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  • 101.
    Mwamila, Luhuvilo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Arsenic (V) and Phosphate sorption to Swedish clay soils - Freundlich sorption modelling.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an attempt to analyze and interpret the behavior of the two elements arsenic and phosphorus when released into the environment. Both of them may occur naturally in the environment but also may be added to the environment for certain purposes e.g. as pesticides and fertilizers respectively or through anthropogenic sources. When in excess, arsenic can be toxic to plants and organisms in the soil and some of it when leaches to groundwater or transported to surface water bodies through runoffs may pose a threat to aquatic organisms. Likewise, phosphorus when in excess result into eutrophication of surface water bodies and groundwater as well which has been a major problem in the Baltic Sea. In order to be able to predict their mobility a study on their chemical and physical characteristics under different conditions is important. The soil composition is an important aspect of nutrient management because some of the minerals present i.e. hydr(oxides) of aluminium and iron tend to hold and store both arsenic and phosphorus in the soil, while plant uptake and harvest may remove them (especially phosphorus) from the soil. This study was focused on Swedish agricultural soils and the samples for investigation were collected from two locations, one is Broknäs from which samples were collected from different horizons i.e. A 0-30 cm, C 60-90 cm and C 47-67 cm samples from an area known as Bogesundslandet, NE of Stockholm (59°24’N, 18°18’E) and E21:2 was collected from the county of Östergötland (58°27’N,14°57’E), southern Sweden not far from Lake Vättern, from where the A horizon was collected. Batch experiments were performed to check pH and concentration dependence of the sorption/desorption of As and P. Two varieties of the Freundlich equation (Basic and

    Competitive) were used to model the results obtained. It was observed that the dependence of arsenate and phosphate sorption/desorption on pH show a similar but not identical trend for both anions. At low pH, the dependence of dissolved P and As did not agree, for unknown reasons. Possibly, the low pH value may mobilize otherwise un-reactive P that at higher pH are blocked by some aluminium/iron precipitate. The Freundlich modeling results showed that there is direct competitive adsorption between As and P ions, at least in the A horizon. However use of the competitive Freundlich equation did not result in meaningful results in the C horizon, which may indicate different As and P sorption mechanisms. However, further studies on this are recommended.

  • 102. Naidu, Ravi
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Arsenic in the environment-risks and management strategies2009In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 31, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 103. Nehrenheim, E.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Kinetic sorption modelling of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr ions to pine bark and blast furnace slag by using batch experiments2008In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 99, no 6, p. 1571-1577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Storm water and landfill leachate can both contain significant amounts of toxic metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni. Pine bark and blast furnace slag are both residual waste products that have shown a large potential for metal removal from contaminated water. There are however many variables that must be optimized in order to achieve efficient metal retention. One of these variables is the time of which the solution is in contact with each unit of filter material. Metal sorption was studied in two laboratory experiments to improve the knowledge of the effects of contact time. The results showed that pine bark was generally more efficient than blast furnace slag when the metal concentrations were relatively small, whereas blast furnace slag sorbed most metals to a larger extent at increased metal loads. In addition, sorption to blast furnace slag was found to be faster than metal binding to pine bark. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model was able to describe the data well within 1000 s of reaction time.

  • 104. Ngirane-Katashaya, G.
    et al.
    Kizito, Frank William
    Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda .
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Decision Support Systems for Water Resources Management in Uganda: The Need2007In: Sustainable Development of Water Resources, Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation: Proceedings of the 32nd WEDC International Conference, 2007, p. 267-270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a major factor in the socio-economic fabric of Ugandan society and a major determinant of the development potential of the country. However, management of water resources is a complex problem that typically involves a variety of stakeholder interests and environmental uncertainties. The plurality of concerns establishes a pressing need for improved planning and management capabilities, and in this respect it has been noted that decision-making related to water resource management would benefit from engineering expertise combined with suitable use of informatics. In spite of rapidly advancing computer technology and the proliferation of software for decision support, relatively few Decision Support Systems have been developed, implemented, and evaluated in the field of water resources management in Uganda. Such tools need to be structured to fit in with existing policy frameworks in Uganda?s water sector, and should be tailored to the local conditions prevailing in the country.

  • 105. Norman, Josefine
    et al.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Farahbakhshazad, Neda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus
    Li, Changsheng
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Simulation of NO and N2O emissions from a spruce forest during a freeze/thaw event using an N-flux submodel from the PnET-N-DNDC model integrated to CoupModel2008In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 216, no 1, p. 18-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of nitrogen gases (N2O, No and N-2) emitted from forest soils depends on interactions between soil properties, climatic factors and soil management. To increase the understanding of nitrogen processes in soil ecosystems, two dynamic models, CoupModel (coupled heat and mass transfer model for soil-plant-atmosphere systems) and the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model were selected. Both are dynamic models with different submodels for soil, vegetation, hydrology and climate system. CoupModel has a higher degree of detail on soil physical and abiotic components, whereas the DNDC model contains details of microbiological processes involved in production of nitrogen gases. To improve the previous simple submodel of nitrogen emission in CoupModel, we included a submodel corresponding to the forest version of DNDC containing photosynthesis/evapotranspiration-nitrogen (PnET-N-DNDC model). The nitrogen (N) and carbon

  • 106.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Acid-base status of soils in groundwater discharge zones -relation to surface water acidification1995In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 170, p. 87-100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 107.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Chemistry and by-pass flow in groundwater/surfacewater interfaces: important for surface water acidification?1997In: BIOGEOMON, 3rd International Symposium on Ecosystem Behaviour, June 21-25, Villanova, USA., 1997Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 108.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Concentration and chemical species of Fe in soils fromthe groundwater/surface water ecotones.1993In: Hydological Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 40, p. 319-329Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Concentration and fractionation of heavy metals inroadside soils receiving de-icing salts1998In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 218, p. 161-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil was sampled along two lines of a highway, 0.5 m and 2.5 m from the asphalt surface, and in an infiltration pond for highway runoff. The study area was located in the infiltration area of the reserve water supply for a community. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in soil samples from the highway 0.5 m. andror in the infiltration pond exceeded guideline values for less sensitive land-use with groundwater protection. The highest Pb concentration measured 542 mg kgy1. was 34 times the average Pb concentration in soils in Sweden, and exceeded the Swedish guideline value by a factor of almost two. Cadmium in the infiltration pond exceeded the guideline value almost three times. An increased concentration with soil depth for Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and PAHs in the infiltration pond showed that downward transport had occurred. This was supported by a Pb concentration exceeding the limit for drinking water quality in the groundwater 4.5 m below the soil surface in the infiltration pond. The ESP exchangeable sodium percentage. in some samples was high enough 10]27%. for dispersion of soil colloids to occur. The Tessier’s sequential extraction scheme showed that Pb and Zn occurred mostly in association with the oxide bound fraction whereas Cu was mainly associated with the organic fraction, e.g. colloids. Another important fraction for Pb was the carbonate fraction. The study showed that a large part of the Pb, Cu and Zn in roadside soils is vulnerable to leaching when exposed to a high NaCl concentration, reducing conditions or to a lowering in pH. Regression analyses showed that a high concentration of Na predominately displaces Ca of the base cations from the exchange sites in the soil. The highly significant relationships observed between soil properties and chemical fractions of the metals make the result reliable for the fractions that predominate.

  • 110.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Field-measured redox potentials in soils at the groundwater/surface water interface.1994In: Eurepean Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 45, p. 31-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Heavy metal mobilization from roadside soils receivingde-icing salts; a risk for groundwater resources?1998In: WATER - the key to socio-economic development andquality of life pp 183-185, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Metal mobility by de-icing salt from an infiltration trench for highway runoff2005In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 20, no 10, p. 1907-1919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil from an infiltration trench for highway runoff was leached in columns alternately with NaCl and de-ionised water to simulate the runoff of de-icing salt into the trench followed by snowmelt or rainwater. Simultaneously, two columns with the same soil were leached with de-ionised water throughout the experiment. In addition, the groundwater below the infiltration trench was sampled on some occasions. The column leachate and groundwater were split into two sub samples, one was filtered though a 0.45 mu m filter; both were analysed for Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe and total organic carbon (TOC). The column experiment showed clearly that an extensive mobilisation of Pb occurred in low electrolyte water leaching following NaCl leaching. The high Pb concentration coincided with peaks in Fe and TOC concentrations and implied colloid-assisted transport. Conversely, Cd and Zn concentrations were raised in the NaCl leachate and a high correlation with Cl showed that Cl complexes are important for the mobilisation, although a pH effect and ionic exchange cannot be excluded. Only 0.15% and 0.06% of the total amount of Pb was leached from the columns leached with alternating NaCl and deionised water confirming the usual hypotheses about the high immobility of Pb in soils. However, on one occasion when the ionic strength and pH was the lowest measured the concentration of Pb in groundwater sampled from 2.5 m depth was 27 mu g L-1 in the dissolved phase (< 0.45 mu m) and 77 mu g L-1 in the particle phase (> 0.45 mu m). These Pb concentrations are almost 3 and 8 times above the Swedish limit for drinking water quality. Accordingly, in spite of the immobility of Pb the accumulation in roadside soils is so large that groundwater quality is threatened. In conclusion, the study suggests that roadside soils impacted by NaCl from de-icing operations contribute Pb to groundwater by colloid-assisted transport.

  • 113.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    RETENTION AND CHEMISTRY OF ALUMINIUM INGROUNDWATER DISCHARGE AREAS1993In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 81, p. 269-275Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Water pathways and chemistry at the groundwater/surface waterinterface to Lake Skjervatjern, Norway1996In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 2221-2229Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 115. Nystrand, Miriam I.
    et al.
    Osterholm, Peter
    Nyberg, Maria E.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Metal speciation in rivers affected by enhanced soil erosion and acidity2012In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 906-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved (<1 kDa), colloidal (1 kDa-0.45 mu m) and particulate (>0.45 mu m) size fractions of 30 elements were determined for four rivers (Sirppujoki, Laajoki, Mynajoki and Paimionjoki), including 12 low-order inflow streams, largely affected by soil erosion and acidity in SW Finland. In addition, geochemical modelling was used to predict the formation of free ions and complexes in these rivers. Total metal concentrations were relatively high but most of the elements occurred mainly in a colloidal or particulate form and even elements expected to be very soluble occurred to a large extent in colloidal form. According to geochemical modelling these patterns could be explained by in-stream metal complexation/adsorption only to a limited extent. Instead there were strong indications that the high metal concentrations and dominant solid fractions were largely caused by erosion of metal bearing phyllosilicates. A strong influence of acid sulphate (AS) soils, known to exist in the catchment, could be clearly distinguished in Sirppujoki river as it had very high concentrations of dissolved metals, while in the two nearby rivers (Laajoki and Myna joki) the influence of AS soils was largely masked by eroded phyllosilicates. In Paimionjoki river the colloidal and particulate fractions dominated very strongly, indicating that total metal concentrations are almost solely controlled by erosion of phyllosilicates. Consequently, rivers draining clay plains sensitive to erosion, like those in SW Finland, have generally high "background'' metal concentrations due to erosion of relatively non-toxic colloidal/particulate phyllosilicates. Thus, relying on only semi-dissolved (<0.45 mu m) concentrations obtained in routine monitoring and/or speciation modelling can lead to a great overestimation of the water toxicity in this environment.

  • 116.
    Olofsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jernberg, H.
    Rosenqvist, A.
    Tracing leachates at waste sites using geophysical and geochemical modelling2006In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 720-732Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Olsson, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Kleja, D. Berggren
    Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bendz, D.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linköping.
    Persson, I.
    Department of Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Metal leaching from MSWI bottom ash as affected by salt or dissolved organic matter2009In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 506-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to manage municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash safely, risk assessments, including the prediction of leaching under different field conditions, are necessary. In this study, the influence of salt or dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the influent on metal leaching from MSWI bottom ash was investigated in a column experiment. The presence of salt (0.1 M NaCI) resulted in a small increase of As leaching, whereas no impact on leachate concentration was found when lakewater DOM (35.1 mg/I dissolved organic carbon) was added. Most of the added DOM was retained within the material. Further, X-ray spectroscopy revealed that Cu(II) was the dominating form of Cu and that it probably Occurred as a CuO-type mineral. The CU2+ activity in the MSWI bottom ash leachate was most likely determined by the dissolution of CuO together with the formation of Cu-DOM complexes and possibly also by adsorption to (hydr)oxide minerals. The addition of lake DOM in the influent resulted in lower saturation indices for CuO in the leachates. which may be due to slow CuO dissolution kinetics in combination with strong Cu-DOM complexation.

  • 118. Quintanilla, J.
    et al.
    Ramos Ramos, O.E.
    Ormachea, Muñoz Mauricio
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Garcia, M.E.
    Medina, H.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Arsenic contamination, speciation and environmental consequences in the Bolivian plateau2009In: Natural Arsenic in Groundwater of Latin America: Occurrence, health impact and remediation, The Netherlands: CRC Press/Balkema , 2009, p. 91-100Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Rahman, Md Moklesur
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Variability in Hydrogeochemical Characteristics in Regions with High Arsenic Groundwater at Matlab, Southeastern Bangladesh.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated levels of geogenic arsenic (As) in groundwater are regarded as the most formidable environmental crisis in the contemporary world and an estimated 30-70 million people in Bangladesh are at risk. Many of the provided options for mitigation have not been well accepted. In recent years, local drillers have been targeting As-low groundwater on the basis of the color of the sediments. A correlation between the color characteristics of the sediments and the groundwater redox conditions and thereby the risk for As mobilization has been established. It is possible to assess the relative possibility of occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater if the color characteristics of the sediments are known. One main objective of the present study is to validate if targeting As-safe groundwater is a sustainable mitigation strategy. This has been done through monitoring groundwater from tube-wells installed in sediments with different color, depth and redox characteristics. Samples were collected yearly from a set of 17 tube-wells for the period of 2004 to 2008 in Matlab, Bangladesh. The wells were grouped into oxidized and reduced/non-oxidized wells. All of these wells tap water within a depth of 85 m from the surface. Major cations and trace elements including As were analysed by high resolution ICP-OES; and anions were measured by ion chromatography. Groundwater chemistry of the water abstracted from different sediments revealed that no major change had occurred over the period of 5 years. In reduced wells, concentration of major cations and anions varied by <10% over time, and no significant variation was observed in redox sensitive elements, such as Fe, Mn and S. There were some minor variations in the As concentrations in the wells. In the oxidized wells, except well 58, major cations, anions and redox sensitive elements varied by <5%, while the As concentrations were found quite low and stable (<5.2 μg/L). Time series trends thus suggest that the change in groundwater chemistry is insignificant over the period of 5 years from 2004 to 2008. Low As concentrations in the tubewells installed in the oxidized brownish sediments thus validate the mitigation strategy corresponding to the conceptual understanding of the groundwater system in Matlab in southeastern Bangladesh.

  • 120. Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur
    et al.
    Naidu, R.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in the Southeast Asia region2009In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 31, p. 9-21Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adverse impact of groundwater contaminated with arsenic (As) on humans has been reported worldwide, particularly in Asian countries. In this study, we present an overview of the As crisis in the Southeast Asian region where groundwater is contaminated with naturally occurring As and where contamination has become more widespread in recent years. In this region more than 100 million people are estimated to be at risk from groundwater As contamination, and some 700,000 people are known so far to have been affected by As-related diseases. Despite investments exceeding many millions of dollars, there are still substantial knowledge gaps about the prevalence and impact of As, notably in its epidemiology, temporal variations, social factors, patient identification, treatment, etc. Arsenic-affected people in the affected regions also face serious social problems. Of major concern is the fact that many researchers from different countries have been conducting research in SE Asia region but with a lack of coordination, thus duplicating their work. There is an Urgent need to coordinate these various studies to ensure better delivery of research outcomes. Further research is needed to improve field testing and monitoring of drinking water sources, and to develop new treatments for chronic As toxicity and new sources of safe drinking water.

  • 121. Ramanathan, A.L.
    et al.
    Tripathi, P.
    Kumar, M.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Bundschuh, J.
    Arsenic distribution in the groundwater in Central Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh, India2009In: Arsenic distribution in the groundwater in Central Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh, India: Occurrence, health impact and remediation, The Netherlands: CRC Press/Balkema , 2009, p. 215-224Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Ramos, Oswaldo E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Quintanilla, J.
    Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Bolivia.
    Bioaccessibility of arsenic and other selective trace elements in soils around the mining areas of Bolivian Altiplano2013In: 12th International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements (ICOBTE), 2013, p. Abstract 0220 - 000167-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of trace elements (TEs) in the soils from sites of historic and present activities both open pit (extracted Au, Ag) and underground mines (Ag, Zn, Pb, Sn) mining in Bolivian Altiplano and their toxicity is one of the major environmental concerns. The aim of this study is to assess the levels of toxic trace elements such as As, Cd, Pb and Zn in the soil and their bioavailability in three sub-basins along selected transects. A combination of DTPA, and sequential extraction procedure was adapted for assessment the As content in different fraction in the soils. The results showed that TE´s were mobilized under low pH in upstream segment, thus could be considered an important factor controlling their chemical behavior in these soils. In the downstream segment of the three sub-basins, the TE enrichments were related to an increased proportion of clay contents through adsorption processes. The bioavailable fractions of the TE´s in soils indicated considerable variability for As (< 2%), Cd (<32%), Cu (<9%), Ni (<11%), Pb (<5%) and Zn (<10%). By using As sequential extraction procedure found that the less than 11% of the total As is easily mobilized in soils, they are associated to fraction related to nonspecifically (F1) and specifically sorbed (F2) fraction, which could predict a helpful tool for environmental risk assessment of these trace element contamination on Bolivian Altiplano. Enrichment factors (EF) in the soils were significantly high for As and Cd, moderate for Pb and Zn, and low for Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni contents of TE´s were high in all crops along the studied transects, and the distribution followed the trend Zn>Cu>Pb>As>Ni>Cd. The bio-concentration factor (BCF) for As, Pb and Zn were lower (< 0.5) in all crops which indicate a limited bioavailability of these TE´s, except Cd that showed high BCF values in the study area. The bioavailable TE’s might take up by the crops and finally threat human health as potential impacts.

  • 123.
    Renman, Gunno
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Avskiljning av ammoniakkväve och fosfatfosfor i reaktiva filtermaterial: Skak- och kolonnförsök2005Report (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Renman, Gunno
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Småskaliga lösningar för avloppsrening med mineralbaserade filtermaterial2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mineralbaserade filtermaterial har tidigare visats kunna avskilja fosfor från avloppsvatten, något som kan utnyttjas i hållbara småskaliga avloppssystem. Den verksamma mekanismen är främst utfällning som kalciumfosfater. Fosforn i använda material kan sedan återföras till brukad mark. Dock har de flesta tidigare studier studerat fosforavskiljning i laboratorieskala, med små belastningar och med fosfatsalter istället för avloppsvatten. Syftet med detta projekt var att studera fosforavskiljningsförmågan i fältförhållanden för fyra olika mineralbaserade filtermaterial; Filtra P (Nordkalk Oyj Abp), Polonite (Bioptech AB), hyttsand (SSAB Merox AB) samt wollastonit (Aros Mineral AB). Materialen placerades i kolonner inuti en container, vilken matades kontinuerligt med avloppsvatten vid en relativt hög belastning (1 m/dygn), som är en realistisk nivå då kompakta system används. Försöket lades upp som två delförsök där avloppsvattnets BOD-värde varierades. Resultaten visar att materialen Filtra P och Polonite ur ett rent kemiskt perspektiv klarar av fältförhållandena relativt väl eftersom de avskiljer fosfor effektivt trots ett högt BOD-värde och en hög belastning (> 80 % genomsnittlig avskiljning). Däremot uppvisade Filtra P stora problem med igensättning p.g.a. disintegration och kalcitutfällning, särskilt i försöket med högt BOD-värde, och dessa kolonner fick därför stängas av i förtid. Hyttsand och wollastonit var däremot ineffektiva som fosforavskiljande material under de rådande förhållandena (< 40 % genomsnittlig avskiljning). I samtliga fall visade resultaten att avskiljningen fungerade klart bättre då BOD-värdet är lågt. Projektet visar att det är stor skillnad mellan förhållanden i laboratorieskala och tuffa förhållanden i fält. Såväl BOD-värde som hydraulisk belastning tycks vara viktiga faktorer som påverkar effektivitet och livslängd för filtermaterialen. För att ha en bra fosforavskiljning kan det vara viktigt att ställa krav på en effektiv förbehandling av avloppsvattnet i slamavskiljare och mark/biobädd. Detta bör beaktas i den vidare utvecklingen av material för småskalig avloppsrening.

  • 125.
    Renman, Gunno
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hubbinette, Ingvar
    Reningsanläggning med buffertkammare, reningsbädd samt flödesbegränsande anordningar2004Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Reningsanläggning (10) för rening av slamavskiljt avloppsvatten, innefattande en buffertkammare (16) med en styrbar första flödesbegränsande anordning (17), en flödesstyrenhet (29), en renare (12) med en sluten reningsbädd (14) och ett utlopp (19) för renat vatten. Den flödesbegränsande anordningen (17) är anordnad att sty­ra flödet av avloppsvatten från buffertkammaren (16) till renaren (12). För att möjliggöra styrning av kontakttiden mellan avloppsvattnet och reningsbädden (14) in­nefattar reningsanläggningen (10) vidare en andra flödesbegränsande anordning (31) vid reningsbäddens (14) utlopp (19).

  • 126.
    Renman, Gunno
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Johansson, Per-Olof
    Bergkross som filtermaterial vid vattenbehandling2005Report (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Renman, Gunno
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Mkumbo, Stalin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Mwegoha, William
    ARDHI University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Active removal of lead and zinc from polluted soil by in situ sorption to mineral nodulesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy metal pollution of soils is a worldwide problem. This study evaluated the capacity of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) and zeolite to adsorb zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in an artificially polluted soil. Rectangular shaped nodules of AAC and zeolite of 2 cm width, 4 cm length and 2.5 cm height were buried in plastic boxes of soil for 5 months and the soil was irrigated with distilled water every 3 days. The results showed that both AAC and zeolite had good potential for removal of heavy metals from polluted soils, although AAC showed a higher adsorption capacity for Zn than did zeolite. A large proportion of the metals was firmly bound to the soil particles and was not readily released on irrigation with water in the experimental set-up. Compared with the total metal concentration analysed, the available component accounted for 13-39% for Zn and 31-39% for Pb. This might be the reason why the adsorbent materials could only accumulate a fraction of the total metal concentrations.

  • 128.
    Renman, Gunno
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sustainable use of crushed autoclaved aerated concrete (CAAC) as a filter medium in wastewater purification2012In: 8th International conference on sustainable management of waste and recycled materials in construction, Gothenburg, Sweden, 30 May – 1 June, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] M. Arm, C.Vandecasteele, J.Heynen, P. Suer & B. Lind, ISCOWA and SGI , 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scrap material from the production of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) should be considered a valuable by-product and not a waste, as should residues from the demolition of houses built with AAC. This paper presents an innovative use of AAC that can contribute to environmental improvement. We tested crushed AAC (CAAC, 2-4 mm) for its phosphorus (P) removal efficiency by filtering a solution containing phosphate phosphorus (PO4-P) or pure wastewater in batch, bench-scale and field pilot-scale experiments. Slow phosphate removal kinetics of CAAC were demonstrated, but the removal efficiency was very high (93-99%). Mineralogical analyses (by ICP-OES) of the solid CAAC after contact with flowing wastewater yielded concentrations of 39.6 g P kg-1. Application of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) for mineral phase identification confirmed that the dominant mineral in AAC was tobermorite (Ca5Si6O16(OH)2 · 4H2O). Dissolution of this crystalline structure was followed by formation of calcium phosphates and the porous, tobermorite-rich material produced proved excellent in removal of P and organic matter from domestic wastewater. Only crushing and sieving to achieve a suitable particle size distribution is needed prior to application in different technical solutions.

  • 129.
    Renman, Gunno
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Thilander, Hans-Olof
    Method and device for purification of wastewater2006Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention relates to purification of wastewater such that the content of sludge constituting sub millimetre particles can be reduced in the purified water. A method and an arrangement is provided comprising passing the wastewater through filtering means for filtering suspended material, whereby filtered water is obtained, passing the filtered water through a separating means adapted for separating oxygen consuming matter from the filtered water, whereby separated water is obtained, passing the separated water through a sorption unit for reducing the water phosphorous content, whereby phosphorous reduced water is obtained, characterized in that the method further comprises at least substantially separating sludge constituting sub millimetre particles from the filtered water prior to the step of separating the oxygen consuming matter from the filtered water, by passing the filtered water to straining means, thereby substantially reducing the sludge content of the obtained phosphorous reduced water.

  • 130. Robinson, Clare
    et al.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Häller, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bivén, Annelle
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Dynamics of arsenic adsorption in the targeted arsenic-safe aquifers in Mat lab, south-eastern Bangladesh: Insight from experimental studies2011In: Journal of Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 624-635Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 131. Ronnback, Pernilla
    et al.
    Astrom, Mats
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Comparison of the behaviour of rare earth elements in surface waters, overburden groundwaters and bedrock groundwaters in two granitoidic settings, Eastern Sweden2008In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 1862-1880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work, which was done within the Swedish nuclear waste management program, was carried out in order to increase the understanding of the mobility and fate of rare earth elements (REEs) in natural boreal waters in granitoidic terrain. Two areas were studied, Forsmark and Simpevarp, one of which will be selected as a site for spent nuclear fuel. The highest REE concentrations were found in the overburden groundwaters, in Simpevarp in particular (median Sigma REE 52 mu g/L), but also in Forsmark (median Sigma REE 6.7 mu g/L). The fractionation patterns in these waters were characterised by light REE (LREE) enrichment and negative Cc and Eu anomalies. In contrast, the surface waters had relatively low REE concentrations. They were characterised either by an increase in relative concentrations throughout the lanthanide series (Forsmark which has a carbonate-rich till) or flat patterns (Simpevarp with carbonate-poor till), and had negative Cc and Eu anomalies. In the bedrock groundwaters, the concentrations and fractionation patterns of REEs were entirely different from those in the overburden groundwaters. The median La concentrations were low (just above 0.1 mu g/L in both areas), only in a few samples were the concentrations of several REEs (and in a couple of rare cases all REEs) above the detection limit, and there was an increase in the relative concentrations throughout the lanthanide series. In contrast to these large spatial variations, the temporal trends were characterised by small (or non existent) variations in REE-fractionation patterns but rather large variations in concentrations. The Visual MINTEQ speciation calculations predicted that all REEs in all waters were closely associated with dissolved organic matter, and not with carbonate. In the hydrochemical data for the overburden groundwater in particular, there was however a strong indication of association with inorganic colloids, which were not included in the speciation model. Overall the results showed that within a typical boreal granitoidic setting, overburden groundwaters are enriched in REEs, organic complexes are much more important than carbonate complexes, there is little evidence of significant mixing of REEs between different water types (surface, overburden, bedrock) and spatial variations are more extensive than temporal ones.

  • 132. Routh, J.
    et al.
    Saraswathy, A.
    Bhattacharya, A.
    Nag, S.K.
    Ray, S.P.S.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Arsenic reduction by bacteria in shallow aquifers from Ambikanagar in West Bengal, India2006In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 68, no 11, p. A515-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 133. Routh, Joyanto
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Aparajita
    Saraswathy, Ambujom
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Arsenic remobilization from sediments contaminated with mine tailings near the Adak mine in Vasterbotten district (northern Sweden)2007In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weathering of mine tailings have resulted in high As concentrations in water (up to 2900 mu g 1(-1)) and sediment (up to 900 mg kg(-1)) samples around the Adak mine. Notably, As occurs as As(III) species (15-85%) in the oxic surface and ground water samples, which is not common. Time-series based sediment incubations were set up in the laboratory with contaminated sediments to study the microbial processes involved in transformation and remobilization of As across the sediment-water interface. The microcosm experiments indicate that microorganisms are capable of surviving in As-rich sediments and reduce As(V) to As(III). A decrease in total As concentration in sediments is coupled to an increase in As(Ill) concentration in the aqueous media. In contrast, the controls (treated with HgCl, and formaldehyde) did not show growth, and As(V) concentrations increased steadily in the sediments and aqueous medium. The results imply that active metabolism is necessary for As(V) reduction. These microorganisms possess reduction mechanisms that are not necessarily coupled to respiration, but most likely impart resistance to As toxicity.

  • 134.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholms Universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Arsenic in irrigation water: a threat for rice cultivation?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequent cultivation of high yielding rice varieties (HYV) for increased food production are the key reasons for massive application of groundwater based irrigation in the rice fields of Bangladesh. Including the Asian continent, more than half of the world’s population chooses rice as their staple food and it is already considered as one of the major sources of inorganic arsenic (As) intake in the human body through food stuffs. The water logged rice cultivation method also has influence on As accumulation in rice grain. The study area Matlab located in southeastern Bangladesh, which is identified as a prominent As hotspot with incidences of high level of As in the groundwater. The objective of this study was to find out the influence of irrigation water quality and soil on the level of As in rice grain and more specifically identify the influence of iron (Fe), silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) in the soil on the As uptake in the rice grain. A number of previous laboratory based studies has found, all three elements exert significant control on the biogeochemical interactions of As in soils and uptake in the plants.

    The aim of this study was to compare the level of As in rice grain and bran of different HYVs and local rice varieties, grown in this region and to compare the results with the levels of Fe, Si and P in the irrigated soils. The ICP-OES based analysis showed that the total As concentration (5.74-16.78 mg Askg

    -1) in the soil samples from the rice fields of the area (n=9) has exceeded the average global As concentration in the crust and soils. The concentration of Fe and Si in the soil was positively correlated with total As in the soil. The As analogue, P was positively correlated with As (R2=0.52) in the soil samples. The arsenic concentration in the irrigation water of that particular area was (> 200 μg As l -1) The AAS based analysis found that the total arsenic concentration ranged (0.017- 0.23 mg As kg-1) in the grain whereas [Asbran] was higher compared with the grains. High level of Fe present in the soil could play a significant role on the bioavailability of As due to its sorption onto the surface of the Fe-oxide colloids and roots of the rice plants. To address the As bioavailability in the rice grain, the level of As influencing elements in both grain and bran should be focused in further investigation.

  • 135. Shah, M.
    et al.
    Sircar, A.
    Varsada, R.
    Vaishnani, S.
    Savaliya, U.
    Faldu, M.
    Vaidya, D.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Assessment of geothermal water quality for industrial and irrigation purposes in the Unai geothermal field, Gujarat, India2019In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 8, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, a spotlight on the direct manipulation of water from the geothermal fields is laid for manifold applications. This manuscript discusses the utilization of water produced from geothermal wells for irrigation and industrial purposes. In order to identify the suitability of the water for the above mentioned uses, various hydrochemical parameters were evaluated. Samples were collected from three geothermal well sites from Unai village, a prominent geothermal field situated in Navsari district, Gujarat, India. The hydrochemistry of the samples collected from hot spring (depth 30–45 m) was studied and samples were examined by calculating different parameters. The complete study was done individually for both industrial and irrigational uses of geothermal water. The mean surface temperature of the water is 55 °C and average pH of the sample studied is 8.12. The key Water Quality Indices (WQI) such as Langelier Saturation Index (LSI), Ryznar Stability Index (RSI), Puckorius Scaling Index (PSI) and Larson-Skold Index (LS) were examined for industrial utilization and the key indices like Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Sodium Percentage (SP), Kelly Ratio (KR) Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and Permeability Index (PI) were examined for irrigational utilization of geothermal water. LSI and RSI values show that carbonate and bicarbonate concentration is in the desirable range, however, LS (15.09, 13.54) is very high which indicates higher Cl- content. High value of indices such as SAR, KR, and SP points out the increased concentration of Na+ in the water sample. The results of this study would help the end users to identify the necessary water-treatments before utilizing the water for industrial and irrigation purposes in the study area.

  • 136.
    Shammas, Mahaad I.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Management of the Salalah Plain aquifer, Oman2008In: Groundwater for Sustainable Developement: Problems, Perspectives and Challanges / [ed] Bhattacharya, P, Ramanathan, A.L, Mukherjee, A.B, Bundschuh, J, Chandrasekharam, D, Keshari, A.K, Taylor & Francis, 2008, , p. 409-421p. 409-421Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 137.
    Shams, S
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Langaas, S.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, G.
    Ahmed, KM.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Chen, D.
    Granlund, A.
    Mapping and interpretation of field data for evaluation and mitigation of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh2006In: Journal of Hydroinformatics, ISSN 1464-7141, E-ISSN 1465-1734, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problems of arsenic contamination have been reported from a large number of aquifers in various parts of the world. Especially in Bangladesh, the presence of arsenic in groundwater has been the major environmental health catastrophe that has affected the source of safe water not only for drinking but also for irrigation purposes. The unavailability and inaccessibility of data and dissemination of proper and rapid information has further reduced the accessibility to safe drinking water for nearly 95% of the population of the country. The development of solutions for the arsenic problem and the allocation of resources for mitigation are information-oriented activities. This paper focuses on the mapping and interpretation of field data (based on a case study area) through the application of GIS for presenting and assessing the scope of the arsenic problem in Bangladesh. The mapping and interpretation is done taking into consideration the geophysical characteristics, socio-economic conditions and socio-cultural behavior of the people living in the study area. The mapping and interpretation technique is aimed at assisting lanners and policy makers at the district level to make an assessment about the extent and magnitude of the arsenic problem based on an estimation of the exposed population and the extent and severity of groundwater contamination. In addition, it will enable decision-makers to select possible options and give recommendations based on users’ responses. The advantages of this interpretation technique are that the knowledge base is easy to build and any updated information or modifications can be quickly incorporated into the knowledge base.

  • 138. Shams, S.
    et al.
    Langaas, Sindre
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    A prototype spatial expert system for evaluation and mitigation of groundwater contamination: The case of arsenic in Bangladesh2005In: Environmental Hydraulics and Sustainable Water Management / [ed] Lee, J.H.W. Lam, K.M., London: A.A. Balkema, Taylor Francis Group , 2005, p. 789-794Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Singh, Nandita
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water Management.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Gustafsson, Jan Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water Management.
    Gender and water management: Some policy reflections2006In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 183-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of gender concern in water sector is paramount, being seen as the harbinger of greater efficiency and effectiveness as well as equity. Consequently, there has been a continuing trend of designing water management policies with emphasis ranging from promoting participation of women in management of water projects in particular to supporting “gender-balanced” development of the water sector in general. How effective have these policies been in addressing such basic concerns? What are the local water users’ perceptions about effectiveness of the policies in addressing their realistic gendered needs and priorities? While “women” have received much attention, how well does the gender concern in the policies integrate “men”? Do “effectiveness” and “equity” as underlying policy goals reflect the water users’ perceptions as well? The paper attempts to evaluate the existing policies within the context of local communities where these are operational and proposes “facilitation of gender role performance” as a suitable policy alternative.

  • 140.
    Singh, Nandita
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water Management.
    Jacks, G.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Women and community water supply programmes: An analysis from a socio-cultural perspective2005In: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 213-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Community water supply programmes are seen as instrumental in achieving the goal of 'safe' water for all. Women, a principal target group of these programmes, are to be benefited with greater convenience, enhanced socio-cultural opportunities and better health for themselves and their families, provided through improved water facilities. Water supply programmes largely consist of three essential components, namely: technology, people and institutions. Although such programmes are intended to benefit women members of local communities, scant attention is paid to the impacts of the socio-cultural context of the community on these programmes. This article explores the influence of social and cultural intricacies on the implementation of community water supply programmes, and assesses their effectiveness. The article offers important lessons for the design and implementation of this type of programme. It concludes that the local sociocultural context sets the stage for programme implementation, being a dynamic factor that determines actual access to water sources, more so than mere physical availability, which is often used as a criterion for programme performance. The article stresses the urgent need to integrate socio-cultural factors as a fourth dimension in designing community water supply programmes, and suggests practical measures for enhancing the effectiveness of such programmes.

  • 141.
    Singh, Nandita
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Management.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Arsenic-safe water for local communities in West Bengal, India: A technological issue or a management challenge?2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the arsenic menace has come to threaten the lives of several millions in a number of states in India. Of these, the earliest to be reported and perhaps the worst to be affected are the populace living in the state of West Bengal. Until the middle of the 90s, the concern was with developing appropriate ‘hardware’ that can supply arsenic-safe water to the affected communities. By the second half of the 90s, a number of technological options were developed, promising to supply water containing arsenic well below the permissible limit set by the WHO. These various technologies can be conveniently clubbed under the rubric ‘arsenic removal plants’ (ARPs). Other alternatives lately promoted as safe water sources include deep tubewells, treated surface water supply through pipelines and rainwater harvesting. While each of these alternatives has its own strengths and weaknesses within the technological framework, this presentation argues that a common challenge facing them and the users is their management. While the government had commissioned evaluative studies of the ARP technologies quite early, an understanding of the management issues underlying their sustainability and adoption is yet to be developed.

    Based on detailed first hand observations made in a sample of 45 villages in the state, the presentation outlines the major ‘software’ issues confronting the adoption, access, maintenance and sustainability of the different technology options introduced in the local communities of West Bengal for supplying arsenic-safe water. It argued that neglect of the software dimension of the problem has resulted in inadequate attention to interventions that should have otherwise constituted critical components in the arsenic mitigation programmes designed and executed by different agencies in the state – namely, government, non-governmental organizations and international development agencies. The core of the software dimension is identified as lying in the notion of real and effective ‘community participation’.

  • 142.
    Singh, Nandita
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Management.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ensuring arsenic-safe water supply in local communities: Emergent concerns in West Bengal, India2008In: Groundwater for sustainable Development: Problems, Perspectives and Challenges / [ed] Bhattacharya, P. et al., London: Taylor & Francis , 2008, p. 357-364Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 143.
    Singh, Nandita
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Management.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Managing arsenic-safe water supply options in West Bengal, India: Problems and prospects from gender perspective2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While about a decade ago, developing appropriate hardware for mitigating the arsenic menace in West Bengal was the prime concern, today, safe water supply options almost abound in the affected local communities. The government has drafted a detailed program for mitigating the problem and international development agencies are actively supporting the various available options. However, the plight of the people does not seem to have been contained.

    It needs to be increasingly realized that management of the available safe water supply technologies is the critical issue that will determine effectiveness as well as sustainability of the alternatives in the long run. So far, either centrality of the issue has been evaded or else the government has taken over the burden in relation to its own interventions. The community has been largely kept at bay or else involved in a piecemeal approach, without realizing that linkages between technology and society can be complex and intricate and that without effective participation of the users in planning and implementation, mere installation of technologies in the community cannot deliver the goods. The complexity of the linkages is furthered by the gender-based differences between women and men as water users. It is also aggravated by the level and nature of the technology, the major categories being community-level arsenic removal plants, deep tubewells, and treated surface water pipelines on the one hand and domestic water filters on the other. Community level rainwater harvesting is being developed as an additional alternative.

    Based on an ethnographic study conducted in the state, this presentation aims at identifying the problems concerning management of the various kinds of safe water supply technologies introduced in the affected villages in West Bengal. The problems are first analyzed from gender perspective and then suggestions made for an appropriate gender-based approach to ensure effective community participation in the process of managing these alternatives. The recommendations aim at developing a model, which can help promote effectiveness and sustainability of technological options available for arsenic mitigation in local communities.

  • 144.
    Singh, Nandita
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Water Management.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Women and community water supply programs: An analysis from socio-cultural perspective2005In: Water resouces Journal ST/ESCAP/SER.C, no 217, p. 31-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Sjöstedt, Carin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Iron and aluminium speciation in Swedish freshwaters: Implications for geochemical modelling2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Speciation governs transport and toxicity of trace metals and is important to monitor in natural waters. Geochemical models that predict speciation are valuable tools for monitoring. They can be used for risk assessments and future scenarios such as termination of liming. However, there are often large uncertainties concerning the speciation of iron and aluminium in the models, due to the complicated chemistry of these metals. Both are important in governing the speciation of other metals, due to (i) their capacity to form minerals onto which metals can adsorb and (ii) their ability to compete for binding sites to natural organic matter (NOM). Aluminium is also potentially toxic and is therefore closely monitored in acidified freshwaters. In this study different phases of iron in Swedish lakes were characterised. This required a good method for preconcentrating the iron colloids. A new method was developed in this thesis that uses an anion-exchange column to isolate the iron colloids prior to characterisation with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Iron was present as ferrihydrite in particles but was also strongly monomerically complexed to NOM in two Swedish lakes. Based on the results an internally consistent process-based geochemical equilibrium model was presented for Swedish freshwaters. The model was validated for pH (= 9 400) and inorganic monomeric aluminium (Ali) (n = 3 400). The model could simulate pH and Ali simultaneously, and be used for scenario modelling. In this thesis, modelling scenarios for decreases and complete termination of liming are presented for the 3 000 limed Swedish lakes. The results suggest that liming can be terminated in 30 % of the Swedish lakes and decreased in many other lakes.

  • 146.
    Sjöstedt, Carin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Andrén, Cecilia
    Stockholms Universitet, ITM.
    Målsjöinventeringen 07/08 - modellering av Ali och pH vid förändrad kalkning2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med denna studie är att undersöka vad som händer vid en förändrad kalkning i sjöar, för att se om det går att minska på kalkdosen utan att det innebär en risk för låga pH och höga Ali-halter (monomert oorganiskt aluminium). De viktiga parametrarna pH och Ali har simulerats med en geokemisk jämviktsmodell, dels vid nuvarande uppmätta förhållanden i Målsjöinventeringen 07/08 (ca 3000 sjöar) och dels vid olika scenarier där kalcium- och magnesiumhalterna har minskat. Kalcium- och magnesiumkoncentrationerna har minskats ner till framräknade halter som är en uppskattning av vad de skulle vara i sjöarna utan tillsatt kalk, baserat på kvoten Ca*/Mg* i närliggande okalkade sjöar. För den ursprungliga situationen vid uppmätta förhållanden så hade mindre än 1% av de kalkade sjöarna över 30 μg L-1beräknad halt Ali och uppmätt pH låg på i medeltal 6,8. När istället icke-kalkpåverkade kalcium- och magnesiumkoncentrationer matades in i modellen, blev resultatet att pH minskade till i medeltal 5,7 och Ali ökade till i medeltal 31 μg L-1. Ca 40% av sjöarna fick pH-värden under 5,6 och ca 35% fick Ali-värden över 30 μg L-1. De faktorer som mest styrde vilka sjöar som fick lägst pH var dels hur mycket Ca och Mg-koncentrationerna minskade i förhållande till syraneutraliserande förmåga (ANC) (dvs mängden katjoner till starka baser minus anjoner till starka syror) och dels en geografisk skillnad. Om Ca- och Mg-koncentrationerna minskade med mer än 50% av ANC så minskade pH med mer än 0,4 pH-enheter. Det är alltså en riskfaktor som bör studeras innan avslutad eller minskad kalkning. De län som var mest drabbade av både surt pH och höga Ali-halter var Skånes, Hallands, Västra Götalands, Kronobergs och Örebros län. Där bör följaktligen kalkningen absolut fortsätta. Några län minskade dock väldigt lite i pH och ökade lite i Ali, speciellt Gävleborg och Jämtlands län. I dessa län bör man kunna överväga att minska ner på kalkningen.

    Om istället kalcium- och magnesiumkoncentrationerna bara minskades motsvarande en halverad kalkning skedde en mycket mindre förändring av pH och Ali. Antalet sjöar med pH under 5,6 blev nu istället 2,5% och 3% hade Ali över 30 μg L-1. Det skulle kunna betyda att för de flesta sjöarna så skulle det gå att minska på kalkningen utan några dramatiska följder. Av sjöarna i denna studie så var de län som var mest drabbade Kronobergs, Örebros och Västra Götalands län, som därmed inte bör minska ner på kalkningen.

  • 147.
    Sjöstedt, Carin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Andrén, Cecilia
    Stockholms Universitet, ITM.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Modelling of pH and inorganic aluminium after termination of liming in 3 000 Swedish lakesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant resources are spent on counteracting the effects of acidification, mainly by liming. Due to a lower sulphur and nitrogen deposition in Europe and North America, authorities are reducing liming, changing directives and strategies for remediation. However, as the acid-base buffer capacity differs in different water bodies, the desirable reduction of the lime dose is variable. In this study, a geochemical model is used to predict pH and inorganic monomeric aluminium (Ali) when liming reduced and finally terminated in the 3 000 Swedish lakes that have been subject to liming. The model used estimations of Ca and Mg concentrations not affected by liming based upon the Ca/Mg ratio in nearby unlimed reference lakes. For modelling of pH and inorganic aluminium we used the geochemical model program Visual MINTEQ including the Stockholm Humic Model recently calibrated for Swedish fresh water. The predictions were confirmed by results from six monitored lakes, in which liming had been terminated. The use of geochemical modelling proved to be a promising tool for the calculation of accurate lime requirements in acid waters. For simulations in which liming was completely terminated, the pH value decreased with, on average, 0.9 pH units to pH 5.9, whereas Ali increased with 18 μg L-1 to 31 μg L-1. If liming was reduced by half, the pH would drop only 0.3 pH units and Aliwould increase with 2 μg L-1. Lakes in the south-western part of Sweden were predicted to reach a lower pH and higher Ali, as could be expected due to their larger historical S deposition. The results indicate that liming can be terminated in certain areas and be reduced without large pH reductions in the fresh water.

  • 148.
    Sjöstedt, Carin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Borg, Hans
    Stockholms Universitet, ITM.
    Berggren Kleja, Dan
    SGI.
    Köhler, Stephan J
    SLU, Vatten och Miljö.
    Lead and Copper Speciation in Swedish Lakes and Rivers: Iron and Organic Matter as Potential Particulate/Colloidal Carriers2011In: 11th International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace elements / [ed] Kirk Scheckel, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to monitor the speciation of the potentially toxic metals lead and copper in surface waters. The speciation can be influenced by factors such as adsorption to iron (hydr)oxides and complexation to organic matter. The aim of this study is to explore the speciation of lead and copper in soft-water lakes and rivers in boreal forests, and investigate what kind of potential factors govern the speciation. Methods included 0.45 µm in-line pre-filtration, 1 kDa tangential flow ultrafiltration and geochemical modelling using the Visual MINTEQ program in two boreal lakes, compared with measured and modelled values of 0.45 syringe pre-filtered metals concentrations performed in Swedish lakes and rivers in a larger dataset. Preliminary results indicate that particulate iron can adsorb Pb. On the contrary, Cu in particulate form did not usually appear together with iron particles. Instead, copper was present more in the smaller size fractions and was possibly associated with organic matter.

  • 149.
    Sjöstedt, Carin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hassellöv, Martin
    Göteborgs Universitet, Institutionen för Kemi.
    Persson, Ingmar
    SLU.
    Iron and aluminium phases in softwater lakes: identity and significance for copper binding2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminium and iron have been found to compete with copper for binding sites to dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil systems and when using geochemical modelling. However, the knowledge of the phases of Al, Fe and DOM in natural waters is uncertain. The aim of this ongoing work is to advance the knowledge on the geochemistry of iron and aluminium so that the speciation of copper in lake water can be more accurately assessed. Water samples from three softwater lakes in Tyresta (Stockholm) (Fig. 1),Sweden, are filtered using 0.45 µm and using 1 kDa cross-flow ultrafiltration. The particles on the filters and the colloidal phases of iron are investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Aluminium phases are investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Field-flow fractionation (FFF) is used to study the colloidal composition of iron, aluminium and DOM. The competition of Al and Fe with Cu on binding to DOM is explored with Cu titrations using an ion selective electrode. The results will be used to improve geochemical modelling.

     

    Preliminary results from EXAFS spectroscopy for an acid lake rich in DOM (Lake Trehörningen; pH 4.8, DOC = 22 mg/l) indicate that Fe is not present as a mineral in the colloids, instead it is bound as monomeric Fe(III) complexes to organic matter, which means that it probably competes with Cu for binding sites on DOM. Additional results will be presented at the conference.

  • 150.
    Sjöstedt, Carin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Köhler, Stephan J
    SLU, Institutionen för vatten och miljö.
    A consistent equilibrium model for pH, and aluminum and iron speciation in Swedish lakes and streams2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Consistent models that account for true geochemical conditions are needed in order to be able to model e.g. aluminum speciation as a result of acid rain, and metal speciation at contaminated sites. However, most geochemical models that exist today are calibrated either to a certain element or a certain site. We present a consistent chemical equilibrium model for pH and speciation of aluminum and iron, which was validated on a large number of lakes and rivers from various environments all over Sweden (n=3400). The model was based on the Visual Minteq program version 2.61, and used the Stockholm Humic Model for organic complexation. The only parameters that were calibrated were the Fe(III) binding constants to DOM and the fraction of active dissolved organic matter. These were later kept constant throughout the study to test the generality of the model. Results gave an error in pH prediction of less than 0.2 pH units in average, and inorganic monomeric aluminum of less than 1.5 µmol L-1. Particulates of Al and Fe(III) were also reasonably well modeled as hydroxides at pH-values above 5.5 when compared to a dataset of 0.45 µm filtered water. The model can be used for prediction of Al toxicity for fish, but also be used to simulate changes in Al speciation due to changes in dissolved organic carbon concentrations and sulfate concentrations in surface waters.

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