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  • 101.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    PRODUCT INNOVATION, EXPORT AND LOCATION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a model where new products are introduced by entrepreneurs or innovating firms in a quasi-temporal setting. Market conditions are characterized by monopolistic competition between varieties belonging to the same product group, where varieties can become obsolete over time and hence disappear from demand. Firms that innovate have to make an R&D investment, and a firm’s decision to export a variety to a given market is associated with a market channel investment. The model is used to predict export behavior by firms in different regional milieus, and these predictions are compared with observations from a rich data set describing export activities of Swedish firms. The data set contains firm level information about export flows, where the flow of each variety is associated with the exporting firm’s location, export value, price and destination. In the empirical analysis we examine how the arrival of innovation ideas varies across regions and how this variation depends on regional characteristics.

  • 102.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    PRODUCT INNOVATION, EXPORT ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS: an analysis of innovation ideas in regions2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on how characteristics of regions pertaining to local information about product varieties and markets as well as networks for the transmission of information about innovation opportunities influence the arrival of innovation ideas to existing and potential entrepreneurs. We formulate a model where entrepreneurs or innovating firms introduce new products in a quasi-temporal setting. Market conditions are characterized by monopolistic competition between varieties belonging to the same product group, in which there is entry and exit of varieties. Firms innovate in response to the arrival of innovation ideas. To realize these ideas firms have to make an R&D investment and a firm’s decision to export a variety to a new market is associated with a market channel investment. The theoretical model is used as a reference when formulating two regression models, with which we estimate factors that can explain the introduction of new export varieties by firms in different regional milieus. In one model we examine the emergence of new export firms, and in the second model we investigate the appearance of new export varieties. Results are consistent with the assumption that knowledge and information flows have a positive influence on the frequency of arrival of innovation ideas to firms.

  • 103.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    REGIONAL POLICY AS CHANGE MANAGEMENT: A theoretical discussion with empirical illustrations2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on challenges and potentials for policy in the presence of fundamental change processes that influence the long-term evolution of regions. The perspective in the paper implies that policy can be viewed as ‘management of change’. We present a conceptual model for understanding the nature of fundamental change processes, which emphasizes slowly changing regional characteristics and invariant self-organized response mechanisms. It is supported by empirical examples of the invariant character of regional development and innovation phenomena, such as long-term population growth, export dynamics and persistence in new firm formation across regions in Sweden. The examples are put in perspective by studying the behavior of dynamic systems. A discussion of how policy may support new trajectories are provided.

  • 104.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Andersson, Å. E.
    Mathematical Models in Spatial Economics2007In: Mathematical Models in Economics in the Encyclopedia of Mathematical Sciences, Paris: Unesco, 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Ebersberger, H.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    The Impact of Foreign Takeovers on Innovation and Productivity Performance2007In: Entrepreneurship and Development – Local Processes and Global Patterns / [ed] I. Johansson, George Mason University, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    EJERMO, OLOF
    Process Innovations in a Duopoly with Two regions2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most models of duopolies with a spatial dimension refer to the ’linear’ or ’circular’ city. Moreover, in duopoly models with innovations, the spatial dimension is usually dropped. We bridge this gap by constructing a model with two regions, each hosting production of a differentiated quality (high and low quality). In addition, consumers are heterogenous with different willingness to pay for quality. The analysis focuses on the incentives for process innovations, which affect the unit cost of production. The model captures two common trends in the urbanization process, and their effects on the incentive for process innovations. The first is regional enlargement or reduced transport costs. We find that such changes raise the proportion of process R&D in the region producing the low-quality good relative to process R&D from the high-quality region. Second, we examine the effect on optimal process R&D of moving consumers from the low-quality to the high-quality region. This lowers the optimal amount of process R&D undertaken in the low-quality region, while it is raised in the high-quality region.

  • 107.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Forslund, Ulla
    The Analysis of Location, Co-Location and Urbanisation Economics2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Location analysis has two major perspectives. The first is concerned with where toplace a given economic activity or facility, defined as optimization problem, wherethe properties of the economic environment are taken as a given fact. The secondperspective motivates a different question: how can the entire landscape of activitylocations be understood and explained? Both approaches can be associated with anequilibrium framework. However, the second perspective also stimulates the studentto think about the evolution of location patterns. How do they emerge and which arethe adjustment processes?

  • 108.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Forslund, Ulla
    THE ANALYSIS OF LOCATION, CO-LOCATION ANDURBANISATION ECONOMIES2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an overview and critical assessment of co-location and clusteringin space. Basic location conditions include accessibility to customers, input suppliersincluding knowledge providers, and regional endowments. A distinction is madebetween slow and fast location adjustments. In a basic model, it is shown howdistance sensitivity and scale economies generate self-reinforcing locationexternalities. Variations of the same model are employed to illuminate howurbanisation economies can stimulate co-location and clustering. One model variant isdesigned to examine how innovation activities also can be influenced by urbanisationeconomies. The paper concludes that a set of basic principals form the basis forlocalisation and urbanisation economies. However, there remains a challenging gapbetween model predictions and empirical observations.

  • 109.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Dynamics and Entrepreneurship in a Knowledge-Based Economy2006In: Entrepreneurship and Dynamics in a Knowledge Economy / [ed] B. Johansson, C. Karlsson and R. Stough, Routledge, 2006, p. 12-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Knowledge and Regional Development2009In: Handbook of Regional Growth and Development Theories / [ed] R. Capello and P. Nijkamp, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2009, p. 239-255Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Knowledge, Creativity and Regional Development2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of economic development in regions in developed countries hasgone through a fundamental change during recent decades. Nowadays, regions areincreasingly looked upon as independent, dynamic market places that are connectedvia flows of interregional and international trade. Regional development is driven bychanges in the economic specialisation, which can be explained by two different, butcomplementary theoretical frameworks for analysing location and trade, one old andone new.

    In this chapter, we claim that knowledge infrastructure, human capital, talent, creativity,knowledge generation, knowledge protection, knowledge accumulation, knowledgeappropriation, knowledge flows, etc. as well as the creative use of knowledge arebasic drivers of the specialisation of regions and hence of regional development. Thepurpose is to discuss the role of knowledge and talent in regional development seen inboth a regional and a global context.

  • 112.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Regional Development and Knowledge2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the concept of knowledge and examines models depicting and explaining the role of knowledge in regional development and provides an assessment of empirical studies of how knowledge affects growth and development in functional regions. For this paper it is crucial to understand those factors that make knowledge spatially sticky and knowledge-production capacity trapped. It is equally important to explain the conditions for knowledge flows and diffusion. The presentation also widens the view by extending the analysis of knowledge creation to include aspects of creativity. Since location advantages and especially the knowledge-based advantages have the feature of moving in slowly path-dependent processes the regional policy needs to focus on structural adjustments of tangible and non-tangible infrastructure to succeed.

  • 113.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Towards a Dynamic Theory for the Spatial Knowledge Economy2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades the world has witnessed the emergence of a global knowledge economy. For example, the evolution in recent decades of the developed economies has been accompanied by a regional shift in economic activity away from traditional industrial regions to new agglomerations of high technology, creating an explosion of entrepreneurial activity and new firm formation. For the OECD countries in particular, we can observe a transfer from an industrial economy to a knowledge economy. The supporting evidences are overwhelming and indicate that the trend is global. The emerging knowledge economy have attracted much interest among economist and generated many important contributions during the last two decades. However, the literature does not provide a comprehensive picture and we are indeed lacking a “general theory” of the knowledge economy. Various aspects of the emerging knowledge economy has been thoroughly analysed both theoretically and empirically but the overall synthesis is not yet present. Something to ask for would be a coherent theoretical framework that can explain how growth-induced investments in knowledge production stimulate localised, entrepreneur-driven innovations, which generate structural change and economic growth in an integrated system of functional regions. An interesting observation is that many of the necessary building blocks already seem to exist but that they are still waiting for someone to integrate them. The current state-of-the-art also includes inconsistent components. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to such an integration of the existing pieces of knowledge.

  • 114.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Backman, Mikaela
    INNOVATION POLICY INSTRUMENTS2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lisbon Agenda that was launched in 2000, and had a set time-period of ten years. The purpose of the Lisbon Agenda was to make the EU the most competitive, knowledge-based economy in the world, and at the same time preserving, or even improving social cohesion and maintain environmental sustainability. The Lisbon Agenda had a large number of goals, in both quantified and qualified measures, in different areas. The main instrument that was put forward was the open method of co-ordination (OMC) that includes indicators, benchmarking, peer pressure, and best practise demonstrations.

    The forthcoming Lisbon Agenda will certainly need new approaches, and new instruments. One of the areas of instruments that can be further explored is innovation policies where the use of R&D and human capital is enhanced. Human capital is a natural part of a knowledge-based economy, and has positive impacts on growth, and jobs in the economy. Innovation policy instruments are diversified and are integrated in many areas of an economy and on many levels, which make them ideal for the next Lisbon Agenda. The instruments can have a general or specific characteristics and some span over the two characteristics.

  • 115.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Backman, Mikaela
    Juusola, Pia
    THE LISBON AGENDA FROM 2000 TO 20102007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lisbon Agenda was approved in mars 2000 and at that time, the European Union was facing economic prosperity. Even so, globalization and new knowledge economies were becoming an increasing threat and the EU was in need of a transformation in its economy and society. The Lisbon Agenda was set to make the EU the most competitive, knowledge-based economy in the world, and at the same time preserving, or even improving social cohesion and maintain environmental sustainability. Another important motivation for the Lisbon Agenda was the perception that the EU was lagging behind the US and other major economies.

    The main instrument that was put forward was open method of co-ordination (OMC) that includes indicators, benchmarking, peer pressure, and best practise. The time-period was set for ten years and the midterm evaluations found that the goals had not be reached. Due to the lacking results, the Lisbon Agenda was forced to change some of the implementation processes.

    The many quantitative goals were reduced, and only the goal to dedicate three percent of GDP to R&D stayed in its original shape. The main goals were now on growth, and jobs.

  • 116.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Hacker, R. S.
    Emerging Market Economies in an Integrating Europe: An Introduction2004In: Emerging Market Economies and European Economic Integration / [ed] R.S. Hacker, B. Johansson and C. Karlsson, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2004Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Hacker, R.S.
    Emerging Market Economies and European Economic Integration 2004Book (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Norman, Therese
    Innovation, Technology and Knowledge2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines a set of fundamental changes in the global economy that have altered the nature of the innovation process, brought about global challenges, and stimulated cross border phenomena and network formation responses. These changes has brought about an increase of the demand for knowledge as well as changed the conditions for knowledge production and innovation. Against the background of a changing global economy, the purpose of the paper is to make an overview over the role and drivers of innovation, technology and knowledge. The role of absorptive capacity and knowledge flows between economic agents from different spatial units for economic growth is further emphasized. Furthermore, it is recognized in the paper that national innovative productivity depends upon the national innovation systems. Multinationals play an increasingly central role for the transfer of knowledge between different parts of the world. This paper thoroughly examines the way multinationals contribute to innovation, technology and knowledge dispersion. The distribution of knowledge investments is uneven across the globe and the occurrence of the “European paradox” highlights where Europe has failed in this context.

  • 119.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    R. Stough, Roger
    Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Functional Regions2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of entrepreneurship and innovations foreconomic development in functional regions and in doing that highlighting the differentconditions offered for entrepreneurship and innovations in functional regions of various sizes.In conclusion, the conditions for entrepreneurship and innovations vary substantially betweenfunctional regions, since the necessary knowledge resources tend to be local and to cluster incertain regions and not others. Functional regions with a high capacity to generate new ideas,create knowledge, organizational learning and innovations are characterized as learningregions. Large functional regions offer a large market potential and a superior accessibility toknowledge and knowledge resources and they will further develop their creative capabilitiesdue to an accumulation of innovative and entrepreneurial knowledge.

  • 120.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Karlsson, CharlieStough, R.
    Entrepreneurship and Dynamics in a Knowledge Economy2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Stough, R.
    Entrepreneurship, Clusters and Policy in the Emerging Digital Economy2006In: The Emerging Digital Economy / [ed] B. Johansson, C. Karlsson and R. Stough, Berlin: Springer-Verslag , 2006, p. 1-20Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Stough, R.
    Industrial Clusters and Inter-Firm Networks 2005Book (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Stough, R.
    Industrial Clusters and Inter-Firm Networks: An Introduction2005In: Industrial Clusters and Inter-Firm Networks / [ed] C. Karlsson, B. Johansson and R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2005, p. 1-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Stough, R.
    The Emerging Digital Economy: Conclusions2006In: The Emerging Digital Economy / [ed] B. Johansson, C. Karlsson and R. Stough, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2006, p. 331-340Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Karlsson, CharlieStough, R.
    The Emerging Digital Economy: Entrepreneurship, Clusters and Policy 2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 126.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Klaesson, J.
    The creative city and its distributional consequences: The case of Wellington2011In: Handbook of Creative Cities, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 456-481Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Agglomeration Dynamics of Business Services2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A major characteristic of the economic development in European and North America duringthe past 10-15 years is a fast expansion of the producer-service sector. This paper considersthe location dynamics of two categories of firms: contact-intensive producer-service suppliersand other firms, where the latter form the rest of the economy. Urban regions are decomposedinto urban areas, and the latter into zones. In the theoretical framework firms have randomchoicepreferences and respond in a non-linear way to time distances in their contact efforts.They make their location decisions in response to local, intra-regional and extra-regionalaccess to market demand. This leads to a non-linear system that over time generatescumulative change processes of growth and decline. The econometric analysis makes use ofinformation about time distances between zones in urban areas as well as between urban areasin the same agglomeration and between urban areas in different agglomerations. Thisinformation is employed in an econometric model that depicts for each urban area how thenumber of jobs in different sectors change in response to the access to customers’ purchasingpower in the entire set of urban areas. The estimation results show that the cumulative changeprocesses feature non-linear behaviour.

  • 128.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping International Business School.
    CREATIVE MILIEUS IN THE STOCKHOLM REGION2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter intends to demonstrate that the Stockholm region is the key centre for knowledge development, innovations and intellectual creativity in Sweden. The region is an attractor for individuals with ambitions and talents in political, economic and cultural life. At the same time novel ideas and solutions diffuse from the Stockholm region to other regions of the country.

    A major effort in the study is to describe occupations with regard to (i) the skills of a job and (ii) the tasks associated with a job. Moreover, the knowledge intensity of an ur-ban region can be related to the absorption capacity of firms in the region, implying that firms can make use of all sorts of novelties in the world economy as stimuli for own imitations and innovations. Compared to other parts of Sweden, the Stockholm region has both a richer inflow of creative ideas and a larger absorptive capacity. This allows the Stockholm region to function as a source of innovation and business renewal for the rest of the country as novelties diffuse through the regional hierarchy.

  • 129.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Jönköping International Business SchoolJönköping International Business School.
    Creative milieus in the Stockholm region2011In: HANDBOOK OF CREATIVE CITIES, CHELTENHAM: EDWARD ELGAR PUBLISHING LTD , 2011, p. 456-481Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Klaesson, John
    Infrastructure, Labour Market Accessibility and Economic Development2007In: The Management and Measurement of Infrastructure :  Performance, Efficiency and Innovation / [ed] C Karlsson, WP Anderson, B Johansson and K Kobayashi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 131.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    FDI Inflows to Sweden: Consequences for Innovation and Renewal2011In: New Dimensions in  Regional Economic Development: The Role of Entrepreneurship Research, Practice and Policy / [ed] S. Desai, P. Nijkamp and R. Stough, Elsevier, 2011, p. 310-339Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    FDI Inflows to Sweden: Consequences for Innovation and Renewal2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    FDI inflows have expanded rapidly during the past decade. This paper analyses if such inflows dointroduce new characteristics of the innovation systems at national and regional levels. The paperstudies two phenomena. First, what novelties are brought into the host region (country) when FDIinflows occur? Second, what are the consequences for the innovation intensity, technology transferand economic performance of firms in a regional (national) economy that experiences FDI inflows?These issues are assessed by examining the characteristics of foreign multinationals and comparingthem with the characteristics of multinational, uninational and non-affiliate firms, respectively. Theanalyses control for location, examine regional impacts, and are based on CIS data (CommunityInnovation Survey III). The paper contributes to earlier studies in two important ways. First, itcompares FDI firms with three other distinct types of corporate structure. Second, it combines resultsfrom both parametric and non-parametric estimations. The results indicate that FDI inflows in anunambiguous way renew the local economy when acquiring or replacing domestic multi-unit firms(uninationals). Compared to other types of corporate structure, FDI firms do not seem to improveinnovation characteristics of the local economy.

  • 133.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Firm Strategy, Location and MNE-networks2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper asks three explicit questions, where the first one concerns the impact of a firm’s choice of innovation strategy and knowledge resources. The study aims at confirming that firms with a strategy with R&D persistency have a markedly higher productivity, profitability and wage level than other firms. The second question is focused on the location of firms, with a distinction between firms dwelling in a metropolitan region and other firms. The hypothesis is that a metropolitan knowledge milieu may augment the performance of firms. The third question concerns knowledge exchange in regional and global networks that pertain to multinational affiliates. Applying Swedish data on individual firms and their location, the paper shows that firm performance is significantly higher when the three factors R&D persistency, metropolitan location and affiliation to a multinational group are combined.

  • 134.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Global Location Patterns of R&D Investments2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns offshore R&D investments, focusing mainly on largemultinational companies within the industrialized world. What do we know aboutoffshore R&D activities regarding trends, scope and destinations, driving forcesand constraints? What do we know about consequences for the R&D investingcompany, as well as for national systems of innovation, regional R&Dexternalities, agglomeration and urban economies of home and host countries aswell?

  • 135.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    INNOVATION ACTIVITIESEXPLAINED BY FIRM ATTRIBUTES AND LOCATION2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines systematically the importance of location versus a vector of firmattributes on firms’ innovation engagements. The various factors that can influence a firm’sinnovation efforts are divided into (i) firm location, reflecting the regional milieu, and (ii)firm attributes such as corporate structure, nature of the knowledge production, type ofindustry and a set of specific firm characteristics. The study is based on information about2, 094 individual Swedish firms, where a firm may be non-affiliated or belong to a group(multi-firm enterprise), domestically or foreign owned. The study concludes that thepropensity to be innovative differs between the five macro-region investigated. Amonginnovative firms, however, the R&D intensity as well as most other innovation-activitycharacteristics remain invariant with regard to location, when controlling for the skillcomposition, physical capital intensity, industry, corporate structure firm, size and marketextension.

  • 136.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Innovation Strategy and Firm Performance: What is the long-run impact of persistent R&D?2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are systematic long-run differences in the performance of firms explained by the R&D-strategy that each firm employs. Controlling for unobservable heterogeneity, past performance and other firm characteristics, this paper shows that labour productivity is, on average, 13 percent higher among firms with persistent R&D commitment and 9 percent higher among firms which make occasional R&D efforts when compared with non-R&D-firms. Furthermore, firms which employ a strategy with persistent R&D efforts are rewarded with a productivity growth rate that on average is about 2 percent higher than for other firms. The results are similar when firm performance is measured as total sales or exports per labor input.

  • 137.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    R&D-Persistency, Metropolitan Externalities and Productivity2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms display persistent differences as regards both internal and external characteristics, and these differences correspond to asymmetries in the performance of firms with regard to productivity level and growth as well as innovativeness. This paper focuses on one internal characteristic and one external factor by distinguishing between firms with persistent R&D efforts and other firms and firms located in a metropolitan region versus firms with other locations. Applying Swedish data on individual firms and their location, the paper shows that firms that follow a strategy with persistent R&D efforts have a distinctly higher level of productivity across all types of location. In addition, the productivity level of firms with persistent R&D is augmented in a significant way when such firms have a metropolitan location and, in particular, a location in a metropolitan city.

  • 138.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Ebersberger, B.
    Does Ownership Matter?: The Impact of Foreign Takeovers on Innovation and Productivity Performance2007In: Commercialization and Transfer of Technology: Major Country Case Studies / [ed] A. Heshmati, Y.-B. Sohn and Y.-R. Kim, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Ebersberger, Bernd
    The Innovation and Productivity Effect of Foreign Take-Over of National Assets2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the foreign-ownership offirms in the four Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. This increasehas generated interest in the welfare effect of foreign take-over of national assets. In thispaper we ask: how would a firm’s behaviour and performance have been if a foreignowner had not acquired the firm? The analysis is based on a sample of 5 186 firm-levelobservations in four Nordic countries, of which close to 30 percent are owned by foreigncompanies. Using an empirical approach that accounts for both selection bias andsimultaneity bias, we establish some new findings regarding foreign ownership. First, norobust difference in the propensity to be innovative can be established. Second, amongthe group of innovative firms, foreign-owned multinationals are generally outperformedby domestic multinationals in R&D and innovation engagement. Third, despite the factthat domestic multinationals are considerably more involved in national innovationsystems than other firms, they are not producing more innovation per R&D-dollar,controlling for firm size, human capital and industry. Finally, we find that foreign takeoverof firms is neutral with respect to labour productivity, and hence that no evidence ofwelfare gain or welfare drain of foreign ownership can be established.

  • 140.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701). Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Sweden .
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Ebersberger, Berndt
    The Innovation and Productivity Effect of Foreign Take-Over of National Assets2010In: Entrepreneurship and regional development: local processes and global patterns / [ed] Charlie, Karlsson, Börje Johansson and Roger Stough, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, p. 287-312Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Firm Location, Corporate Structure, R&D Investment, Innovation and Productivity2007In: Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Functional Regions, Edward Elgar , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study elucidates the relationship between localisation of firms, corporate structure, intellectual capital and innovations.The main finding is that a greater concentration of multinational firms, human capital, T&D and universities is significantly and positive associated with research productivity. All other things equal, such as firm size, sector classification, human capital, corporate owner structure and R&D investment, the return to an invested Euro in R&D is, at the margin, greatest for firms localized to the capital of Sweden, compared to four other large regions. However, surprisingly Stockholm firms also have a lower propensity to cooperate with scientific, vertical and horisontal innovation systems. This may reflect limitations of popular survey-based information such as Community Innovation Survey data to capture spillover and the importance of informal collaborative relationships within regions.

  • 142.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Firm Location, Corporate Structure,R&D Investment, Innovation and Productivity2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study elucidates how firm location and corporate structure influence R&D-intensity, externalcollaboration on innovation, return on R&D and economic performance. The study, based on 1,907 firmlevel observations, essentially compare a functional region with four other regional areas in Sweden. Inthis context, the Stockholm region is assumed as an integrated functional urban region with innovationproximitycharacteristics. The paper examines systematically the influence of location versus various firmcharacteristics. The econometric results suggest the following: First, a typical Stockholm firm has asignificantly larger likelihood than other firms of being engaged in innovation activities. Second, amonginnovative firms, the R&D intensity and global collaboration on innovation is primarily determined by itscorporate structure, not geographic location. Third, the embeddedness in regional and national scientificand vertical innovation systems is relatively more intense outside Stockholm. Finally, the advantage ofbeing located within Sweden’s most strongest concentration of R&D spending, universities, human capitaland multinational enterprises with their global networks is reflected by a superior return on R&Dinvestments and higher productivity, when controlling for firm size, human capital, physical capital, R&Dintensity,market orientation and sector classification.

  • 143.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Rader-Olsson, A.
    Localization, Corporate Structure, R&D, Innovation and Productivity2006In: Innovations and Entrepreneurship in Functional Regions / [ed] I. Johansson, Trollhättan/Uddevalla University, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 144.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    GLOBALIZATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF EXPORTS2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1980s many economists started to use the term globalisation as a catchword for  an increased interaction between countries in world trade. The literature does not provide a clear definition of globalisation. We set up a number of criteria and formulate hypotheses about globalisation that we explore for Swedish export flows during the years 1965-2000. Globalisation, in this study, is referred to as increases in country diversity, extended transport radii, less effect of distance on trade flows, and the ratio of exports to the importing countries’ incomes. The results from the empirical analysis do not support the hypotheses of increasing trade globalisation It is rather the case that export flows are becoming more internationally regionalised.

  • 145.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Paulsson, Thomas
    Location of New Industries – The ICT-Sector 1990-20002004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this work is to study the location pattern of new industries and how it changes over time. With this objective as motivation, a set of 27 industries are classified as belonging to the ICT-sector (information and communication technology). The goods and services supplied by these industries were to a large extent new at the end of the 1980s. The paper outlines two interrelated models of vertical externalities to explain the location pattern of the industries in 1990 and 2000. The two externalities concern a firm’s input demand and its output demand. These models are introduced to illustrate how these externalities favour location in the largest functional urban regions. The same models predict that location in smaller regions is facilitated as demand grows, when internal scale economies (start-up costs) are not too strong. The empirical analyses apply a logit model to estimate location probabilities, which depend on the size and the diversity of a region’s economy.

  • 146. Karlsson, C.
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). Jönköping International Business School, Sweden .
    Stough, R.
    Entrepreneurial knowledge technology and the transformation of regions2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, policy makers have given much credence to the role of entrepreneurship in the transformation of regions. As a result, a new set of policy responses have emerged that focus on the support of new venture creation, small business growth and idea generation and commercialization. While there is a wealth of research about entrepreneurship in general, less attention has been given to the development of new tools and programs in support of entrepreneurial activities, and to the ways in which the emergence, the character and the types of entrepreneurship policies might differ between countries. in particular, the transatlantic perspective is of special interest because of the pioneering role of the United States in this area, and also due to the European Union’s focus on economic competitiveness. The contributions included in this book explore the emergence of entrepreneurship policies from a transatlantic comparative perspective and address different aspects of entrepreneurship policies including local entrepreneurship policies and the relationship between knowledge-based industries and entrepreneurship policies.

  • 147. Karlsson, C.
    et al.
    Johansson, BörjeKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).Stough, R.
    Entrepreneurship, social capital and governance: Directions for the sustainable development and competitiveness of regions2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book highlights the role of entrepreneurship, social capital and governance for regional economic development. In recent decades, many researchers have claimed that entrepreneurship is the most critical factor in sustaining regional economic growth. However, most entrepreneurship research is undertaken without considering the fundamental importance of the regional context. Other research has emphasized the role of social capital but there are substantial problems in empirically relating measures of social capital to regional economic development.

  • 148.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden .
    Johansson, BörjeKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.Stough, R.
    Innovation, Agglomeration and Regional Competition 2009Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    'The rise of globalization has triggered a fundamental rethinking about the role of regions in economic development policy. In this important new book, Karlsson, Johansson and Stough assemble a cast of leading international scholars to unravel the new role for regions and local economic development policy to harness the possibilities unleashed by the forces of globalization. This book contains important new insights and ideas that will be welcomed by both scholars and policymakers.

  • 149.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Nyström, Kristina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Knowledge Accessiblity and New Firm Formation2009In: New Directions in Regional Economic Development: The Role of Entrepreneurship Theory and Methods, Practice and Policy / [ed] Desai, S. Stough, R.R and Nijkamp, P., Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009, p. 174-191Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 150. Klaesson, Johan
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Metropolitan Regions: Preconditions and Strategies for Growth and Development in the Global Economy2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of metropolitan regions as national growth and development engines, and in particular as driving forces in national as well as global innovation processes is well recognized. This paper highlights the role of metropolitan regions in different contexts in order to lay a foundation for future research on metropolitan regions and their development. Specifically, the paper dwells on the role of metropolitan regions as nodes in national and international networks and as nodes of knowledge generation and innovation. Further, market potential as a concept describing the economic concentration to and the opportunities of making contacts within and between metropolitan regions is introduced. Additionally, the internal dynamic of metropolitan regions and the role of fast and slow processes is described. Lastly this paper illustrates how the input and output market potentials represent factors that adjust slowly and that play the same role for metropolitan development as metropolitan infrastructure.

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