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  • 101.
    Tyrode, Eric
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Johnson, C. Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    COLL 153-Molecular ordering at the liquid/air interface and hydration of surfactants2006In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 232Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Wallenius, Janne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering. LeadCold Reactors, Valhallavagen 79, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Qvist, S.
    LeadCold Reactors, Valhallavagen 79, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mickus, Ignas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering. LeadCold Reactors, Valhallavagen 79, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bortot, Sara
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering. LeadCold Reactors, Valhallavagen 79, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Szakalos, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. LeadCold Reactors, Valhallavagen 79, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ejenstam, Lina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Design of SEALER, a very small lead-cooled reactor for commercial power production in off-grid applications2018In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, ISSN 0029-5493, E-ISSN 1872-759X, Vol. 338, p. 23-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the conceptual design of a small lead-cooled nuclear reactor intended to replace diesel-power in off-grid applications is presented. In a vessel of dimensions making it transportable by air, the targeted design performance is to produce 3 MW of electrical power for up to 30 years without reloading of fuel. Consequently, the inner vessel can be sealed, delaying malevolent access to the nuclear fuel and improving security. Alumina forming alloys are applied to ensure long term corrosion protection of fuel cladding tubes, steam generator tubes and primary vessel over the operational temperature regime. Moreover, decay heat can be removed in a completely passive manner by natural convection from the core to the primary coolant and by thermal radiation from the primary vessel to the environment. Finally, the source term is such that relocation of population residing beyond 1 km from the reactor will not be required even in the case of a complete core melt.

  • 103.
    Wang, Xuying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Wei, Zheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Bioaccessibility of nickel and cobalt in powders and massive forms of stainless steel, nickel- or cobalt-based alloys, and nickel and cobalt metals in artificial sweat2019In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 106, p. 15-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel (Ni)and cobalt (Co)are the most common metal allergens upon skin contact at occupational settings and during consumer handling of metals and alloys. A standardized test (EN, 1811)exists to assess Ni release from articles of metals and alloys in massive forms intended for direct and prolonged skin contact, but no corresponding test exists for other materials such as powders or massive forms of alloys placed on the market or to determine the release of Co, for which only limited data is available. Differences in Ni and Co release from massive forms of a range of common stainless steels and some high-alloyed grades compared to Ni and Co metals were therefore assessed in artificial sweat for 1 week at 30 °C according to EN 1811. A comparable modified test procedure was elaborated and used for powders and some selected massive alloys. All alloys investigated released significantly less amount of Ni (100–5000-fold)and Co (200–400,000-fold)compared with Ni and Co metal, respectively. Almost all alloys showed a lower bioaccessible concentration (0.007–6.8 wt% Ni and 0.00003–0.6 wt% Co)when compared to corresponding bulk alloy contents (0.1–53 wt% Ni, 0.02–65 wt% Co). Observed differences are, among other factors, related to differences in bulk composition and to surface oxide characteristics. For the powders, less Ni and Co were released per surface area, but more per mass, compared to the corresponding massive forms. © 2019 The Authors

  • 104. Wang, Yongchao
    et al.
    Yin, Litao
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Jin, Ying
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Numerical Simulation of Micro-Galvanic Corrosion in Al Alloys: Steric Hindrance Effect of Corrosion Product2018In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 14, p. C1035-C1043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An improved finite element model was established to demonstrate the steric hindrance effect of the precipitated corrosion product (Al(OH)(3)) on micro-galvanic corrosion triggered by intermetallic particles (IMPs) in an Al-matrix. In this model, the precipitation/ dissolution of the corrosion product could occur in the whole liquid field as the result of a reversible reaction. Simulation results show that the precipitated insulating Al(OH)(3) on the electrode surface can inhibit further corrosion by reducing the conductivity of the solution and the active electrode surface area. Meanwhile, the steric hindrance effect of the precipitated Al(OH)(3) also slows down the diffusion and migration of species in the solution. Moreover, considering the porous nature of precipitated Al(OH)(3), a porosity parameter epsilon was introduced to describe the degree of compactness of corrosion product, which reaches a certain minimum value epsilon(c) under a specific corrosion situation. Compared to the previous work in which a surface coverage parameter was used to describe the blocking effect of Al(OH)(3) on surface activity, the present model is more realistic in mimicking the micro-galvanic corrosion, and also useful for the simulation of the transition from metastable pit formation to pit propagation.

  • 105.
    Wei, Zheng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Edin, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Karlsson, Anna Emelie
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Petrovic, Katarina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Soroka, Inna L.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Can gamma irradiation during radiotherapy influence the metal release process for biomedical CoCrMo and 316L alloys?2018In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B - Applied biomaterials, ISSN 1552-4973, E-ISSN 1552-4981, Vol. 106, no 7, p. 2673-2680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent of metal release from implant materials that are irradiated during radiotherapy may be influenced by irradiation-formed radicals. The influence of gamma irradiation, with a total dose of relevance for radiotherapy (e.g., for cancer treatments) on the extent of metal release from biomedical stainless steel AISI 316L and a cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCrMo) was investigated in physiological relevant solutions (phosphate buffered saline with and without 10 g/L bovine serum albumin) at pH 7.3. Directly after irradiation, the released amounts of metals were significantly higher for irradiated CoCrMo as compared to nonirradiated CoCrMo, resulting in an increased surface passivation (enhanced passive conditions) that hindered further release. A similar effect was observed for 316L showing lower nickel release after 1 h of initially irradiated samples as compared to nonirradiated samples. However, the effect of irradiation (total dose of 16.5 Gy) on metal release and surface oxide composition and thickness was generally small. Most metals were released initially (within seconds) upon immersion from CoCrMo but not from 316L. Albumin induced an increased amount of released metals from AISI 316L but not from CoCrMo. Albumin was not found to aggregate to any greater extent either upon gamma irradiation or in the presence of trace metal ions, as determined using different light scattering techniques. Further studies should elucidate the effect of repeated friction and fractionated low irradiation doses on the short- and long term metal release process of biomedical materials.

  • 106.
    Wojas, Natalia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Biosci & Mat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Res Inst Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Biosci & Mat, Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, CHE Surface & Corros Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Biosci & Mat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jarn, Mikael
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Biosci & Mat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gane, Patrick
    Omya Int AG, Oftringen, Switzerland..
    Schoelkopf, Joachim
    Omya Int AG, Oftringen, Switzerland..
    Adam, Marcus
    Omya Int AG, Oftringen, Switzerland..
    Adsorption of water and gaseous species on calcite surfaces at different relative humidity and temperature2018In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 255Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Wojas, Natalia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat Surface Proc & Formulat, Box 5607, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat Surface Proc & Formulat, Box 5607, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat Surface Proc & Formulat, Box 5607, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jarn, Mikael
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat Surface Proc & Formulat, Box 5607, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Schoelkop, Joachim
    Omya Int AG, Baslerstr 42, CH-4665 Oftringen, Switzerland..
    Gane, Patrick A. C.
    Omya Int AG, Baslerstr 42, CH-4665 Oftringen, Switzerland.;Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Engn, Dept Bioprod & Biosyst, POB 16300, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland..
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Biosci & Mat Surface Proc & Formulat, Box 5607, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Iceland spar calcite: Humidity and time effects on surface properties and their reversibility2019In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 541, p. 42-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the complex and dynamic nature of calcite surfaces under ambient conditions is important for optimizing industrial applications. It is essential to identify processes, their reversibility, and the relevant properties of CaCO3 solid-liquid and solid-gas interfaces under different environmental conditions, such as at increased relative humidity (RH). This work elucidates changes in surface properties on freshly cleaved calcite (topography, wettability and surface forces) as a function of time (<= 28 h) at controlled humidity (<= 3-95 %RH) and temperature (25.5 degrees C), evaluated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle techniques. In the presence of humidity, the wettability decreased, liquid water capillary forces dominated over van der Waals forces, and surface domains, such as hillocks, height about 7.0 angstrom, and trenches, depth about -3.5 angstrom, appeared and grew primarily in lateral dimensions. Hillocks demonstrated lower adhesion and higher deformation in AFM experiments. We propose that the growing surface domains were formed by ion dissolution and diffusion followed by formation of hydrated salt of CaCO3. Upon drying, the height of the hillocks decreased by about 50% suggesting their alteration into dehydrated or less hydrated CaCO3. However, the process was not entirely reversible and crystallization of new domains continued at a reduced rate.

  • 108.
    Yan, Hongji
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience.
    Chircov, Cristina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience.
    Zhong, Xueying
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Winkeljann, Benjamin
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Mech Engn, Boltzmannstr 11, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Tech Univ Munich, Munich Sch Bioengn, Boltzmannstr 11, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Dobryden, Illia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Nilsson, Harriet Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem BiotecKarolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Lieleg, Oliver
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Mech Engn, Boltzmannstr 11, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Tech Univ Munich, Munich Sch Bioengn, Boltzmannstr 11, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Crouzier, Thomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Glycoscience.
    Reversible Condensation of Mucins into Nanoparticles2018In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 34, no 45, p. 13615-13625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mucins are high molar mass glycoproteins that assume an extended conformation and can assemble into mucus hydrogels that protect our mucosal epithelium. In nature, the challenging task of generating a mucus layer, several hundreds of micrometers in thickness, from micrometer-sized cells is elegantly solved by the condensation of mucins inside vesicles and their on-demand release from the cells where they suddenly expand to form the extracellular mucus hydrogel. We aimed to recreate and control the process of compaction for mucins, the first step toward a better understanding of the process and creating biomimetic in vivo delivery strategies of macromolecules. We found that by adding glycerol to the aqueous solvent, we could induce drastic condensation of purified mucin molecules, reducing their size by an order of magnitude down to tens of nanometers in diameter. The condensation effect of glycerol was fully reversible and could be further enhanced and partially stabilized by cationic cross-linkers such as calcium and polylysine. The change of structure of mucins from extended molecules to nano-sized particles in the presence of glycerol translated into macroscopic rheological changes, as illustrated by a dampened shear-thinning effect with increasing glycerol concentration. This work provides new insight into mucin condensation, which could lead to new delivery strategies mimicking cell release of macromolecules condensed in vesicles such as mucins and heparin.

  • 109.
    Yin, Litao
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    FEM Modelling of Micro-galvanic Corrosion in Al Alloys Induced by Intermetallic Particles: Exploration of Chemical and Geometrical Effects2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Localized corrosion, such as pitting, crevice corrosion or galvanic corrosion, is a long-standing phenomenon that can greatly limit the life of metallic materials. For decades experimental methods have been used to try to understand the underlying physical, chemical and electrochemical processes that control localized corrosion in order to find effective protection methods against its propagation. The complexity of the phenomenon and its small geometric size have often severely restricted the basic understanding of local corrosion. In recent decades, computational methods have been developed as an alternative to the experimental methods. Compared to experimental methods, modeling and numerical simulation enable complicated systems to be systematically investigated without considering the inherent constraints of experimental methods.

        In the current Doctoral thesis, advanced calculation methodology has been used to study galvanic corrosion of an aluminum alloy with geometric resolution at micrometer level. The computational platform has been a commercial FEM-based software, COMSOL Multiphysics, which was combined with another software, Matlab. The current model system consists of a semi-spherical intermetallic particle, surrounded by a pure aluminum matrix. The aluminum surface is covered by an inert passive film, except for a ring-shaped surface around the particle itself. By assuming that the particle is electrochemically more noble than aluminum, it acts as a cathode and the surrounding aluminum ring as anode. By utilizing the FEM-based software, it has been possible to incorporate important physicochemical reactions, including the electrochemical anode and cathode reactions of the individual phases, mass transport of various chemical compounds formed during ongoing electrochemistry, homogeneous reactions in the electrolyte, as well as deposition of corrosion products consisting of Al(OH)3 along parts of the anodic area.

        What has made this study a significant step forward is that not only chemical changes but also geometrical changes have been taken into consideration in the simulation of ongoing micro-galvanic corrosion. Particularly challenging has been to mathematically master the gradual deposition of compact Al(OH)3 on an aluminum surface which gradually dissolves anodically. In the initial modeling work, the deposition of Al(OH)3 was assumed to occur only on the electrode surface, resulting in a gradual blockage of surface activity. In an even more advanced stage, the modeling has also sought to simulate the effect of a deposited porous film of Al(OH)3, formed through homogeneous reactions in the electrolyte. By taking into account inhibited diffusion and migration of chemical products that the porous film causes, its sterically inhibiting effect has for the first time been quantitatively interpreted. The porous corrosion product can most closely resemble the lid experimentally observed above local corrosion attacks, which leads to an even more diminished surface activity in electrochemical reactions compared with the deposition of only compact corrosion products on the anode surface.

        The kinetic model has resulted in a significantly deeper insight into the mechanism of micro-galvanic corrosion of the investigated system. The simulation has been shown to predict the time-dependent geometric changes of the anodically dissolved aluminum surface as well as the flow and distribution of generated chemical products. Contrary to the widely accepted perception that Al(OH)3 is not stable in the occluded acidified electrolyte environment, the calculations predict a higher local pH in the occluded electrolyte. This means that insoluble Al(OH)3 can be deposited on the electrode surface, the blocking effect of which may lead to a termination of the micro-galvanic corrosion. If the ring width is initially 0.5 μm or less, transport of OH- ions from the cathode surface to the occluded electrolyte environment is limited, leading to a local acidification within the occluded dissolving volume. At a given anodic ring width, an increased radius of the cathodic particle instead leads to an increased anodic dissolution rate by formation of a larger area for the cathode reaction. Variation of the chemical parameters in the electrolyte also shows that the simulated micro-galvanic corrosion rate of aluminum has a minimum at pH = 6. Both more acidic and more alkaline conditions result in an elevated anodic dissolution of aluminum. When pH ≤ 4, the deposition of Al(OH)3  becomes negligible, and the micro-galvanic corrosion will continue uninterrupted, completely in accordance with experimental data.

  • 110.
    Yin, Litao
    et al.
    Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Natl Ctr Mat Serv Safety, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Div Surface & Corros Sci, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Jin, Ying
    Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Natl Ctr Mat Serv Safety, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China..
    Experimental and Simulation Investigations of Copper Reduction Mechanism with and without Addition of SPS2018In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 13, p. D604-D611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rotating disk electrode and rotating ring-disk electrode were used to investigate the mechanism of copper reduction and the influence of convection on the effect of Bis-3-sodiumsulfopropyl disulfide (SPS), a widely used accelerator in copper via-filling and copper foil manufacturing. The experimental results show that the commonly accepted single electron transfer for copper reduction is dominating in the low overpotential range, whereas the double electron transfer is also involved in the high overpotential range. SPS was found to exhibit a weak inhibition effect even with Cl- ion in the solution under strong convection, and generate more intermediates in the solution with both Cl- ion and SPS than with Cl- ion alone. Based on the experimental observations, a reaction model for copper reduction considering competition between the single electron transfer and the double electron transfer, as well as desorption and runoff of generated Cu+-containing intermediates, was proposed and used for finite element method modeling. The simulation results enable quantitative description of the proportion of the two charge transfer reactions and the runoff of the intermediates, providing guidelines for selecting the additives and plating conditions in industrial manufacturing. 

  • 111.
    Yoder, Mikayla A.
    et al.
    Univ Illinois, Sch Chem Sci, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Urbana, IL 61801 USA..
    Yan, Zheng
    Univ Missouri, Dept Chem Engn, Columbia, MO 65211 USA.;Univ Missouri, Dept Mech & Aerosp Engn, Columbia, MO 65211 USA..
    Han, Mengdi
    Northwestern Univ, Ctr Biointegrated Elect, Evanston, IL 60208 USA..
    Rogers, John A.
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.;Northwestern Univ, Ctr Biointegrated Elect, Evanston, IL 60208 USA..
    Nuzzo, Ralph G.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Semiconductor Nanomembrane Materials for High-Performance Soft Electronic Devices2018In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 140, no 29, p. 9001-9019Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of methods to synthesize and physically manipulate extremely thin, single-crystalline inorganic semiconductor materials, so-called nano membranes, has led to an almost explosive growth of research worldwide into uniquely enabled opportunities for their use in new "soft" and other unconventional form factors for high-performance electronics. The unique properties that nanomembranes afford, such as their flexibility and lightweight characteristics, allow them to be integrated into electronic and optoelectronic devices that, in turn, adopt these unique attributes. For example, nanomembrane devices are able to make conformal contact to curvilinear surfaces and manipulate strain to induce the self-assembly of various 3D nano/micro device architectures. Further, thin semiconductor materials (e.g., Si-nanomembranes, transition metal dichalcogenides, and phosphorene) are subject to the impacts of quantum and other size-dependent effects that in turn enable the manipulation of their bandgaps and the properties of electronic and optoelectronic devices fabricated from them. In this Perspective, nanomembrane synthesis techniques and exemplary applications of their use are examined. We specifically describe nanomembrane chemistry exploiting high-performance materials, along with precise/high-throughput techniques for their manipulation that exemplify their growing capacities to shape outcomes in technology. Prominent challenges in the chemistry of these materials are presented along with future directions that might guide the development of next generation nanomembrane-based devices.

  • 112.
    Zhang, Fan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Chen, Chengdong
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hou, R.
    Li, Jing
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Cao, Yanhui
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Dong, S.
    Lin, C.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Investigation and application of mussel adhesive protein nanocomposite film-forming inhibitor for reinforced concrete engineering2019In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 153, p. 333-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mussel adhesive protein based nanocomposite thin film was produced to be applied as surface pre-treatment or primer on rebars of reinforced concrete. The film deposition and drying processes were investigated to enhance the corrosion protection, and facilitate large-scale industrial applications. The morphology, chemical composition and microstructure of the film were characterised with SEM, EDS, Micro-IR and AFM techniques. EIS results suggested the film provides excellent and increased corrosion protection for the carbon steel in mild and extreme concrete pore solutions. In-situ AFM results demonstrated the self-healing ability of the film to the pitting corrosion.

  • 113.
    Zhang, Fan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Chen, Chengdong
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Xiamen Univ, Coll Chem & Chem Engn, Dept Chem, State Key Lab Phys Chem Solid Surfaces, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, Peoples R China..
    Hou, Ruiqing
    Xiamen Univ, Coll Chem & Chem Engn, Dept Chem, State Key Lab Phys Chem Solid Surfaces, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, Peoples R China.;Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Inst Mat Res, Dept Mat Design & Characterisat, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany..
    Li, Jing
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Cao, Yanhui
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Xiamen Univ, Coll Chem & Chem Engn, Dept Chem, State Key Lab Phys Chem Solid Surfaces, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, Peoples R China..
    Dong, Shigang
    Xiamen Univ, Coll Energy, Sch Energy Res, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, Peoples R China..
    Lin, Changjian
    Xiamen Univ, Coll Chem & Chem Engn, Dept Chem, State Key Lab Phys Chem Solid Surfaces, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, Peoples R China.;Xiamen Univ, Coll Energy, Sch Energy Res, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, Peoples R China..
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Investigation and application of mussel adhesive protein nanocomposite film-forming inhibitor for reinforced concrete engineering2019In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 153, p. 333-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mussel adhesive protein based nanocomposite thin film was produced to be applied as surface pre-treatment or primer on rebars of reinforced concrete. The film deposition and drying processes were investigated to enhance the corrosion protection, and facilitate large-scale industrial applications. The morphology, chemical composition and microstructure of the film were characterised with SEM, EDS, Micro-IR and AFM techniques. EIS results suggested the film provides excellent and increased corrosion protection for the carbon steel in mild and extreme concrete pore solutions. In-situ AFM results demonstrated the self-healing ability of the film to the pitting corrosion.

  • 114.
    Zhang, Xian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Wuhan Univ Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Refractory Mat & Met, Hubei Prov Key Lab Syst Sci Met Proc, Int Res Inst Steel Technol, Wuhan 430081, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Atmospheric corrosion of Zn-Al coatings in a simulated automotive environment2018In: Surface Engineering, ISSN 0267-0844, E-ISSN 1743-2944, Vol. 34, no 9, p. 641-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerated NVDA (VDA 233-102) tests were performed on bare Zn and Al sheets, Galfan coating (Zn-5 wt-% Al) and Galvalume coating (Zn-55 wt-% Al) on steel. ZnO, Zn(OH)(2) and Zn-5(OH)(8)Cl-2 center dot H2O were the main corrosion products identified on both bare Zn sheet and Galfan. AlOOH and Al(OH)(3) were preferentially formed on bare Al sheet and Galvalume. In addition, Zn-Al-containing corrosion products, Zn6Al2(OH)(16)CO3 center dot 4H(2)O and/or Zn2Al(OH)(6)Cl center dot 2H(2)O were identified on both Galfan and Galvalume. Corrosion products of Zn6Al2(OH)(16)CO3 center dot 4H(2)O with a platelet morphology were preferentially formed in the zinc-rich interdendritic regions of the Galvalume surface. Galfan revealed a similar corrosion behaviour as bare Zn sheet, whereas Galvalume exhibited similar behaviour as bare Al sheet. Deposition of chlorides highly influenced the corrosion of both Galvalume and Al rather than Galfan and Zn due to the rapid local damage of the compact native thin film of Al2O3.

  • 115.
    Zhou, Nian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Surface integrity and corrosion behavior of stainless steels after grinding operations2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stainless steels are widely used in applications where both the mechanical properties of steels and high corrosion resistance are required. There is continuous research to enable stainless steel components to be produced in a more economical way and be used in more harsh environments. A way to achieve this is to correlate the service performance with the production processes.

    The central theme of this thesis is surface integrity and corrosion, especially the stress corrosion cracking behavior, after grinding processes. Controlled grinding parameters, including abrasive grit size, machine power and grinding lubricant, were used and the resulting surface properties studied for austenitic 304L and duplex 2304 stainless steels. The abrasive grit size effect was found to have a larger influence. Surface defects, a highly deformed surface layer and the generation of a high level surface tensile residual stresses along the grinding direction were observed as the main types of damage. 

    The effect of grinding on stress corrosion cracking behavior of austenitic 304L, ferritic 4509 and duplex 2304 stainless steels in chloride-containing environments was also investigated.  The abrasive grit size effect on corrosion behavior for the three grades was compared. Grinding-induced surface tensile residual stress was suggested as the main factor to cause micro-cracks on the ground surface for 304L and 2304; for 4509, grinding-induced grain fragmentation was considered as the main factor for the initiation of extensive micro-pits. For duplex 2304, the microstructure and micro-notches in the as-ground surface also had significant influence. Depending on the surface conditions, the actual loading by four-point bending was found to deviate from the calculated value using the formula according to ASTM G39 by different amounts. The knowledge obtained from this work can provide guidance for choosing appropriate stainless steel grades and grinding parameters; and can also be used to help understanding the failure mechanism of ground stainless steel components during service.

  • 116.
    Zhou, Nian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Schönning, Mikael
    Lin Peng, Ru
    Influence of surface grinding on corrosion behavior of ferritic stainless steels in boiling magnesium chloride solution2018In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of grinding operations on surface properties and corrosion behavior of a ferritic stainless steel (FSS), EN 1.4509, has been investigated and limited comparisons also made to the grade EN 1.4622. Surface grinding was performed along the rolling direction of the material. Corrosion tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride solution according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and under four‐point bend loading. The surface topography and cross‐section microstructure before and after exposure were investigated, and residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after corrosion tests using X‐ray diffraction. In addition, in situ surface stress measurements were performed to evaluate the actual surface stresses of specimens subject to four‐point bend loading according to ASTM G39. Micro‐pits showing branched morphology initiated from the highly deformed ground surface layer which contained fragmented grains, were observed for all the ground specimens but not those in the as‐delivered condition. Grain boundaries under the surface layer appeared to hinder the corrosion process. No macro‐cracking was found on any specimen after exposure even at high calculated applied loads.

  • 117.
    Örnek, Cem
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Additive manufacturing–a general corrosion perspective2018In: Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, ISSN 1478-422X, E-ISSN 1743-2782, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 531-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallic additive manufacturing will replace some materials produced by conventional fabrication methods in the nearest future. However, corrosion will remain an important aspect needed to be prevented. The corrosion behaviour of additively manufactured alloys has been sparsely studied and very little work has been published so far. In this article, a general discussion about materials produced by additive manufacturing will be provided. 

  • 118.
    Örnek, Cem
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Div Surface & Corros Sci, Drottning Kristinas Vag 51, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stress Corrosion Cracking and Hydrogen Embrittlement of Type 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Beneath MgCl2 and MgCl2: FeCl3 Droplets2019In: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 75, no 6, p. 657-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The atmospheric corrosion, as well as environmentally assisted cracking behavior of 316L austenitic stainless steel (UNS S31603) beneath MgCl2 and MgCl2: FeCl3 droplets under elastic and elastic-plastic strain exposed for 6 months at 50 degrees C and 30% relative humidity were investigated. Shallow and deep corrosion sites with filiform corrosion along with stress corrosion cracking (SCC) were formed beneath the salt-laden droplets, and the potential role of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) and crevice corrosion in damage evolution elucidated. Elastic strain (0.1%) was sufficient to cause SCC cracking as well as HE under droplets with 145 mu g/cmth> of chloride, with the severity of cracking increasing with increasing chloride deposition density (CDD). Elastic-plastic strain (0.2%) increased the propensity to both corrosion and SCC/HE, with cracks seen under droplets having CDD as low as 14.5 mu g/cm(2). Elastic-plastic strain was further seen to facilitate and accelerate pitting corrosion, leading to pits with more penetration depth. The extent of corrosion and cracking increases with increasing chloride deposition density, with ferric ions having more severe effect, in particular promoting localized corrosion with multiple nucleation sites. The work reported here was brought into a larger context of stainless steel corrosion and discussed in light of better understanding atmospheric corrosion of structural components such as nuclear waste storage containers.

  • 119.
    Örnek, Cem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Engelberg, D. L.
    Univ Manchester, Corros & Protect Ctr, Sackville St, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England.;Univ Manchester, Mat Performance Ctr, Sch Mat, Sackville St, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Toward Understanding the Effects of Strain and Chloride Deposition Density on Atmospheric Chloride-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Type 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel Under MgCl2 and FeCl3:MgCl2 Droplets2019In: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 167-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 304 (UNS S30400) austenitic stainless steel was exposed for 6 months under elastic (0.1%) and elastic/plastic (0.2%) strain to MgCl2 and mixed MgCl2:FeCl3 droplets with varying chloride deposition densities (1.5 mu g/cm(2)-1,500 mu g/cm(2)) at 30% relative humidity (RH) and 50 degrees C. The occurrence of pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, atmospheric chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (AISCC), and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) was observed, and the average crack growth rates estimated. Exposure to elastic/plastic strain resulted in longer and more severe cracks. AISCC was found at chloride deposition densities down to 14.5 mu g/cm(2), whereas no cracks were seen at lower deposition densities, with cracks developing at pit or crevice corrosion sites. More severe cracks were seen under MgCl2 droplets as contrasted to mixed MgCl2:FeCl3 salt droplets, which were seen to promote more localized corrosion sites with deeper penetration and in conjunction with shorter crack lengths. Differences in AISCC propagation rates and associated crack morphologies are discussed in relation to understanding long-term atmospheric corrosion exposures.

  • 120.
    Örnek, Cem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    On the Volta potential measured by SKPFM - fundamental and practical pects with relevance to corrosion science2019In: Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, ISSN 1478-422X, E-ISSN 1743-2782, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 185-198Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Volta potential is an electron-sensitive parameter and describes the ermodynamic propensity of a metal to take part in electrochemical actions. It has found widespread acceptance among corrosion searchers due to its connection to the corrosion potential and its sy measurability in local scale, being often used to study localised rrosion phenomena and micro-galvanic activities. The principle object this paper is to provide a comprehensive, fundamental insight into e meaning of the Volta potential and to define a polarity convention measured potentials by the scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy KPFM) in order to assess local nobilities in microstructures. nditions to relate the Volta potential with the mixed-potential theory e discussed and a possible connection to corrosion phenomena plained. The limitations of the Volta potential as well as the SKPFM chnique are also aimed to be explained, with some practical formation to maximise the output of high quality data.

  • 121.
    Örnek, Cem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Passive film characterisation of duplex stainless steel using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy in combination with electrochemical measurements2019In: npJ Materials Degradation, ISSN 2397-2106, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characterisation of passive oxide films on heterogeneous microstructures is needed to assess local degradation (corrosion, cracking) in aggressive environments. The Volta potential is a surface-sensitive parameter which can be used to assess the surface nobility and hence passive films. In this work, it is shown that the Volta potential, measured on super duplex stainless steel by scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy, correlates with the electrochemical properties of the passive film, measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarisation. Natural oxidation by ageing in ambient air as well as artificial oxidation by immersion in concentrated nitric acid improved the nobility, both reflected by increased Volta potentials and electrochemical parameters. Passivation was associated with vanishing of the inherent Volta potential difference between the ferrite and austenite, thereby reducing the galvanic coupling and hence improving the corrosion resistance of the material. Hydrogen-passive film interactions, triggered by cathodic polarisation, however, largely increased the Volta potential difference between the phases, resulting in loss of electrochemical nobility, with the ferrite being more affected than the austenite. A correlative approach of using the Volta potential in conjunction with electrochemical data has been introduced to characterise the nobility of passive films in global and local scale.

  • 122.
    Örnek, Cem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Swerea KIMAB AB, Isafjordsgatan 28A, Kista, 164 40, Sweden.
    Liu, Min
    Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Natl Ctr Mat Serv Safety, Xueyuan Rd 30, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China..
    Pan, Ying
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Jin, Y.
    Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Natl Ctr Mat Serv Safety, Xueyuan Rd 30, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China..
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Volta Potential Evolution of Intermetallics in Aluminum Alloy Microstructure Under Thin Aqueous Adlayers: A combined DFT and Experimental Study2018In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 61, no 9-11, p. 1169-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, first-principle density functional theory (DFT) was used to calculate the work function and Volta potential differences between aluminum alloy matrix and two intermetallic phases (Mg2Si and Al2Cu) with varying surface terminations as a function of adhering monolayers (ML) of water. The calculated data were compared with experimental local Volta potential data obtained by the scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) on a commercial aluminum alloy AA6063-T5 in atmospheric environments with varying relative humidity (RH). The calculations suggest that the surface termination has a major effect on the magnitude and polarity of the Volta potential of both intermetallic phases (IMP's). The Volta potential difference between the IMP's and the aluminum matrix decreases when the surface is gradually covered by water molecules, and may further change as a function of adhering ML's of water. This can lead to nobility inversions of the IMP's relative to the aluminum matrix. The measured Volta potential difference between both IMP's and their neighboring matrix is dependent on RH. Natural oxidation in ambient indoor air for 2 months led to a nobility inversion of the IMP's with respect to the aluminum matrix, with the intermetallics showing anodic nature already in dry condition. The anodic nature of Al2Cu remained with the introduction of RH, whereas Mg2Si became cathodic at high RH, presumably due to de-alloying of Mg and oxide dissolution. The DFT calculations predicted an anodic character of both IMP's in reference to the oxidized aluminum matrix, being in good agreement with the SKPFM data. The DFT and SKPFM data were discussed in light of understanding localized corrosion of aluminum alloys under conditions akin to atmospheric exposure.

  • 123.
    Örnek, Cem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Långberg, Marie
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Evertsson, Jonas
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Harlow, Gary
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Linpe, Weronica
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Rullik, Lisa
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Carla, Francesco
    European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Felici, Roberto
    Area Ric Roma 2 Tor Vergata, SPINCNR, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Bettini, Eleonora
    Sandvik Mat Technol, SE-81181 Sandviken, Sweden..
    Kivisakk, Ulf
    Sandvik Mat Technol, SE-81181 Sandviken, Sweden..
    Lundgren, Edvin
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    In-situ synchrotron GIXRD study of passive film evolution on duplex stainless steel in corrosive environment2018In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 141, p. 18-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents new findings about the passive film formed on super duplex stainless steel in ambient air and corrosive environments, studied by synchrotron grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). The passive film, formed in air, was seen to be a nano-crystalline mixed-oxide. Electrochemical polarisation to the passive region in aqueous 1 M NaCl at room temperature resulted in an increase of the passive film thickness, preferential dissolution of Fe, and partial loss of crystallinity. After termination of polarization to the transpassive regime, reformation of the mixed-oxides was observed, showing a thicker, semi-crystalline, and more defective nature (more vacancies) with further new oxides/hydroxides.

  • 124.
    Örnek, Cem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Långberg, Marie
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Swerim, SE-16407 Kista, Sweden..
    Evertsson, Jonas
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Phys Chem Dept, D-35392 Giessen, Germany..
    Harlow, Gary
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Linpe, Weronica
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Rullik, Lisa
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Carla, Francesco
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE, Oxon, England..
    Felici, Roberto
    SPINCNR, Area Ric Roma 2 Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Kivisakk, Ulf
    Sandvik Mat Technol, SE-81181 Sandviken, Sweden..
    Lundgren, Edvin
    Lund Univ, Div Synchrotron Radiat Res, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Influence of Surface Strain on Passive Film Formation of Duplex Stainless Steel and Its Degradation in Corrosive Environment2019In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 166, no 11, p. C3071-C3080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of surface strain on the passive film evolution of SAF 2507 super duplex stainless steel exposed to ambient air and 0.1 M NaCl solution with varying anodic polarization at room temperature has been investigated using in-situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) in combination with electrochemical measurements. Surface strain affected the crystallinity of the passive film as such that the surface oxides/hydroxides were predominantly amorphous, with some minor crystalline CrOOH and FeOOH present in the film. Crystalline CrOOH was seen to diminish in volume upon immersion in the NaCl solution, well-possibly becoming amorphous during anodic polarization, whereas crystalline FeOOH was seen to increase in volume during polarization to the passive potential regime. Strain relaxation, associated with metal dissolution, occurred in both austenitic and ferritic grains during immersion in the electrolyte. Anodic polarization to the transpassive regime led to maximum strain relaxation, occurring more on the austenite than the ferrite. The selective transpassive dissolution nature of the ferrite was significantly reduced due to large strains in the austenite. Passive film breakdown was reflected by enhanced dissolution of Fe, Cr, Mo and Ni occurring simultaneously around 1300 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. 

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