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  • 101. Lee, Jookyeong
    et al.
    Choi, Eun Jung
    Varga, Imre
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Yun, Sang-Ho
    Song, Changsik
    Terpyridine-functionalized stimuli-responsive microgels and their assembly through metal-ligand interactions2018In: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 1032-1039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed a terpyridine-functionalized microgel (tpy-mG) for its supramolecular assembly. Tpy-mG was synthesized by amidation between 3-(4-([2,2':6',2 ''-terpyridin]-4'-yl)phenoxy) propan-1-amine and carboxylates of a thermo-responsive p(NIPAM-co-MAA) microgel (A-mG), which was synthesized by emulsion polymerization. After decorating terpyridine, its effects on the hydrodynamic radius, volume phase transition temperature (VPTT), and the colloidal stability of the microgel were investigated. Tpy-mG can be assembled reversibly with several metal ions (Ni2+, Fe2+, Co2+, or Zn2+), and interestingly the assembled tpy-mG-M2+ showed different rheological properties depending on the metal ion type; the weakly bound ions (Co2+, Zn2+) indicated fast dynamics for "inter-particular" exchange, resulting in much higher storage (G') and loss (G '') moduli. Photocatalysts such as Ru dyes can be easily introduced into tpy-mG via metal-ligand interactions, and the photooxidation of benzylamine was tested. The free Ru dye showed almost the same conversions at 25 and 50 degrees C, whereas the assembled Ru-tpy-mG-Mg2+ displayed reduced conversion at 50 degrees C (>VPTT). This is suggested to be due to the collapsed or "locked" structure around the photocatalytic center (Ru). Tpy-mG can be utilized as a good platform for developing responsive functional materials via reversible metal-ligand complexation.

  • 102.
    Leygraf, Christopher
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Chang, Tingru
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    The origin and evolution of copper patina colour2019In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 157, p. 337-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The copper patina colour has been systematically explored through a large set of short- and long-term exposed copper metal samples. The initial brown-black appearance is attributed to semiconducting properties of cuprite (Cu2O) and fully attained at thickness 0.8 +/- 0.2 mu m. The characteristic green-blue appearance is due to the colour forming Cu(II)-ion in the outer patina layer which needs to be 12 +/- 2 mu m to fully cover the inner cuprite layer. No significant influence of atmospheric environment on patina colour is discerned. The green-blue patina colour on historic copper was attained after shorter exposures than in modem copper due to more inhomogeneous microstructure.

  • 103.
    Li, Gen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Dobryden, Illia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Salazar-Sandoval, Eric Johansson
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat, Box 5607, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat, Box 5607, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Load-dependent surface nanomechanical properties of poly-HEMA hydrogels in aqueous medium2019In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 15, no 38, p. 7704-7714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of hydrogels are of importance in many applications, including scaffolds and drug delivery vehicles where the release of drugs is controlled by water transport. While the macroscopic mechanical properties of hydrogels have been reported frequently, there are less studies devoted to the equally important nanomechanical response to local load and shear. Scanning probe methods offer the possibility to gain insight on surface nanomechanical properties with high spatial resolution, and thereby provide fundamental insights on local material property variations. In this work, we investigate the local response to load and shear of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels with two different cross-linking densities submerged in aqueous solution. The response of the hydrogels to purely normal loads, as well as the combined action of load and shear, was found to be complex due to viscoelastic effects. Our results show that the surface stiffness of the hydrogel samples increased with increasing load, while the tip-hydrogel adhesion was strongly affected by the load only when the cross-linking density was low. The combined action of load and shear results in the formation of a temporary sub-micrometer hill in front of the laterally moving tip. As the tip pushes against such hills, a pronounced stick-slip effect is observed for the hydrogel with low cross-linking density. No plastic deformation or permanent wear scar was found under our experimental conditions.

  • 104.
    Li, Hua
    et al.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Mol Sci, 35 Stirling Highway, Perth, WA 6009, Australia.;Univ Western Australia, Ctr Microscopy Characterisat & Anal, Perth, WA 6009, Australia..
    Choi, Yu Suk
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Human Sci, 35 Stirling Highway, Perth, WA 6009, Australia..
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Rise.
    Atkin, Rob
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Mol Sci, 35 Stirling Highway, Perth, WA 6009, Australia..
    Nanotribology of hydrogels with similar stiffness but different polymer and crosslinker concentrations2020In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 563, p. 347-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypothesis: The stiffness has been found to regulate hydrogel performances and applications. However, the key interfacial properties of hydrogels, like friction and adhesion are not controlled by the stiffness, but are altered by the structure and composition of hydrogels, like polymer volume fraction and crosslinking degree. Experiments: Colloidal probe atomic force microscopy has been use to investigate the relationship between tribological properties (friction and adhesion) and composition of hydrogels with similar stiffness, but different polymer volume fractions and crosslinking degrees. Findings: The interfacial normal and lateral (friction) forces of hydrogels are not directly correlated to the stiffness, but altered by the hydrogel structure and composition. For normal force measurements, the adhesion increases with polymer volume fraction but decreases with crosslinking degree. For lateral force measurements, friction increases with polymer volume fraction, but decreases with crosslinking degree. In the low normal force regime, friction is mainly adhesion-controlled and increases significantly with the adhesion and polymer volume fraction. In the high normal force regime, friction is predominantly load-controlled and shows slow increase with normal force. 

  • 105. Li, Hua
    et al.
    Cooper, Peter
    Somers, A
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Howlett, Patrick
    Atkin, Rob
    Titania lubrication using oil-ionic liquid mixtures2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Li, Jing
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE KIMAB AB, RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Mat & Prod, S-16440 Kista, Sweden..
    Ecco, Luiz
    Univ Trento, Dept Ind Engn, I-38123 Trento, Italy..
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat Surface Proc & Formulat, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Probing electrochemical mechanism of polyaniline and CeO2 nanoparticles in alkyd coating with in-situ electrochemical-AFM and IRAS2019In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 132, p. 399-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion protection and electrochemical mechanism of solvent-borne alkyd composite coating containing 1.0 wt.% polyaniline (PANI) and 1.0 wt.% CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) for carbon steel in 3.0 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ex-situ, in-situ and electrochemical controlled (EC) atomic force microscopy (AFM), open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The SEM and ex-situ AFM results revealed the micro- and nanostructure of the composite coating. The in-situ sequential AFM images and line profiling analysis indicated electrochemical activity of the NPs and a high stability of the composite coating in NaCl solution. The results of EC-AFM combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV) demonstrated volume change of the PANI NPs upon reduction and oxidation at certain applied potentials on the coating. The redox reactions between the different forms of PANI and the effect of the CeO2 NPs on the polymerization of the composite polymer were further confirmed by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). The OCP and EIS results revealed that the composite coating provided an improved corrosion protection for carbon steel within several days of exposure, which was attributed to the barrier protection of CeO2 NPs and the passivation ability of PANI.

  • 107.
    Liu, Min
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    DFT calculations of initial localized corrosion of aluminum: Influence of aqueous ad-layer, chloride ions, and intermetallic particles2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Localized corrosion of aluminum (Al, here including Al alloys) involves a series of physico-chemical processes at the interface between the metal and the aqueous ad-layer or the aqueous solution. The mechanisms that govern localized corrosion are quite complex and have been the subject of many experimental studies. Efforts to improve our understanding through computational studies have so far been much more limited. The primary aim of this Doctoral Thesis was to apply Density Functional Theory (DFT), together with some Molecular Dynamics calculations (limited effort), to gain a deeper mechanistic understanding of some of the most influential factors for the initiation of localized corrosion of Al: chloride ions, intermetallic particles (IMPs) and the presence of an aqueous ad-layer on the solid phase.In the scientific literature three scenarios have been proposed for the interaction of chloride ions with an aluminum and/or passive aluminum surface: through adsorption onto the passive layer, through breakdown of the same layer or through migration of chloride ions into the layer. DFT-calculations have been able to explore these scenarios in more detail, and provide evidence that chloride ions induce partial de-passivation in several ways. On the bare Al surface, chloride ions may inhibit the re-passivation through competitive adsorption with oxygen molecules, as suggested by density of state calculations. Chloride ions are also found to migrate via oxygen vacancies into the inner part of the investigated aluminum oxide films (α- and γ-Al2O3), where a critical amount of accumulated chloride can promote meta-stable pitting propagation. γ-Al2O3 exhibits a more open structure than α-Al2O3, resulting in a lower energy barrier for chloride migration.Micro-galvanic effects induced by Volta potential differences between representative intermetallic particles (Mg2Si and Al2Cu) and the surrounding Al matrix were predicted by calculating the work function of the bare surfaces of these phases with DFT. These values vary with crystalline face orientation and with terminal atomic configuration in the outmost surface layer. Calculated Volta potential differences between IMPs and Al show a reasonable agreement with reported experimental data, and suggest the possibility of predicting the nobility of specific IMPs relative to Al. Moreover, both DFT and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy show evidence of electrochemical nobility inversion of Mg2Si versus Al upon adsorption of pure water ad-layers. This implies that an originally- 2 -cathodic Mg2Si phase becomes anodic compared to Al upon water adsorption, and is attributed to surface relaxation according to DFT calculations. With subsequent introduction of chloride ions into the water ad-layer, the nobility inversion of both Mg2Si and Al2Cu retains. This is due to a strong oxidizing effect of water on Al, while the effect of chloride seems less pronounced.In all, these and other examples presented show that DFT-calculations can provide more detailed atomistic and molecular information on physico-chemical processes governing localized corrosion of Al than experiments alone can do.

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  • 108.
    Liu, Min
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. University of Science and Technology Beijing, National Center for Materials Service Safety.
    Jin, Ying
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, National Center for Materials Service Safety.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    A DFT-Study of Cl Ingress into α-Al2O3(0001) and Al(111) and Its Possible Influence on Localized Corrosion of Al2019In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 166, no 11, p. C3124-C3130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ingress of chloride into alpha-Al2O3(0001) and Al(111) was calculated by first-principles theory calculations by considering Cl insertion into Al or O vacancies within alpha-Al2O3(0001) or into vacancy or interstitial sites within Al(111). For alpha-Al2O3, the formation of an O vacancy is energetically more favorable than of an Al vacancy. The insertion of Cl into an O vacancy is also more favorable than into an Al vacancy. A high energy-barrier has been derived for Cl transport within the neighboring O vacancies. In addition, the work function decreases with Cl ingress into the interior of the oxide. For Al(111), Cl insertion into either an Al vacancy or an interstitial site is less favorable compared to the insertion into alpha-Al2O3. The work function only changes slightly with Cl insertion into an Al vacancy. Moreover, the pre-inserted Cl reduces the energy-barrier for further Cl ingress into alpha-Al2O3, whereas Cl tends to stay in the sub-surface layer of Al(111), suggesting Cl accumulation at the Al2O3/Al.

  • 109.
    Liu, Min
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. University of Science and Technology Beijing, National Center for Materials Service Safety.
    Jin, Ying
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, National Center for Materials Service Safety.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Co-adsorption of H2O, OH, and Cl on aluminum and intermetallic surfaces and its effects on the work function studied by DFT calculations2019In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 24, no 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energetics of adsorption of H2O layers and H2O layers partially replaced with OH or Cl on an Al(111) surface and on selected surfaces of intermetallic phases, Mg2Si and Al2Cu, was studied by first-principle calculations using the density function theory (DFT). The results show that H2O molecules tended to bind to all investigated surfaces with an adsorption energy in a relatively narrow range, between -0.8 eV and -0.5 eV, at increased water coverage. This can be explained by the dominant role of networks of hydrogen bonds at higher H2O coverage. On the basis of the work function, the calculated Volta potential data suggest that both intermetallic phases became less noble than Al(111); also, the Volta potential difference was larger than 1 V when the coverage of the Cl-containing ad-layer reached one monolayer. The energetics of H2O dissociation and substitution by Cl as well as the corresponding work function of each surface were also calculated. The increase in the work function of the Al(111) surface was attributed to the oxidation effect during H2O adsorption, whereas the decrease of the work function for the Mg2Si(111)-Si surface upon H2O adsorption was explained by atomic and electronic rearrangements in the presence of H2O and Cl.

  • 110.
    Liu, Min
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, China.
    Jin, Ying
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, National Center for Materials Service Safety.
    Zhang, Chuanhui
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, National Center for Materials Service Safety.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Wen, Lei
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, National Center for Materials Service Safety.
    Density-functional theory investigation of Al pitting corrosion in electrolyte containing chloride ions2015In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 357, p. 2028-2038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavior of chloride ions (Cl-) and oxygen species (the oxygen atom, O or molecular oxygen, O-2) on Al(1 1 1) surface has been studied by density functional theory calculations in order to deepen the molecular understanding of fundamental processes leading to pitting of aluminum (Al). The adsorption behavior of individual species, Cl-, O atom and O-2 was determined first. Subsequently, three possible scenarios in different pitting stages were modeled exploring the repassivation and dissolution of Al in neutral electrolyte containing Cl-. In scenario i, it was found that Cl- can hardly destroy even an O-monolayer on Al(1 1 1) surface, however may lead to the elongation of Al-O bond and the weakened binding between the first Al layer and subsequent Al layers. Both O-2 and Cl- were simultaneously introduced onto Al(1 1 1) in scenario ii. The result showed a weakened Al-O interaction and an intensive hybridization peak at -0.18 Ha between Al-3p with Cl-3p suggesting insufficient repassivation behavior of Al under this condition. Finally, scenario iii mimicked different local environmental conditions in pits formed on Al. At low coverage of Cl-, chloride ions had little effect on surface relaxation. The interaction among chloride ions and Al surface became stronger as Cl- coverage increased. Surface Al atoms dissolved gradually and substructures such as AlCl3 and Al2C15 formed when the coverage was larger than 2/3 ML of a monolayer.

  • 111.
    Långberg, Marie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SWERIM, SE-16407 Kista, Sweden..
    Örnek, Cem
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Zhang, Fan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Cheng, J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Liu, M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Granaes, E.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Wiemann, C.
    Res Ctr Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst PGI 6, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Gloskovskii, A.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Matveyev, Y.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Kulkarni, S.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Noei, H.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Keller, T. F.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;Univ Hamburg, Phys Dept, D-20355 Hamburg, Germany..
    Lindell, D.
    SWERIM, SE-16407 Kista, Sweden..
    Kivisakk, U.
    AB Sandvik Mat Technol, SE-81181 Sandviken, Sweden..
    Lundgren, E.
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Stierle, A.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;Univ Hamburg, Phys Dept, D-20355 Hamburg, Germany..
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Characterization of Native Oxide and Passive Film on Austenite/Ferrite Phases of Duplex Stainless Steel Using Synchrotron HAXPEEM2019In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 166, no 11, p. C3336-C3340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new measurement protocol was used for microscopic chemical analysis of surface oxide films with lateral resolution of 1 mu m. The native air-formed oxide and an anodic passive film on austenite and ferrite phases of a 25Cr-7Ni super duplex stainless steel were investigated using synchrotron hard X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (HAXPEEM). Pre-deposited Pt-markers, in combination with electron backscattering diffraction mapping (EBSD), allowed analysis of the native oxide on individual grains of the two phases and the passive film formed on the same area after electrochemical polarization of the sample. The results showed a certain difference in the composition of the surface films between the two phases. For the grains with (001) crystallographic face // sample surface, the native oxide film on the ferrite contained more Cr oxide than the austenite. Anodic polarization up to 1000 mV/(Ag/AgCl) in 1M NaCl solution at room temperature resulted in a growth of the Cr- and Fe-oxides, diminish of Cr-hydroxide, and an increased proportion of Fe3+ species. by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse of the work in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  • 112.
    MacKenzie, Jordan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Turbulent stress measurements of fibre suspensions in a straight pipe2018In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 30, no 2, article id 025104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of the present work is an experimental study of the behaviour of semi-dilute, opaque fibre suspensions in fully developed cylindrical pipe flows. Measurements of the normal and turbulent shear stress components and the mean flow were acquired using phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimetry. Two fibre types, namely, pulp fibre and nylon fibre, were considered in this work and are known to differ in elastic modulus. In total, three different mass concentrations and seven Reynolds numbers were tested to investigate the effects of fibre interactions during the transition from the plug flow to fully turbulent flow. It was found that in fully turbulent flows of nylon fibres, the normal, < u(z)u(z)>(+), and shear, < u(z)u(z)>(+) (note that <.> is the temporal average, u is the fluctuating velocity, z is the axial or streamwise component, and r is the radial direction), turbulent stresses increased with Reynolds number regardless of the crowding number (a concentration measure). For pulp fibre, the turbulent stresses increased with Reynolds number when a fibre plug was present in the flow and were spatially similar in magnitude when no fibre plug was present. Pressure spectra revealed that the stiff, nylon fibre reduced the energy in the inertial-subrange with an increasing Reynolds and crowding number, whereas the less stiff pulp fibre effectively cuts the energy cascade prematurely when the network was fully dispersed.

  • 113. Makarova, I. V.
    et al.
    Kharitonov, D. S.
    Dobryden', Illia B.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Chernik, A. A.
    Corrosion Behavior in Acid and Alkaline Media of Nickel Coatings Deposited at Room Temperature2018In: Russian journal of applied chemistry, ISSN 1070-4272, E-ISSN 1608-3296, Vol. 91, no 9, p. 1441-1450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impedance spectroscopy, chronovoltammetry, chronopotentiometry, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic-force microscopy were used to examine the corrosion behavior in acid and alkaline media and the morphology of nickel coatings electrodeposited from acetate, tartrate, and isobutyrate electrolytes at a temperature of 20–25°C. Models describing the nickel corrosion processes in H2SO4 and NaOH solutions were suggested. It was found that nickel coatings formed from isobutyrate electrolytes have the highest corrosion resistance.

  • 114.
    Makarova, Irina
    et al.
    Belarusian State Technol Univ, Chem Technol & Engn Fac, Dept Chem Technol Electrochem Prod & Elect Engn M, Sverdlova Str 13a, Minsk 220006, BELARUS.;LUT Univ, Sch Engn Sci, Dept Separat & Purificat, Yliopistonkatu 34, FI-53850 Lappeenranta, Finland..
    Dobryden, Illia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Kharitonov, Dmitry
    Belarusian State Technol Univ, Chem Technol & Engn Fac, Dept Chem Technol Electrochem Prod & Elect Engn M, Sverdlova Str 13a, Minsk 220006, BELARUS.;Polish Acad Sci, Jerzy Haber Inst Catalysis & Surface Chem, Niezapominajek 8, PL-30239 Krakow, Poland..
    Kasach, Aliaksandr
    Belarusian State Technol Univ, Chem Technol & Engn Fac, Dept Chem Technol Electrochem Prod & Elect Engn M, Sverdlova Str 13a, Minsk 220006, BELARUS..
    Ryl, Jacek
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Dept Electrochem Corros & Mat Engn, Narutowicza Str 11-12, PL-80233 Gdansk, Poland..
    Repo, Eveliina
    LUT Univ, Sch Engn Sci, Dept Separat & Purificat, Yliopistonkatu 34, FI-53850 Lappeenranta, Finland..
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Engn Sci & Math, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden..
    Nickel-nanodiamond coatings electrodeposited from tartrate electrolyte at ambient temperature2019In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 380, article id 125063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, nanocrystalline Ni and Ni-diamond coatings were obtained by electrodeposition from tartrate electrolyte at ambient temperature aiming at improving corrosion and wear properties of the material. The created surfaces were investigated with regard to microhardness, adhesion, wear- and corrosion-resistance. The various methods such as atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear polarization technique were applied to study the coating surface properties. The introduction of nanodiamond particles into the coating led to a rougher surface structure and a bigger grain size in comparison to bare nickel coating. Our study shows that the addition of 5.10(-2) (g dm(-3)) of nanodiamonds to the plating bath is enough to obtain composite coatings with a clear increase in microhardness and wear resistance. The slightly improved corrosion resistance of the coating, decrease in corrosion current density from 0.41 to 0.14 mu A cm(-2) in neutral chloride-containing medium, and nobler values of the corrosion potential were also observed.

  • 115.
    Mazo, Juan J.
    et al.
    Univ Zaragoza, Dept Fis Mat Condensada, Zaragoza, Spain.;Univ Zaragoza, CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Aragon, Zaragoza, Spain..
    Martinez, Pedro J.
    Univ Zaragoza, CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Aragon, Zaragoza, Spain.;Univ Zaragoza, Dept Fis Aplicada, Zaragoza, Spain..
    Pedraz, Patricia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hennig, Jana
    Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Otto Schott Inst Mat Res OSIM, Lobdergraben 32, D-07743 Jena, Germany..
    Gnecco, Enrico
    Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Otto Schott Inst Mat Res OSIM, Lobdergraben 32, D-07743 Jena, Germany..
    Plowing-Induced Structuring of Compliant Surfaces2019In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 122, no 25, article id 256101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structures produced by a sharp tip scraping a compliant surface are modeled in the illustrative case of scan patterns formed by a series of parallel lines. This is made possible by a modified version of the Prandtl model for stick-slip friction, with an interaction energy landscape replicating the morphology of the evolving surface. As a result, a ripple motif emerges with a tilt angle increasing linearly with the distance between the scan lines, except for the region close to the left boundary of the scanned area, where the ripples are oriented at 90 degrees. This region can penetrate considerably to the right, forming a complex branched pattern. These predictions are substantiated by atomic force microscopy nanolithography experiments on polystyrene surfaces at room temperature. A simple and robust theoretical protocol for reproducing early-stage wear processes (potentially going beyond single contacts) is thus made available.

  • 116.
    McCarrick, Sarah
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wei, Zheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Moelijker, Nynke
    Toxys, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Derr, Remco
    Toxys, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Persson, Kjell-Arne
    Swerim AB, Lulea, Sweden..
    Hendriks, Giel
    Toxys, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    High variability in toxicity of welding fume nanoparticles from stainless steel in lung cells and reporter cell lines: the role of particle reactivity and solubility2019In: Nanotoxicology, ISSN 1743-5390, E-ISSN 1743-5404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of people in the world perform welding as their primary occupation resulting in exposure to metal-containing nanoparticles in the fumes generated. Even though health effects including airway diseases are well-known, there is currently a lack of studies investigating how different welding set-ups and conditions affect the toxicity of generated nanoparticles of the welding fume. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of nine types of welding fume particles generated via active gas shielded metal arc welding (GMAW) of chromium-containing stainless steel under different conditions and, furthermore, to correlate the toxicity to the particle characteristics. Toxicological endpoints investigated were generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and activation of ToxTracker reporter cell lines. The results clearly underline that the choice of filler material has a large influence on the toxic potential. Fume particles generated by welding with the tested flux-cored wire (FCW) were found to be more cytotoxic compared to particles generated by welding with solid wire or metal-cored wire (MCW). FCW fume particles were also the most potent in causing ROS and DNA damage and they furthermore activated reporters related to DNA double- strand breaks and p53 signaling. Interestingly, the FCW fume particles were the most soluble in PBS, releasing more chromium in the hexavalent form and manganese compared to the other fumes. These results emphasize the importance of solubility of different metal constituents of the fume particles, rather than the total metal content, for their acute toxic potential.

  • 117.
    McCracken, Joselle M.
    et al.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, 600 S Matthews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Rauzan, Brittany M.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, 600 S Matthews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Kjellman, Jacob C. E.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, 600 S Matthews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Kandel, Mikhail E.
    Dept Elect & Comp Engn, 4055 Beckman Inst,MC 251,405 N Mathews, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Liu, Yu Hao
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Badea, Adina
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, 600 S Matthews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Miller, Lou Ann
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Rogers, Simon A.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem & Biomol Engn, 600 S Matthews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Popescu, Gabriel
    Dept Elect & Comp Engn, 4055 Beckman Inst,MC 251,405 N Mathews, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Nuzzo, Ralph G.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    3D-Printed Hydrogel Composites for Predictive Temporal (4D) Cellular Organizations and Patterned Biogenic Mineralization2019In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 1800788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials chemistries for hydrogel scaffolds that are capable of programming temporal (4D) attributes of cellular decision-making in supported 3D microcultures are described. The scaffolds are fabricated using direct-ink writing (DIW)-a 3D-printing technique using extrusion to pattern scaffolds at biologically relevant diameters (<= 100 mu m). Herein, DIW is exploited to variously incorporate a rheological nanoclay, Laponite XLG (LAP), into 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-based hydrogels-printing the LAP-HEMA (LH) composites as functional modifiers within otherwise unmodified 2D and 3D HEMA microstructures. The nanoclay-modified domains, when tested as thin films, require no activating (e.g., protein) treatments to promote robust growth compliances that direct the spatial attachment of fibroblast (3T3) and preosteoblast (E1) cells, fostering for the latter a capacity to direct long-term osteodifferentiation. Cell-to-gel interfacial morphologies and cellular motility are analyzed with spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM). Through combination of HEMA and LH gels, high-resolution DIW of a nanocomposite ink (UniH) that translates organizationally dynamic attributes seen with 2D gels into dentition-mimetic 3D scaffolds is demonstrated. These analyses confirm that the underlying materials chemistry and geometry of hydrogel nanocomposites are capable of directing cellular attachment and temporal development within 3D microcultures-a useful material system for the 4D patterning of hydrogel scaffolds.

  • 118.
    McCracken, Joselle M.
    et al.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, 600 S Matthews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Rauzan, Brittany M.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, 600 S Matthews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Kjellman, Jacob C. E.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, 600 S Matthews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Su, Hanxiao
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, 1304 West Green St, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, 1304 West Green St, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Rogers, Simon A.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem & Biomol Engn, 600 S Matthews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Nuzzo, Ralph G.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, 600 S Matthews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, 1304 West Green St, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, 1304 West Green St, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Surface & Corros Sci, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Drottning Kristinasvag 51, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ionic Hydrogels with Biomimetic 4D-Printed Mechanical Gradients: Models for Soft-Bodied Aquatic Organisms2019In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 29, no 28, article id 1806723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct-ink writing (DIW), a rapidly growing and advancing form of additive manufacturing, provides capacities for on-demand tailoring of materials to meet specific requirements for final designs. The penultimate challenge faced with the increasing demand of customization is to extend beyond modification of shape to create 4D structures, dynamic 3D structures that can respond to stimuli in the local environment. Patterning material gradients is foundational for assembly of 4D structures, however, there remains a general need for useful materials chemistries to generate gray scale gradients via DIW. Here, presented is a simple materials assembly paradigm using DIW to pattern ionotropic gradients in hydrogels. Using structures that architecturally mimic sea-jelly organisms, the capabilities of spatial patterning are highlighted as exemplified by selectively programming the valency of the ion-binding agents. Spatial gradients, when combined with geometry, allow for programming the flexibility and movement of iron oxide nanoparticle-loaded ionotropic hydrogels to generate 4D-printed structures that actuate in the presence of local magnetic fields. This work highlights approaches to 4D design complexity that exploits 3D-printed gray-scale/gradient mechanics.

  • 119.
    Mei, Nanxuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Division Bioscience and Materials, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm, 111 21, Sweden.
    Influence of Biocorona Formation on the Transformation and Dissolution of Cobalt Nanoparticles under Physiological Conditions2019In: ACS Omega, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 4, no 26, p. 21778-21791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cobalt (Co) nanoparticles (NPs) are produced in different applications and unintentionally generated at several occupational and traffic settings. Their diffuse dispersion may lead to interactions with humans and aquatic organisms via different exposure routes that include their transformation/dissolution in biological media. This paper has investigated the particle stability and reactivity of Co NPs (dispersed by sonication prior to exposure) interacting with selected individual biomolecules (amino acids, polypeptides, and proteins) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). No or minor adsorption of amino acids (glutamine, glutamic acid, lysine, and cysteine) was observed on the Co NPs, independent of the functional group and charge. Instead, phosphate adsorption resulted in the formation of a surface layer (a corona) of Co phosphate. The adsorption of larger biomolecules (polyglutamic acid, polylysine, lysozyme, and mucin) was evident in parallel with the formation of Co phosphate. The dissolution of the Co NPs was rapid as 35-55% of the particle mass was dissolved within the first hour of exposure. The larger biomolecules suppressed the dissolution initially compared to exposure in PBS only, whereas the dissolution was essentially unaffected by the presence of amino acids, with cysteine as an exception. The formation of Co phosphate on the NP surface reduced the protective properties of the surface oxide of the Co NPs, as seen from the increased levels of the released Co when compared with the nonphosphate-containing saline. The results underline the diversity of possible outcomes with respect to surface characteristics and dissolution of Co NPs in biological media and emphasize the importance of surface interactions with phosphate on the NP characteristics and reactivity.

  • 120. Nelson, A. Z.
    et al.
    Schweizer, K. S.
    Rauzan, B. M.
    Nuzzo, Ralph G.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Vermant, J.
    Ewoldt, R. H.
    Designing and transforming yield-stress fluids2019In: Current opinion in solid state & materials science, ISSN 1359-0286, E-ISSN 1879-0348, Vol. 23, no 5, article id 100758Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review progress in designing and transforming multi-functional yield-stress fluids and give a perspective on the current state of knowledge that supports each step in the design process. We focus mainly on the rheological properties that make yield-stress fluids so useful and the trade-offs which need to be considered when working with these materials. Thinking in terms of “design with” and “design of” yield-stress fluids motivates how we can organize our scientific understanding of this field. “Design with” involves identification of rheological property requirements independent of the chemical formulation, e.g. for 3D direct-write printing which needs to accommodate a wide range of chemistry and material structures. “Design of” includes microstructural considerations: conceptual models relating formulation to properties, quantitative models of formulation-structure-property relations, and chemical transformation strategies for converting effective yield-stress fluids to be more useful solid engineering materials. Future research directions are suggested at the intersection of chemistry, soft-matter physics, and material science in the context of our desire to design useful rheologically-complex functional materials.

  • 121. Niga, P.
    et al.
    Hansson-Mille, P. M.
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE – Research Institute of Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE – Research Institute of Sweden.
    Schoelkopf, J.
    Gane, P. A. C.
    Bergendal, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Tummino, A.
    Campbell, R. A.
    Johnson, C. Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Interactions between model cell membranes and the neuroactive drug propofol2018In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 526, p. 230-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS) complemented by surface pressure isotherm and neutron reflectometry (NR) experiments were employed to investigate the interactions between propofol, a small amphiphilic molecule that currently is the most common general anaesthetic drug, and phospholipid monolayers. A series of biologically relevant saturated phospholipids of varying chain length from C18 to C14 were spread on either pure water or propofol (2,6-bis(1-methylethyl)phenol) solution in a Langmuir trough, and the change in the molecular structure of the film, induced by the interaction with propofol, was studied with respect to the surface pressure. The results from the surface pressure isotherm experiments revealed that propofol, as long as it remains at the interface, enhances the fluidity of the phospholipid monolayer. The VSF spectra demonstrate that for each phospholipid the amount of propofol in the monolayer region decreases with increasing surface pressure. Such squeeze out is in contrast to the enhanced interactions that can be exhibited by more complex amphiphilic molecules such as peptides. At surface pressures of 22–25 mN m−1, which are relevant for biological cell membranes, most of the propofol has been expelled from the monolayer, especially in the case of the C16 and C18 phospholipids that adopt a liquid condensed phase packing of its alkyl tails. At lower surface pressures of 5 mN m−1, the effect of propofol on the structure of the alkyl tails is enhanced when the phospholipids are present in a liquid expanded phase. Specifically, for the C16 phospholipid, NR data reveal that propofol is located exclusively in the head group region, which is rationalized in the context of previous studies. The results imply a non-homogeneous distribution of propofol in the plane of real cell membranes, which is an inference that requires urgent testing and may help to explain why such low concentration of the drug are required to induce general anaesthesia.

  • 122.
    Niga, Petru
    et al.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden Chem Mat & Surfaces, Box 5607, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hansson-Mille, Petra M.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden Chem Mat & Surfaces, Box 5607, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Schoelkopf, Joachim
    Omya Int AG, Baslerstr 42, CH-4665 Oftringen, Switzerland..
    Gane, Patrick A. C.
    Omya Int AG, Baslerstr 42, CH-4665 Oftringen, Switzerland.;Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Technol, Dept Bioprod & Biosyst, FI-00076 Helsinki, Finland..
    Dai, Jing
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Campbell, Richard A.
    Inst Laue Langevin, 71 Ave Martyrs,CS20156, F-38042 Grenoble 9, France.;Univ Manchester, Div Pharm & Optometry, Manchester M13 9PT, Lancs, England..
    Johnson, C. Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Propofol adsorption at the air/water interface: a combined vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron reflectometry study2019In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 38-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Propofol is an amphiphilic small molecule that strongly influences the function of cell membranes, yet data regarding interfacial properties of propofol remain scarce. Here we consider propofol adsorption at the air/water interface as elucidated by means of vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS), neutron reflectometry (NR), and surface tensiometry. VSFS data show that propofol adsorbed at the air/ water interface interacts with water strongly in terms of hydrogen bonding and weakly in the proximity of the hydrocarbon parts of the molecule. In the concentration range studied there is almost no change in the orientation adopted at the interface. Data from NR show that propofol forms a dense monolayer with a thickness of 8.4 angstrom and a limiting area per molecule of 40 angstrom(2), close to the value extracted from surface tensiometry. The possibility that islands or multilayers of propofol form at the air/water interface is therefore excluded as long as the solubility limit is not exceeded. Additionally, measurements of the 1H NMR chemical shifts demonstrate that propofol does not form dimers or multimers in bulk water up to the solubility limit.

  • 123.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    et al.
    SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. IMDEA Nanosci, Inst Adv Studies, Madrid, Spain..
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kjellin, Mikael
    SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Camacho, Alejandra
    LOreal Res & Innovat, Chicago, IL USA..
    Luengo, Gustavo
    LOreal Res & Innovat, Aulnay Sous Bois, France..
    Nanomechanical properties of the stratum corneum and its interaction with a single hair fiber2016In: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 251Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Eklöf, Jens
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Biotechnology. AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    CELL 260-Top-down grafting of xyloglucan to gold monitored by QCM-D and AFM: Enzymatic activity and interactions with cellulose2008In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 235Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 125.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    COLL 468-Nanotribological properties of responsive films: Effect of pH and temperature2008In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 235Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 126.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    et al.
    SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, SP Chem Mat & Surfaces, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Skedung, Lisa
    SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, SP Chem Mat & Surfaces, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Baghdadli, Nawel
    LOreal Res & Innovat, Aulnay Sous Bois, France..
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, SP Chem Mat & Surfaces, Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Luengo, Gustavo
    LOreal Res & Innovat, Aulnay Sous Bois, France..
    Tactile and hair-hair friction behavior of hair fibers2017In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 253Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Stiernstedt, Johanna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Gray, Derek G.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    CELL 109-Interactions of cellulose surfaces: Friction, adhesion and polysaccharide adsorption2007In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 233, p. 838-838Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 128.
    Nystrom, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nordstrom, Randi
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Frenning, Goran
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Saunders, Brian
    Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Peptide loaded microgels as antimicrobial surface coatings2017In: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 253Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 129.
    Nyström, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nordström, Randi
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bramhill, Jane
    Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Saunders, Brian
    Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. IMDEA Nanosci, Inst Adv Studies, Madrid, Spain..
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, SP Chem Mat & Surfaces, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Copenhagen, Dept Pharm, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Peptide-loaded microgels as carriers of antimicrobial peptides2018In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 255Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Nyström, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nordström, Randi
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Strömstedt, Adam
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Chem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Saunders, Brian
    Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Peptide-loaded microgels as antimicrobial surface coatings2018In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 255Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 131. Peng, T.
    et al.
    Yan, Q.
    Li, Gen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Zhang, X.
    The Influence of Cu/Fe Ratio on the Tribological Behavior of Brake Friction Materials2018In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 66, no 1, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper and iron are the major ingredients in friction materials, among which Fe often been served as friction reinforcement in the past. But in our recent study, the coefficients of friction (COF) decreased with increasing iron content in composites. In order to study the influence of Cu/Fe ratio on the tribological behavior of the composite under simulative braking conditions, a subscale testing apparatus with the pad-on-disk configuration under various initial braking speeds (IBS) was applied. The changes in mean COFs, wear rates, morphologies and chemical constitutions of friction surface for different composites were investigated. Results showed that the composite containing more Fe content always showed lower mean COF and wear rate, which different from the previous studies. This is because, under severe braking conditions, the tribological behavior of composite mainly depends on the evolution of tribo-oxide film on the surface, not just on the substrate themselves. Higher Fe content accelerated the formation of tribo-oxide film and in turn inhibited the destruction of tribo-oxide film on the surface, which leading to lower mean COF and wear rate, as well as a higher critical IBS for the transition of mean COF and wear rate. This work also provides a way to characterize the fracture strength of tribo-film by carried out a peeling test.

  • 132.
    Petronico, Aaron
    et al.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Moneypenny, Timothy P., II
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Beckman Inst Adv Sci & Technol, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Nicolau, Bruno G.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Moore, Jeffrey S.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Beckman Inst Adv Sci & Technol, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Nuzzo, Ralph G.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.
    Gewirth, Andrew A.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Solid-Liquid Lithium Electrolyte Nanocomposites Derived from Porous Molecular Cages2018In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 140, no 24, p. 7504-7509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that solid-liquid nanocomposites derived from porous organic cages are effective lithium ion electrolytes at room temperature. A solid-liquid electrolyte nanocomposite (SLEN) fabricated from a LiTFSI/DME electrolyte system and a porous organic cage exhibits ionic conductivity on the order of 1 x 10(-3) S cm(-1). With an experimentally measured activation barrier of 0.16 eV, this composite is characterized as a superionic conductor. Furthermore, the SLEN displays excellent oxidative stability up to 4.7 V vs Li/Li+. This simple three-component system enables the rational design of electrolytes from tunable discrete molecular architectures.

  • 133.
    Piela, Katarzyna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Tyrode, Eric C.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Cryoporometry in Femtoliter Volumes by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy2019In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 35, no 26, p. 8823-8828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of porous material are largely dependent on the size, shape, and connectivity of the pores. Here, we present a method based on confocal Raman spectroscopy to quantify porosity using a cryoporometric approach. We show that the phase transition of water imbibed in porous silica can be accurately determined using two different, but complementary methodologies. The first one relies on integrating the temperature-dependent spectral intensities across the whole OH (H2O) or OD (D2O) stretching region. The second, more quantitative approach, deconvolutes the spectral contributions within the pores in terms of liquid and solid fractions. The results show the expected reciprocal dependence of the average phase transition point with pore size, as well as the typical hysteresis between the freezing and melting transitions. One of the key advantages of the confocal Raman approach is its high spatial resolution, with sampling volumes starting from just a few femtoliters, opening the possibility of mapping the structure in heterogeneous porous materials.

  • 134.
    Pilkington, Georgia A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Harris, Kathryn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Bergendal, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Reddy, Akepati Bhaskar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Pålsson, G. K.
    Vorobiev, A.
    Antzutkin, O. N.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). Ghent University, Belgium.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Electro-responsivity of ionic liquid boundary layers in a polar solvent revealed by neutron reflectance2018In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 148, no 19, article id 193806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using neutron reflectivity, the electro-responsive structuring of the non-halogenated ionic liquid (IL) trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium-bis(mandelato)borate, [P6,6,6,14][BMB], has been studied at a gold electrode surface in a polar solvent. For a 20% w/w IL mixture, contrast matched to the gold surface, distinct Kiessig fringes were observed for all potentials studied, indicative of a boundary layer of different composition to that of the bulk IL-solvent mixture. With applied potential, the amplitudes of the fringes from the gold-boundary layer interface varied systematically. These changes are attributable to the differing ratios of cations and anions in the boundary layer, leading to a greater or diminished contrast with the gold electrode, depending on the individual ion scattering length densities. Such electro-responsive changes were also evident in the reflectivities measured for the pure IL and a less concentrated (5% w/w) IL-solvent mixture at the same applied potentials, but gave rise to less pronounced changes. These measurements, therefore, demonstrate the enhanced sensitivity achieved by contrast matching the bulk solution and that the structure of the IL boundary layers formed in mixtures is strongly influenced by the bulk concentration. Together these results represent an important step in characterising IL boundary layers in IL-solvent mixtures and provide clear evidence of electro-responsive structuring of IL ions in their solutions with applied potential.

  • 135. Poptoshev, E.
    et al.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Claesson, P. M.
    Surface forces in aqueous polyvinylamine solutions. I. Glass surfaces1999In: Langmuir, Vol. 15, no 22, p. 7789-7794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A noninterferometric surface force apparatus has been used to measure interactions between glass spheres in dilute aqueous polyvinylamine solutions at two different salt concentrations. Close to the substrate charge neutralization point, an attractive interaction is present mainly because of bridging of the extending polymer tails. Additional adsorption leads to an overcompensation of the glass negative surface charge, and the interaction at this point is dominated by a long-range double-layer repulsion. The results from fitting the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory to the measured force curves demonstrate that the degree of overcompensation increases with polyelectrolyte concentration and increasing ionic strength of the solution (addition of indifferent electrolyte). An increase in ionic strength results in the screening of the electrostatic forces which leads to: (i) a reduced free energy cost of creating a charged interface, (ii) a decreased repulsion between protonated amine groups along the polymer backbone and a corresponding increased chain flexibility, (iii) a reduced electrostatic attraction between the polyelectrolyte and the surface. The first effect is apparently is the most important in the present case.

  • 136.
    Potter, Maggie M.
    et al.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem & Biomol Engn, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Yoder, Mikayla A.
    Univ Illinois, Sch Chem Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Petronico, Aaron
    Univ Illinois, Sch Chem Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Lehman, Sean E.
    Univ Illinois, Sch Chem Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Nicolau, Bruno G.
    Univ Illinois, Sch Chem Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Enright, Michael J.
    Univ Illinois, Sch Chem Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Phelan, Megan
    CALTECH, Thomas J Watson Labs Appl Phys, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    He, Junwen
    Univ Illinois, Sch Chem Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Atwater, Harry A.
    CALTECH, Thomas J Watson Labs Appl Phys, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Nuzzo, Ralph G.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Univ Illinois, Sch Chem Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Autonomous Light Management in Flexible Photoelectrochromic Films Integrating High Performance Silicon Solar Microcells2020In: ACS APPLIED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1540-1551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial smart window technologies for dynamic light and heat management in building and automotive environments traditionally rely on electrochromic (EC) materials powered by an external source. This design complicates building-scale installation requirements and substantially increases costs for applications in retrofit construction. Self-powered photoelectrochromic (PEC) windows are an intuitive alternative wherein a photovoltaic (PV) material is used to power the EC device, which modulates the transmission of the incident solar flux. The PV component in this application must be sufficiently transparent and produce enough power to efficiently modulate the EC device transmission. Here, we propose Si solar microcells (mu-cells) that are (i) small enough to be visually transparent to the eye and (ii) thin enough to enable flexible PEC devices. Visual transparency is achieved when Si mu-cells are arranged in high pitch (i.e., low-integration density) form factors while maintaining the advantages of a single-crystalline PV material (i.e., long lifetime and high performance). Additionally, the thin dimensions of these Si mu-cells enable fabrication on flexible substrates to realize flexible PEC devices. The current work demonstrates this concept using WO3 as the EC material and V2O5 as the ion storage layer, where each component is fabricated via sol-gel methods that afford improved prospects for scalability and tunability in comparison to thermal evaporation methods. The EC devices display fast switching times, as low as 8 s, with a modulation in transmission as high as 33%. Integration with two Si mu-cells in series (affording a 1.12 V output) demonstrates an integrated PEC module design with switching times of less than 3 min and a modulation in transmission of 32% with an unprecedented EC:PV areal ratio.

  • 137.
    Pradhan, Sulena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Rosenqvist, Jorgen
    Jonsson, Caroline M.
    Wold, Susanna
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Influence of humic acid and dihydroxy benzoic acid on the agglomeration, adsorption, sedimentation and dissolution of copper, manganese, aluminum and silica nanoparticles - A tentative exposure scenario2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0192553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on kinetic aspects of stability, mobility, and dissolution of bare Cu, Al and Mn, and SiO2 NPs in synthetic freshwater (FW) with and without the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). This includes elucidation of particle and surface interactions, metal dissolution kinetics, and speciation predictions of released metals in solution. Dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHBA) and humic acid adsorbed rapidly on all metal NPs (< 1 min) via multiple surface coordinations, followed in general by rapid agglomeration and concomitant sedimentation for a large fraction of the particles. In contrast, NOM did not induce agglomeration of the SiO2 NPs during the test duration (21 days). DHBA in concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mM was unable to stabilize the metal NPs for time periods longer than 6 h, whereas humic acid, at certain concentrations (20 mg/L) was more efficient (> 24 h). The presence of NOM increased the amount of released metals into solution, in particular for Al and Cu, whereas the effect for Mn was minor. At least 10% of the particle mass was dissolved within 24 h and remained in solution for the metal NPs in the presence of NOM. Speciation modeling revealed that released Al and Cu predominantly formed complexes with NOM, whereas less complexation was seen for Mn. The results imply that potentially dispersed NPs of Cu, Al and Mn readily dissolve or sediment close to the source in freshwater of low salinity, whereas SiO2 NPs are more stable and therefore more mobile in solution.

  • 138.
    Radiom, Milad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Ionic liquid–solid interface and applications in lubrication and energy storage2019In: Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, ISSN 1359-0294, E-ISSN 1879-0399, Vol. 39, p. 148-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit many attractive properties in proximity to solid surfaces. Primarily, they form well-defined interfacial layers that are tunable — electrically and thermally — as well as being stable — mechanically, electrically, and thermally — over a wide range. Recent investigations have aimed at understanding the molecular structuring of ILs at their interface with solids and in confinement, while in tandem, ILs are used as next-generation lubricants and energy storage materials. The result is a large volume of work that has appeared over the last decade. In this review, the recent literature is presented and future research directions are discussed.

  • 139.
    Radiom, Milad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pedraz, Patricia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pilkington, Georgia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Rohlmann, Patrick
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Surfaces, Processes and Formulation, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Anomalous Interfacial Structuring of a Non-Halogenated Ionic Liquid: Effect of Substrate and Temperature2018In: Colloids and Interfaces, ISSN 2504-5377, Vol. 2, no 4, article id 60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the interfacial properties of the non-halogenated ionic liquid (IL), trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(mandelato)borate, [P6,6,6,14][BMB], in proximity to solid surfaces, by means of surface force measurement. The system consists of sharp atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips interacting with solid surfaces of mica, silica, and gold. We find that the force response has a monotonic form, from which a characteristic steric decay length can be extracted. The decay length is comparable with the size of the ions, suggesting that a layer is formed on the surface, but that it is diffuse. The long alkyl chains of the cation, the large size of the anion, as well as crowding of the cations at the surface of negatively charged mica, are all factors which are likely to oppose the interfacial stratification which has, hitherto, been considered a characteristic of ionic liquids. The variation in the decay length also reveals differences in the layer composition at different surfaces, which can be related to their surface charge. This, in turn, allows the conclusion that silica has a low surface charge in this aprotic ionic liquid. Furthermore, the effect of temperature has been investigated. Elevating the temperature to 40 &deg;C causes negligible changes in the interaction. At 80 &deg;C and 120 &deg;C, we observe a layering artefact which precludes further analysis, and we present the underlying instrumental origin of this rather universal artefact.

  • 140.
    Rohlmann, Patrick
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Munavirov, Bulat
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Antzutkin, Oleg
    Lulea Univ Technol, Chem Interfaces, Lulea, Sweden..
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Surfaces Proc & Formulat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). Univ Ghent, Dept Elect Energy Met Mech Construct & Syst, Ghent, Belgium.
    Non-halogenated Ionic Liquid Dramatically Enhances Tribological Performance of Biodegradable Oils2019In: Frontiers in Chemistry, E-ISSN 2296-2646, Vol. 7, article id 98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is demonstrated that a phosphonium orthoborate ionic liquid may serve as a wear reducing additive in biodegradable oils at steel-steel surfaces in the boundary lubrication regime. Tribological tests were performed in a bail-on-three plate configuration. A set of surface characterization techniques-SEM/EDS, FIB and white light interferometry were used to characterize surfaces following the tribotests and to observe the formation of any tribofilms. B-11 NMR was used to follow changes in the composition of the ionic-liquid-oil blends and to identify boron-containing decomposition products after the tribotests. The ionic liquid reduces the wear of steel surfaces by up to 92% compared to the neat oil at 90 degrees C; it is shown that the reduction in wear can be correlated with the formation of boron enriched patches in the boundary films.

  • 141.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.;Ecole Cent Lyon, Lab Tribol & Dynam Syst, Lyon, France..
    Psychotribology: How friction, materials properties, and age influence tactile perception2019In: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 258Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Notley, Shannon
    Traction Drive Fluid2015Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 143.
    Sang, Lingzi
    et al.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Bassett, Kimberly L.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Castro, Fernando C.
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Evanston, IL 60208 USA..
    Young, Matthias J.
    Argonne Natl Lab, Appl Mat Div, Lemont, IL 60439 USA..
    Chen, Lin
    Argonne Natl Lab, Appl Mat Div, Lemont, IL 60439 USA..
    Haasch, Richard T.
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Elam, Jeffrey W.
    Argonne Natl Lab, Appl Mat Div, Lemont, IL 60439 USA..
    Dravid, Vinayak P.
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Evanston, IL 60208 USA..
    Nuzzo, Ralph G.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Gewirth, Andrew A.
    Univ Illinois, Dept Chem, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Understanding the Effect of Interlayers at the Thiophosphate Solid Electrolyte/Lithium Interface for All-Solid-State Li Batteries2018In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 30, no 24, p. 8747-8756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries afford possibilities to enhance battery safety while improving their energy and power densities. Current challenges for achieving high-performance all-solid-state batteries with long cycle life include shorting resulting predominantly from Li dendrite formation and infiltration through the solid electrolyte (SE) and increases in cell impedance induced by SE decomposition at the SE/electrode interface. In this work, we evaluate the electrochemical properties of two interlayer materials, Si and LixAl(2-x/3)O3 (LiAlO), at the Li7P3S11 (LPS)/Li interface. Compared to the Li/LPS/Li symmetric cells in absence of interlayers, the presence of Si and LiAlO both significantly enhance the cycle number and total charge passing through the interface before failures resulting from cell shorting. In both cases, the noted improvements were accompanied by cell impedances that had increased substantially. The data reveal that both interlayers prevent the direct exposure of LPS to the metallic Li and therefore eliminate the intrinsic LPS decomposition that occurs at Li surfaces before electrochemical cycling. After cycling, a reduction of LPS to Li2S occurs at the interface when a Si interlayer is present; LiAlO, which functions to drop the potential between Li and LPS, suppresses LPS decomposition processes. The relative propensities toward SE decomposition follows from the electrochemical potentials at the interface, which are dictated by the identities of the interlayer materials. This work provides new insights into the phase dynamics associated with specific choices for SE/electrode interlayer materials and the requirements they impose for realizing high efficiency, long lasting all-solid-state batteries.

  • 144. Shah, F. U.
    et al.
    Holmgren, A.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials.
    Glavatskih, S.
    Antzutkin, O. N.
    Interfacial Behavior of Orthoborate Ionic Liquids at Inorganic Oxide Surfaces Probed by NMR, IR, and Raman Spectroscopy2018In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 122, no 34, p. 19687-19698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorption modes and the reactivity of nonhalogenated ionic liquids (ILs) at inorganic oxide surfaces of γ-Al2O3, MgO, and SiO2 particles were characterized using multinuclear (11B, 31P, and 29Si) solid-state magic-angle-spinning NMR, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. ILs are composed of the trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium cation, [P6,6,6,14]+, and bis(mandelato)borate, [BMB]-, or bis(salicylato)borate, [BScB]-, anions. Spectroscopic measurements were performed on room-temperature (298 K) samples and samples exposed to 15 h at 373 K. The single-pulse 11B NMR data of heated [P6,6,6,14][BMB] mixed with the inorganic oxides showed a significant change in the spectra of the anion for all three oxides. In contrast, no such spectral changes were detected for heated [P6,6,6,14][BScB] mixed with the inorganic oxides. 31P MAS NMR data for the IL/metal oxide systems revealed interactions between [P6,6,6,14]+ and the surfaces of oxides. A significant intensity of 31P CP-MAS NMR signals indicated a low mobility of cations in these systems. The existence of strongly adhered surface layers of ILs on SiO2 particles was also confirmed by 1H-29Si CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic data revealed strong interactions between the anions and the inorganic surfaces, and there is a strong correlation with the data obtained from NMR spectroscopy. Although their chemical structures are rather similar, the [BScB]- anion is more stable than the [BMB]- anion at the inorganic oxide surfaces.

  • 145.
    Shao, Cairu
    et al.
    Guangdong Res Inst Rare Met, Guangzhou 510651, Guangdong, Peoples R China.;Beihang Univ, Sch Phys & Nucl Energy Engn, 37 Xueyuan Rd, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Fan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Li, Xia
    Beihang Univ, Sch Phys & Nucl Energy Engn, 37 Xueyuan Rd, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Jianhua
    Guangdong Res Inst Rare Met, Guangzhou 510651, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Jiang, Yusi
    Guangdong Res Inst Rare Met, Guangzhou 510651, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Cheng, Huayue
    Guangdong Res Inst Rare Met, Guangzhou 510651, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Zhu, Kaigui
    Beihang Univ, Sch Phys & Nucl Energy Engn, 37 Xueyuan Rd, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Influence of Cr doping on the oxygen evolution potential of SnO2/Ti and Sb-SnO2/Ti electrodes2019In: JOURNAL OF ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, ISSN 1572-6657, Vol. 832, p. 436-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxygen evolution potential is the determining factor affecting the anode efficiency of the wastewater treatment process. In this study, we focus on increasing oxygen evolution potential of Cr-SnO2/Ti and Cr-Sb-SnO2/Ti electrodes with the pyrolytic method. XRD, SEM and XPS techniques had been applied to characterize the microstructures and chemical compositions of the samples. Electrochemical measurements had been performed to evaluate the oxygen evolution potential as a criterion of the wastewater treatment efficiency. The results show that co-doping of Sb and Cr improved the crystallinity and grain size of SnO2 coating, and Cr existed in the form of Cr(III) valence states. The Cr doping treatment improved the electronic conductivity and the electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes. DFT calculation of the band-structure indicates Cr doped SnO2 had a superior electrical conductivity, where Cr atom acts as an acceptor providing vacancies for electron transportation. The DOS diagrams reveal the Cr doped SnO2 showing a p-type conductivity which would subsequently influence the built-in potential on metal-semiconductor interface. We proposed the mechanism of the increase of oxygen evolution potential is the doping of Cr expands the built-in potential.

  • 146. Skedung, L.
    et al.
    El Rawadi, C.
    Arvidsson, M.
    Farcet, C.
    Luengo, G. S.
    Breton, L.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mechanisms of tactile sensory deterioration amongst the elderly2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 5303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that roughness-smoothness, hardness-softness, stickiness-slipperiness and warm-cold are predominant perceptual dimensions in macro-, micro- and nano- texture perception. However, it is not clear to what extent active tactile texture discrimination remains intact with age. The general decrease in tactile ability induces physical and emotional dysfunction in elderly, and has increasing significance for an aging population. We report a method to quantify tactile acuity based on blinded active exploration of systematically varying micro-textured surfaces and a same-different paradigm. It reveals that elderly participants show significantly reduced fine texture discrimination ability. The elderly group also displays statistically lower finger friction coefficient, moisture and elasticity, suggesting a link. However, a subpopulation of the elderly retains discrimination ability irrespective of cutaneous condition and this can be related to a higher density of somatosensory receptors on the finger pads. Skin tribology is thus not the primary reason for decline of tactile discrimination with age. The remediation of cutaneous properties through rehydration, however leads to a significantly improved tactile acuity. This indicates unambiguously that neurological tactile loss can be temporarily compensated by restoring the cutaneous contact mechanics. Such mechanical restoration of tactile ability has the potential to increase the quality of life in elderly.

  • 147.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Biosci & Mat, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Harris, Kathryn
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Biosci & Mat, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Collier, Elizabeth S.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Biosci & Mat, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Arvidsson, Martin
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Biosci & Mat, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden.;Tobii AB Publ, Box 743, S-18217 Danderyd, Sweden..
    Wackerlin, Aneliia
    Glas Trosch AG, Ind Str 29, CH-4922 Butzberg, Switzerland..
    Haag, Walter
    Glas Trosch AG, Ind Str 29, CH-4922 Butzberg, Switzerland..
    Bieri, Marco
    Glas Trosch AG, Ind Str 29, CH-4922 Butzberg, Switzerland.;Swiss Natl Sci Fdn, Wildhainweg 3, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland..
    Romanyuk, Andriy
    Glas Trosch AG, Ind Str 29, CH-4922 Butzberg, Switzerland..
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Feeling Smooth: Psychotribological Probing of Molecular Composition2018In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 66, no 4, article id 138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether smooth surfaces varying in surface chemistry could be perceptually distinguished with the sense of touch. A set of ten glass surfaces was prepared which varied systematically in terms of the molecular composition of a thin coating of low topography. The contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, and surface energy were evaluated as objective physical parameters characterizing each coating. Additionally, the interaction forces between a human finger and the different coatings were quantified and compared in terms of tactile friction coefficients. The surfaces were evaluated psychophysically in terms of perceived similarities and were then ranked according to pleasantness. The participants could perceptually distinguish between surfaces varying in surface chemistry and a primary and secondary perceptual dimension were identified as sufficient to distinguish them. The primary dimension correlates with surface free energy, but both tactile friction and surface energy contribute to this dimension depending on whether the coatings are organic or inorganic. The secondary dimension could not be identified explicitly in terms of a physical quantity but is discussed in terms of recent developments in the literature. Coated glass is characterized by high friction coefficient upon interaction with a human finger as well as significant hysteresis in the stroking directions (lower applied load and higher friction in the backward stroke). Despite the complexity of the tribology, pleasantness can be clearly linked to it, where low friction (high contact angle) materials receive a higher ranking.

  • 148.
    Sthoer, Adrien
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Molecular Insight into Ion-Specific Interactions: Vibrational Sum Frequency Study of the Carboxylic Acid Moiety2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion specific effects at charged interfaces find numerous applications in colloidal sciences and play a vital role in many biological processes. Despite having been studied for over a century, starting with the work of F. Hofmeister in the 1880s, a comprehensive molecular  understanding remains elusive. It is currently believed that specific molecular interactions between ions and the various chemical functional groups, including the disruption of the interfacial water structure, are the key underlying steps. The research presented in this doctoral thesis focuses on the carboxylic acid moiety which is one of the chemical functionalities most frequently encountered at biological interfaces. Vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS), a non-linear optical technique with an exquisite surface specificity, was used to investigate the interactions between the carboxylic acid moiety of a fatty acid Langmuir monolayer with monovalent (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+), divalent (Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Co2+), and trivalent (Y3+, La3+) cations. The studies also focused on understanding the remarkable effect of negatively charged co-ions (Cl-, Br-, I-, SCN-) on the cation-carboxylate interactions. Another key result of this work is the identification of resolved spectral features linked to the Eigen-like hydronium (H3O+) cation at the charged carboxylic acid interface. VSFS allowed quantifying the surface charge, type of cation binding, and structural changes in the interfacial water molecules upon changes of the ion identity, concentration, and pH. The findings demonstrate that the physical-chemical properties of the interfacial layers reflect a subtle balance between molecular and electrostatic competitive interactions, providing new experimental quantitative insights for testing the suitability of extended new theories on charged interfaces and ion specific interactions.

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    Adrien Sthoer Doctoral Thesis
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  • 149.
    Sthoer, Adrien
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Adams, Ellen
    Ohio State University.
    Sengupta, Sanghamitra
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Corkery, Robert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Allen, Heather
    Tyrode, Eric
    KTH.
    La3+ and Y3+ interactions with the carboxylic acid moiety at theliquid/vapor interface: identification of binding complexes, chargereversal, and detection limits.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 150.
    Sthoer, Adrien
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Thyrode, Eric C.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Anion specific effects at negatively charged interfaces:the influence of Cl⎺, Br⎺, I⎺, and SCN⎺ on the interactionsof Na+ with the carboxylic acid moietyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of SCN⎺ and the halide co-ions in the interactions of Na+ with carboxylic acid Langmuir monolayers has been investigated using vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS). At 1 M concentrations in the subphase, the identity of the anion is shown to have a remarkable effect on the degree of deprotonation of the monolayer, with ions ordering in the sequence I⎺ > SCN⎺ > Cl⎺≈Br⎺. The same trend is observed both at pH 6 and pH 9 when the monolayer is intrinsically more charged. Evidence for the presence of SCN⎺ in the interfacial region, albeit at low to negligible concentrations, was found after identifying the C≡N stretch just above the detection limits. The results contradict electrostatic theories on charged interfaces where co-ions are not expected to play any significant role. The higher propensity for the large polarizable anions to deprotonate the monolayer is explained in terms of their ability to change the surface hydronium ion concentration.

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