According to Öfverholm, the merge between Saab Space and Ericsson’s space division into Saab Ericsson Space AB in 1992 was driven by his worries that Ericsson would—given their competence in computer technology—in the longer run out-compete Saab for deliveries of onboard computers. Furthermore, the rationale of later acquisitions, e.g. of the Austrian space companies that were merged into Austrian Aerospace GmbH, was discussed. With respect to collaboration between industry and the state bureaucracy, Öfverholm points to how those ties were stronger in many other countries than in Sweden, which occasionally made the company turn to their European colleagues to help with influencing Swedish space policy to their favour. In the interview, Öfverholm also shares his views on European space cooperation based on his experiences as board member of Arianespace and chair of Eurospace. Finally, the interview treats his involvement, after he had left Saab Ericsson Space, in creating the South-African company African Telecommunication Satellites.

  • 113.
    Emanuel, Martin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Lennart Lübeck: En intervju av Lennart Björn 10 december 2013 och 7 januari 20142018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Lennart Lübeck’s experiences from space-related work within multiple organizations, most notably during the early Swedish sounding rockets experiment in Nausta and Kronogård; within the so-called Space Technology Group (Rymdtekniska gruppen) of the Swedish Research Councils 1963–69 and as CEO (1986–98) and chairman (1998–2006) of the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC, Rymdbolaget). Even as he held positions within the Ministry of Industry (1969–78), as state secretary in the Ministry of Transport and Communications (1978–79), and as CEO for the Swedish Industrial Development Fund (1979–86), Lübeck continuously had contact with and took an interest in space-related issues—during his time in the latter position he was also board member of SSC. From the viewpoint of this unique carrier, Lübeck depicts key events and projects as well as the inner workings of parts of the state administration, in the event touching upon a great cast of characters involved in or influencing Swedish space-related policy and activities over the years, ranging from scientist to top-rank politicians and bureaucrats. The interview focuses on two issues in particular. Firstly, the character of SSC, and the tactics and strategies of the corporation vis-à-vis other actors in the Swedish space landscape. Lübeck describes SSC as a successful innovation hub but with a culture more resembling a public authority, which meant that they lacked—with some notable exceptions—the capacity to really commercialize and reach volume production. Without a viable domestic market for satellites, in 2011, the satellite-building section of SSC was sold to the German company OHB. Secondly, Lübeck traces how Swedish state policy with respect to space has changed over time. While there has hardly ever been any inherent interest in space or space-related research among policy makers, Lübeck asserts, space-related policy has rather been about achieving other political goals: industrial policy, regional policy, and European policy. In a situation of declining policy interest in Swedish space activities, the latter—that is, to show presence and solidarity in the European arena—has been the most prolific part of the three-tiered policy.

  • 114.
    Emanuel, Martin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Lennart Nordh: En intervju av Martin Emanuel 22 oktober 20172017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Lennart Nordh’s experiences as an astronomer at Stockholm University and the Stockholm Observatory in Saltsjöbaden, and as secretary of the Swedish National Space Board’s (SNSB) scientific committee, responsible for the distribution of funds for Swedish space-related research and development. As part of his role at SNSB, Nordh was also the Swedish delegate in ESA:s scientific committee, which he chaired for three years towards the end of his career. The interview treats, among other things, the entry, development, and special requirements of astronomy as a space-borne scientific field in a landscape that was initially dominated by space physics and aeronomy. Given Nordh’s involvement in infrared (IR) astronomy in particular, focus is on IR-related projects, from balloon and sounding rocket-based projects via the Swedish national satellite project Odin to grand international missions such as ISO, Herschel and James Webb Space Telescope, although he also discusses other Swedish astronomy groups’ particularities and access to experimental know-how and technical facilities. Finally, based on his experiences within the Swedish and European scientific committees, Nordh elaborates on the inner workings and considerations regarding funding of space research, including national strategies and the juste retour-principle that guides ESA-funding.

  • 115.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    New Delhi: Motorburen modernitet2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 116.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Nytta eller nöje? Strategier i Cykelfrämjandets historia / Debatt: Mer kraft på trafikpolitik?2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 117.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    On a detour: Changing conditions for bicycle traffic in Stockholm 1930–19702010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Emanuel, Martin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Per Nobinder: En intervju av Martin Emanuel 12 april 20172017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Per Nobinder’s experiences as industry policy officer at Rymdtekniska gruppen, Rymdbolaget, and later Rymdstyrelsen, which altogether lend him a key role in the distribution of Swedish funds – via European space organizations or not – to space technology projects. The interview elucidates the structure and practice of Sweden’s policy making related to European space activities within ESRO and later ESA. Not least it discusses the trade-offs between technical, political and economic considerations in the distribution of European funds, stressing the Juste Retour as the ultimate principal for the outcome. Among Swedish industry actors competing for Swedish and European funds, Saab was the largest, Ericsson substantially smaller, while Volvo had unique technical competence in a European perspective – in a way that Saab did not. Partly as a result of this, Nobinder describes the cooperation with Volvo as smoother than that with Saab. Attempts to press the Swedish industry actors to co-fund Swedish state funds for space technology projects were, however, ultimately unsuccessful. The interview also highlights the relationships, power struggles and tensions between the private industry actors and state-owned Rymdbolaget, on the one hand, and between Rymdbolaget and the authority Rymdstyrelsen on the other. Not least through its dynamic director, Rymdbolaget tried to, and often succeeded, to shape Swedish policies related to space activities.

  • 119.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Planning the Urban Bicyclist in Stockholm, 1930–19702011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    På cykel mot en bättre värld2010In: Stadsbyggnad, ISSN 0038-8963, no 2, p. 36-38Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Essä utifrån J. Harry Wray, Pedal Power: The Quite Rise of the Bicycle in American Public Life, Boulder, Colorado: Paradigm Publishers, 2008, samt Jeff Mapes, Pedaling Revolution: How Cyclists Are Changing American Cities, Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University Press, 2009.

  • 121.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Släpp cyklarna loss, det är vår!2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 122.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Struggle for space: A sociotechnical perspective on bicycle traffic in Stockholm, 1940-602006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Struggle for space: A sociotechnical perspective on bicycle traffic in Stockholm, 1940-602006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Trafikslag på undantag: Cykeltrafiken i Stockholm 1930-19802012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The modal share of bicycle traffic in Stockholm increased from 20 per cent to over 30 per cent during the 1930s, and reached staggering levels during World War Two – peaking at over 70 per cent. Soon after the war, however, the share declined rapidly. In 1950, 1960 and 1970, bicycle traffic accounted for about 30 per cent, then 3 per cent and then less than 1 per cent, respectively, of the total amount of traffic. How should these rapid changes be understood? Why did bicycle use increase before World War Two, even though the bicycle was hardly a carrier of modernity, and then decline so rapidly during the post-war period?

    This thesis analyses the changing conditions for bicycling in Stockholm in the period 1930–1980. Comparisons with Copenhagen lend contrast and depth to the Stockholm case. The thesis stresses the importance of ideology and power in the management and planning of urban traffic. The purpose is to examine which actors had an influence on urban traffic and how, on the basis of their conceptions of the bicycle, bicyclists and bicycle traffic, those actors shaped the conditions for bicycling. Although the yearning for automobility and “modern” transit alternatives should not be disregarded as important to the rapid decline of bicycling in post-war Stockholm, it is argued that bicycle traffic was marginalised by traffic engineers and urban planners during the modernisation of the city.

    Given the rapid growth of bicycle traffic before, during and just after the Second World War, bicyclists were taken into consideration by the police, municipal engineers and the bicycle lobby, primarily through short-term measures. In the post-war period, in a context of a booming economy and the increasingly important position of planning, urban and traffic planners seized the initiative in urban traffic matters. Working within a longer time frame and with more extensive encroachments on the built environment to cope with the “demands” of urban traffic, the bicycle was completely absent in their future visions. Their interpretations of the bicycle as an unsafe, local and primarily recreational mode of transportation were materialised in the urban infrastructure, which led to worse conditions for bicyclists and reinforced the conversion to other modes of transport. By promoting certain uses and deterring others – such as carving out a small sphere for bicycle traffic in the suburbs, while making longer journeys to and from the inner city difficult by bicycle – planning and infrastructure provision shaped future traffic and travel practices.

    From the late 1960s these interpretations were increasingly complemented by more positive ones of the bicycle as a fast, flexible and clean means of transportation. The bicycle lobby and later local politicians pushed for an increased consideration of bicyclists, eventually leading up to the first bicycle plan for Stockholm in 1978. The early bicycle “renaissance” of the 1970s was curbed in the 1980s, however, due to economic recovery as well as design choices feeding the interpretation of bicyclists as a safety problem.

  • 125.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Trusting signals, controlling flows: Traffic operation in the 20th century2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 126.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Trusting signals, controlling flows: Traffic operation in the 20th century2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Understanding conditions for bicycle traffic through historical inquiry: The case of Stockholm2010In: IUT Journal (Institute of Urban Transport of India), no Dec, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of bicycle traffic in Stockholm follows the general pattern of west European cities: high levels before the Second World War, overwhelming levels during the war, and then a rapid decline during the post-war period. More recently a "renaissance" of the bicycle can be discerned. This article treats the conditions for bicycle traffic in Stockholm during the period 1930–1970. Though the demand for automobility and "modern" transit alternatives should not be disregarded as important "pull" factors in explaining the rapid decline of bicycling in the postwar period, the article highlights two kinds of "push" factors: urban development patterns and conceptions of the bicycle among professional groups in urban transport. The final section of the article is devoted to the recent upward bicycle trend in Stockholm and the simultaneous decline in bicycling in many cities in developing countries, using Delhi as an example of the latter. Given the flexibility and contextual character of notions such as "rational"/"irrational" and "modern"/"non-modern", as seen in the case of Stockholm, it is argued that the decline of bicycling in developing countries should be understood as a socially constructed rather than a "natural", inevitable process.

  • 128.
    Emanuel, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Våra drömmars stad – så kunde Stockholm ha sett ut: Anmälan av Gunnar Sandin, Vägen till Citybanan: Spårfrågan mellan Norr och Söderunder 150 år, Stockholmia Förlag, Stockholm, 20122012In: Respons, ISSN 2001-2292, no 2Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 129. Engblom, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    Wormbs, Nina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Radio och TV efter monopolet: en kamp om politik, pengar, publik och teknik2007 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Eriksson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Risk analysis and naval architecture in the period 1950-20102011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis treats the historical development of the marine industry worldwide and its relation to risk analysis during the 60 year period of 1950 to 2010. The relation between the two is found through analysis of what risks connect the two and drive the development of technology and legislation during different time periods. There is little to no previous research on this particular subject particularly using a risk perspective of complex systems.

    To do this it became necessary to write a summary of the development of the maritime industry in technological and legislative terms, in modern time, while at the same time revealing clear insights in how this development works. The summary is based on a wide variety of different sources, and therefore gives a reasonably accurate description of the development given the period and scope looked at.

    Generalizing the development is found to be that risks force legislative changes, and that technological development is sometimes responsible for causing the risks. That said, many technological developments also help reduce overall risk.

    The major conclusion drawn is that when a risk is acknowledged there is a conscious effort made to minimize or eliminate it, which in turn is a development, a system change of sorts that might have generated new risks. Overall the evolution of the maritime industry has led to a system that is resilient towards risks, yet that still responds to risks actively and often rather efficiently once they become apparent.

  • 131.
    Eriksson, Sture
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (closed 20110930).
    The electrical power engineering profession in Sweden - Overview and milestones2009In: Proceedings of 2009 IEEE Conference on the History of Technical Societies, IEEE , 2009, p. 381-385Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is highly electrified and the electrical power engineers have had an important role in this development. Fundamental for these engineers is their education, their working experience, and their professional network. The Swedish development over time of these factors is highlighted. Organizations for engineers are essential parts of their network and the country has a long tradition in this respect. It started with local and national assemblies, but international organizations have successively grown in importance.

  • 132.
    Ernkvist, Mirko
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Svensk dataspelsutveckling, 1960–1995: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 12 december 20072008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The witness seminar ”Svensk dataspelsutveckling, 1960–1995” was held at Tekniska museet [the National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on December 12, 2007 and was led by Mirko Ernkvist. The participants were Swedes that had been involved in the development of computer games during this period. The development process of several pioneering computer games were discussed from the perspective of the developers themselves. These games included: a demonstration game on the Saab manufactured computer D2 (1960–61), Stugan (1978), Space Action (1983), Fairlight (1985), Time Zero (1985), several games by Team17 (1990–) and Backpacker (1995). Computer game development efforts were initiated early in the Swedish history of computing, even by international comparisons. The first known Swedish game with moving graphics was a demonstration game for D2 displayed on an oscilloscope from the early 1960s. When computers became more widespread among Swedish universities, game development efforts soon followed. The first Swedish adventure game, “Stugan” was released in 1978 on the computers at Stockholm Datacentral, QZ. Subsequently, the introduction of home computers in Sweden in the early 1980s enabled more widespread Swedish game development efforts. Many Swedish game developers from this time were self-learned, but several were also involved in some of the computer groups that emerged during this time. These groups cracked, compressed, modified and traded computer games and created demos. The cracker and demo culture of the 1980s provided an environment of learning, socialization, and competition for many Swedish game developers. England that had a more established computer game industry during the 1980s provided opportunities for some of the Swedish game developers. The game “Fairlight” by a Swedish developer was published by an English game company and another Swedish game developer was one of the founders of the English game company Team17. Other Swedish game development projects discussed such as “Space Action”, “Time Zero” and “Backpacker” had Swedish companies as publishers.

  • 133.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    Book Review. Greening Berlin: The Co-Production of Science, Politics, and Urban Nature2014In: Science & Technology Studies, E-ISSN 2243-4690, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 113-116Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Nilsson, David
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Histories of Heterogenous Infrastructures: Negotiating Colonial, Postcolonial and Oral Archives in Kampala, Uganda2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructure studies are growing in importance to understand how sociocultural, ecological, and ecological relations are inscribed, negotiated, and contested in urban spaces. A major effort has been to ground such work in experiences of the global South, moving beyond the “modern infrastructure ideal” a fully networked city, towards conceptualizations of incremental, peopled, and heterogenous infrastructure. However, there are still few historical studies that depart from these new conceptualizations. In this paper we draw upon our empirical work in Kampala, Uganda, in an attempt to historicize “heterogenous infrastructure configurations” (Lawhon et al. 2017) through combining (and constructing) three distinct historical archives: (i) the colonial archives (based on traditional archival work in Kew National Archives in London); (ii) the official postcolonial archives (which meant to crisscross through Kampala to assemble documents, reports, photos and legal notes); and (iii) oral histories (where we interviewed elderly women and men with a long family history in the city). This work has led to several pertinent questions about “what to make of the colonial archives when they systematically exclude or distort the wider heterogenous infrastructure reality that surely existed in parallel to the ‘European’ city?” “why are postcolonial archives so difficult to find and assemble?” and “how to draw upon the richness and texture of oral histories from particular places, families and persons.” This paper then, reflects on how we have grappled with working across these archives with the aim to contribute more general ideas of how to situate and historicize the study of contemporary infrastructures in a postcolonial world (in communication with postcolonial historians as in Mamdani, Chakrabarty, Lalu, and Benson). By pushing different narratives to confront and clash, and by critically looking at our own practice, new histories arise. But also new questions; some which should have been asked long ago. We argue here for an approach of heterodoxa; one that opens for different meanings, archives and locations from where to construct histories and futures about infrastructure and urban spaces.

  • 135.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Social Movements and Ecosystem Services-the Role of Social Network Structure in Protecting and Managing Urban Green Areas in Stockholm2008In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 13, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploitation and degradation of urban green areas reduce their capacity to sustain ecosystem services. In protecting and managing these areas, research has increasingly focused on actors in civil society. Here, we analyzed an urban movement of 62 civil-society organizations-from user groups, such as boating clubs and allotment gardens, to culture and nature conservation groups-that have protected the Stockholm National Urban Park. We particularly focused on the social network structure of the movement, i.e., the patterns of interaction between movement organizations. The results reveal a core-periphery structure where core and semi-core organizations have deliberately built political connections to authorities, whereas the periphery gathers all user groups involved in day-to-day activities in the park. We show how the core-periphery structure has facilitated collective action to protect the park, but we also suggest that the same social network structure might simultaneously have constrained collaborative ecosystem management. In particular, user groups with valuable local ecological knowledge have not been included in collaborative arenas. Our case points out the inherent double-nature of all social networks as they facilitate some collective actions, yet constrain others. The paper argues for incorporating social network structure in theories and applications of adaptive governance and co-management.

  • 136.
    Evens, Siegfried
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    De mijnramp van Marcinelle: Terugblik op een bijzondere herdenking2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 137.
    Evens, Siegfried
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    'Tijd kopen door kerncentrales langer open te houden, is tijd verliezen'2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 138. Fjaestad, Maja
    Engineers and the environment how the profession responded in the Swedish Society of Engineers, 1965-19722016In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 66-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how the Swedish engineers' main organization Svenska Teknologforeningen (the Swedish Society of Engineers, STF) reacted to the environmental debate in the late 1969s, and how this can be understood in terms of their professional identity. Several authors have singled out the importance of an apolitical scientific identity to the creation of the engineering profession. Criticism of technological development was an important part of the green movement, in Sweden as elsewhere, but it provoked the STF, who instead wanted to highlight how technology could be used to save the environment. The article discusses how the STF handled the dilemma of being relevant in society but at the same time at least appearing to be apolitical experts. It is concluded that the organisation did indeed act as a political force in all but name in its strong defence of technological progress.

  • 139.
    Fjaestad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Environmental Histories of the Cold War2012In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 233-234Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Fjaestad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. Max Planck Inst Hist Sci, Germany; MIT, USA.
    Fast Breeder Reactors in Sweden Vision and Reality2015In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 86-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast breeder is a type of nuclear reactor that aroused much attention in the 1950s and '60s. Its ability to produce more nuclear fuel than it consumes offered promises of cheap and reliable energy. Sweden had advanced plans for a nuclear breeder program, but canceled them in the middle of the 1970s with the rise of nuclear skepticism. The article investigates the nuclear breeder as a technological vision. The nuclear breeder reactor is an example of a technological future that did not meet its industrial expectations. But that does not change the fact that the breeder was an influential technology. Decisions about the contemporary reactors were taken with the idea that in a foreseeable future they would be replaced with the efficient breeder. The article argues that general themes in the history of the breeder reactor can deepen our understanding of the mechanisms behind technological change.

  • 141.
    Fjæstad, M.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Engineers and the environment: How the profession responded in the Swedish Society of Engineers, 1965-19722016In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 66-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how the Swedish engineers' main organization Svenska Teknologforeningen (the Swedish Society of Engineers, STF) reacted to the environmental debate in the late 1969s, and how this can be understood in terms of their professional identity. Several authors have singled out the importance of an apolitical scientific identity to the creation of the engineering profession. Criticism of technological development was an important part of the green movement, in Sweden as elsewhere, but it provoked the STF, who instead wanted to highlight how technology could be used to save the environment. The article discusses how the STF handled the dilemma of being relevant in society but at the same time at least appearing to be apolitical experts. It is concluded that the organisation did indeed act as a political force in all but name in its strong defence of technological progress.

  • 142.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Demokratins triumf eller fiasko?: Folkomröstningen om kärnkraft i retroperspektiv2008In: Dædalus, Tekniska museets årsbok., ISSN 0070-2528, Vol. 76, p. 64-75Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 143.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Den svenska bridreaktorn: vision och verklighet2010In: Teknik- och Vetenskapshistoriska dagar: 10‒12 november 2010 Lindholmen Science Park Göteborg, 2010, p. 30-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den snabba bridreaktorn är en typ av kärnreaktor som väckte stor uppmärksamhet under 1950- och 60-talen. Dess förmåga att producera mer kärnbränsle än den förbrukar erbjöd löften om billig och tillförlitlig energi, och knöt den därmed också samman med utopiska idéer om evig energiförsörjning. Det fanns avancerade planer på svenska bridreaktorer som skulle laddas med plutonium från de svenska tungvattenreaktorerna och bilda ett högteknologiskt energisystem som skulle ge Sverige fördelar i den internationella konkurrensen.

    Men det blev inte några storskaliga bridreaktorprogram i västvärlden. En rad faktorer av teknisk, ekonomisk och politisk natur gjorde att utvecklingen tog andra vägar. Trots det fungerade bilden av bridreaktorn som en framtidsvision inom kärnkraftsutvecklingen: som en lösning på de råvaruproblem uranreaktorerna tampades med, men utvecklades småningom också till en skräckbild.

    Bridreaktorn är ett exempel på en teknisk vision som inte uppfyllde sina industriella förväntningar. Men det hindrar inte att bridreaktorn var en inflytelserik teknik i en tid då viktiga beslut om kärnkraften gjordes. Föreliggande paper diskuterar hur bridreaktorn i sin egenskap av teknisk vision påverkade teknikutvecklingen, energipolitiken och miljödebatten.

  • 144.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Ett kärnkraftverk återuppstår: Från SNR300 till Wunderland Kalkar2012In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, Vol. 63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Fast reactors as future visions: the case of Sweden2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 146.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Fast Reactors as Future Visions: The Case of Sweden2011In: A Comparative Study of European Nuclear Energy Programs / [ed] Albert Presas i Puig, Berlin: Max Planck Institute for the History of Science , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 147.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Forskningsinstitut i Tyskland: forskningsideal och historisk framväxt2010In: Teknik- och Vetenskapshistoriska dagar: 10 ‒ 12 november 2010 Lindholmen Science Park Göteborg, 2010, p. 13-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsorganisation i Tyskland under andra halvan av 1900-talet har haft en distinkt nationell historia, starkt präglad av möjligheterna till återhämtning efter kriget och, senare, de utmaningar av ekonomisk karaktär som det återförenade landet ställdes inför. Samtidigt har det tyska forskningslandskapet vuxit fram under intensivt utbyte med utlandet och uttrycker på många sätt pan-europeiska ideal kring grundforskning, forskningsfrihet och innovation. Föreliggande papper fokuserar på två forskningsinstitutsorganisationer i Tyskland och deras historiska framväxt: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft och Fraunhofer Gesellschaft. Medan Max-Planck-Gesellschaft är en grundforskningsinstitution, oberoende från stat och industri men ändock i stort sett helt finansierad med offentliga medel, representerar Fraunhofer Gesellschaft nära nog dess motsats: industrinära institut med starkt fokus på innovation och utveckling. Medan den förra har sina rötter både i Weimarrepubliken och i de allierade styrkornas återrekonstruktion av landet efter kriget är den senare en utpräglad efterkrigsprodukt, präglad av samtida idéer om militär rustning och snabb tillväxt. Pappret fokuserar på de ideal kring organisation av grundforskning och tillämpad forskning som de två institutssystemen representerat och undersöker hur ideal som oberoende, excellens och tillväxt tar sig utryck i de två organisationerna. Som avslutning görs några reflektioner på vilka sätt situationen i Tyskland korresponderar med den svenska och vad som kan ses som unikt med det tyska systemet och dess historia.

  • 148.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Kalla kriget sett ur ett miljöperspektiv2011In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 11/7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 149.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Nuclear Waste and Historical Time: Review of Into Eternity: A Film for the Future2013In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 371-372Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Danish documentary Into Eternity: A Film for the Future has received substantial attention in recent years. It portrays the efforts in Finland to construct a permanent repository where used nuclear fuel is supposed to slumber for 100,000 years, and explores questions connected to this. As an intervention in nuclear debates, Into Eternity is effective. With restraint and subtlety, the film allows the waste problem's inherent drama to take center stage. Major aspects of the issue are depicted, including messages to future generations, the condition and value of the waste a thousand years from now, and the imagined technological competencies of the future. Other topics could have been given space in the documentary, such as economic perspectives and other technical solutions. But the film should serve as an excellent introduction for teaching technology, ethics, and related matters, or to commence discussions about time-spans involved in nuclear waste storage.

  • 150.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    När tekniken utvecklas är bränslet hybris2007In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 9/5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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