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  • 101.
    Danial, Javani
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    The Organisational Challenges of Implementing eHealth Services:: A Case Study on The Patient Self-Test Application in Centre for Rheumatology2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely believed that eHealth will play a vital role in the development and shaping of healthcare systems in the twenty first century. However, despite all documented reports and benefits of eHealth technologies, many attempts to extend successful pilot projects have not sufficiently met promised results and to a large extent failed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Centre for Rheumatology’s current implementation process of eHealth services in order to identify success factors and improvement areas. To reach the purpose, the research was delimitated to solely focus on the eHealth service Patient Self-Test and the implementation of it at the care unit.The research was conducted as a case study with a qualitative approach based on the notion of induction. The research process consisted of three major areas: pre-study, literature review and qualitative interviews. The pre-study was based on interviews with different actors within the health care industry in Sweden to provide an academic, political and business perspective of the research area. The literature review focused on the areas eHealth and change management and empirical data was gathered through qualitative interviews. Moreover, to have a tool for analysis, a research framework named 4 Seasons Model was developed.The results of the thesis indicate on a gap between how the literature advocates the implementation of transitional changes, and how it is currently done at Centre for Rheumatology’s. Based on an analysis from a 4 Seasons Model perspective, three success factors and seven improvement areas have been identified in Centre for Rhematology’s current implementation process of the Patient Self-Test.

  • 102.
    Darmani, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Dwaikat, Nidal
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management. Technical University of Madrid, UPM.
    Ramirez Portilla, Andres
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Twelve Years of Scholary Research: Content and Trend Analysis of the Journal Creativity and Innovation Management2013In: IAMOT 2013 Proceedings, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the internationally recognized journals that publishes and spreads literature concerning the relation between organizations and innovation and how creativity and imagination is organized is ‘Creativity and Innovation Management’ (CAIM). To date there has been only one attempt to analyze the corpus of publications in this journal from 1992-2000. As no further historical analysis of CAIM has been done after it, the purpose of this paper is to present a content analysis and verify some of the trends within published articles for the last 12 years. This study is conducted by analyzing the content of latest 360 CAIM articles (published from 2000 to 2012). Data collection and analysis are performed by utilizing Publish-or-Perish software and also, Excel statistical analysis tools. This methodology uses a multi-approach to content analysis by interpreting the text in titles and abstracts to evaluate several elements, for instance the authorship characteristics, geographical contributions or the nine themes previously proposed and visible in the CAIM journal. The study outcomes in addition to the descriptive statistics that provide an overview of the research contributions, intend to gain insights in two important aspects. First, this study confirms how the articles categorized in the nine themes have behaved in the last 12 years. Second, the study reveals that some trends in the literature came from emerging markets economies (EME), which has not been raised so far, as the relation of author’s countries and the themes of their publications in the EME context.

  • 103.
    Darwish, Rami
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    The Missing link: Business Models Lock-in in Sociotechnical Transitions2019Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal and environmental challenges present challenges for our current industrial systems. In order to respond to these difficulties, various alternative systems have been suggested, as they promise sustainability and increased societal quality of life enabled by innovative technologies. These future solutions hold the capacity to solve problems by unlocking considerable business potential. However, the journey to the forthcoming era will bring dramatic changes, not only to the success of incumbent industrial stakeholders but also to their very existence. The upcoming changes are impregnated with hazards to current business models of successful organizations. So, one may ask what impact future technologies may have on the realms that industrial actors live in? To disentangle the complexity of the unknowns, multitudes of collaborative efforts in protected spaces have emerged globally to experiment with potential systems on the road to sociotechnical transitions.

    The transport sector is undergoing efforts towards transitions to future sustainable systems. This sector has a special focus when it comes to sustainability challenges due to its substantial economic and environmental impact.  Bus systems are at the heart of this challenge due to the central role they play in urban mobility. Hence, different fuels and charging technologies for buses have been tested in pilot projects to facilitate the march towards sustainability; electric charging is one of the promising technologies, which achieve this aim. However, current business models of incumbent transport stakeholders seem to be problematic, and changes to facilitate the transitions seem to be complex.

    Extant literature indicates a critical role of business models under sociotechnical transitions. Theoretically, there is an underlying need for incumbents to change their business models to reap the benefits of innovative technologies. However, this change is difficult and potential business models are far from clear. With that, the dynamics of business models under transition remains as an underexplored area, and the challenge to incumbent business models poses itself as an interesting area to gauge. Under this umbrella, a question arises regarding how the pressure on incumbent business models interacts with systemic innovations.

    This thesis is a case study of an incumbent bus operator participating in a pilot project on a future bus system. The case study is in-depth in nature and investigates the potential business model of a bus operator in a multiple stakeholder pilot project, which tests an inductive electric hybrid bus. With a strong empirical exploratory nature, this thesis is built on an “insider” single case study that occurred in the year 2016-2017. The focus of the study is on the pressure on bus operator business model in the face of systemic innovation. The findings reveal positive future value proposition, disrupted value creation, and unclear value capture in the potential business model of the operator. Moreover, the findings show lock-in and resource dependence situation of the operator’s current business model. The lock-in of the business model hinder the transition to future sociotechnical bus system and makes it difficult to commercialize the new technology.

    The outcome of this thesis speaks to a significant influence of history and the regulator, manifested by rules on the future of business models of commercial incumbent stakeholders. This demonstrates lock-in may prove to be a major impediment, and that unchained and flexible business model of incumbents is critical for further continuation of successful shifts. Given these findings, this thesis suggests applying the business model lens to pilot projects for sustainability. This would aid in better comprehending how current business models may facilitate or hinder favorable transitions. This knowledge informs both managerial decisions and policy making, especially when it comes to resource optimization and investment decisions.

  • 104.
    Davidsson, Sophie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    A Framework for the Evaluation of Technologies during the Implementation of Digitalisation Strategies in the Asset Management Industry: A study on new technology adoption within the asset management industry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The financial industry is currently undergoing radical change as a result of the increased implementation of digitalisation strategies. Due to pressure from a number of sources, finance firms, including asset managers, are looking to adopt technology solutions in their business processes. Through the introduction of new technologies and digitalisation strategies, the asset managers are hoping to secure their market segments in the future. Choosing which technology to implement is considered one of the most difficult decisions a manager has to make. Hence, this thesis proposes a framework to be used by asset managers in order to efficiently and swiftly evaluate a number of technologies when looking to digitalize manual processes.

    The largest bank in the Nordic region is Nordea, who have just recently announced that they will be looking to implement more digital solutions. This thesis was conducted in collaboration with Nordea Asset Management.

    The thesis explores three core areas: the future of the asset management industry, digitalisation strategies, and new technology adoption in order to produce the analytical framework. The framework is constructed using previously explored methods described in literature along with the key information gathered from experts at Nordea Asset Management. The result is a framework which combines expert knowledge of the asset management industry, successful methods regarding conceptual frameworks, technology life cycle and new technology adoption theory and digitalisation strategy concepts.

    In order for traditional asset managers to maintain their market position they will need to adapt new technologies. This is not only needed for efficiency and cost reasons but also because customers are starting to demand it. The sales channels, operations, personnel requirements and the business model as a whole are areas identified by this research project that will adapt through the introduction of digitalisation strategies being introduced. The framework constructed in this thesis provides the asset management firms with a method of successfully applying digitalisation strategies through new technology adoption.

  • 105.
    DE VRIES, MARTE
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Speeding Up Social Entrepreneurship: Improving the Sustainability of the Accelerator Program2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decade, a new entrepreneurial phenomenon aimed at seeding start-up companies has emerged across the globe: the social enterprise (SE) accelerator program. These accelerators focus on scaling social entrepreneurs by accelerating their journey to the market. Different actors like business reporters, entrepreneurs, and angel investors have expressed skepticism around the viability of the accelerator model. To research this sustainability, this thesis studied the revenue models of SE accelerators. Four semi-structured interviews were conducted with experts working at SE accelerators in Stockholm. These four identified getting revenue from partnerships, government institutions, and philanthropy and donations. Consulting contracts, equity shares and fees were not used by these four but were discussed as potential revenue streams. All respondents emphasized the importance of revenue model diversification and were currently working on strategies to act on this. Diversifying the revenue models of SE accelerators will increase the sustainability of their revenue models. This might be the first step from the focus of monetary gain towards a society where business is created to do good.

  • 106.
    DE WAERN, HENRIC
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    HEDLÖF, VIKTOR
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Exploring the Concepts of Value-BasedPricing for New and Innovative Products: A Multiple Case Study in theSwedish Healthcare Industry2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Launching a product at the right price is one of the most important factors to a successful pricing of a product during its lifecycle Baker et al. 2010). There is also a general consensus that value Vbased pricing is the best pricing approach (Baker et al. 2010: Cannon & Morgan, 1990: Hinterhuber, 2008a: Ingenbleek et al., 2003:Monroe, 1990: Nagle et al. 2011). Despite the importance of new product pricing, there has been almost no research done on valueVbased pricing for new and inovative products. Also, many refer to new, innovative technology as a prerequisiter for a sustainable, modern healthcare (Berwick, 2003: Christensen, Bohmer, & Kenagy, 2000: Herzlinger, 2006). As such, there is clearly a need for increased knowledge on the use of valueVbased pricing for new and innovative products. The purpose of this study is thus to advance the understanding of valueVbased pricing for new and innovative products in the healthcare industry.

    Through a multiple caseVstudy of three Swedish hospital clinical microbiology laboratories, in Vdepth knowledge of the buying process for new and innovative products and its implication on the concepts and methods of valueVbased pricing has been obtained. Qualitative data was gathered through interviews with individuals involved in, or affected by, the buying process, documents describing the purchases and observations of the operations.

    The study shows that emotional and social value drivers related to the product to be of greater importance than previously described in the B2B market. Furthermore, an actor’s view of and role in the value network has a great influence on the perceived value of an offering.Finally, we conclude that current value assessment methods are inept at quantifying the value for new and innovative products. These findings contribute to a better understanding of valueVbased pricing for new and innovative products in the B2B market. The context of the study should be taken into consideration when generalising the findings to other industries.

     

  • 107.
    Denbu Wilhelmsson, Felicia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Eriksson, Malin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Enterprise Search Management Maturity: - A model for the assessment of an organization’s maturity level within enterprise search management2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As organizations grow larger, so does the information base of the organization, and the need to findimportant information increases along with it. However, many organizations are neglecting theimportance of information. Enterprise search lets users search for information in multiple informationrepositories from one single application, without having to know where the information resides. The focalfirm of this research, Findwise AB, is a Swedish IT consultancy firm specialized in delivering searchsolutions to its customers. It has been shown that not many organizations have a strategy for their internalwork with enterprise search. Therefore, Findwise wants to be able to deliver enterprise search strategies toits customers. Such a strategy would facilitate the customers’ development of their internal enterprisesearch management. However, this requires the ability to define an organization’s current and future statewith regard to enterprise search management, something that, up until now has not been possible.Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop an enterprise search management maturity (ESMM)model, which Findwise’s consultants can use for assessing an organization’s current state, as well aspossible future state within enterprise search management. Through an extensive literature study, incombination with an empirical study consisting of a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews, theESMM model was developed. The themes of the identified maturity levels of enterprise searchmanagement are; knowledge, management, priority, standardization, and sustainability. It is concludedthat the parameters to evaluate on each of these maturity levels are the three parameters information,technology, and user. Each of these parameters consists of three specific factors to evaluate, providingguidelines for what to look at in an assessment. This will enable Findwise to define an organization’scurrent and future state within enterprise search management, as well as enable organizations to gain themost benefit out of their enterprise search solution.

  • 108.
    DILAN, REJWANE
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Selman, Christos
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    New markets for Smart Utilities in Western Europe: A framework developed and applied for identification ofmarket opportunities for facilitating strategic decisions2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization is hitting the energy industry by empowering energy producers and retailers, butmore importantly it’s empowering the end customers and the energy producers and retailers areno longer in possession of all power. Due to digitalization, energy networks are beingmodernized and new emerging technologies called smart grids and smart meters have beenintroduced. Smart grids can automatically monitor energy flows and adjust to changes in energysupply and demand. Smart meters on the other hand empowers the consumers to adapt theirenergy usage in both time and volume to different energy prices throughout the day by costcuttingtheir energy.With empowered and conscious end-customers, electricity retailers will have to compete in newways or risk losing their business. There is a risk that the majority of the over 100 electricityretailers in Sweden will be wiped out with time if data and information is not leveraged to theend-customers. This is potentially also threatening the business of TSU as well as othercompanies providing IT solutions to the energy market.For long Tieto Smart Utility (TSU) has offered IT services for both electricity retailers anddistributors across the Nordics. In relation to recently developed solutions as well as theopportunities and challenges created by digitalization and disruptive technologies such as smartmeters, the Nordic countries are in the forefront. Hence, TSU sees a potential in increasing itspresence in Western Europe to provide services to the retailers and distributors. However, inorder to expand to Western European countries TSU seeks to have a greater marketunderstanding of the different markets, in terms of for example market size, market structure,regulations. The problem is to have a structured and comprehensive way to increase marketunderstanding when assessing new West European energy markets due to the major differencesin each country.This thesis therefore aims to develop a framework which enables IT solution providers toconduct a market opportunity analysis in order to increase market awareness and assess theopportunities and potential in Western European markets, influenced by the smart-meter roll outand thus facilitate strategic decisions.A framework has been developed on the foundation on existing frameworks and applied onTSU by conducting a case study on a market opportunity assessment tool for energy IT solutionproviders. The framework consists of three levels of analysis; European-, Country- andCustomer Level which intends to identify market opportunities and potential.This thesis provides a framework for companies who wants to assess market opportunities andfacilitates strategic decisions regarding the potential of entering the markets. The findings of thisthesis has shown that the market opportunities for TSU are the greatest in Germany especiallydue to the market magnitude as well as the status for the smart meter roll-out. Furthermore,since IT solution providers usually offers many different services and solutions, the findings canbe used in a larger extent in order to asses the potential depending on type service and solution.

  • 109.
    DRAGON, ERICA
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    TAFLIN, JOHANNA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Factors Influencing the E-commerce Purchase Process of Big High Involvement Products2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    E-commerce is growing and has grown considerably during the last two decades. It is also growing within product segments previously believed to be hard to sell over the internet, such as big high involvement products and this is calling for an exploration of the e-commerce purchase process for this product segment. The e-commerce channel is associated with various benefits and barriers and with sufficient trust these barriers can be overcome. This study therefore explores the e-commerce purchase process of big high involvement products from a customer perspective identifying key benefits and barriers together with factors contributing to trust formation and customer retention. This combines areas of research, not previously explored. The results are based on focus group interviews and reveal that the main benefits perceived were a lower price, easier comparison between options and a bigger product range. The main risks for this product segment seem to be performance risk and financial risk together with the risk of low delivery precision. Main factors contributing to trust were good return policies, good information quality and guiding together with affect-based factors such as recommendations from a friend. Finally, the factors identified in this study to contribute to customer retention were customer satisfaction, after sales services and something “extra” upon delivery. The results confirm some of the previous evidence, such as Venkatraman (1989), saying that high involvement products are coupled with higher risks, but it also finds new suggestions to important factors such as delivery precision and something “extra” upon delivery that may be specific to this product segment.

  • 110.
    Dwaikat, Nidal
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management. Technical University of Madrid UPM.
    Why Firms should not pursue the same purchasing competitive priorities2012In: / [ed] Martin Christopher, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies, when buying, use the same competitive priorities regardless of the category of the product being purchased. This purchasing practice creates misalignment between the purchasing and business strategies of a firm. The main aim of this paper is to theoretically explain why firms should not pursue the same competitive priorities for all purchased product categories. By analyzing most relevant literature and research findings published in peer-reviewed journals, this paper argues that strategic alignment between the purchasing competitive priorities and overall business strategy is of higher priority when buying strategic items than other categories. This research contributes to the field by introducing a conceptual framework that provides a further dimension to the strategic alignment concept. The framework aims to introduce the concept ‘strategic supply relatedness’.

  • 111.
    Dwaikat, Nidal Y.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Flexibilityand responsiveness through information sharing: Evidence from automotive suppliers in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Dwaikat, Nidal Y.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Information sharing with first-tier suppliers: A volume-flexibility perspective2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has empirically validated the contribution of information sharing to supply chain performance. However, the question of how information sharing affects first-tier supplier’s ability to respond to fluctuating volumes remains unexplored. This paper explores how information sharing between Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) and first-tier supplier in automotive industry affects the supplier's volume flexibility. Anchored in 16 semi-structured interviews with executives of eight automotive supplier firms in Sweden, the study proposes a conceptual framework to understand how information sharing affects the suppliers' delivery performance.

  • 113.
    Dwaikat, Nidal Y.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Money, Arthur H.
    Beheshti, Hooshang M.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    How does information sharing affect first-tier suppliers’ flexibility?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 114.
    EHRNSTRÖM, ERIK
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Resource Efficient Management of Raw Material Price Fluctuations: A case study on proactive and reactive business processesin the Purchasing Department of a manufacturing company2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An increase in global competition force companies and supply chains to discover newpotentials for reducing costs. One potential source for such cost reduction is processes in the Purchasing Department as the department is considered to be under-researched.This case study investigates what affects the resource efficiency of two processes related to managing raw material price fluctuations at Scania CV AB’s Purchasing Department. Based on the findings from this, recommendations for how the resource efficiency can be improved are also presented.The first investigated process is a proactive process where future raw material prices are forecasted. The other process, which is a reactive process, is the follow-up on the actual raw material prices that Scania pays its suppliers.Factors which affect the resource efficiency of the processes are concluded to be: transparency, incentives, performance metrics, wastes of overprocessing and unused employee creativity, standardized/harmonized guidelines and working methods, organizational alignment and automation. It is recommended that the forecasting process is completely reshaped and improvements for the follow-up includes designing a standardized format for how the follow-up is presentation.

  • 115.
    EINARSSON, ALBIN
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    MOLINDER, JESPER
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    How to improve Quality in the Industrialization Process?: A case study at Atlas Copco Industrial Technique2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialization belongs to the late stages of new product development when a product is introduced into a production facility, prepared and cleared for series production. The phase has been identified as crucial where the frequency of disturbances is high. Simultaneously, an early market introduction has been recognized as essential for a product’s profitability, but rushing to the market can also result in the release of unfinished products, which may lead to expensive warranty and recall costs. Therefore it is important to investigate how to achieve an early market introduction while at the same time not compromise the assurance of quality.

    The present thesis work investigates the nature and purpose of the activities related to the industrialization process. Further, the thesis explores how a company’s process management structure can be connected towards issues that occur during the industrialization. The object under study is Tierp Works, a production facility of Atlas Copco Industrial Technique. The findings have been derived upon by the usage of several data sources, with a focus on interviews.

    In the study, the industrialization process has been defined, where the main objective is to minimize the risks of disturbances during series production. This is done through a sequence of activities that debugs and verifies both the product and its production process. Many issues have been detected during the study, where the majority of them cause prolonged lead time in the product development project. To some extent the issues can be explained by the nature of the phase, but the findings also indicate that there is a strong connection between the company’s process management structure, which amplifies the impact and increase the amount of issues. For example, there is a connection between the need for late engineering changes and the company's lack of conducting activities in parallel. In addition, the low level of standardized process procedures creates a reliance on individual competence which causes cooperation and communication issues. Further, low transparency contributes to increase time pressure on the industrialization activities through pushed sales. This lowers the priority of ensuring quality by debugging procedures and thus compromising the objective of the industrialization process

  • 116.
    Ek, Irene
    et al.
    Myndigheten för tillväxtpolitiska utvärderingar och analyser.
    Wiggberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Frykblom, Peter
    Myndigheten för tillväxtpolitiska utvärderingar och analyser.
    Hur kan staten främja användandet av digitaliseringens möjligheter i näringslivet?2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Government’s overall objective is for Sweden to become the world leader in harnessing the opportunities of digital transformation.

    Within the international context, Sweden is already among the leading countries for the diffusion and use of digital technologies, through substantial public and private investments. In the most advanced economies, the lion’s share of those investments takes place through the spending on information communication technology (ICT). In 2010, for example, the European commission launched a Digital Agenda for Europe which sets ambitious goals for Europe’s digital economy. The rationale for policy is that a large part of the productivity growth derives from investments in ICT and that the new internet economy creates many new jobs. Within the Swedish context, previous studies conducted by the Swedish agency for Growth Policy Analysis (Growth Analysis) showed that the Swedish ICT sector and ICT investments together accounted for 42 per cent of labour productivity growth over 2006–13. Hence, a number of questions are of interest: What does this mean for policy? What are the areas where policy makes a difference? What type of policy interventions will be needed to promote the digital transformation?

  • 117.
    EKSTRÖM, MARCUS
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    FAHNEHJELM, CAROLINA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Incorporating a total cost perspective intothe purchasing strategy: A case study of amedium sized retail compan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The retail industry is today characterized by downward price pressure, and the increasedcompetition in the industry has led to pressure on profit margins. Purchasing and supply chainmanagement have become areas of increased strategic importance and play a crucial role inthe business performance. This study aims to extend previous literature in these fields byproviding the existing research with an empirical study on how the purchasing strategy canincorporate a total cost perspective of the supply chain.The purpose of this study was to suggest aspects to incorporate in the purchasing strategywith the objective to consider a total cost perspective of the supply chain. This was donethrough conducting an empirical case study at a Swedish middle sized retail company, bycollecting and analyzing both qualitative and quantitative data through interviews, meetingsand internal databases. Challenges that prohibit the case company to apply a total costperspective were identified in the purchasing process and a total cost model was built tovisualize how these affect total costs. Our findings show that there are six challenges thatprohibit the case company to include the total cost perspective in the purchasing process; theinability to reach minimum order quantities (MOQ), production specific requirements, thedifficulty to combine order suggestions on related stock keeping units (SKU), an uneven flowof orders to suppliers, inefficient time supply period and an inability to coordinate transports.Three aspects were identified as root causes for these challenges and suggested to the casecompany to incorporate in their purchasing strategy to enable the management of total costs inthe supply chain. The aspects are flexible time supply periods, internal and externalinformation sharing and coordination of transport. Furthermore, this research also gives anunderstanding of how the formation of the private label assortment fuels the challenges thatprohibit the company to take a total cost perspective.

  • 118.
    Eliopoulos, Maria Fernanda
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Managing New Service Development through Relationship Marketing.-: An application of Six Sigma DMAIC methodology in a Telecom Company.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Customer-oriented processes are essential to achieve customer satisfaction. This research describes the application of the concepts of Relationship Marketing as a starting point in the process of developing new services in a telecommunications service provider in Spain. In the quest to increase customer satisfaction, this paper seeks to understand whether the structure of internal processes is the most suitable to channel customer requirements using relationship marketing philosophy but in order to use a systematics tool and a robust method; DMAIC methodology of Six Sigma is applied. Previous researches have contemplated the used of Six Sigma methodologies within manufacturing industries, while this research tries to explore a unique niche by shifting from a production approach, to a service-process, where few researches are found. The scientific research is initiated with the exploration of New Service Development (NSD) processes in the company allowing the preparation of As-Is process maps. Two ways or scenarios are identified for developing new services in the company; the first one where “Standard Services” are developed and proposed by the company, while in the second scenario, services born from a specific customer requirement and known as “Special Projects”. The collection of the Voice of the customer (VOC) identifies 13 criteria that are essential for purchasing, making possible to compare the linkage between internal activities with customer requirements. In a final stage the methodology proposed is validated with a service within the company portfolio.

    Significant contributions of this research are presented through the framework proposed so as to measure the performance gaps within the services provided by company, regardless of their lifecycle stage, which can also be extrapolated to other businesses of the group. Moreover it provides an understanding on the impact of each process activities in a specific requirement highlighting the most Critical to Quality (CTQ) activities and proposing improvement opportunities.

  • 119.
    ELNER, FREDRIK
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Faktorer som påverkar en miljöinvestering2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this master thesis is to present a comparison between the factors that affects an environmental investment. This is done through applying a theoretical framework on the factors affecting a company’s existing appraisal model for environmental investments. The company that was a part of this thesis asked at an initial stage for confidentiality, therefore it is called the Company in this thesis. The Company that contributes with the appraisal model is a multination-al group with operations in many different industries, but with a focus on the Nordic countries and products that may be linked to the agricultural sector. The theoretical framework has its base in the concepts of value and investments and their connection to the environment and the envi-ronmental investment. The identified factors in the theoretical framework are:

     The investment’s addition to the value creation to the company

     The investment’s environmental impact

     How the investment affects the production

     Demands from society

     Customer demands

    From these, the factors affecting a company’s existing appraisal model were compared and their connection to theoretical framework was judged according to a 5-grade scale. Information from the Company was acquired through semi-structured interviews with representatives from the Company. The largest deviation is how the company considers an investment’s contribution to the produced value.

    Because of this imperfection does the company's model not fully incorporate the produced value and that an environmental investment is irreversible.

    The overall conclusion is that the Company has identified the same factors as the theoretical framework. The Company has though chosen to use their existing methods and performance indicators that don’t fully incorporate the factors in the theoretical framework. The largest devia-tions are how the company considers an investment’s contribution to the produced value and that it should be considered as irreversible. The Company must therefore in order to enhance their appraisal model develop new performance measures for the factors.

  • 120.
    ENGELHOLM, ANTON
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    WISTRÖM, JOHAN
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Measuring Performance: The use of  Lean in IT services2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lean  has  become  a  widespread  concept  within  various  industries.  It  originates  from  the  production system  at Toyota  and  focuses  on maximizing  customer  value  and  eliminating  waste.  It has been adopted  throughout  industries  as  a  consequence  of  stiffening  competition  and  higher  customer demands. From Toyota, the concept spread to other car manufacturers  and then further to other manufacturing industries. In recent years, the Lean concept has spread to more intangible settings, initially to service functions within the manufacturing companies and later to pure service oriented industries such as ealthcare, banking, and insurance. Most recently, the concept has been adopted in IT businesses as a mean to gain competitive advantage. A lot of research on the Lean concept has been concerned with issues such as implementation and the operational application of the concept. Even though the purpose of the concept is to increase the operational performance and to deliver high customer value, little emphasis has been put on research related to performance measurement in  a  Lean  service  setting.  While  some  research  regarding  modern  performance  measurement frameworks exists, a weak link is identified between the two research areas (Lean and Performance measurement). 

    This study has focused on the specific IT service setting at Tieto and their Lean initiative. The purpose of  this  study  is  to  complement  Tieto’s  Lean  initiative  with  recommendations  related  to  an  area currently not emphasized by Tieto, measuring performance improvements due to their Lean efforts. Tieto  is especially  interested  in the linkage  between  operational  improvements  and the financial outcomes.  This  study  employs  a  holistic  view  in  order  to  gain  a  wide  understanding   of  the organizational   context  and  the  business  in  general.  It  has  been  paramount  for  this  study  to understand the organizational setting, the theoretical concepts, and the interplay between them. 

    As a mean of fulfilling the purpose, the case study methodology has been employed throughout this study. The research was initially defined by its objectives and delimitations. Interviews, observations, and  a  content  analysis  contributed  to  the  overall  organizational  knowledge  which  was  deemed crucial  for the  end  result.  The  organizational  knowledge  together  with  the  understanding  of the theoretical concepts and the exploratory benchmark study has been the basis for the analysis and recommendations. 

    The study has rendered in recommendations regarding how measurement activities should be designed and employed in Tieto’s Lean setting. This study suggests that a limited focus should be put on general measuring activities in Tieto. More specifically, little focus should be put on attempting to determine a correlation or linkage between the operational improvements and financial outcomes. The study further suggests a separation of the organizational KPIs into steering (operational) KPIs and monitoring (financial) KPIs. This is suggested in order to have operations steer the organizational performance as well as cement the Lean concept within the organization. Overall, a focus should be put on measuring processes rather than financial data.

  • 121.
    Engelholm, Anton
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Wiström, Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Measuring Performance: the use of Lean in IT services2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lean has become a widespread concept within various industries. It originates from the production system at Toyota and focuses on maximizing customer value and eliminating waste. It has been adopted throughout industries as a consequence of stiffening competition and higher customer demands. From Toyota, the concept spread to other car manufacturers and then further to other manufacturing industries. In recent years, the Lean concept has spread to more intangible settings, initially to service functions within the manufacturing companies and later to pure service oriented industries such as healthcare, banking, and insurance. Most recently, the concept has been adopted in IT businesses as a mean to gain competitive advantage. A lot of research on the Lean concept has been concerned with issues such as implementation and the operational application of the concept. Even though the purpose of the concept is to increase the operational performance and to deliver high customer value, little emphasis has been put on research related to performance measurement in a Lean service setting. While some research regarding modern performance measurement frameworks exists, a weak link is identified between the two research areas (Lean and Performance measurement).

    This study has focused on the specific IT service setting at Company X and their Lean initiative. The purpose of this study is to complement Company X’s Lean initiative with recommendations related to an area currently not emphasized by Company X, measuring performance improvements due to their Lean efforts. Company X is especially interested in the linkage between operational improvements and the financial outcomes. This study employs a holistic view in order to gain a wide understanding of the organizational context and the business in general. It has been paramount for this study to understand the organizational setting, the theoretical concepts, and the interplay between them.

    As a mean of fulfilling the purpose, the case study methodology has been employed throughout this study. The research was initially defined by its objectives and delimitations. Interviews, observations, and a content analysis contributed to the overall organizational knowledge which was deemed crucial for the end result. The organizational knowledge together with the understanding of the theoretical concepts and the exploratory benchmark study has been the basis for the analysis and recommendations.

    The study has rendered in recommendations regarding how measurement activities should be designed and employed in Company X’s Lean setting. This study suggests that a limited focus should be put on general measuring activities in Tieto. More specifically, little focus should be put on attempting to determine a correlation or linkage between the operational improvements and financial outcomes. The study further suggests a separation of the organizational KPIs into steering (operational) KPIs and monitoring (financial) KPIs. This is suggested in order to have operations steer the organizational performance as well as cement the Lean concept within the organization. Overall, a focus should be put on measuring processes rather than financial data. 

  • 122.
    ENGMAN, MICHAELA
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    ROSANDER, OSCAR
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Beslutsstöd för Prissättning av Lösningar: Ett Toppstyrt Ramverk för Prissättning i Telekomindustrin2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies selling large and complex solutions often find that the process of configuring and pricing the solutions is a very time-consuming process. Due to the high degree of competition within the telecom industry, where the company offering the best solution to the most competitive price wins the deal, it is essential for companies to be responsive and able to  ework the price of their proposal. The difference between being able to offer a new solution  rice, that is still profitable for the company, and not being able to could be that the company wins or loses the deal. In such a business environment it is of high importance to be able to determine how the change of a solution price affects the products in the proposal in order to ensure that the margin of the proposal aligns with the organizational target margin. At Ericsson, the distribution of a solution price is determined manually after a deal has been won leading to internal discussions of how the price should be distributed between the stakeholders of the proposal. For those in charge of pricing the proposal this means that there is a need to discuss with the respective business unit at the company whether or not there is a possibility to adjust the prices of the proposal and in such a case how much they can be adjusted. In this thesis we compare the existing literature on pricing strategies and pricing large complex solutions. We perform a case study at Ericsson to establish how a top-down pricing framework could be designed to distribute the price of a proposal to the various products in the proposal. We achieve this by creating an internal prioritization of products and thereby we are able to determine how this should affect a price distribution over the entire proposal by calculating the weight of the price steering factors compared to the other products in the proposal.

  • 123.
    Engström, Margaretha
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Yrkeskunnande som säkerhetsmetod: En studie kring svåra driftsituationer vid svenska kärnkraftverk2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing safety methods for nuclear power predict known and conceivable but not unexpected events. The methods can prevent and limit consequences of incidents. Professional skills, however, can contribute with more than robustness. The operators practise their skills in everyday work in a way beyond formal instructions. This unnoticed practice is of great value for the safety as well as operation economy. In this doctoral thesis the operators’ professional skills at Swedish nuclear power plants have been investigated for the purpose of studying skill as a safety method for unexpected events.

    In order to study professional skills, adequate momentary actions in every day work have been looked for. These actions manifest in the flow of frequent unpredicted events occurring in ordinary work as a part of managing the continuous process. This dissertation comprises seven examples from Forsmark and Ringhals nuclear power plants. These examples are explored through the epistemology of skill, derived from a wittgensteinian concept of practice. The investigation has its main focus on exploring skill as a safety method for unexpected events. One result is that efforts have to be made in order to maintain practical obtained professional skills.

    The research has ended in the following conclusions:

    • Professional skill is important at unexpected events and thus for safety.

    • Professional skill is built over time in concrete actions in a working practice.

    • Earlier solutions of problem and successfully management of extraordinary operational situations should be kept alive.

    • The first criterion of selection at recruiting technicians should be practical persons.

    • Continuous recruitment is needed in order to avoid a loose generation curve where the professional skill is of different development phases in the different age groups.

    • For retaining personnel until they have good professional skills, prioritizing applicants from the local community is suggested.

    • Guidance by formalized requirements and measurable goals don’t reach professional skill and can moreover hide it.

    • Personnel and other stakeholders in nuclear power not having skills from operation at nuclear power plants need to be conscious about professional skill’s importance for safety.

    • Understanding the importance of professional skills should be disseminated to those groups influencing the conditions for moulding of it at the nuclear power plants.

     The knowledge contribution of this thesis points out the value of experienced skilled labour and human proper actions as the base for a sustainable operation and nuclear safety.

  • 124.
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    No Project is an island: Linking Projects to History and Context2003In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 5, no 32, p. 789-808Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Jerbrant, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Karlsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Storm, Per
    Modern industriell ekonomi2017Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 126.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Kaulio, Matti A.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Karakaya, Emrah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Miterev, Maksim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Berlin, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Explorative project networks: Means for business model innovation?2018In: R&D Management Conference, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When facing business model innovation, a key challenge for incumbent firms is the redefinition of industry and organizational boundaries. Drawing on findings from three cases studies this article suggests that inter-organizational projects can be effective means for mobilizing distributed resources and capabilities in order to gain business model innovation. This empirical phenomenon is discussed and analysed in detail, and implications for future research are suggested. 

  • 127.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Linse, Charlotta
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Kreativ på beställning: att styra designkonsulters skapandeprocesser2013In: Kreativt kapital: Om ledning och organisation i kulturella och kreativa näringar / [ed] Emma Stenström & Lars Strannegård, Stockholm: 8tto , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 128.
    ERICSON, ALEXANDER
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    HEDLUNDH, RICHARD
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Centralized Purchasing of Complex Products: a case study in organizational structure of purchasing departments when sourcing complex products2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With much effort put into optimizing production during the last century focus has  begun to shift towards optimizing purchasing, which has led to purchasing being considered more as a strategic function  rather than an  operative one. Therefore, many organizations  have decided to adopt a centralized purchasing strategy to increase efficiency in purchasing and decrease expenses. This  study examines the suitability of centralization of purchasing in the special case of complex products by testing a purchasing portfolio management (PPM) framework in the context of complex products. The PPM framework was  judged to be a valuable tool for a first assessment of the suitability for centralization but that a number of other factors play a vital role when deciding on  purchasing organizational structure for complex products. Other factors, important when deciding on organizational structure, that was encountered during the study was supplier market, assembly process, relationship to other parts, environmental factors and specific product characteristics. The study further examines to what extent it is possible to coordinate purchasing of complex products between multiple companies within the same group. To establish efficient coordination between the companies, interviews have shown that setting similar standards and transparency of information are key factors. Barriers that hinder such cooperation, also shown through interviews with key personnel at two different companies in the group, was claimed to be different purchasing processes, different  product requirements, vast geographical distances and differing sourcing strategies.

  • 129.
    ERIKSSON, RICHARD
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    NOWICKI, MARTIN
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    The Impact of the Third Basel Accord onRevolving Credit Facilities2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The financial sector has traditionally been subject to regulations given the systemic risk it

    constitutes. The financial crisis following the seminal collapse of the investment bank

    Lehman Brothers in September 2008 revealed that financial institutions constituted more

    systemic risk than could be handled by the current regulations. This shed light on the need of

    new regulations in order to limit the systemic risk that one sole institution could constitute.

    The aim of the thesis is therefore to investigate the impact on return on equity of revolving

    credit facilities from the third Basel accord for the Nordic Corporate Bank. In particular, we

    aim to answer to following questions:

    How is a Nordic corporate bank’s return on equity on individual revolving credit

    facilities affected by the third Basel accord?

    1

    How will the total portfolio return on equity of the Nordic Corporate Bank be

    affected by increased capital requirements and the increased liquidity requirements

    for revolving credit facilities?

    The study will also amount in a discussion regarding the future development of the lending

    market (in the aspect of revolving credit facilities). In the case of changing profitability levels,

    the market for revolving credit facilities might change in volume and shape and hence it is of

    interest to discuss potential aspects to consider.

    The research is conducted using a quantitative method and a deductive approach. A model is

    derived for the difference in return on equity. A sensitivity test is conducted by shifting key

    variables whilst keeping others constant. The facility utilisation parameter is detrimental to

    computing the change in return on equity. For this task, we employ re-sampling techniques

    from applied probability theory to produce estimates.

    The estimation of the utilisation parameter using applied probability theory results in an

    expected value of 7.48% of the size of the facility. Regarding the sensitivity tests, different

    parameters affect more or less on the return on equity. A ten percent capital ratio induces a

    40% relative decline in return on equity. The eight percent capital ratio induces a 25%

    relative decline in return on equity. When shifting the utilisation parameter between five

    and ten percent, return on equity is mildly affected. An increase in the price of liquidity to

    300 basis points, the new return on equity ranges from -6.39% (BB rated companies) to -

    90.16% (A rated companies). For the decrease in the price of liquidity to 10 basis points, the

    new return on equity ranges from 14.71% (BB rated companies) to 29.26% (BBB- rated

    companies).

    For the Nordic Corporate Bank’s portfolio, a decline of 9.82% in return on equity is

    computed.

    The results amount in five conclusions:

    1. Increased capital requirements are the most affecting factor of return on equity in

    the current low interest market when moving from current regulatory conditions to a

    fully implemented third Basel accord setting.

    1

    2. Better rated companies fare worse than lower rated dittos.

    3. Price of liquidity is the parameter that return on equity is most sensitive to in a full

    third Basel accord setting, and is the factor that could render revolving credit

    facilities unprofitable.

    4. For the total portfolio return on equity, increased capital requirement is the most

    detrimental factor.

    5. The detrimental decline that the liquidity coverage ratio has on revolving credit

    facilities might increase the importance of ancillary business.

  • 130.
    ERNSELL, KRISTINA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Agile Application of the Project Processwithin Software Development: An investigation of the Agile project process, includingchallenges in practical application2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With its core in adaptability and change responsiveness, the Agile methodology has become a popular application of the project process within the often volatile environment of today’s software development projects. The Agile methodology emphasizes interaction between project roles over documentation and formal processes. This higher interaction increases the need for functioning information dissemination throughout the entire project process.

    The study was carried out at a small sized Swedish IT consultancy firm. The company wished to acquire a project management and planning software tool to support the entire project process and all involved project roles. However, awareness of areas in the project process in need of support was not entirely clear. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the company’s application of the Agile project process and identify potential challenges. Furthermore, the objective was to investigate how a project management and planning software tool can support the Agile project process within software development. The thesis was carried out as an abductive case study, where qualitative data collection methods and literature studies were combined.

    As a result from the study, two main conclusions have been drawn. Firstly: requirements engineering, the customer role, communication, and knowledge transfer were concluded as prominent challenges in the project process in need of increased support.

    Secondly, a project management and planning software tool can support the project process by: increasing the communication and collaboration abilities, providing holistic and historical project overview, providing a single storage location, and providing structure. Furthermore, the study has also shown that the project management and planning software tool needs to interact with the Agile project process in order to provide successful support. As final contribution, the Interaction model was created. The model visualizes the main areas in which a project management and planning software tool must interact with the Agile process, in order to support the entire project process successfully.

  • 131.
    ESBJÖRNSSON, PER
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    SARRI, MARIA IOANNA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Assessing motives for Corporate Entrepreneurship: Case study on established Nordic companies2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to constant disruption, companies need to embed innovation into their everyday activities in order to cope with competition and be successful. Corporate Entrepreneurship is playing an important role in fostering innovation and is needed to avoid disruption. However, companies have also different motives when handling CE as well as various ways of implementing it in the organization. This study investigated the motives of CE among large companies and the various implementation efforts. Therefore, the research question is: Which are the motives for CE? and the sub-question is: How does that lead to variation in CE implementation? The focus of the study was large companies which headquarter in Nordic countries and belong in different industries. Therefore, nine semi-structured interviews were performed and after, the data from the interviews were analyzed with thematic analysis. The results showed that the companies have different reasonings about their CE efforts and the CE implementation varied depending on the companies’ motives. However, these factors may not affect directly the organizational maturity. Therefore, companies can have their motives and support their CE efforts in different ways without influence negatively the maturity of the organization.

  • 132.
    ETEMADY QESHMY, DANIAL
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    MAKDISI, JACOB
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Human error management 4.0: Augmented Reality Systems as a tool in the quality journey2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry is shifting, entering a new era with smart and connected devices. The fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) is promising increased growth and productivity by the Smart Factory and within the enabling technologies is Augmented Reality (AR). This is a technology that can be used to augment the reality with digital information. At the same time as the technology is introduced, errors in manufacturing are a problem which are affecting the productivity and the quality. The errors can be caused by humans and companies strive to eliminate the errors caused by humans. This research aims to find the main causes of human errors in assembly lines and thereafter explores whether AR is an appropriate tool to be used in order to address those issues. Based on a literature review that identified and characterized a preliminary set of root causes for human errors in assembly lines, these causes were empirically studied in an exercise that covered an in-depth case study at a multinational automotive company. Data in form of interviews and deviation reports have been used to identify the causing factors and the result showed that the main causes of human errors are the amount of thinking, deciding and searching for information which affected the cognitive load of the operator and in result their performance. Several interviews with experts in AR allowed to verify if this technology would be feasible to solve or mitigate the found causes. Besides that, in repetitive manual assembly operations, AR is better used showing the process in order to train new operators, at the same time as for experienced operators AR show information only when an error occurs and when there is a need of taking an active choice is more appropriate. Nevertheless, while theoretically able to managing human error when fully developed, the desired application makes the augmentation of visual objects redundant and increasingly complex for solving the identified causes of errors which questions the appropriateness of using AR systems. However, the empirical findings showed that for managing human errors, the main bottleneck of an AR system is the software and AI.

  • 133.
    Etemady Qeshmy, Danial
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Makdisi, Jacob
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Ribeiro da Silva, Elias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). Pontifical Catholic Univeristy of Parana, Imaculada Conceição, 1155, 80215-901, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Angelis, Jannis
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Grevgatan 34, SE-10215, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Managing Human Errors: Augmented Reality systems as a tool in the quality journey2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 28, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry is shifting, entering a new era with smart and connected devices. The fourth industrial revolution is promising increased growth and productivity by the Smart Factory and within the enabling technologies is Augmented Reality (AR). At the same time as the technology is introduced, errors in manufacturing are a problem which is affecting the productivity and the quality. This research aims to find the main causes of human errors in assembly lines and thereafter explores whether augmented reality is an appropriate tool to be used in order to address those issues. Based on a literature review that identified and characterized a preliminary set of root causes for human errors in assembly lines, these causes were empirically studied in an exercise that covered an in-depth case study in a multinational automotive company. Data in form of interviews and deviation- reports have been used to identify the causing factors and the result showed that the main causes of human errors are the amount of thinking, deciding and searching for information which affected the cognitive load of the operator and in result their performance. Several interviews with experts in augmented reality allowed to verify if AR technology would be feasible to solve or mitigate the found causes. Besides that, in repetitive manual assembly operations, AR is better used showing the process in order to train new operators. At the same time for experienced operators, AR should show information only when an error occurs and when there is a need of taking an active choice. Nevertheless, while theoretically able to managing human error when fully developed, the desired application makes the augmentation of visual objects redundant and increasingly complex for solving the identified causes of errors which questions the appropriateness of using AR systems. Furthermore, the empirical findings showed that for managing human errors, the main bottleneck of an AR system is the systems artificial intelligence capabilities.

  • 134.
    FAGERLIND, THERESE
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    STEFANICKI, MARTIN
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Kartläggning av beslutsstrukturer gällande hållbarhet inom produktionsnätverk2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to contribute to the research for solving the challenge of implementing business sustainability, this study aims to explore the relation between an important aspect of organizational structure; centralization, and an important aspect of sustainability management; setting sustainability objectives. This has been done, in particular, by studying the distribution of decisions related to economic, environmental and social sustainability objectives between different organizational levels in multi-plant manufacturing networks. The research is fundamentally exploratory and has been conducted as a multiple case study, with nine participating case organizations. Data has been used from the nine case organizations, based on semi-structured interviews. Five different decision-making approaches for sustainability have been found; all decisions are centralized and decided at the corporate headquarters, all decisions are aggregated and decided at the central headquarters but adapted and transformed when distributed to lower organizational levels, all decisions are integrated and decided at both the central headquarters and at lower organizational levels, all decisions are decided at an intermediate organizational level, and all decisions are local and decided at the plant level. The findings also show that there is no consistent way of deciding upon sustainability issues, where some case organizations seem to regard sustainability as a global concern, while others regard it as a more local concern. In general, the economic sustainability dimension is regarded as more of a global concern, while the environmental dimension is more of a local concern, and the social dimension more of an integrated concern, where some related issues are decided more centralized while others are decided more local. The findings of this study can act as guidance for managers when implementing or improving their sustainability strategies. The findings also provide empirical data for the academic with the possibility to expand and evaluate the research in the future.

  • 135.
    Fagerlind, Therese
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Stefanicki, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Korhonen, Jouni
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development.
    The distribution of sustainability decision-making in manufacturing networks2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 18, article id 4871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to contribute to research on implementing business sustainability, this study aims to explore the distribution of decision-making authority related to economic, environmental, and social sustainability. Sustainability objectives between different organizational levels in multinational manufacturing enterprises (MMEs) are investigated. The research is fundamentally exploratory. We conducted a multiple case study endeavor with nine participating case organizations. The study identified five different decision-making approaches to sustainability in multinational manufacturing enterprises. The findings showed that there was no consistent way of deciding upon sustainability issues. Some case organizations seemed to regard sustainability as a global concern, while others regarded it as a more local concern. In general, the economic sustainability dimension was regarded as more of a global concern, while the environmental dimension was more of a local concern, and the social dimension more of an integrated concern. The findings of this study can act as guidance for managers when implementing or improving sustainability strategies. The findings will also serve as a map to navigate and understand what should be given the strongest priority in different situations concerning decision-making relating to sustainability in manufacturing processes and networks.

  • 136.
    FALK, MARKUS
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    GRIM, HENRIK
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    UNDERSTANDING HOW USE OF THE FREESERVICE AFFECTS WILLINGNESS TO PAY INFREEMIUM MAAS SERVICES2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The freemium model has been called the  long awaited answer to the question how to earn money on the internet with content.  However, one growing issue for online content providers is how to convert free users to paying users, and having an effective conversion strategy is crucial. Moreover, practitioners across many industries are leveraging the growing availability of data, with online industries possibly seeing the largest potential and data abundance. Thus, leveraging data to formulate effective conversion strategies has become a growing trend.

    Among scholars, there has been some research on how service usage among online content provider users impacts the willingness to pay. However, there has been limited focus on how conversion strategies can be adjusted to different user segments. Therefore, this thesis has aimed at answering how service usage impacts willingness to pay for different customer segments in a Music-as-a-Service (MaaS) company.

    By performing a case study on a music streaming service, the researchers have analyzed previous literature, practitioner expert views and service usage data to find areas significantly affecting a user’s willingness to pay. The results show that metrics within the categories of Consumer demographics & characteristics, User experience, Social activity and Content consumption & service interaction all impact a user’s willingness to pay, for one or more of the user segments considered. Moreover, it is found that the impact of individual factors differs considerably across segments, both in terms of effect size and direction.

    The findings have implications for scholars and practitioners, both online content providers in general and MaaS companies in particular. For scholars, the findings provide increased knowledge of how willingness to pay is impacted by service usage for different segments, which gives further depth to current theory, and opens new areas for future research. For practitioners, the thesis provides increased understanding of how conversion strategies can be adjusted to different customer segments to build more costeffective and impactful approaches.

  • 137.
    Fallgren, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Sundborg, Håkan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Future grocery: A study of the e-commerce grocery basket business in Sweden 2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The era of the Internet has become increasingly important in our daily life. Internet channels are rapidly growing into sophisticated businesses. This thesis purpose is therefore to conduct an initial study on a newly approaching e-commerce business, namely the grocery basket business. As there has not yet been much research in this field the overall aim is to contribute to the research in this business area. There are many who argue that in relation to the Internet and e-commerce fields there are two other important fields: business model and supply chain.

    A qualitative approach is used, based on triangulation methodology including a multiple case study and a survey. The cases are two different types of e-commerce companies: brick-and-clicks and pure-players. An empirical investigation covering twenty interviews and a questionnaire with one thousand respondents has been conducted.

    Findings supported by the interviews and the questionnaire reveal much knowledge about the grocery basket business. This are analyzed in relation to literature of business model and supply chain and according to the two cases of companies in the business.

    The study concludes that there is a great deal of challenges facing the grocery basket business in both fields of business model and supply chain. In both cases it is a challenge to retain customers, flexibility for customers, competition and supply chain development. Regarding brick-and-clicks a major challenge is to make their physical channel and online channel work together. Regarding pure-players a major challenge is their dependency of wholesalers. In addition, recommendations to these acknowledged challenges are benchmarking on other successful grocery companies and/or other successful e-commerce companies. Additional recommendation for pure-players is that they should cooperate with a brick-and-mortar company. Finally, the study shows some decent potential in the business to reduce emissions. This by providing eco-friendly products with pre planned recipes to fit with the products, and having fewer products in stock.

  • 138.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Sayem, Ahmed
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Ortega-Mier, Miguel
    UPM Madrid.
    Coordination in International Manufacturing: The Role of Competitive Priorities and the Focus of Globally Dispersed Facilities2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 1314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this era of globalization, network integration has received great attention, as it certainly has implications for the competitiveness in international manufacturing. A key issue in integration is to coordinate activities of dispersed facilities in a way to align the target of locating abroad and the priorities to be competitive. This study explores and clarifies the effect of competitive priority and focus of dispersed facilities on coordinating the activities in intra-firm network manufacturing. Based on a multiple case study involving four different companies manufacturing in globally dispersed facilities, the results confirm that both competitive priorities and specific focus of global manufacturing are important for selecting mechanisms to coordinate overseas facilities, with the competitive priorities ‘quality’ and ‘flexibility’ being the more important. Furthermore, the findings reveal that companies place emphasis on informal mechanisms to coordinate the low-cost focused facilities. In turn, the importance of formal mechanisms seems equal for coordinating both low-cost focused facilities and those focused on capturing a local market. Finally, the findings of this paper suggest that elements of competitive priority, as well as the focus of dispersed facilities, should be considered towards making the choice for mechanisms of coordination. The findings bear important implications for the effective coordination of activities in international manufacturing.

  • 139.
    FENG, YAN
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Development of Internal Logistics Systems: The Use and Evaluation of Simulation Software2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Logistics deals with the flow, storage of goods and related information. Its purpose is to make people, material and information flow from the start to the end. A fundamental transition in the business environment has shifted from the producer’s market to the buyer’s market. Customer needs result in the requirement of new logistic supply methods. Today logistics engineers plan and design material flow by trial and error. It lacks an effective simulation tool to offer them an overview of traffic load, material flow and workload. Because simulation software provides visual interactive facilities, this study attempted to investigate simulation software used in real logistics system by analyzing underlying logic and its added-value. Furthermore, it purposed to find out how simulation software can fulfill manufacturers’ requirements.

    This thesis has investigated the issues related to simulation software used in internal logistics systems. It provides a comprehensive understanding of the simulation software by exploring the underlying logic through modeling analysis, analyzing its added-value and developing evaluation criteria of simulation software. One data driven logistic simulator, Flow Planner, has been studied on the basis of the case study carried out at Scania Oskarshamn. This software is investigated from users’ perspective, which means that the investigation is objective and close to the manufacturer’s crucial requirements.

    The result of the study shows that simulation software relies on real system. At the same ime, they have their own simulation language. These tools can support logistics planning and give better flow design. However, the software should be dynamic in order to fulfill manufacturers’ specific requirements. Simulation software developers should follow the evaluation criteria to be better suitable for manufacturers.

  • 140.
    FERIZAJ, DRILON
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    GAITAN, CARLOS
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Performance measurement: Incorporating sustainability practices in a performance measurement structure: A qualitative case study of Atlas Copco2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to fulfill stakeholder requirements whilst aspiring for long term competitiveness, industrial firms are aiming for increased incorporation of sustainability practices in their operations, set up by lean practices. At the same time, there is a potential inconsistency when working in accordance to lean practices whilst applying a sustainable approach, given e.g. the end-user focus of lean and post-consumption focus of sustainability (Machado et al., 2014). With performance measurement being the tool for evaluating the impact of sustainability practices, the purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge of performance measurement for incorporating sustainable practices in a lean production organization.

    With the intention of fulfilling the objective, the research is based on empirical evidence gained through a single case study of a leading product company in the industrial tools and equipment industry. The case study comprised multiple sources of data collection methods (e.g. interviews and observations), for identifying variables and conflicting interests among priorities, processes and people.

    It was found that the performance measurement structure does not support the incorporation of sustainable practices in operations in some of the dimensions studied due to i) misalignment between organizational placement of the measure and the power of the resources, ii) supplier feedback neglecting and iii) limited maturity level regarding the differences between sustainability and lean practices.

    The contribution to research and practitioners accentuates that while there are differences between lean and sustainability practices in some performance dimensions, some of the differences have limited impact on the performance measurement level, but more on a performance management level given their strategic prominence.

  • 141.
    Flening, Elias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Jerbrant, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Worlds Apart and Close Together: Relating mechatronics and project management research2018In: Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN, 2018, p. 2867-2878Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While they originate from different contexts and values, the Mechatronic and Project Management research communities are both committed to the study of the process of complex engineering systems design. These two fields have generally been engaged in their research separated from each other. Recently, calls have been heard from both to end such disciplinary separation. This paper seeks to conceptually relate the two research communities, seeking to understand how they can be seen as different, related and inclusive of each other through offering three conceptual models of their relationships. 

  • 142.
    Flyman, Elin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Nilsson, Christina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Facilitating control in growing organizations: A study of new requirements on systematization2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational growth poses new challenges for top management. In small organizations, coordination and communication is spontaneous and require little structure to be efficient. However, as the organization grows, the increased number of individuals requires a larger amount of coordination and communication.

    In this study, our purpose is to increase understanding of why growing companies are experiencing challenges with coordination as well as to increase organizational control. To fulfill this, we study one organization in particular. In order to find a sustainable solution, we investigate why these challenges are experienced. We argue that addressing the underlying causes for experiencing these challenges is the most effective solution in the way that it ensures that the same challenges do not recur. Therefore, the relationship between the challenges that are articulated by the organization and the underlying causes for the challenges is central to our study.

    Our study shows that our object of study would benefit from an increased internal focus to enable for long-term growth. This finding supports several existing models for organizational growth. Our object of study currently employs few systematized internal processes and is in need of further systematization with regards to several aspects, such as strategy development and implementation and organizational control. Our study further shows that a lack of systematization on a managerial level leads to ambiguities that are translated to the operational level. This explains the discrepancies between the challenges that are expressed by the organization and their underlying causes.

  • 143.
    Forsblom, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Smedberg, Ludwig
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Stock-based Compensation and Shareholder Value2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 144.
    FORSLUND, GUSTAF
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    The Use of Machine-to-Machine Communication in the Swedish Building Sector2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Keeping pace with the constantly changing surroundings is more important than ever as new game changing technologies appear faster than ever before. In the IT-sector a new technology known as Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communication is emerging. The technology has been around for almost 15 years but still has not had the major breakthrough on the mainstream market that has been expected. The reasons for this are topics for speculations and debates since many people have different views and opinions on the matter.

    M2M Communication uses the Internet to connect machines with each other and gives them intelligence so they can communicate with each other and make their own decisions without human interference. Today the decisions the machines make concerns simple things such as temperature control, automatic CCTV monitoring, turning the lights on and off etc., but in the future M2M Communication technology advocates hope the it will be able to predict heart attacks even before they happen by implementing the M2M Communication technology into smart pacemakers sending an emergency signal to a nearby ambulance that a patient may soon suffer from a heart attack. The technology is also hoped to be used in cars where it will send an emergency signal to a Public-Safety Answering Point (PSAP) saying that a car accident has occurred, where it occurred and how many people that were in the car in order to reduce the number of road deaths.

    So as mentioned above the public can benefit from the technology once it is widely available. Today experts say that there is somewhere between 5 to 10 years before the technology in general has been adopted by 20 to 30 percent of the potential sectors, known as Connected Things (CT) and third or higher generation innovations are implemented. However, as this Master Thesis research shows, at least one sector has already reached 5 to 10 years into the future and adopted the M2M Communication technology. This sector is the building sector with their Connected Buildings (CB). It is a mature sector that is estimated to grow somewhere around 16 percent CAGR globally and around 13 percent CAGR in the Nordic region until somewhere around 2020.

    In this Master Thesis research the M2M Communication technology was analyzed specifically for the building sector with focus on Real Estate Management Companies (REMC) on the Swedish market. Interviews and surveys were conducted with the 50 largest (based on revenue) REMCs in order to illustrate their opinion on the M2M Communication technology and its usage and advantages in the building sector. Of the 50 REMCs asked to participate in the survey 16 replied giving a response rate of 32 percent.

  • 145.
    Fredriksson, Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    How integration of ERP-systems canimprove the logistic processes2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To implement a new ERP in an organization is a hard and costly investment. Another problem is

    also to show the whole company what good there is to come thanks to the implementation of the ERP. When a company implement a new ERP there is a need of changing their processes. This leads to that the company needs to show some small improvements and benefits to successfully succeed with the implementation(Magnusson & Ohlsson, 2012).

    Inflight service has during the last 20 years developed into a company that has a turn-over of 2 billion.  This has led to a shattered way of working and the same goes to their information systems. To develop further the solutions inside Inflight Service have come forth that a consolidation of the information systems and the processes needs to be looked upon. It is not normal that all the people inside an organization do not see the benefits and opportunities with this sort of implementations. To address these opportunities and show them to the organization is a key factor to a successfully implementation.

    The objective with this study is to find and explain an integration method between the central warehouse and the shops out in the country with the help of the ERP Microsoft Dynamics AX R2. Also to expose and highlight the potential benefits of the implementation. These will be answered with the main question:

        What opportunities will emerge for Inflight Service thanks to the implementation of

    Microsoft Dynamics AX R2?

    This will be done with the help of interviews done to the employees on Inflight Service that where done during the period of time when the research was done.  Parallel to this information was gathered on how Microsoft Dynamic AX R2s different modules were operated with their own internet-learning system. The focus have been on how the replenishment to the store on Skavsta airport can be more effective.

    The results show that with the help of the implementation of Microsoft Dynamics AX R2, Inflight Service can rationalize the processes of a full time worker and relocate the workforce to different tasks within the store.

  • 146.
    Freilich, Jonatan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    When Innovation Is Not Enough: Managerial Challenges of Technology Change in Pharmaceutical R&D2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is not always enough. In the beginning of the 2000s established pharmaceutical firms had developed several drugs, yet these new products were far too few. Patents of many blockbuster drugs were to soon expire and substantial profit would then be lost. A potential solution emerged: implementing new biomarker technologies in drug development.

    Biomarkers are required for knowledge creation about the drug effect on underlying causes of a disease. The problem is this: although academia, industry, and policy makers have deemed biomarkers as necessary for successful drug development, pharmaceutical firms have not used them in actual drug development projects.  Since the 1990s, established pharmaceutical firms have invested financially and restructured organizationally in order to implement biomarkers. Still, cases show that more than 50% of project termination in Clinical Phase 2 (the bottle neck of drug development) can be attributed to the lack of implementing biomarkers.  

    Challenges of established firms transforming in the face of technology change is a commonly studied phenomenon within innovation management literature. Several explanations have attempted to determine why established firms fail in following technology change. However, most of this literature has been based upon an empirical context where technology change is conceptualized as an innovation of the dominant product design in the industry. Consequently, the challenge is to develop or adapt a discontinuous product innovation.

    Conversely, implementing biomarkers is a case of technology change that impacts R&D. Since drugs lose their value when the patent protection expires, the established pharmaceutical firms need to continuously develop new block buster drugs – not just one product. More research is needed to fill this gap in the literature in order to develop an understanding of the established firm challenge in implementing biomarkers.

    This thesis builds upon a longitudinal case study of AstraZeneca. Using multiple data sources, the findings show that the dominant architecture of the drug development process during the 2000s impeded the implementation of biomarkers. AstraZeneca required an “architectural process innovation” in order to complete this implementation. The company’s process-based management structures distorted it from recognizing the need for process change.

    This thesis has three contributions: First, it describes the process change and the firm’s managerial challenges associated with biomarker implementation; Second, it contributes to the literature on the established firm challenge by developing an understanding of the phenomenon of architectural process innovation; Third, it develops a process-based framework for studying technology change that affects R&D. 

  • 147.
    GHATTAS, HELEN
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Managing complex product development projects: An analytical framework for complex product development2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, products have become more complex in terms of connectivity, performance and functionality. Therefore, this study aims at studying how complex products are developed and managed through conducting multiple case studies at different Swedish companies that develop mechatronic or cyberphysical systems.

    The results of this study is the identification of many challenges that the investigated companies have, which have led to a presentation of an analytical framework that discusses how complex product development projects can and should be managed in order to be efficient, in order to reduce unnecessary complexity in the way companies develop these complex products.

  • 148.
    GHEBREMIKAEL, SIMON
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    MAASS, KAJ
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Collaboration with a shared service center: A hiring managers perspective on the virtual collaboration with an HR shared service center2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increased usage of information and communication technology in organizations has enabled the creation ofshared service centers where activities are insourced within organizations. One organizational department that has been prominent in implementing this organizational form is the human resource departments as they have been moving the transactional and traditional activities to shared service centers, geographically dispersed from its users. Hence, as the collaboration is done virtually, challenges might arise, and the outcome of the collaboration might be affected. Therefore, this study has investigated the demands that are created on the virtual collaboration based on the services provided by a shared service center.

    This has been done by conducting a case study at Ericsson AB in Kista, Sweden, a multinational provider of communications technology and services as they recently implemented an HR shared service center in India that handles the internal recruitment process. The case study has been conducted through a qualitative data collection method, more specifically through interviews.

    The results pointed out that the services provided by an HR shared service center create different needs on the virtual collaboration. Seven success factors were found to be important in order to overcome the challenges in the collaboration. Six of these were shown to be applicable for both transactional and traditional services while the seventh was shown only to apply for traditional services performed by a shared service center. For both the transactional and traditional services provided, the identified success factors were; having a facilitating leader in the process, be clear in the communication, setting terms and expectations, aligning the technology with the task at hand, providing visibility in the process, and using a group support system to enhance the communication. The seventh success factor, only applicable for traditional services, was to establish a personalized support.

    From a theoretical perspective, the findings of this study provide empirical data in a field where limited research has been conducted. Furthermore, the findings provide a practical example of the importance that the collaboration between the users and the HR shared service center has for a successful service provision. This could, from a sustainability aspect, give firms a competitive advantage through increased business performance, create better relations amongst the employees as the collaboration gets improved, and enhance the capability to collaborate

  • 149.
    Giertz, Eric
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Hjorth, Mikael
    Lindhagen, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Gens, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Svensk konsultsektor i ny belysning: Utvecklingstrender och dynamik2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsultsektorn är inte en bransch i vanlig mening. Den består av företag med likartad affärslogik som är verksamma i helt olika branscher. Den expanderar i takt med att kunderna väljer att upphandla konsulter som gör utredningar, projekterar byggen, utvecklar produkter och IT-system, konstruerar maskiner, utformar reklamkampanjer, patentansökningar och affärsavtal, genomför revisioner och tester av olika slag, sköter rekrytering, bokföring eller telefonintervjuer, utvecklar organisationsformer, interna rutiner och mycket mer.

    Denna rapport baseras på en unik kartläggning av konsultföretag i Sverige. Initialt skapades en bruttolista av alla företag med SNI-koder som kunde tänkas dölja kunskapsintensiva konsultföretag. I nästa steg inhämtades uppgifter, bland annat via företagens hemsidor, om alla aktiebolag i bruttolistan med minst fem anställda. Cirka en tredjedel av bolagen sorterades då bort. Återstående företag, som kunde klassificeras som konsultföretag, samlades i en databas och kategoriserades efter verksamhetens inriktning. Databasen som är grunden för vår analys omfattar 6 421 företag med minst fem anställda. De hade 212 753 heltidsekvivalenter sysselsatta på 10 075 arbetsställen i Sverige år 2012. Därutöver fanns en lång svans av små aktiebolag med 1-4 anställda. Små bolag med liten omsättning, som kan antas vara bolag för bisysslor, sorterades bort. Av 46 703 aktiebolag med 1-4 anställda återstod därefter 10 205. Dessa hade uppskattningsvis 35 212 heltidsekvivalenter sysselsatta år 2012. Totalt rör det sig således om cirka 250 000 anställda i konsultsektorns aktiebolag. Studien bygger på heltidsekvivalenter som mått på anställda. Därför är det betydligt fler fysiska personer som arbetar inom de inkluderade företagen – lågt räknat cirka 300 000.

    Sett över en längre tidsperiod har den totala sysselsättningen inom konsultsektorn ständigt ökat i Sverige. Under de senaste fyra decennierna har antalet yrkesverksamma ökat från knappt 100 000 till cirka 300 000, eller från knappt tre till drygt sex procent av den totala sysselsättningen. I föreliggande analys har vi delat in konsultföretagen efter den funktion de fyller i fem olika huvudinriktningar. Den största inriktningen, Konsultföretag inom organisation och ledning, som domineras av undergruppen IT inom administration och management, svarade för knappt 31 % av sysselsättningen. Konsultföretag inom extern funktionell expertis svarade för drygt 21 %, Bemanningsföretag för drygt 20 %, Konsultföretag inom objektrelaterad projektering för drygt 17 % och Konsultföretag inom FoU för drygt 10 %. Att konsultsektorn expanderar är knappast en modetrend. Det är snarare en konsekvens av att det i takt med ökad komplexitet blir svårt för kunderna att ha egen anställd personal inom alla viktiga kompetensområden.

    Konsultsektorn har generellt en stark koncentration till storstäder. Den finns visserligen representerad i nästan alla delar av vårt land men koncentrationen till i första hand Stockholmsområdet, men även Göteborg och Malmö, är påfallande hög. Företag i Storstockholm svarar för över 40 % av alla konsulter i Sverige. Det är inte bara i absoluta tal som Stockholm utmärker sig. När sysselsättningen i konsultföretag med minst fem anställda sätts i relation till antalet invånare i åldrarna 16-64 år, så har Stockholms län, med 6,3 %, mer än dubbelt så stor andel som andra län, utom Västra Götalands län med 4,1 %. Graden av koncentration till Stockholm och övriga storstäder varierar dock mellan olika inriktningar.

    Konsultsektorn som helhet kännetecknas av strukturomvandlingar, branschglidningar och stor dynamik. Det tar sig bland annat uttryck i fusioner, förvärv och börsintroduktioner. Inom några verksamhetsinriktningar har också större svenska bolag blivit uppköpta av utländska börsnoterade koncerner. Inom andra inriktningar, som domineras av partnerägda bolag, ingår svenska bolag numera i stora internationella nätverk av olika slag. Parallellt sker inom vissa inriktningar en ökad uppsplittring i små levebrödsbolag som knyts samman i nätverksorganisationer av olika slag. Även om de kvantitativa uppgifterna i vår databas baseras på situationen år 2012, så är alla strukturförändringar – i form av bland annat nedläggningar, fusioner och förvärv – som skett före den 1 januari 2016 beaktade i kvalitativa beskrivningar och exemplifieringar i rapporten.

    En del konsultföretag söker skapa strukturkapital och systematiskt dra kvalitets- och effektivitetsmässig nytta av att det – inte minst till följd av digitalisering – uppstår en slags stordriftsfördelar inom delar av konsultsektorn. En ambition i vår studie har varit att kartlägga vilka förutsättningar konsultföretag i Sverige har att bygga strukturkapital. Det är ju exempelvis stor skillnad mellan å ena sidan ett konsultföretag som mot timarvode hyr ut personal som sitter i kundernas lokaler och leds av kundernas personal och å andra sidan ett konsultföretag som mot ett fast arvode genomför ett väldefinierat projekt i eget kontor i Sverige och/eller utomlands. Under sommaren år 2015 lät vi sålunda genomföra intervjuer i konsultbolag med mer än cirka 20 anställda i Sverige. Frågorna fokuserade på var konsulterna utför sitt arbete, vem som leder dem operativt i uppdragen, eventuell export eller användning av offshoring, utnyttjande av underkonsulter, antal kunder per konsult, kundrelationer och debiteringsprinciper.

    Intervjuresultatet antyder att det i Sverige främst är Konsultföretag inom extern funktionell expertis som systematiskt bygger strukturkapital och söker effektivisera och kvalitetssäkra konsulternas arbete. De företag som debiterar fast pris har då även möjlighet att öka sina marginaler. Två huvudinriktningar med motsatt mönster är Konsultföretag inom FoU samt Bemanningsföretag. Båda dessa inriktningar domineras av företag som har utlokaliserade konsulter, vilka sitter ute hos kund och leds av kundernas personal. Varje konsult har dessutom endast ett fåtal olika uppdragsgivare per år. Undergruppen Bygg och anläggning inom huvudinriktningen Konsultföretag inom objektrelaterad projektering samt undergruppen IT inom administration och management i huvudinriktningen Konsultföretag inom organisation och ledning svarar tillsammans för drygt 40 % av alla anställda i konsultsektorn. De domineras av större företag som ingår i internationella koncerner. Vår bedömning är att dessa koncerner, trots sin storlek, bygger förhållandevis lite strukturkapital. Dessutom är timdebitering fortfarande helt dominerande.

    Sammanfattningsvis konstaterar vi att konsultsektorn är expansiv och att den spelar en betydelsefull roll för utvecklingen i näringslivet och i samhället som helhet. Sektorn är dynamisk och många konsultföretag står inför stora utmaningar. Det verkar finnas utrymme för exempelvis nya affärsmodeller, nya strategiska val och internationell expansion.

  • 150.
    Gileborg, Robin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Initial Token Offerings, Friend or Foe?: A qualitative study of capital procurement using initial token offerings2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the emerging phenomenon of Initial Token Offerings, which is a tool for capital procurement for ventures being built using token ecosystems within their products. Through a series of interviews with representatives from venture capital, blockchain specialized venture capital, investors, and academia, the author connects the sentiments held by those representatives to the existing literature of behavioral economics. The sentiments expressed mainly focus on: the role of regulations; the development of investors during capital procurement; and the potential for experimentation in the field of token economies. The thesis discusses the implications of the technologies and potential future outcomes. The author also raises the question of whether this is the first non-regulated financial ecosystem that could provide an interesting perspective for behavioral economists as future research is done on the effects of regulations.

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